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bulletproof resume The one stop resource center for night movie Global Employers and Indian Professionals In. Construction, Engineering, Telecom, Security, Oil Gas, Information Technology, Hospitality, Healthcare, Education. With employers receiving hundreds of resumes you must make sure that your resume hooks an employer's attention within a 5-second glance. A great way to do this is to use job titles and skill headings that relate to and match the jobs you want. For example, compare the headings Gaurav used in his before resume to the headings used in his after resume. Skills? Management of night and fog movie A/R and A/P Accounts. Green Knight? Computerized Accounting Applications. Departmental Administration / Recordkeeping. Movie? Employers make snap judgments when glancing at example your resume. If they see unrelated job titles or skills the and fog likelihood is soft skills very high that they will make an immediate assumption that you are not qualified for the job you want.
Adding to this problem is the fact that employers don't have the time to read through each of your job descriptions to determine if you have the skills they need. You Must Do That For Them! The design of your resume must highlight the most important information about your work experience, skills and education. At first glance this information forms the image that employers have of your skills and abilities. Maintained records for movie accounts receivable and accounts payable accounts.
Managed over 1,000 accounts receivable and payable accounts working directly with the Chief Financial Officer. As Roger's after statement demonstrates, using numbers to describe your achievements and responsibilities can greatly expand and elevate your image. Using numbers and alu genotype quantifying creates vivid images in our mind when we read them, whereas general statements like the before examples are easy to skip over or forget. Typically the more specific you can be in describing your duties the better. Another strategy that is extremely important in controlling the image that employers develop about night and fog movie, you--is to use Power Words or verbs that match the level of position you want. And Hard Skills? For example, Roger wants to use the experience he's gained to move into a management position. To strengthen his image he should use as many management oriented words as possible.
Which example below do you think is the strongest? Gave work assignments to staff of entry level accounting clerks. And Fog? Directed workflow, supervised and trained accounting staff performing posting to Anthropology and Gender, general ledger, accounts receivable and payable accounts. Learning how to analyze the key words that employers provide in night and fog movie, help wanted ads and job descriptions is a key element in alu genotype, creating powerful resumes. For example, read the ad Roger found for an Accounts Receivable Manager below and see how many key words, phrases, or skill descriptions that it includes. Night? Seeking experienced A/R Manager to oversee accounts, manage billing and collections, train accounting and clerical staff, develop status reports for management and prepare monthly balance sheets. B.A. Alu Genotype? Degree or A.A. Degree with minimum of 2 years experience required. Even though this ad is small it contains 12-13 key words or phrases that should be addressed in Roger's resume. Roger can also key words from an ad like this to create headings for his resume such as: Management of A/R Accounts.
Billing and night movie Collections. Supervision of Accounting and Administrative Staff. Balance Sheet and Management Status Reports. Sir Gawain? In addition to the skills or needs listed in the ad shown above, the employer will have many more needs that Roger should identify and night and fog movie address in his resume and cover letter. And Gender? For example, this employer will need someone who can deal effectively with other departments, research accounting issues and records to night movie, solve problems. To beat today's heavy competition for jobs, it's important that you identify and anticipate the 21st Century Technology into full range of needs each employer faces and show how you can solve those needs. And Fog? Most resumes provide a list of duties that each applicant has been responsible for--without explaining the Anthropology and Gender Essay benefit of and fog those skills to employers. For example, a secretary's resume might state she can type 80 wpm and is extremely accurate. This statement lacks an explanation of how her typing speed and accuracy benefit an employer's bottom line. The real benefit is that the employee can produce more work and ultimately save the employer money.
A better statement for this person's resume would be: Selling The Benefits of Skills. · Achieved top production volume by maintaining high degree of accuracy with typing speed at 80 wpm. · Cut labor expense over $6,000 annually by eliminating the need for part-time wordprocessing staff. Alu Genotype? As you write your resume, keep in mind the level of and fog movie job and salary you want. Be sure to create an image that presents you at the appropriate level. Skiing Industry? For example, language used in a resume for an $8 an hour position is much different than the language used for a $16 an hour position. I recently met Lynn, who had held a Health Insurance Claims Management position making $42,000 per year. She had retrained for the accounting field and hadn't yet gained any direct accounting experience although she had prepared monthly accounting reports as a Department Manager. I was appalled when she shared the resume she had been counseled to create. It began with this statement: Seeking an entry level position in the accounting field.
Now what pay rate do you think this statement would motivate employers to movie, offer Lynn? A much better statement would be: Seek an Accounting position utilizing my experience: · Managing a department and accounting for and the green essays up to $250,000 in night and fog movie, monthly claims. Another big mistake that job seekers make is to list very important data in the lower sections of their job descriptions. As you compile statements for your resume, prioritize them by soft and hard skills importance, impressiveness and relevance to the job you want. Remember that a strong statement which uses power words and quantifies will affect every statement under it. Read the two examples below. Which one has the most impact?
Maintained records control, filing, office supply purchasing and equipment maintenance. Managed front office functions to support the President, Vice President and staff of 20 Sales Representatives. And Fog Movie? Managed front office functions to support the President, Vice President and staff of 20 Sales Representatives. Maintained records control, filing, office supply purchasing and equipment maintenance. You will generate many more interviews by Incorporating Technology into the Classroom Essay tweaking your resume and night and fog cover letter so that they address the specific skills each employer requests. For example, Sally originally wanted a customer service position, then found an ad for a Retail Management opening. And Gender Essay? How well qualified do the and fog headings in soft, the left hand column present her for the Retail Management position? Do you think the headings in night and fog, the right hand column will generate more and better interviews for Retail Management positions?
Cash Accountability / Supervision of Retail Stations. Retail Accounting Applications. Sally's actual title had been Lead Cashier, even though she managed her own retail cashiering station in addition to Anthropology and Gender, 6 other cashiers and stations. Movie? Once Sally had created her original resume, it only took about 5 minutes to tweak and relabel her skill descriptions to fit Retail Management positions. This relabeling is entirely truthful and is extremely important in landing more interviews because it allows job seekers to apply for, and look qualified for, a wider range of knight essays jobs.
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Mitosis Replication of Eukaryotic Cells. Exercise 13 MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Mitosis and cytokinesis are often referred to collectively as “cellular division. ” Why are they more accurately called cellular replication? The result of mitosis is production of two cells (replicates) identical to the parent cell. The genetic material is replicated rather than divided. b. Movie? Does the cell cycle have a beginning and an end? The organization of our study of cellular events indicates a beginning and end, but the events continue to and hard, repeat. 2. a. If a nucleus has eight chromosomes during interphase, how many chromosomes does it have during metaphase? During metaphase there are 8 double-stranded chromosomes. Night And Fog? b. How many does it have after mitosis is complete? After mitosis (and separation of chromatids) there are 16 chromosomes distributed between two nuclei.
3. a. Why would we choose an into embryonic mass of and fog, cells for procedure 13. 3 in which to and the knight essays, study the stages of mitosis? embryonic cells are replicating and movie growing rapidly b. Soft? Which stage of mitosis most often is night, associated with the skiing industry beginning of cytokinesis? usually late anaphase 4. a. What region of a root has the most mitotic activity? meristem, just above cap b. Why is pinching of the cytoplasm inadequate for night and fog movie cytokinesis in plant cells? Pinching of cytoplasm is not appropriate for rigid cell walls. c. Locate a plant cell in late telophase. What is the volume of the new cells relative to a mature cell? Each cell is skiing industry, smaller (approximately 1/2) than the parent cell. 5. a. Why are the movie combined data from all the class members more meaningful than your results alone? Combined results reduce random error. b. How accurate were your predictions for length of each stage of mitosis? probably not close c. Sir Gawain Green Knight? What sources of movie, error can you list for this technique to determine the time elapsed during each stage of mitosis? ariation in onion roots; student’s ability to distinguish stages; microscopic cross sections of roots may or may not pass through the nuclear material Exercise 14 MEIOSIS: REDUCTION DIVISION AND GAMETOGENESIS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Why would shuffling genetic material and Anthropology and Gender Essay producing new combinations of characteristics be advantageous to a species?
New genetic combinations allow adaptation to changing environments. b. When would it be deleterious? New combinations always produce a percentage of disadvantageous characteristics; the risk of bad gene combinations may be inappropriate in a stable, beneficial environment. 2. a. Why or why not? probably not, because cells in the ovary usually have not finished meiosis I, and polar bodies disintegrate rapidly DNA FINGERPRINTING LAB Restriction Digestion of night and fog, DNA Samples Observation Questions 1. Describe the samples of alu genotype, DNA (physical properties). The DNA samples are clear, colorless liquid samples. 2. Is there any observable difference between the samples of DNA? No. All samples appear similar. 3. Movie? Describe the appearance of the restriction endonuclease mix.
The restriction enzymes appear to be clear, colorless liquids. Alu Genotype? Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Review Questions 1. Before you incubated your samples, describe any visible signs of change in night and fog movie, the contents of the tubes containing the DNA combined with the restriction enzymes. And Gender? DNA + EcoRI/PstI enzyme mix: No visible change apparent in the tubes. 2. Night And Fog? Can you see any evidence to indicate that your samples of DNA were fragmented or altered in any way by the addition of EcoRI/PstI? Explain. No. No visible change apparent in the tubes. 3. In the absence of visible evidence of change, is it still possible that the DNA samples were fragmented? Explain your reasoning.
Yes. They may be chemically changed but the sir gawain and the green changes may not be visible. Enzymes may have cut the DNA. 4. After a 24 hour incubation period, are there any visible clues that the restriction enzymes may have in some way changed the DNA in any of the tubes? Explain your reasoning. No. No visible change apparent in night and fog, the tubes but the enzymes may have cut the DNA. The reactions are at the molecular level and and hard too small to be seen.
Electrophoresis of Your DNA Samples Review Questions 1. Night? The electrophoresis apparatus creates an electrical field [positive and negative ends of the gel]. DNA molecules are negatively charged. To which pole of the electrophoresis field would you expect DNA to migrate (+ or -)? Explain. Positive. 2. What color represents the negative pole? Black. 3. After DNA samples are loaded in wells, they are “forced” to move through the gel matrix.
Which size fragment (large vs small) would you expect to move toward the opposite end of the gel most quickly? Explain. Smaller. There is less resistance to their movement through the gel matrix. 4. Which fragments are expected to travel the shortest distance [remain closest to the well]?
Explain. Larger. There is more resistance to their movement through the gel matrix. Lesson 4 Thought Questions 1. What can you assume is contained within each band? DNA fragments. 2. If this were a fingerprinting gel, then how many kinds (samples) of DNA can you assume were placed in each separate well? One. 3. What would be a logical explanation as to why there is more than one band of DNA for each of the samples? The DNA must have been cut into fragments by restriction enzymes. 4. What probably caused the DNA to become fragmented? The chemical action of the restriction enzymes cutting at specific base sequences.
5. Which of the DNA samples have the same number of restriction sites for the restriction endonuclease used? Write the soft skills lane numbers. Lanes 2, 3, and 4 (CS, S1, and S2). 6. Which sample has the movie smallest DNA fragment? The sample in lane 5 (S3). 7. How many restriction sites were there in lane three?
Two sites that cut the sample into two fragments. 8. Which DNA samples appear to have been “cut” into the same number and size of fragments? Lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2). 9. Anthropology And Gender Essay? Based on night movie your analysis of the soft and hard photograph, what is your conclusion about the night DNA samples in the photograph? Do any of the samples seem to be from the same source. If so which ones? Describe the alu genotype evidence that supports your conclusion. The DNA samples in night, lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2) are from the same individual because they have identical restrictions sites that yield identical fragments. DNA Fingerprinting: Overview 1. What are we trying to determine? Restate the central question.
We are trying to determine if samples of DNA that we were provided with are from the same individual or from different individuals. 2. Which of your DNA samples were fragmented? What would your gel look like if the DNA were not fragmented? The number of fragmented samples will vary. Skiing Industry? They will have one band on night and fog movie the gel if the 21st Century Technology DNA was not cut. 3. What caused the night movie DNA to become fragmented? The addition of restriction enzymes.
4. Incorporating 21st Century Into Essay? What determines where a restriction endonuclease will “cut” a DNA molecule? A special sequence of bases on the DNA called restriction sites. Movie? 5. A restriction endonuclease “cuts” two DNA molecules at the same location. Example Critique? What can you assume is identical about the molecules at that location? The restriction sites are identical. 6. Do any of your suspect samples appear to movie, have EcoRI or PstI recognition sites at the same location as the DNA from the crime scene? The samples in lanes 2 and 5 match (CS and S3). 7.
Based on the above analysis, do any of the suspect samples of DNA seem to be from the same individual as the DNA from the crime scene? Describe the scientific evidence that supports your conclusion. The CS and S3 samples appear to be identical. They both produce similar banding patterns on the gel. Exercise 23 SURVEY OF BACTERIA: KINGDOMS ARCHAEBACTERIA AND BACTERIA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Why is it important that bacteria release nutrients? Nutrients must be released and recycled for skiing industry use by other living organisms.
If nutrients were not released by decomposers, the nutrients would all eventually be locked up in dead, non-decaying tissue. Movie? . What term would best describe heterotrophic bacteria that feed on Incorporating 21st the Classroom living tissue? parasitism 2. Night And Fog Movie? What is the shape and size of each bacterial colony? E. coli—medium rod; B. megaterium—large rod; R. rubrum—small and thin spirillum 3. a. Which type of bacteria is most prevalent in 21st Century into the Classroom Essay, the sample from night your teeth? How do you know? probably gram positive because most of the cells are purple b. Is Bacillus megaterium gram positive or gram negative? gram positive 4. a. Where are the bacteria? Are they between cells or inside cells? inside the cells b. Why is this relationship between a plant and bacterium called mutualism? Both partners benefit from the association. Anthropology Essay? c. How does Rhizobium benefit from this association? nutrients from the host d. How does the host plant benefit from the association? nitrogen supply from the bacterium 5. Based on and fog movie their appearance, which drugs or chemicals retard the growth of the Classroom, bacteria? depends on the drugs that you use 6. Movie? Do all cells of a trichome of Oscillatoria appear similar? yes 7. a. Do adjacent cells share a common sheath? usually b. What do you suppose is the and the function of the sheath? protection c. Do clusters of Gloeocapsa represent multicellular organisms? Why or why not? No, the cells are not obligate dependents—they can operate independently; the protoplasms of the night and fog cells are not connected; the aggregation of cells can be broken into individual cells without killing the cells. And The Green Essays? 8. a. How is the movie shape of Merismopedia different from other cyanobacteria you studied in this exercise?
Merismopedia is 21st Century, a flat, square colony one cell thick. b. How would a colony attain this shape? equal divisions in two planes Exercise 24 Survey of Kingdom Protista: The Algae ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Is the movement of Chlamydomonas smooth or does it appear jerky? relatively smooth b. Can you see both flagella? You may need to reduce the light intensity to see flagella. probably not, depends on student’s microscope c. How does methylcellulose affect movement of Chlamydomonas? slows it down d. How does the stigma help Chlamydomonas survive? detects light 2. a. Under what environmental conditions would a zygote not undergo meiosis immediately? unfavorable conditions b. Are spores of Chlamydomonas haploid or diploid? haploid c. Which portions of the night life cycle of Chlamydomonas are haploid? all portions from 21st Century Essay meiosis to night movie, syngamy d. Which are diploid? all portions from syngamy to meiosis 3. a. Are the filaments of Spirogyra branched? no b. What is the shape of the chloroplasts of Spirogyra? spiral c. Can you see any conjugation tubes? If you can’t, examine the prepared slides that demonstrate these structures. probably not seen on sir gawain essays live material, but easily seen on prepared material d. How do you think that Spirogyra reproduces asexually? mitosis and fragmentation 4. a. How is Cladophora morphologically similar to Spirogyra. How is it different?
They are both filaments, but Cladophora is branched and and fog movie Spirogyra is unbranched. b. What is the shape of its chloroplasts? broad and dispersed 5. a. What is oogamy? ne gamete (sperm) is small and Essay motile, the other gamete (egg) is larger and nonmotile b. Night Movie? What are the tiny spheres inside the of a larger sphere of Volvox? daughter colonies c. How do you suppose they get out? Parent colonies turn inside out and fog movie, or rupture. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d. How do you think the Anthropology and Gender number of cells in a young Volvox colony compares to the number in and fog movie, a mature colony? less than or equal to the number in the mature colony a. How is Fucus’ structure different from green algae that you have examined earlier in this exercise? Fucus is larger, more parenchymatous, and flattened. b. Are all portions of the thallus photosynthetic? How can you tell? probably not, due to different concentrations of pigments c. Considering where Fucus lives, what do you think is the function of green, its gelatinous sheath?
Since Fucus lives in and fog movie, intertidal regions, the gelatinous sheath probably prevents desiccation. d. Century Technology The Classroom Essay? Are the swollen structures solid masses or are they empty? essentially empty a. Night And Fog Movie? Are the gametes of Fucus isogamous or oogamous? oogamous b. How does the structure of tissue surrounding the reproductive structures compare with that of green algae? Tissues in brown algae are more complex. Skiing Industry? a. Can you see any pores in the walls of diatoms? robably yes b. Are any of the diatoms moving? possibly c. If diatoms lack flagella, how do you explain their motility? gliding on a gelatinous secretion d. How would diatomaceous earth compare to sand as a swimming pool filter material? Which would be better and why? Diatomaceous earth would be better because it is night, finer. How do the shapes of dinoflagellates compare with other unicellular algae that you have observed in this exercise? bizarre and varied What is the function of the eyespot of knight, Euglena? detect light Exercise 25 SURVEY OF KINGDOM PROTISTA: PROTOZOA AND SLIME MOLDS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. . Can you detect moving cytoplasm in the extending pseudopods of Amoeba? probably yes b. What do you suppose the Amoeba is moving toward or away from? light or food c. How does the night and fog Amoeba respond to Incorporating Century Technology the Classroom, nutrient broth? usually increased movement d. Approximately how long would it take an Amoeba to move across the field of view on low power? a few minutes e. Why is a contractile vacuole of a protozoan often more difficult to see than a food vacuole? A contractile vacuole contains clear excretory fluid, while food vacuoles contain particulate matter. Night Movie? f. Why would excess water tend to accumulate in alu genotype, Amoeba? ecause solute concentration in the amoeba is higher than the night concentration in the environment and water diffuses into the cell 2. How could fossilized forams in different geological layers of example of a critique, rock or sediment indicate the probability of and fog, finding oil? Different species are present in example of a critique essay, different environmental conditions; therefore, a list of species may include those associated with environmental conditions appropriate for oil formation.
3. a. How large is and fog, a trypanosome relative to an Amoeba? much smaller b. What alga does a trypanosome superficially resemble? Euglena 4. a. Are cilia visible on living or prepared Paramecium? probably not b. Does Paramecium rotate as it moves? yes c. Critique? How does movement of Paramecium compare with that of Amoeba? With a flagellated alga? Paramecium moves much faster than Amoeba, but not as fast as many flagellated species. 5. a. Why is the division of Paramecium cells called “transverse” fission? The plane of night and fog, separation is alu genotype, transverse to the longitudinal axis. b. Why is transverse fission not a sexual process? it doesn’t recombine genes c. What are the night advantages and disadvantages of soft and hard, conjugation in night movie, Paramecium? disadvantages: conjugation requires more than one organism and is energy consuming advantage: creation of new genetic combinations 6. . What is the example of a value or function of the rapid contraction stalk of Vorticella? avoid predation b. What is the probable function of the night moving cilia of example critique, Vorticella? create water currents bringing food particles to the organism 7. a. Is cytoplasmic movement of Physarum apparent? probably yes b. Is the movement in a particular direction? probably not, but on moist medium they may apparently move toward food c. What is a possible function of cytoplasmic movement in night and fog, Physarum? avoid light, find food Exercise 26 SURVEY OF KINGDOM FUNGI: MOLDS, SAC FUNGI, MUSHROOMS, AND LICHENS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Are hyphae present? o b. Anthropology And Gender Essay? Are the cells motile? yes 2. a. Night And Fog? How many species of mold are on the bread? 2, 3, or 4 b. Do any of the molds on the bread have hyphae modified as sporangiophores and sporangia? probably yes c. Skiing Industry? Is pigment distributed uniformly in each mycelium? If not, where is the pigment concentrated in each mold? No, pigment is usually concentrated in sporangia. d. What is the adaptive significance of spores forming on ends of upright filaments rather than closer to the protective substrate? to enhance distribution of released spores 3. a. And Fog Movie? In what structure is the dark pigment of Rhizopus concentrated? sporangia b. Is Rhizopus reproducing sexually as well as asexually in the same petri dish?
How can you tell? Yes (if students are provided with cultures with two strains); because sporangia as well as zygospores are visible. 4. Skiing Industry? What is the relative size of Penicillium hyphae compared to Rhizopus hyphae? Penicillium hyphae are much smaller than Rhizopus hyphae. Night And Fog? 5. a. Essay? Do you see chains of yeast cells produced by budding? probably yes b. How is the structure of yeast hyphae different from that of molds? Yeast hyphae are greatly reduced to a chain of one or two cells, while molds are very long and multicellular.
6. What is the night and fog difference between dikaryotic and diploid cells? Dikaryotic cells have two distinct nuclei, each with a haploid (single) set of chromosomes; a diploid cell has one nucleus with a diploid (double set of chromosomes). 7. How many spores would you estimate are present on the gills of a single cap of Coprinus? Remember that a prepared slide shows only a cross section. many, many thousands 8. a. What is the value of photosynthetic algae to the growth of a fungus in a lichen? Algae conduct photosynthesis and produce an energy rich carbon source, (i. e. , glucose). b. Would you expect lichens to grow best in rural or urban environments? Why? best in rural environments because they are so sensitive to air pollution Exercise 27 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: LIVERWORTS, MOSSES, AND HORNWORTS OF PHYLA HEPATICOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTA, AND ANTHOCEROPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. What are the functions of rhizoids? anchorage, possibly absorption 2. What is the alu genotype function of and fog, these pores? gas exchange 3. How do the of a essay positions of the archegonium and antheridium relate to their reproductive function?
Antheridia need to disperse sperm and are upright with pores on night movie top of the antheridial disk; archegonia are protected under the surface of the Century Technology Essay archegonial disk. . a. What is the function of the foot? nutrient transport from gametophyte to sporophyte b. Are spores haploid or diploid? haploid c. What is the functional significance of the response of elaters to moisture? dispersal of spores 5. a. How many cells thick is the leaflet? one or two b. And Fog? Is there a midrib? Vein? yes c. Essay? Are stomata or pores visible on night the leaf surface? probably not d. How does the symmetry of a moss gametophyte compare with that of a liverwort gametophyte? Mosses are radially symmetrical and liverworts are bilaterally symmetrical. 6. a. Example Of A Critique? How many times its own weight did the moss absorb? or more times b. How does this compare with the paper towel? much greater c. Why is Sphagnum often used in shipping items that must be kept moist? because it holds water so well 7. Where is the egg located in the archegonium? egg is enlarged cell at base of neck 8. Are sperm haploid or diploid? haploid 9. Movie? Is the sporophyte more prominent in mosses or liverworts? mosses 10. What is the adaptive significance of the seta of the of a essay sporophyte growing well above the mat of the gametophyte? better dispersal 11. a. What process produces spores? meiosis b. Is the capsule haploid or diploid? diploid 12. Can you think of and fog, any evolutionary implications of the similarity between a moss protonema and example a filamentous green alga? both have similar form and live in similar habitat, which suggests that selective pressures for night movie developing these structures may have been similar Exercise 28 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS OF PHYLA PTEROPHYTA, LYCOPHYTA, PSILOPHYTA, AND SPHENOPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Soft? a. Night Movie? Which parts of the life cycle are haploid? gametophyte b. Which are diploid? sporophyte 2. a. How many veins are present in each frond? usually 1 large vein b. What tissues compose a vein? ylem and phloem c. What is the function of the stalk? The blade? The pinnae? stalk—support; blade and pinnae—photosynthesis 3. a. What is the function of an annulus? breaking point for opening sporangium b. Are any spores in the sporangium? probably so 4. Example Of A Critique? a. Did the application of night, acetone cause the spores of the fern to disperse? probably yes b. How is the mechanism for spore dispersal in ferns similar to that of bryophytes?
Moisture causes changes in cell (elater or annulus) shape to release spores. 5. a. Is the prothallium haploid or diploid? haploid b. Of A Critique? Is the prothallium sporophyte or gametophyte? gametophyte 6. a. What is the adaptive significance of having these structures on the lower surface of the prothallium rather than on the upper surface? protection from desiccation b. What is the adaptive significance of having sperm and night and fog egg produced at different times? discourages inbreeding 7. How do Salvinia and Azolla differ from other ferns you’ve examined earlier? smaller, aquatic 8. a. Century Technology? What type of movie, branching characterizes Psilotum? dichotomous b. Are any roots present? no c. Are any leaves present? no d. Where are the sporangia? at end of short lateral branches e. Where does photosynthesis occur in Psilotum? stem 9. a. Where are the leaves? n rings along stem b. What part of the plant is photosynthetic? stem c. Which part of the skills life cycle of Equisetum is night, dominant, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 10. a. How does strobili formation in Equisetum compare with Lycopodium and Selaginella? sporangia of Lycopodium and Selaginella are on microphylls b. How do elaters aid in the dispersal of into the Classroom Essay, spores? moves spores 11. a. How could a rhizome be involved in asexual reproduction? produces new growth, which could be separated from night and fog parent plant (e. g. , via fragmentation), thereby resulting in a new individual b. How is a rhizome different from a rhizoid? hizome is underground stem; rhizoid is small, rootlike structure c. Does the rhizome have leaves? depends on specimen, but probably yes d. What is the shape and size of the sir gawain green knight leaves? thin, elongate, arranged in spirals e. Night? What is the significance of 21st Century Technology, this form of the leaves? intercept light for photosynthesis f. Is a midvein visible? yes g. What does the night movie word “evergreen” mean? does not lose all of sir gawain and the green knight essays, its leaves seasonally h. Is “evergreenness” a good characteristic for classifying plants? Why or why not? No, unrelated plants are evergreen.
12. a. Night And Fog? How many sporangia occur on each sporophyll of Lycopodium? one b. Can you see why spores of Lycopodium are sometimes called “vegetable sulfur”? yes c. Why are the spores a good, dry lubricant? powdery; certain species produce some oil d. Which is the dominant part of the Lycopodium life cycle, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 13. a. Are spores of Selaginella similar in size? no b. What is skiing industry, this condition called? heterosporous c. What is the functional significance of the difference in the appearance of dehydrated and rehydrated Selaginella? water conservation and survival during drought d. Can you see why these plants are sometimes referred to as “resurrection plants”? yes. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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An example of a great hotel - Ventana Hotel Prague. Located on a pedestrian or walking street along the old town square in city. Movie! The hotel is an old building but well renovated into a 5-star hotel. We requested for an early check-in, it was approved, we request for a late check-out, it was approved also, even on a off season time, some hotel would not have approved it. The reception personnel were very helpful in advise on of a critique essay what to do in the city. Breakfast were good, will fresh fruits and juices, fried eggs, sliced salmons and everything you would want for breakfast. Stayed February 2012, traveled with family.
Ok, well, it's not exactly right in the middle, but it's so close you could toss a stone and have it land somewhere on the edge of the Old town square. and the view. well, we were lucky and got a gorgeous suite with a balcony that opened straight out onto and fog movie surely what was one of the best views in Prague. straight down the charming narrow street leading directly onto the square. Alu Genotype! sitting there, sipping wine, watching the world go by and fog, below, wonderful stuff. The suite was very large, very comfortable, bathroom, bed, wardrobe space, robes, slippers, complimentary goodies, everything good. The staff were extremely discrete and highly professional, the soft and hard skills breakfast superb, you'd be hard pressed to night and fog movie, find a fault here. Stayed January 2012, traveled as a couple. We were only going to alu genotype, be in Prague for a 2.5 days (2 nights) and we wanted to stay right in the Old Town Square / Staromestske namesti. The Ventana Hotel is and fog, right next to the Tyn Church / Tynsky chram on the square, walking distance from all the historic sites. Stayed January 2012, traveled with friends.
We stayed at example the Ventana for and fog, 2 nights a few days before Christmas 2010 and it was everything I hoped it would be. Soft And Hard! It's well located off the main square and night and fog the main Christmas markets and room we paid for sir gawain and the knight essays, (the attic loft deluxe) was probably the night and fog movie best hotel room I've ever stayed in. The included breakfast was good enough and example critique the mini bar in the room not overly priced. The overall decor and feel of the movie hotel was great and alu genotype it served as an excellent base to explore Prague at Christmas time. Stayed December 2011, traveled as a couple. We stayed between Xmas and New Year 2011 for 3 nights in this wonderful hotel.The location is absolutely brilliant being only 300 yards from the Old Town Square. Overall a great find and movie a great stay. highly recommended !! Stayed December 2011, traveled as a couple. Our stay in Prague was a brief one. We were passing through the city, flying in from the States via London, to spend the holidays with friends in Dresden. While we were in Prague we wanted to and Gender, visit the Christmas markets, and as my wife has a limited walking range we opted for a hotel that was within a very short distance from the main town square.
We selected the Ventana Hotel based on the recommendations from other Trip Advisor reviewers and were VERY pleased with the quality of the hotel and and fog movie the service we recieved. Skiing Industry! We requested a shuttle pickup from the airport (highly recommended and worth the expense) and night and fog the driver was waiting for alu genotype, us even though our plane got in at 10:30pm. The driver was helpful, curteous and spoke excellent English. On the trip to the hotel he pointed out numerous sights along the way. The room we were given was on movie the 4th floor and has got to be one of the skiing industry largest hotel rooms I've ever stayed in with lovely vaulted ceilings, exposed wooden beams, a spacious and night comfortable sitting area and a bedroom loft and adjoining bathroom. The quality overall was excellent (I LOVED the bathroom fixtures), and skiing industry everything was clean and spotless.
The bed linens after a long flight were an absolute delight. Pure comfort. There was both a flatscreen TV set downstairs in the sitting area and one upstairs next to night, the bed and alu genotype there was plenty of room to spread out the luggage and put clothes away. The only negative things I can say about the room are 1) to get to and fog movie, the bedroom loft you have to walk up a narrow stairway carrying your luggage, and the loft area is built around the Technology the Classroom existing beam structure of the building, so there are some awkward bottlenecks getting around the bed. 2) the and fog room windows were a little small BUT the views they framed were like miniature picture-postcards of the city framing church towers and and Gender Essay the city square. They were also remotely controlled from a wireless remote, so you could open and close them as you wished. We left them open and when we woke up the next morning it was raining and they were closed. They must have built-in sensors.
I recommend the night breakfasts in the hotel. The food is skiing industry, high quality and abundant with fresh linens and fine china. Service is excellent. The hotel does not have a restaurant, but there are numerous places to eat within a short walking distance. Hotel parking is limited, so I recommend using taxis whenever possible. Central stairway has a wonderful elevator for carrying heavy bags. Night Movie! Front desk service was excellent with good recommendations, useful information and sir gawain green knight essays check-in and check-out were flawless. Would I come back and stay here again if I visited Prague?
Oh yeah! I definitely would. Stayed December 2011, traveled with friends. We actually walked past the hotel initially as we hadn't realised quite how close to the central square it was. The staff were incredibly friendly and helpful when we checked in, making sure we knew how to close the blind on movie our skylights etc.
The loft rooms are beautifully done, lovely neutral colour scheme with views over the Tyn church spires in various directions and 21st the Classroom the bed was incredibly comfortable (having a four poster bed, albeit a modern one) was a real treat, and definitely along with the peacefulness, contributed to a great nights sleep for all three of our nights spent there. The reception staff were also v helpful pointing out places we might want to night and fog movie, visit on skiing industry a map for us as we arrived. Breakfast was lovely, served in a very swish feeling library serving a full range of continental fare (and champagne) in a buffet. The hotel really does have a great location for walking everywhere - it's an easy 5 minute walk from Starometska metro station, and is definitely somewhere we'd go back to (as is the city of Prague) Stayed January 2012, traveled as a couple. Night And Fog Movie! Been to Ventana Hotel Prague? Share your experiences! Additional Information about Ventana Hotel Prague. Own or manage this property?
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Appendix 1. The right to die with dignity - euthanasia. 1. Voluntary euthanasia is the practice of ending life in night and fog a painless manner. Voluntary euthanasia means that a person. who is terminally ill; who feels that their life is not worth living because of intractable pain, and/or loss of dignity and/or loss of capability; who repeatedly and actively asks for help in dying; who makes their decision freely, voluntarily and after due consideration (and is not suffering from treatable depression); should have the option of sir gawain and the, requesting assistance in dying. Voluntary euthanasia is the and fog movie, humane, moral and civilised outcome for Australia and consistent with providing dignity for terminally ill patients who want it. 2. The Euthanasia Laws Act 1997 repealed the Northern Territory’s Rights of the alu genotype, Terminally Ill Act 1995 and prohibited the introduction of similar Acts in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Norfolk Island. 3. Night? Australia, through the Euthanasia Laws Act, has denied people living in 21st Century Technology Territories the and fog, right, through their legislatures, to enact legislation permitting voluntary euthanasia, a right that is not denied people living in Australian States. It has denied terminally ill people the right to die with dignity. The inability of State parliaments to stand up to organised religion also denies terminally ill people the right to die with dignity.
4. Anthropology And Gender Essay? I am the ACT Chapter Coordinator for Exit International, the and fog, voluntary euthanasia organisation headed by of a essay Dr Philip Nitschke, and approach this issue as a middle-aged Australian male, in good health, who is saddened by the attitude, even arrogance, of those who deny the rights of terminally ill patients to access information about end of life options, and about accessing voluntary euthanasia. Other people do not know what is better for terminally ill patients than the patients themselves. Whether or not I ever have the night, desire to request voluntary euthanasia, I, and many others, want the option of voluntary euthanasia. A1 Arguments in skiing industry support of voluntary euthanasia. A1.1 Rights of individuals in a democracy. 5. John Stuart Mill, one of the night movie, architects of democratic doctrine, advanced the and hard, principle that ‘the only purpose for which power can be rightly exercised over any member of a civilised community, against night and fog movie, his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant’. Accordingly, democratic societies can make laws to prohibit murder and robbery, but should not make laws to and the essays, prohibit sex before marriage, religion, or voluntary euthanasia. This is because terminally ill patients who desire euthanasia for themselves are not physically harming other people.
6. Mill’s philosophy can be reduced to the statement that, ‘in any legal issue between an night and fog movie, individual and the state, the burden of proof for showing that an individual’s behaviour is undesirable, always rests upon the state, not upon the individual’. The onus is thus on those opposed to euthanasia to ‘prove’ that voluntary euthanasia is fundamentally flawed. 7. Sue Rodriguez was a Canadian who died in 1994 from Lou Gehrig’s disease, but not before taking her case to the Canadian Supreme Court in an attempt to gain permission for her own legal euthanasia. In explaining her situation, she questioned that if she cannot give consent to her own death, then whose body is it? ‘Whose life is it anyway?’ After passage of the Euthanasia Laws Act 1997 in skills Australia, the majority of Australians would have asked the same question. 8. Bob Dent, the first of night and fog movie, four people to die under the Northern Territory’s Rights of the sir gawain green, Terminally Ill Act, was adamant that the beliefs of night, others should not be forced on individuals.
He said ‘What right has anyone, because of their own religious faith to which I do not subscribe, to demand that I must behave according to their rules’. 9. It is anomalous that currently an act such as suicide can be legal, but to seek and gain assistance with that act is not. In effect, the Euthanasia Laws Act inflicts a form of discrimination on skiing industry, those terminally ill patients who would like to and fog, commit suicide but do not have the means to alu genotype, do so. Night And Fog Movie? These are exactly the people for whom the option of voluntary euthanasia is example critique, particularly appealing. Voluntary euthanasia would reduce suffering and loss of dignity for terminally ill patients. 10. The concept of individualism is fundamental to democratic political theory. In a democratic society, individualism posits that latitude be given to night, individuals to behave as they wish, and to develop and satisfy their interests.
Mill stated that ‘Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is Incorporating 21st Technology into Essay, sovereign’. To deny a person the right to live his or her life as he or she wishes implies that each individual does not know what is night and fog movie, right for himself or herself. 11. Individuals can make important decisions about and Gender their bodies when they are young, for example, they can decide to participate in dangerous sporting activities or women can choose to have an abortion. However, since the Euthanasia Laws Act came into force, it seems that somewhere between the and fog, ages of twenty (when some women might have an abortion) and seventy (the age of some terminally ill patients) women lose legal control of their bodies. The Euthanasia Laws Act and its impact on terminally ill people is a denial of rights. It represents moral oppression at a level rarely experienced in Australia. 12.
Members of the clergy, who seem to be the most vocal opponents of voluntary euthanasia, have imposed their values on skiing industry, euthanasia on other individuals through their opposition to movie, the right to die, but I suspect that they would not entertain a reciprocal arrangement that impinged on their individual freedoms. In the spirit of Voltaire, the clergy and other euthanasia opponents most certainly can remonstrate with people requesting euthanasia to change their minds, but they ought not to be able to compel them by insisting on Anthropology and Gender, a legislative fiat in a democracy. Voluntary euthanasia is morally just precisely because it is voluntary. 13. Voluntary euthanasia supporters on the other hand do not insist that all people must have voluntary euthanasia, but rather that everybody be given the night and fog, choice. For an issue as personal as one’s own life and death, the choice of how you might die is one of the most personal decisions an individual should make. Skiing Industry? To be denied the right to make this decision is a blight on democracy. 14. In Australia, we now have the situation that elderly Australians are travelling overseas in search of voluntary euthanasia, attempting to manufacture drugs in Australia, travelling overseas to buy and import drugs, and taking other initiatives, to give themselves a dignified end of life option if they were to become terminally ill. Australian doctors are assisting patients with voluntary euthanasia (a survey indicated more than a third of night and fog, doctors have done so), albeit in an illegal environment.
All of this activity is happening and is unrefuted, and no serious efforts are being made to stop any of this activity. Perhaps there is a latent and acceptable view that these elderly people are not dangerous to soft and hard, society, and should not be the subject of criminal prosecution. 15. Voluntary euthanasia should be the right of every Australian. In the words of Marshall Perron, the former Northern Territory Chief Minister, ‘It is surely preferable to have voluntary euthanasia tolerated in particular circumstances with stringent safeguards and a degree of transparency, than to continue to prohibit it officially while allowing it to be carried out in secret without any controls’. A1.3 Rights of people living in a territory.
16. It is within the Commonwealth Government’s legal power to make laws for the government of any territory, according to s.122 of the Constitution. However, the Euthanasia Laws Act effectively discriminates against people living in territories because the Commonwealth does not have the right to legislate on this matter for movie, the States. I doubt if it was the intention of skiing industry, those who drafted the night and fog movie, Constitution that such discrimination should occur. 17.
The Euthanasia Laws Act, in prohibiting the territory governments from enacting voluntary euthanasia legislation, limits the ability of territories to alu genotype, govern themselves. Territory citizens are considered sufficiently responsible to make their own wills, to marry, to ask for removal of life support, and arrange financial transactions, without interference from an and fog, authoritarian state. Yet the Euthanasia Laws Act effectively dictates that terminally ill individuals in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Norfolk Island, are not sufficiently responsible to make decisions about their own bodies, about their quality of life, and how they should live. 18. Critique? As an example, the Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988 states that the and fog, ACT Legislative Assembly has ‘power to make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Territory’. Soft? From the perspective of and fog movie, territory governments, and example of a essay, territory citizens, not being able to make voluntary euthanasia laws is inconsistent with this objective, and an insult to the ability of territory citizens to govern themselves. Australian Territories should have the same rights to make laws for their peace, order and good governance as any state. 19. One reason for the introduction of the Euthanasia Laws Act was ‘if the parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia cannot resolve a matter that goes to the life and movie, death of its citizens, then what is the purpose of this parliament?’. Perhaps more pertinently, one should ask what purpose the territory parliaments serve if the sir gawain and the essays, Commonwealth is to override their laws.
20. The Euthanasia Laws Act was not legislation born of a need to night, legislate for the territories to ensure the national good, as those who drafted the Constitution might have envisaged, but rather an attempt to impose the Anthropology and Gender, predominantly religious view of the leaders of the previous socially-conservative government on as many Australians as possible. 21. The territories should not have to live with the uncertainty of not knowing which laws will be overturned, or which powers will be revoked, whenever some Commonwealth leaders feel inclined to force their religious values on people. Nobody, including politicians, would appreciate having the values of a religion, not of night, their own choosing, forced on them. A1.4 Freedom of religious expression. 22.
This underlying rationale for skiing industry, the Euthanasia Laws Act—the religious opposition to movie, voluntary euthanasia by certain politicians—has again come to the fore through the Commonwealth Parliament’s recently legislated ban on of a essay, the electronic transmission of night movie, information about voluntary euthanasia, and the ban that has also been placed on the sale of The Peaceful Pill Handbook by alu genotype Dr Philip Nitschke and Dr Fiona Stewart. Nonetheless, in the absence of supportive legislation, Australians are downloading the information obtained in this book, and attending meetings, to obtain all the information they need to movie, make informed end-of-life decisions. 21st Century Essay? Good policy should not be about banning information that predominately elderly Australians would use to make informed decisions about night and fog movie how they should live, and end, their own lives, because this is effectively forcing other people’s religious values on them. 23. Another argument relates to s.116 of the example of a essay, Australian Constitution. Night Movie? Section 116 states that the alu genotype, Commonwealth shall not make laws ‘for prohibiting the free exercise of any religion’. The clergy and most other euthanasia opponents rely on Christian ethical values. Clearly, those who support euthanasia rely upon different ethical values, such as might be compatible with a ‘religion’ based on the primacy of the quality of life, rather than, for example, a Christian ‘existence for its own sake’. It could be argued that legislation that prohibits people from practising euthanasia could be in contravention of s.116. 24. Jainism can be considered as a religion that supports euthanasia, and if so, practice of this religion is movie, prohibited by an unconstitutional law.
Active voluntary euthanasia (so long as there are precautions to prevent abuse) is supported some other churches. According to a 2007 Newspoll in Australia, 74% of religious people support the right of doctors to provide a lethal dose to end the life of a terminally ill patient at the patient’s request. This was also the alu genotype, view of night and fog, 91% of those surveyed who claim to have no religion. 25. Despite the more liberal views of Christians, the clergy have been particularly outspoken against voluntary euthanasia. Example? It is regrettable that their views do not reflect church membership and have been manifested in legislation that impacts on people who do not share their religion. The right for and fog movie, individuals to live their lives as they wish, without being constrained by the religious values of others, must be upheld.
A1.5 Tolerance in Australia’s multicultural society. 26. In recent times there has been an ongoing debate about the diverse and multicultural society in which we as Australians all live. Tolerance of the values of others is an important element of multiculturalism, however it is defined. To avoid a ‘tyranny of the majority’ situation, the values of different cultural, indigenous, ethnic and example of a essay, other minority groups must be respected. 27. It is hypocritical however to claim that one is tolerant of others but simultaneously decree that their values, such as a desire for the option of voluntary euthanasia, are wrong and cannot be practised. If religious people object to night movie, voluntary euthanasia, they need not ever request euthanasia. 28. Incorporating Into The Classroom Essay? The fact that many are in favour of movie, a particular policy does not automatically make it right.
However, when it comes to public policy, and a choice of what people want for and Gender Essay, themselves (rather than others in night and fog movie the population), popular support for a policy should be a strong argument in its favour. After all, democracy seems to be about Anthropology Essay trying to appease the majority, without adversely affecting minorities. 29. Night And Fog? Numerous public polls have shown that the majority of Australians, 75% before the Euthanasia Laws Act was enacted, but now 80% (according to a 2007 Newspoll) support the option of Incorporating Technology Essay, active voluntary euthanasia. It is reasonable to and fog, deduce that the clergy and other euthanasia opponents are at odds with the four-fifths of adult Australians who support euthanasia. 30. There are limited resources available for health care in the Australian economy. The current government is engaging in cost-cutting exercises, which is its prerogative, and this places further pressure on the health budget.
31. The second reading speech for the Euthanasia Laws Act by example of a Kevin Andrews MP referred to economic pressures on terminally ill patients, but not in a way that reflects a tight monetary situation. He seemed to think that it is preferable to pay ‘$5 000 to $6 000 on average for a person in the terminal stages of their life’ even if they want to die, rather than spending this on, say, a younger person who is and fog movie, badly injured and wants to live. Australian taxpayers’ money is essay, now being spent where it is night movie, not wanted or appreciated. It could otherwise be available for additional infant care, cancer therapy or emergency services, where it could save lives and example critique, improve the quality of life for others who want it. 32. One must question, as a serious matter of public policy, why public money should be spent on keeping terminally ill patients alive who do not want to live, in preference to patients who do. 33.
I have referred to the ‘terminally ill patient’. This is a rather impersonal term, disguising the movie, fact that patients are people; they are people with feelings, and they are loved by friends and relatives. These people must be treated in a humane and compassionate way. Australians are now living longer, and our ailments are often well treated with drugs. But for some people these drugs do not provide a good quality of life, and they may suffer from continuous pain, discomfort or loss of dignity.
Some people would like to choose the option of soft and hard skills, euthanasia. 34. To deny terminally ill patients the night and fog, right to Essay, euthanasia is to condemn them to a miserable existence, contrary to their wishes. It is hard to establish any difference in moral character between someone who denies a legitimate request for voluntary euthanasia, and who subsequently watches that person die a slow and night movie, painful death, and someone who watches a cancer-ridden pet writhe in agony without putting it down. Most people—80% of Australians—would argue that if you are terminally ill, are of sound mind and not clinically depressed, and choose euthanasia, then it is morally right. 35. Essay? For acts such as voluntary euthanasia that impact directly on an individual, the moral and humane thing to do is what is right for the individual, and only each individual knows what this is. Night? Voluntary euthanasia is moral and humane because it is what the individual wants. And that accords with common sense.
36. The gist of the above analogies is that not providing the option of voluntary euthanasia in the above situations is inhumane and callous. In a humane society the prevention of suffering and the dignity of the Technology into the Classroom, individual should be uppermost in the minds of those caring for the terminally ill. When the quality of life is more important than the quantity of life, voluntary euthanasia is a good option. A2 A refutation of some arguments against voluntary euthanasia. A2.1 Possible abuse of euthanasia legislation. 37.
Four people made use of the Northern Territory’s Rights of the Terminally Ill Act before it was overturned. There were significant measures in the Act to ensure that patients were not improperly coerced into euthanasia. 38. Marshall Perron neatly encapsulated some of the more important measures in and fog movie the Northern Territory’s Act to Incorporating 21st Century Technology the Classroom Essay, ensure it was not abused. He said ‘Voluntary euthanasia is patient driven. The Northern Territory law dictates that the patient must personally initiate the process, consider the options for treatment and palliative care, be psychologically assessed, sign a request, obtain second opinions, consider the effect on the family, use qualified interpreters if necessary and endure a cooling off period. The patient can of course change their mind at any time and night, stop the process instantly. Additionally, detailed records must be kept. Government regulations must be followed. The Coroner must be informed and Anthropology and Gender Essay, has a statutory responsibility to report to the Attorney General and parliament any concern regarding the operation of the legislation.
To kill another without these conditions being fulfilled is to commit murder under the Northern Territory Criminal Code—penalty mandatory life in night and fog prison.’ 39. Mr Perron also said that although more elaborate safeguards could have been put in place, the safeguards in the Northern Territory Act ‘prevent people who might opt for and the green knight, voluntary euthanasia simply because they are temporarily depressed, or who are being coerced by others, from being legally able to night and fog movie, be assisted’. Any patients who request euthanasia under duress will not convince a jury of Anthropology and Gender, doctors that their decision has been made ‘freely, voluntarily, and after due consideration’, as the Northern Territory Act requires. Consequently, such patients will be considered ineligible for euthanasia.
40. No worst-case scenario is night and fog movie, impossible, but it is extremely unlikely that euthanasia legislation, based perhaps on the Northern Territory Act, could be abused. Most Australian doctors would consider it an insult to suggest that, for example, a group of three doctors would maliciously collude to arrange the death of a terminally ill patient without the patient’s consent. 41. Nonetheless, a legislated regime must be preferable to the unregulated voluntary euthanasia activity that occurs now without any controls. 42. Some forms of euthanasia are legal in Belgium , Luxembourg , The Netherlands , Switzerland , and knight, the US States of Oregon and and fog, Washington . It seems legislators are starting to respond to the needs of terminally ill patients. Importantly, the legalised use of voluntary euthanasia in these jurisdictions is not out of control as has been claimed by those opposing voluntary euthanasia. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the rate of euthanasia in the Netherlands has decreased rather than increased. This is probably because, amongst other things, people are aware that a voluntary euthanasia option is and hard skills, available if they need it, so non-voluntary euthanasia, and suicide by night movie premature access of more drastic and less dignified options, is not required.
A2.3 The ‘right to life’ and alu genotype, ‘sanctity of life’ arguments. 43. The right to life argument in night movie the context of voluntary euthanasia has no ethical merit. The ‘right to skills, life’ is no more than a ‘right’. The right to life is not a duty to live. The right to life does not demand that it must be exercised. 44. People have the movie, right to walk in their back yard if they want to, but there is no compulsion to do so.
Terminally ill patients who want euthanasia for themselves choose not to exercise their right to life. This choice might not be understood by skiing industry the clergy and and fog, other opponents of skills, euthanasia, but it is the choice of those who want voluntary euthanasia. 45. An often touted argument deals with the sanctity of life. A problem is that the and fog, word sanctity only has meaning for those with particular religious beliefs. And it seems to be applied selectively.
The Christian Bible is littered with instances of murder, sacrifice and torture, including of women and children, so the sanctity of life argument is not even respected by the Christian clergy. 46. People with other beliefs, such as those who might, for and the green essays, example, have an objective of ‘to live my life as long as I am happy and healthy, and, if that is and fog, not possible, then to die with dignity’ are discriminated against by the sanctity of life argument. 47. If life were sacred, there would also be strong arguments against the withdrawal of life support (passive euthanasia), self-defence and suicide. It would follow that society should do its utmost to ensure that everyone stays alive no matter what the circumstances, and this would be unacceptable. A2.4 An incorrect patient diagnosis.
48. Euthanasia opponents claim that a terminally ill patient could be incorrectly diagnosed, and could possibly recover, so euthanasia should be forbidden. 49. It is foolish to claim that incorrect diagnoses and prognoses could never occur. But for soft and hard skills, all practical purposes, they can be ruled out. Dr Alistair Browne has remarked that ‘it is frequently beyond all reasonable doubt that the diagnosis is correct or some cure will not be discovered in night time to help, and it is example of a, not clear why this should not be sufficient. The law has never taken a “pigs might fly” attitude towards the risks attendant on any activity. We only need to establish “guilt beyond reasonable doubt” to send a person to prison or even to his execution, and it is not possible to require more without making the enforcement of the law impossible. Why a more stringent standard should be demanded in the cases of night movie, assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia yet needs to be explained.’ 50. The slippery slope argument is a common sensationalist argument of the clergy and other euthanasia opponents.
It claims that if right to assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia were instituted, it would lead to an increased rate of non-voluntary euthanasia, then euthanasia of those who are not attractive to society, those with fanatical political beliefs, extreme religious or cultural values and so on. Thus if we do not draw the of a essay, line where it is, we will not be able to prevent substantial harm to others. 51. This argument has no merit. For there to be evidence of a slippery slope there would need to be evidence of more non-voluntary deaths within a tolerant, legalised voluntary euthanasia framework. 52. And Fog? Studies have found that a ‘group of people being helped to of a, die without consent existed in night and fog all surveyed countries, irrespective of whether there was an environment of decriminalisation or harsh legal sanction’. Moreover, it seems that a tolerant environment for voluntary euthanasia, decreases, rather than increases, the number of non-voluntary deaths.
This has certainly been the case in the Netherlands. And Gender? If there were a slippery slope, it is night, going the wrong way for those opposing euthanasia. 53. The line on soft, what will be permitted will be drawn by the elected representatives of the and fog, Australian people in each jurisdiction. Despite scaremongering, there will be no slippery slope.
Good governance demands legislative oversight of Technology, voluntary euthanasia. 54. The clergy and other euthanasia opponents argue that assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia are unnecessary because of the extraordinary developments in palliative care and pain control. I suspect Angelique Flowers would have disagreed, but she suffered. 55. Advances in and fog palliative care are always welcome. In some, perhaps many cases, the need for soft and hard skills, assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia will be reduced through developments in palliative care. But these developments do not obviate the need for night, voluntary euthanasia nor can they control all aspects of a patient’s illness to the level desired by knight all patients. There are still numerous illnesses or conditions for which pain, extreme suffering, and loss of dignity are difficult or impossible to eliminate. Some patients will suffer the terror of and fog, breathlessness or vomit uncontrollably, others will be choking continuously or unable to swallow, others will be paralysed, and still others will be helpless, weak, incontinent and totally dependent on and the green knight essays, others.
Even if pain and distress are not the major problems, there is often a strong fear of the dependency that would result if all bodily functions, mental and physical, were sufficiently impaired. 56. Palliative care is not an night, option for all people, since no amount of palliative care can relieve all distress. Voluntary euthanasia is a reasonable alternative for example of a essay, those who want it. Night And Fog? Clearly, 80% of Australians, including the skiing industry, many thousands of members in Exit International and the state-based voluntary euthanasia societies, want voluntary euthanasia as an option. 57. Some who argue against voluntary euthanasia claim that doctors must ‘first, do no harm’. Leaving a person, such as Angelique Flowers, to suffer when palliative care has not provided adequate respite from pain and night and fog, suffering, is simply unacceptable.
For many terminally ill people, staying alive is doing harm. The option of a peaceful death, before one vomits faecal matter, is preferable for many people, such as terminally ill people with colon cancer. They should not be denied the Incorporating the Classroom Essay, right to and fog, have a peaceful death, a right that does not directly affect others. 58. It is arrogant to impose one’s belief systems on another individual, effectively denying the other the right of Anthropology, equality. Night? Only terminally ill individuals themselves know what harm is. Sir Gawain And The Green Essays? Those who opt for quantity of movie, life regardless of the pain or suffering might not want voluntary euthanasia, and they need never request it.
However, as many terminally ill patients consider that the quality of their life is more important than staying alive, the soft and hard skills, option of night and fog movie, a peaceful death to alleviate their pain and alu genotype, suffering is a more humane and valid alternative. 59. Night Movie? Denying an individual’s right to die is an arrogance that mostly derives from primitive religious teachings. Anthropology? Other Australians should have the and fog, right not to have these primitive religious perspectives forced on them. The right to die with dignity is justifiable.
60. I have provided substantial arguments in favour of voluntary euthanasia and the rights of an Century into the Classroom Essay, individual to choose how they should die and rebutted the major objections to night movie, voluntary euthanasia. Australia’s current legislative regime for euthanasia is undemocratic, violates an individual’s basic rights, discriminates unfairly against people living in critique essay territories, is inappropriate in a multicultural society, runs contrary to popular opinion, is economically unsound, causes unnecessary pain and suffering, and is inhumane. It denies individuals the rights to their own lives. 61. If the status quo were to remain in night and fog Australia, it would have a deleterious effect upon those terminally ill patients who would like to have the option of sir gawain and the green, voluntary euthanasia. The right to die might be a right that is only ever exercised by a small minority of the population: terminally ill patients for and fog, whom palliative care is inappropriate. However, those opposed to voluntary euthanasia must not, including by legislative fiat, deny individuals the right to die with dignity. 62. The arguments I have presented stand on Anthropology and Gender Essay, their own if they are considered with an open mind, devoid as far as possible of any cultural, religious or other bias.
Australia must observe the right to die with dignity if all individuals are to be respected. Despite their claims, those opposing this right do not know, more than patients themselves, what is better for terminally ill patients. The rights of an individual must prevail .
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Flaws of the Hawthorne Effect Essay. Let’s begin with an example. And Fog! A golfer attempts to hit a ball into a hole in as few strokes as possible. After each stroke, the alu genotype golfer hopes, the ball will be nearer the hole, until (at last) on the final shot, the ball disappears with a satisfying rattle into the plastic cup liner. The goal has been met. But what does that mean? How well was the goal met? Was it met in exemplary fashion or merely in a satisfactory manner? One measure is the number of strokes required. Assuming another player is competing, scores can be compared in order to evaluate relative performance.
Without a norming score, however, goal attainment remains somewhat undefined in night and fog movie terms of level of of a critique, achievement. Fortunately, golf has a norming score–par-so even a single golfer can be evaluated versus expected results. Golf can be taught and played in several ways. Which is the best method? How can one evaluate these methods? Perhaps comparing the performance of those who adhere to each method will provide a relative measure of which is most productive. Evaluation of these results can help golfers and and fog movie, instructors make informed decisions about which method to employ. Example Of A Critique Essay! A direct relationship exists between this example and safety program evaluation.
A safety program is individually measured using a variety of tools. These measures, such as injury frequency rates, can be used in comparison with normalized (or group) measures to evaluate how a program is movie, progressing toward a prescribed level of performance. Furthermore, program activities used to improve performance can be evaluated by comparing various measures of skiing industry, those activities. Hence, the and fog movie evaluation process can be used to make informed decisions about Incorporating safety program effectiveness. Without such a process, however, attainment of numerical safety goals may lack meaningful context. Hopkins and Antes describe traditional uses of the results of educational measurement and evaluation. “Educational evaluation takes the output of measurement and and fog movie, other pertinent information to form judgments based on the information collected.
These judgments are the Incorporating 21st Century Technology into the Classroom Essay basis for decisions about students as individuals, and decisions about the effectiveness of school programs” (Hopkins and Antes 34). They conclude, “Improvement of the night and fog movie teacher’s teaching and the student’s learning through judgments using available information is the ultimate function of the evaluation process” (Hopkins and Antes 31). Similar things can be said about evaluating safety program effectiveness. That is, information collected about the various activities associated with a safety program should form the basis for decisions made to Incorporating Century into, improve safety performance. Night And Fog Movie! Evaluation is based on information collected. Data collection can be achieved via many methods. Observation is one. Observations may be recorded or unrecorded. Unrecorded observations are usually taken and 21st Technology the Classroom Essay, interpreted quickly, may be acted on immediately or mentally noted for future use. However, mental notation can cause loss or improper reconstruction of evaluation information (Hopkins and Antes 71).
Procedures for direct observation include checklists, unobtrusive observations, scorecards, anecdotal records, rating scales and mechanical instruments. Via checklists, observations of specific behaviors can be quickly tallied. Unobtrusive observations are conducted so that the worker does not know she is being observed, which can eliminate any impact the observation process itself may have on behavior. Scorecards are similar to checklists, but apply a weighting scheme to and fog movie, the behaviors being observed. Anecdotal records are informal reports of observed behavior; they may lend themselves to unwanted judgment and evaluation instead of simple recording of fact, however. Rating scales can be used to collect information about intensity or degree in relation to the observation (Hopkins and sir gawain essays, Antes 78-96). Traditionally accepted, quantitative safety program metrics, such as accident and injury frequency rates, are designed to measure specific achievement and gather data needed for evaluation. Results from night and fog movie all program activities are used to evaluate safety program performance. Bottom line: Information-collection techniques must be designed to skiing industry, prevent an evaluator’s personal biases from influencing how results are recorded or considered.
FLAWS IN THE The following discussion examines potential pitfalls for night movie, the safety program evaluator. Although described in terms of evaluating individual performance, these problems apply to skiing industry, safety program evaluation as well. The evaluator should not allow preconceived impressions of night, personnel or events (associated with a particular program, past performance or attainment of specific performance measures) to cloud objective judgment. Safety program evaluation takes time and Anthropology and Gender Essay, resources. Thus, this process should be performed so that the end result is accurate, useful information. The Halo Effect The Halo Effect is one potential evaluation pitfall. According to Kirkpatrick, who describes the effect as it relates to the workplace and night movie, employee performance evaluation, the Halo Effect is a tendency to overrate the person being observed. This concept can be applied to safety program evaluation as well. Kirkpatrick lists seven reasons why this effect occurs. 1. A person’s past good performance leads one to expect continued good performance, and the assumption of good performance carries over to future evaluations (Effect of Past Record). 2. An evaluator tends to rate a person who is pleasing in personality and character, agreeable and alu genotype, otherwise compatible higher than performance may justify. . Recent outstanding behavior can overshadow much longer periods of lesser-quality performance (Effect of Recency).
4. A person with an night movie asset deemed important by of a critique essay the observer, although it may be irrelevant, may receive a higherthan-justifiable rating. 5. A rater may overlook a bad or undesirable trait if she also possesses that trait (Blind-Spot Effect). 6. A person may be judged by his/her potential instead of actual measured performance (High Potential Effect). Night And Fog Movie! 7. Alu Genotype! A person who never complains tends to be evaluated in a positive light (Kirkpatrick 46). The Hams Effect. The Horns Effect is the reverse of the Halo Effect in that evaluations tend to be lower than deserved. Kirkpatrick offers eight causes for this effect. 1. The evaluator may have high expectations that are not easily met.
2. An evaluator tends to give someone who frequently disagrees or appears to be overly argumentative a lower rating. 3. A nonconformist is usually rated lower than deserved simply because she is different (Oddball Effect). 4. Poor group performance often leads to lower evaluation of all group members, even if one member has outstanding individual performance. . People are evaluated the same way as those whose company they keep (Guilt-By-Association Effect). 6. A recent mistake can overshadow months of good performance (DramaticIncident Effect). 7. An evaluator may associate some character trait (i. Night Movie! e. , aggressiveness, arrogance, passivity) with poor performance and give a lower-than-justified rate to someone who has that trait (PersonalityTrait Effect). 8. And Hard Skills! An evaluator may give a lower-thanjustified rate to a person who performs a task differently than the evaluator would (Self-Comparison Effect).
Controlling These Effects Kirkpatrick attributes these flaws to night and fog movie, vague standards and maintains that effectively established standards of performance can reduce or eliminate their impact (Kirkpatrick 46-47). Essay! The information-gathering method and process also play key roles in eliminating these effects. As stated, anecdotal records that rely on memory can easily lead to night movie, inappropriate evaluation. Thus, a safety program evaluator must make sure that personal associations and experiences do not influence his/her judgment. Several data collection methods can help prevent subjective judgments. For example, the critical incident method is a three-step process that involves data collection, data summary and example critique essay, analysis, and night and fog movie, feedback. Developed by of a critique essay J. C. Flanagan, this technique uses recorded observations of specific behaviors that are judged to be critical to night movie, good or poor performance.
These behaviors are carefully defined for the workplace situation and recorded simply as effective or ineffective behavior. Incorporating Century Technology Essay! Interpretive instructions (provided in a manual) help evaluators make appropriate judgments. This technique could be easily applied to specific, observable worker behaviors, provided specific objectives of night and fog movie, evaluation are defined. Time, event and trait sampling are also methods of collecting evaluation data. Time sampling involves specifically timed observations that, over time, might be expected to Incorporating 21st Century Technology into, provide a good representation of total performance. Night! Event sampling is like Flanagan’s critical incident method in example of a essay that events deemed to and fog movie, represent specific performance characteristics are recorded as they are observed. Sir Gawain And The Green Essays! Trait sampling is similar to night movie, event sampling except that specific behaviors are recorded (Hopkins and Antes 91-93).
Such techniques can help ensure collection of skiing industry, objective data. An evaluator’s knowledge of the various facets of the Halo and Horns effects can also help alleviate these problems. The evaluator must learn to ask whether either of and fog movie, these effects is Anthropology Essay, influencing his/her judgment and make adjustments if necessary. An evaluator who uses objective data-collection techniques and movie, consciously avoids making Halos/Horns judgments will produce more-accurate evaluations that, in turn, will lead to better decisions. Hopkins and skills, Antes suggest teaching evaluators about these effects in and fog order to improve objectivity.
The Illumination Experiments In the 1920s, a group of knight, engineers at movie Western Electric examined the effect of illumination on work performance. Alu Genotype! The researchers established an experiment room and and fog movie, a control room, controlled various conditions and introduced changes one at a time. Much to the engineers’ dismay, the results were confounding. No matter how illumination changed (increased or decreased), production improved in the experiment room. Although no changes were implemented in the control room, production increased there as well. These results indicated the alu genotype need to record not only the details of the physical changes made, but also the physiological, medical and social changes occurring (Mayo 80). Following these experiments, Mayo initiated the Hawthorne Experiments, which were conducted in and fog three phases: Relay Assembly Test Room, Interviews and Bank Wiring Observation Room. Relay Assembly Test Room In the skiing industry Relay Assembly Test Room, various regimes of workday length, payment schemes, break length and scheduling, work week and return to non-experimental conditions were evaluated. In all cases, productivity increased from and fog movie previous levels. In fact, the greatest rise actually occurred upon return to skills, non-experimental conditions.
Mayo attributed this result to “… six individuals working wholeheartedly as a team, without coercion from above or limitation from below” (Mayo 78). Interviews In the Interviews phase, company officers attempted to night, learn things (possibly) missed during the previous experiments. During the example critique interviews, employees were allowed to talk without questioning or interruption. Some 20,000 employees were interviewed over several years. The result was a feeling of well-being among employees; the interview process had been a sort of emotional release. It became clear that communication is valuable to employee well-being (Mayo 82).
Bank Wiring Room The third phase was conducted in the Bank Wiring Observation Room. Changes introduced to improve production had the opposite effect of night, those implemented in the Relay Assembly Test Room. Incorporating Century Technology Into! Social pressure within this group kept production at a constant level (although some workers occasionally produced extra units to movie, cover others’ shortfalls). However, if a worker tried to exceed the constant level in order to increase production, she was punished by Technology the Classroom others within the group. This process, called “binging,” involved a physical hit on the arm of the and fog movie “offender” by an “enforcer” (Roethlisberger and Dickson 422). Skiing Industry! The Hawthorne Effect Thanks to these experiments, the term “Hawthorne Effect” was coined. Kanter describes this effect as a result of the Relay Assembly Test Room, where productivity increased no matter what changes were introduced. And Fog Movie! “In one experiment, a team of women workers was given a separate work area where their production would be measured while a variety of environmental conditions, such as lighting and rest breaks, were varied. Productivity tended to [increase] regardless of the changes that were made to skiing industry, physical conditions. “One conclusion was that being singled out to be in a high-visibility experiment was highly motivating in and of itself; calling this the night and fog movie Hawthorne Effect was, in part, a way of dismissing the claims made by new ‘human relations’ programs, arguing instead that any change involving [some] increased management attention and special treatment would have positive effects for a little while” (Kanter 409).
Kanter simplifies this explanation, saying it was due to “the excitement of Anthropology and Gender Essay, getting involved and making an impact” (Kanter 242). Controlling the Hawthorne Effect The key message is that, when evaluating a safety program, one must make sure the mere process of being evaluated is not the reason a measured characteristic changes from baseline measurements. Night And Fog Movie! If this occurs, data collected and behaviors observed may be misleading. Or, if, for example of a critique essay, example, several workers-are told they have been chosen to test a new safety-related process, will institution of the and fog process itself lead to soft and hard skills, better performance, or will the workers be motivated to perform simply due to their participation in the experience? To minimize this effect, control groups should be established.
By having two groups “participate” in the activity, the true effect of the different stimuli can be better determined. For example, Latham and Locke discussed an experiment through which a wood products company attempted to examine the value of goalsetting as it relates to increased production. One work crew was selected to and fog, strive toward specific production goals, while another crew, a control group, was told the skiing industry experiment was designed to assess the and fog effect of absenteeism on Anthropology and Gender Essay, production (Latham and Locke 400-401). “To control for the Hawthorne Effect, we made an and fog movie equal number of visits to the control group and 21st Technology, the training group” (Latham and Locke 401). In other words, both groups received equal attention, so both had similar reason to be motivated by participation. Result: Test group was more successful than control group. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Flaws of the Hawthorne Effect. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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