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How to kfc northampton Answer #8220;Why This College?#8221; pt 3: Essay Samples. Hi Everyone! Sorry I#8217;ve been absent with my posts I#8217;ve been working with lots of students, but I also broke a bone in of mice summaries my foot and it waylaid me for kfc northampton, a while (ouch). But I#8217;m back! Here#8217;s the final installment on Some to Prevent, #8220;How To Answer Why This College.#8221; So you have to answer the essay question, #8220;Why Do You Want to Go To This School?#8221; Here#8217;s the good news (yup, there#8217;s good news). This college essay doesn#8217;t have to be a killer, if you know what schools are looking for and where to kfc northampton begin . ( Part 1 and Part 2 #8212; check them out.) Now, take a look at some essays in action.

Here are sections from 3 different essays. Find out if they work or not, and why . I like Bowdoin College because it#8217;s a highly acclaimed school with excellent academics. I especially like Bowdoin because it is close to Their Eyes God by Zoe Neale the Canadian border. Doesn#8217;t Work. Why : The student is telling the school what it already knows . (#8220;Highly acclaimed#8221; #8220;Excellent academics#8221; #8220;Close to the Canadian border.#8221;) Instead, tell the kfc northampton school why this information is important, and performance, how you#8217;ll take advantage of it. New Version: #8220;Bowdoin#8217;s proximity to kfc northampton Canada is important to me because my family is French Canadian. I#8217;m excited to be able to immerse myself in a premier liberal arts education, while being close enough to Quebec to learn more about my heritage and practice my language skills. Works. Why: The answer is specific . This student clearly states why this school is a good match for her . #8220;Your school really inspires me. The students were friendly and the campus is amazing.

Plus, I like cold weather. I can really see myself going there. Doesn#8217;t Work. Why: Generic almost any campus can be inspiring, and lots of performance, students are friendly. It#8217;s also impersonal there#8217;s no feeling the student connects with this school. New Version: #8220;I introduced myself to some of the students who were on their way to kfc northampton Dr.

Gruber#8217;s psych class. As we walked across the Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zoe Neale Hurston quad they told me how exciting his lectures were and kfc northampton, how much they liked him as a teacher. My high school psych course really made me want to learn more about psychology, and if I#8217;m admitted, the first class I#8217;m signing up for Essay, is Dr. Gruber#8217;s.#8221; Works. Kfc Northampton! Why: The student has made her answer personal . Diffusion! By referencing an instructor and a course that interests her, she#8217;s able to give the school a clear picture of how she sees herself fitting in kfc northampton . #8220;During the of mice and men summaries campus tour, my guide gave me a great inside view of the University. He told me about the school culture, and kfc northampton, I knew this was the place for me.#8221; Doesn#8217;t Work. Why: 1. Vague.

It doesn#8217;t mean anything to say you have an #8220;inside view#8221; or that #8220;this is the place for me.#8221; You need specifics to back it up. New Version: #8220;After I got home, I remembered my tour guide played cello in the orchestra, so I shot him an email asking what it was like. He replied right away and lab 1 diffusion and osmosis answers, told me he#8217;d definitely recommend it, especially because of the great friendships he#8217;d made. That#8217;s the kind of kfc northampton, experience and camaraderie I#8217;m looking for.#8221; Works. Why: Personal connection. This is an excellent revision. When the student realized his essay wasn#8217;t specific enough, he remembered that his tour guide played in the orchestra, and the slime lyrics, that he had the guide#8217;s email.

So they chatted, and the end result was an essay that showed initiative, enthusiasm, and connection . The student understood why he wanted to go to kfc northampton this college . Your Essay Will be Longer Than These Samples. The samples I gave you are sections from essays, not the entire essay. (Using sections makes it easier for me to take apart to ideal performance show you why they work or not. Your essay will probably be longer, depending on word count). When you write your essay, you might be able to use all there of the ideas presented in these samples (why you like the college, how you see yourself fitting in, how you#8217;ve made a connection), plus any other ideas you have. Kfc Northampton! Just remember to answer the exact prompt. Ideal! Is Your Essay Specific Enough? Use this Test: If 100 other students can say the same thing, it#8217;s time to either dig deeper or start over.

Your essay needs to kfc northampton be unique to Were Watching God by Hurston you. Kfc Northampton! Every school wants to Eyes Were Watching Zoe Neale Hurston Essay see two basic things: that you know something specific about what they offer and that you understand how you#8217;ll fit in. Read the Other Posts in this Series. Sharon Epstein is owner of First Impressions College Consulting in kfc northampton Redding, Connecticut. A Writers Guild Award-winner and two-time Emmy Award nominee, Sharon lectures extensively on essay writing. Sharon teaches students how to master interview skills, write killer resumes, and transform their goals, dreams and experiences into the slime, memorable college application essays . She works with students everywhere: in-person, by phone, Skype and email. Kfc Northampton! Visit her website for more info. I Am! Connect on Google+ , Pinterest and Twitter . Leave a comment let me know what you think! College consultant, teaching students how to write memorable college application essays, grad school and prep school essays, and kfc northampton, succeed at job and college interviews.

4 thoughts on “ How to Answer #8220;Why This College?#8221; pt 3: Essay Samples ” COLLEGE ESSAY WRITING AND INTERVIEW SKILLS AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Welcome! I'm a Writers Guild Award Winner and Two-Time Emmy Nominee for writing who teaches people around the world how to write memorable college, prep and grad school essays, write outstanding resumes, and Were Zoe Neale, succeed at college and kfc northampton, job interviews. My business is First Impressions College Consulting, based in Redding, Connecticut.

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nation essay contest In the summer of 2017, we partnered with one of Washingtons top foreign-policy outlets to bring college students voices into our nations foreign policy conversation and to take a small step toward restoring a healthy, balanced civic debate on the proper scale of our nations ambitions and actions abroad. We received a deluge of excellent submissions from young voices all across the country, all answering this question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to kfc northampton, the United States? First prize went to Andrew Beddow , who is ideal, also president of our University of Michigan chapter. In his essay, Beddow calls for kfc northampton, America to set a clear grand strategy that recognizes the worlds complexity and thus does not treat international problems as separate and readily fixable. Lord Of The Flies With? Thus, Intervention is occasionally justified, and kfc northampton, the United States both improves the performance condition of mankind and benefits itself through its continued participation in kfc northampton international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. However, intervention must be guided by a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the core interests of the ideal United States and limits activity abroad to the securing of these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. taking a moral stand against kfc northampton, Russian annexation of Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to outweigh the plausible negative consequences that will result from this action. Lord Flies Quotes With? In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the kfc northampton inherent unpredictability of intervention. Prudence, not beneficence, should be the of mice and men summaries guiding virtue of kfc northampton foreign policy.

One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School. Gjozas essay examines our current strategy of global primacy of seeking to shape the world through frequent military intervention and by maintaining and exercising overwhelming dominance over potential competitors. He argues that this strategy has come at a high price in blood and treasure, and yet has failed to diffusion and osmosis, make America safer. Kfc Northampton? And this strategy is a departure from Americas traditional posture of restraint. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, As the other great powers of the day exhausted themselves in conflict against each other throughout the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, the United States developed its economy and society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to tip the balance in the World Wars. This allowed the i am the slime lyrics United States to emerge as an kfc northampton unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and approximately half of the and men worlds GDP. Kfc Northampton? Today, however, the i am United States is on the other end of the spectrum, taking upon itself the burden of maintaining the kfc northampton global order while other nations enjoy the benefits of peace and commerce. Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of Columbia University. Petti challenges the conventional view in Washington that America needs to double down on support for ideal, one of our most problematic allies, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to treat their enemies as our own and to accept their account of the problems in kfc northampton their region.

Pettis essay highlights the failures of such an approach, calling the current U.S.-Saudi relationship a valuable case study of allied nations sometimes detrimental effect on U.S. foreign policy. Thus, he writes, U.S. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the kingdom has to restrain its own actions. Lab 1 And Osmosis Answers? From the beginning of Saudi Arabias intervention in Yemen, the Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and advanced munitions. This aid hasnt quite made up for poor military leadership, but it has passed the mounting economic costs onto a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in the kingdom. Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on deaf ears; as the Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only be encouraged to pursue the disastrous status quo. He adds that the war has enabled Al Qaeda in kfc northampton the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the terrorist group, to Solutions to Prevent in Schools Essay, take advantage of the chaos, meaning that while attempting to please a U.S. ally, America is essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to the people responsible for the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting. We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the kfc northampton growing number of talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and restraint back into our foreign policy. We at the Society are here to help them.

Below is the original prompt for the essay contest, along with rules for submission. Its clear that the foreign policy conversation here inside the Beltway is too narrow. No matter what the question is, the answer always seems to be that the United States needs to do more even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of alliance commitments and i am the slime lyrics, overseas bases. We need your voice to help change the conversation. Kfc Northampton? Thats why were partnering with The National Interest one of ideal performance Washingtons most important foreign policy magazines to launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in TNI, meaning theyll be read by many of those who make the decisions and kfc northampton, shape the discussions that set our countrys course in the world. And by appearing in such a respected forum, youll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in international affairs. Its a tremendous opportunity to restore balance to the discourse in DC and to build your own personal brand. Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students who will be attending institutions in the United States in the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to participate.

The winning essays will run on TNIs website and be promoted on social media by both TNI and i am the slime, JQA. Prizes are as follows: First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to TNI. Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on kfc northampton, TNI, one year subscription to TNI. Additionally, the first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States? Submissions shall be between 1000 and 1500 words, and i am lyrics, are due by kfc northampton 11:59pm Eastern Time on Sunday, June 18, 2017, by ideal performance following the instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible.

Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES. 1. SPONSOR: The sponsor of the kfc northampton Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the Contest) is the John Quincy Adams Society. (the Sponsor). 2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and ideal performance, directors of the Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and divisions (Related Entities) and their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and their spouses) and household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to enter.

Anyone serving as a contest judge is ineligible for the Contest. Kfc Northampton? The Contest is void outside the fifty (50) United States, the District of of the page numbers Columbia and where prohibited and restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (Law). The Contest is subject to kfc northampton, all Law. 3. Some Solutions To Prevent Bullying Essay? HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at 12:00PM ET and kfc northampton, ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the Contest Period). To be eligible for answers, the Contest, you must: Before the end of the kfc northampton Contest Period, go to the Contest entry page at this link, and submit an essay between 1000 and 1500 words in Solutions to Prevent in Schools Essay length on kfc northampton, the topic of the benefits of a more restrained, careful foreign policy for summaries, the United States. To be eligible to submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the fall of 2017 in an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in the U.S. Department of Educations most recent database (http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation/GetDownLoadFile.aspx). No person may submit more than one Contest entry.

Attempting to submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the kfc northampton Contest. Your participation in the Contest is optional and at your sole and Their Essay, absolute discretion. 4. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: Infringes on any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of any party; May be deemed, within the meaning of Law, to be electioneering communications, intervention in kfc northampton a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of anothers privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); Harms minors in any way; or. Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any and all Contest entries that violate the above conditions, or for any other reason at any time without prior notice. 5. JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: Originality in thought (40%) Demonstrated understanding of Some Solutions Bullying in Schools foreign policy (40%) Composition and kfc northampton, style (20%) 6. PRIZES : On or about June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the Prize Winners). The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the Prize(s)): First Prize $1000.00, two years subscription to Their Eyes Were Watching, The National Interest. ? Runners Up (2) $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest.

All Prizes will be paid in kfc northampton United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the Prizes are as follows: First Prize $1039.95; Runner Up $279.95. The winning essays will be published on Some to Prevent Bullying in Schools, The National Interest s website. 7. Kfc Northampton? PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of all elements of the Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in its sole and i am lyrics, absolute discretion. If an alternate prize is substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the Prize being offered are: (a) provided as is with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by servicers or as required by Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to the Prize, including but not limited to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose; and (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the kfc northampton Sponsor may substitute a prize of equal or greater value when necessary (not to exceed $1039.95 for performance, the First Prize or $279.95 for the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at the sole and absolute discretion of the Sponsor). Each Prize Winner assumes sole responsibility for all costs associated with any elements of the Prize not explicitly included as part of the Prize, including without limitation, all federal, state and local taxes (if any), fees, surcharges, or other expenses. Kfc Northampton? Other restrictions may apply. In compliance with United States Internal Revenue Service regulations, the Sponsor will send a Form 1099-MISC to any Prize Winner, which requires disclosure to flies numbers, the Sponsor of the Prize Winners Social Security number. Kfc Northampton? Prize Winners remain solely responsible for paying all federal and i am, other taxes in accordance with Laws that apply in kfc northampton the Prize Winners state of residence. 8. PRIZE WINNER NOTIFICATION: The Prize Winners will be announced by a means reasonably calculated by the Sponsor to reach all Contest entrants.

Following the announcement of the Prize Winners, the individuals selected as the Prize Winners will be notified via email or telephone within three days from the date of selection by the Sponsor based on the slime lyrics, the information provided by that person on his or her entry form. The Prize Winners will be required to complete, sign, and return an Affidavit of Eligibility, Liability Release, and Publicity Release (the Winners Affidavit) within fourteen days of the date the Sponsor provides a Prize Winner the notification email or call. If a Prize Winner fails to satisfy any eligibility requirements, declines to accept the Prize, or is ineligible for kfc northampton, any other reason, the Their Were Watching God by Essay Prize Winner may be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected at the sole and kfc northampton, absolute discretion of the Sponsor. Of Mice Chapter? Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in disqualification. Kfc Northampton? The Sponsor is not responsible for fraudulent communications made by third parties to Contest entrants or the Prize Winners. A Prize Winner is not an performance official winner until the kfc northampton Prize Winner returns the Winners Affidavit and eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to the Sponsor all right, title, and interest of every kind and lab 1 answers, nature whatsoever that you have in kfc northampton the essay you write as part of your Contest entry, including the copyright and all other intellectual property rights thereto. Some To Prevent In Schools Essay? As a condition of kfc northampton receiving your prize, you may be required to execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to Their Eyes Were God by Zoe Neale Hurston, sponsor of your Contest Essay. Kfc Northampton? In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to the Sponsor all causes of action, including accrued, existing, and future causes of action, arising out of or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10. DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their members, directors, officers, employees, and agents from any and all liability with respect to of mice and men chapter summaries, all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from kfc northampton, participation in lab 1 and osmosis answers this Contest, and the possession, acceptance, or misuse of prizes.

By entering the kfc northampton Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and causes of action arising out of or connected to the Contest or the Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action; (b) any and all claims, judgments and awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the Contest but in no event attorneys fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to obtain any award for, and you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and any and i am the slime, all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and kfc northampton, any other damages, other than for lab 1 diffusion, actual out-of-pocket expenses. All issues and kfc northampton, questions concerning the Solutions in Schools Essay construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of these Contest rules, or the rights and kfc northampton, obligations of the entrants and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of lord of the flies quotes with page Virginia without giving effect to kfc northampton, any choice of law or conflict of Eyes Watching God by law rules or provisions that would cause the application of the laws of kfc northampton any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Virginia. Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in the Eastern District of Virginia, and Their Eyes Were Watching, the parties consent to kfc northampton, jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Contest rules shall not affect the Were Watching God by Hurston Essay validity or enforceability of kfc northampton any other provision. In the event that any provision is determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in effect and be construed in of mice and men accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in these Contest rules. 11. INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is kfc northampton, not capable of running as planned due to an infection by Solutions to Prevent in Schools a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of kfc northampton this Contest, the Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and absolute discretion to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the flies quotes numbers Contest. The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries.

The Sponsor is not responsible for any problems or technical malfunctions of any telephone network or telephone lines, computer online systems, servers, or providers, computer equipment, software, failure of any email or entry to be received by kfc northampton the Sponsor due to technical problems, human error or traffic congestion on performance, the internet or at any website, or any combination thereof, including any injury or damage to your or any other persons computer relating to or resulting from kfc northampton, participating in Eyes Zoe Neale Essay this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest. CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES OR OTHER REMEDIES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON(S) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTEMPT TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Kfc Northampton? Uses of automated devices are not valid for entry. 12. USE OF INFORMATION: The information that you provide in connection with the lord of the flies quotes page numbers Contest may be used by Sponsor to inform you about related opportunities and developments involving charitable or educational topics that the Sponsor thinks may be of interest to kfc northampton, you. Sponsor may also share the information you provide in connection with the Contest with its subsidiaries, affiliates, divisions, and third parties in order to advance charitable or educational goals, and as otherwise stated in ideal the Sponsors terms of use and privacy statement. 13. GENERAL: By entering this Contest or accepting the Prize, you (a) agree to be bound by the Sponsors policies, these Contest rules, and the decisions of Sponsor which are final and binding in all respects; and (b) consent to the use of your name, voice, picture, and likeness for kfc northampton, charitable, educational, advertising, and promotional purposes in any medium throughout the ideal performance world in perpetuity without additional compensation unless prohibited by Law. The Sponsor reserves the right to correct typographical, clerical, or printing errors in any Contest materials.

The Sponsor reserves the right to prohibit any person from kfc northampton, participating in the Contest if, at its sole and absolute discretion, the Sponsor finds such person to be tampering with the entry process or the operation of the Contest, or if such participant repeatedly shows a disregard for Some, or attempts to circumvent these Contest rules, or acts: (x) in a manner the Sponsor determines to be not fair or equitable; (y) with an intent to kfc northampton, annoy, threaten, or harass any other entrant, the Sponsor, or related entities; or (z) in any other disruptive manner. The Sponsor reserves the ideal performance right to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest at its sole and absolute discretion. 14. WINNERS LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an kfc northampton official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an Eyes Zoe Neale Hurston email to john.gay@jqas.org. Note: Section 2 was updated on 5/4/2017 to update the list of eligible locations.

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#8220;1984#8221; by George Orwell Analysis Essay. When two claims contradict one another, it is futile and useless in attempting to analogize between the two. Kfc Northampton? George Orwell, the author of the novel 1984, defines doublethink as #8220;the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one#8217;s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them.#8221; It is the idea of genuinely accepting two conflicting ideas, which eliminates an individual#8217;s capacity of being able to think or act freely. Dinh, the author of both the Patriot Act and the essay #8220;How the USA Patriot Act Defends Democracy#8221;, uses a modern day form of double think in an attempt to justify the Patriot Act, an act which unconstitutionally violates the individual#8217;s right of privacy through the Solutions to Prevent Bullying Essay, clandestine use of surveillance. Gelsey, the author of the essay #8220;The FBI is Reading over Your Shoulder#8221; illustrates the kfc northampton, potential effect of the Library Records Provision of the of mice summaries, Patriot Act, otherwise known as Section 215. Section 215 allows the government to search and obtain the records of any individual without the individual#8217;s consent or knowledge. Gelsey claims that #8220;intimidating readers in kfc northampton such a manner is, in effect, controlling what we read and how we think#8221;, thus it #8220;circumvents the First Amendment by threatening readers rather than prohibiting what they read.#8221; Gelsey compares this statement to Winston Smith, the lord of the quotes with page, protagonist of the kfc northampton, novel 1984, whose capacity of free thought and self expression is impaired and damaged due to constant monitoring and flies quotes with page numbers surveillance.

The two conflicting claims of both Dinh and Gelsey bring in to point the issue of protecting individual rights versus the right of the state to access an kfc northampton individual#8217;s private information. Of Mice And Men Chapter Summaries? Dinh claims that a balance of #8220;ideals#8221; and #8220;techniques#8221; is necessary and required for the rights of the individual to be protected. However, these #8220;techniques#8221; of surveillance and monitoring violate those #8220;ideals#8221;, which are the constitutional rights that protect an individual from state power. Dinh#8217;s statement of combining #8220;ideals#8221; and #8220;techniques#8221; can be viewed as a modern day form of kfc northampton doublethink because Dinh attempts to justify the Patriot Act through the explanation of how the rights of an individual can only be protected when those rights are unconstitutionally violated through the exposure of privacy. Doublethink, which is the simultaneous belief in two contradictory ideas while being unaware of its compatibility, is a form of manipulation of the mind. In the novel 1984, the protagonist Winston Smith is constantly under monitor and surveillance, which has altered and mangled his mind. Thus he becomes incapable of being able to know which thoughts are truly his, and is no longer able to express himself of his own free will. The perpetual government surveillance in of mice chapter the novel forces Winston to secretly purchase a diary in which to write his own thoughts. However, the pressure of being under incessant monitoring has made Winston incapable of expressing his own thoughts, as he is only able to write the same phrase over and over. This creates a sense of paranoia that is also seen in Gelsey#8217;s essay as she writes about the interminate surveillance and monitoring of innocent and kfc northampton unsuspecting individuals.

Gelsey states that #8220;the feeling of being monitored inhibits freedom of thought#8221; as seen in Winston, and the slime lyrics also in modern society today. However, Dinh, the writer of the Patriot Act, claims such fear and paranoia are absurd, and states that it is #8220;historically and legally unfounded#8221; to compare government surveillance to that of the surveillance used in 1984. Kfc Northampton? In the novel, the Party, who are elites, uses doublethink as a massive campaign in order to psychologically manipulate the with page, individuals of the society they live in. By using double think, the Party is able to deteriorate the individual#8217;s capability of being able to kfc northampton, think independently. They manipulate the individual into believing whatever they are told to believe. Ideal Performance? The official slogan of the Party, which is #8220;war is peace, freedom is slavery, ignorance is strength#8221; is the first example and introduction to kfc northampton, a form of doublethink.

The words of the the slime lyrics, slogan all contradict one another. Yet the party is successfully able to manipulate society, which allows them to force individuals into believing whatever is kfc northampton, needed to believe, regardless of how illogical or contradictory the statement may be. By being manipulated and coerced into accepting the ambivalent and chapter conflicting nature of doublethink, the independence and self determination of individuals begin to dwindle and diminish. In 1984, doublethink is seen once more as Winston Smith deletes disturbing yet true facts from the public records. He is then forced by the Party to believe the fabricated version of the truth. A modern day form of doublethink is used by Dinh, the author of the Patriot Act. Dinh expresses a modern day form of double think as he arfues that the Constitution, which protects individuals from kfc northampton government power, must be violated by the government in order for the individual#8217;s right to be protected. This unconstitutional claim contradicts itself, thus Dinh has incorporated a modern day form of double think in his essay.

As the plot of 1984 progresses, it is clarified that newspeak must be present in order for doublethink to be effective. Newspeak is the ideal, official language of the society in 1984. The Party created Newspeak with the purpose of limiting a person#8217;s thought and speech, thus eliminating any rebellious thought. Kfc Northampton? This allows the Party to constantly monitor individuals and to further ensure that everyday thought and speech can be limited and manipulated. Newspeak is the method the Party members adopt in order to control and manipulate thinking through the alteration of language, while double think is the technique the Party members use to directly control individual thoughts. Doublethink also allows the lord, Party, or in kfc northampton Dinh#8217;s case, to hide its own wrongs from itself and society through the continual use of lab 1 and osmosis surveillance and propaganda. This proves to affect not only the kfc northampton, individual#8217;s thought and actions shown in 1984, but also that of the individual members of the Party. Doublethink proves to be an effective method of persuasion and manipulation not only in the novel 1984, but in modern society as well, as seen in the issue brought upon by the Patriot Act. When the individual#8217;s right to privacy is tested by the government, it is Their Were Watching God by Essay, justifiable for the principle and morality of the government to be tested by the individual. The Patriot Act, written by Dinh, claims to kfc northampton, balance the #8220;ideals#8221; and #8220;techniques#8221; that are required for the protection of the individual#8217;s rights granted by the Constitution.

Section 215 of the Patriot Act grants the government the ability to obtain the records of any individual, such as library book records, providing that the government assures that it is trying to #8220;protect against terrorism.#8221; It is stated in the First Amendment that an individual has the lord quotes page, right to read whatever book or material they desire to read. However, Section 215 of the Patriot Act violates the right of being able to freely choose what an individual wants to read. If the rights of one person are violated, then the rights of every individual of this country are violated. Therefore it is constitutional and democratic for the right of every individual to be protected, not just a select few. In society today, the free communication between people is the basis for free thinking. the freedom of thought is curtailed if there is no free communication, which results in kfc northampton restricted thinking. Gelsey writes that the #8220;FBI is policing our minds by purporting to read them.#8221; Although Dinh claims that the and osmosis answers, Patriot Act protects the rights of individuals, Gelsey believes that this section violates the most essential right granted by the Constitution, which is that #8220;giving up privacy rights can#8217;t guarantee physical safety, but it will almost certainly inhibit intellectual freedom.#8221; She states that she does not want to give up liberty for security because it does not guarantee security. However, the pressure of being watched and monitored will take away the individual#8217;s ability to properly think, as shown by Winston in the 1984.

This is where Dinh disagrees. He states that such #8220;concerns expressed about official surveillance of US citizens are reasonable and should be addressed.#8221; He then attempts to explain how the kfc northampton, Patriot Act does not violate individual rights by stating that the society should #8220;trust us. The government wouldn#8217;t abuse these new powers against individuals.#8221; However, it is difficult to trust Dinh#8217;s claim based on his lack of credibility. From the beginning of his essay #8220;How the USA Patriot Act Defends Democracy#8221;, contradictory statements are already evident. Although he wrote the Patriot Act, Dinh thinks that the Patriot Act is #8220;one of the most important legislative measures in Solutions to Prevent in Schools Essay American history.#8221; If Dinh #8220;thinks#8221; that the Patriot Act is only #8220;one of the most legislative measures#8221;, it shows that Dinh himself is not sure whether or not it is important at all. He also states that the kfc northampton, terrorists are nihilistic, which is untrue. Terrorists are religious fanatics and Some Bullying Essay true believers in religious or personal causes. Kfc Northampton? All these inaccurate and false statements demonstrates Dinh#8217;s lack of credential. Therefore the God by, readers have valid reason of not accepting Dinh#8217;s claims. As a result, Dinh attempts to use a modern day form of doublethink in an attempt to justify his claims in order to persuade the kfc northampton, reader. Chaos and discord is inevitable without a certain amount of balance.

In the concluding paragraph of Dinh#8217;s essay, Dinh attempts to clarify the relationship of ideals and lord flies with numbers techniques. Dinh states that the #8220;foundation of kfc northampton liberty is under attack#8230;#8221; Although he persuasively attempts to articulate this claim, the #8220;foundation of liberty#8221; is in fact not in jeopardy. The foundation of liberty is the Constitution, which states the rights of citizens in this democratic nation. These rights include the Bill of Rights, which are the amendments of the Constitution. Dinh alerts the readers that terrorists are attempting to attack the foundation of liberty, the Constitution. However, terrorists do not prioritize in the undertaking of missions to eliminate the rights of of the quotes page U.S. citizens. Terrorists attempt to define their reason of terrorism by attacking capitalism.

Capitalism and democracy are not similar systems. Kfc Northampton? Capitalism describes the economical system, while democracy is the political system. Terrorists attack capitalism, not the Constitution, through the destruction of symbolic buildings in order to halt the economical growth of the United States. Of The Flies With Numbers? Further in kfc northampton the paragraph, Dinh exclaims that it is #8220;critical that we both reaffirm the ideals of our constitutional democracy.#8221; Dinh defines #8220;ideals#8221; as the rights given to each individual that protects from government power. The #8220;constitutional democracy#8221; he also writes about is not the fantasy of economic opportunity, but it is ideal, Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Dinh also states that it is important to #8220;discern the techniques necessary to kfc northampton, secure those ideals against the threat of terrorism.#8221; Dinh believes that the Patriot Act is the performance, necessary #8220;technique#8221; that can extend the powers of kfc northampton government by going beyond what the law permits. These #8220;techniques#8221; violates the performance, Constitution through the surveillance of individuals by kfc northampton the order of the state. By declaring that these #8220;techniques#8221; are necessary in order to secure the #8220;ideals#8221; against the threat of terrorism, Dinh is acknowledging the fact that the Constitution must be violated in order for it to be protected from terrorism. However, it is i am the slime, was already mentioned that the terrorists do not pursue the Constitution, but rather the economic growth of the U.S. Dinh indicates that the kfc northampton, government must violate the rights which protect individuals from state power in order to lord quotes with page, protect those rights.

This is an evident use of kfc northampton modern double think, which is the #8220;the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one#8217;s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them#8221; Dinh continues by lab 1 diffusion and osmosis answers quoting a renowned law professor who knows nothing about the terrorists that Dinh is warning the readers about. The quote #8220;ideals without techniques are a mess. But technique without ideals is kfc northampton, a menace#8221; does not relate to Dinh#8217;s Patriot Act. Lab 1 Diffusion? Dinh simply uses Llewellyn#8217;s quote without even explaining the intended meaning of it. Dinh attempts to relate the Patriot act with the #8220;ideals#8221; and #8220;techniques#8221;, but it is evident that the kfc northampton, two cannot be compared in any aspect. There is the slime, only the reiteration and repetition of the words #8220;ideals#8221; and #8220;techniques#8221;, which does not clearly explain the meaning or purpose of Dinh#8217;s use of those words. Dinh merely states that the combining of ideals and techniques will shield democracy, and then uses double think in order to justify how the Patriot Act violates the Constitution and individual rights. It is evident that Dinh#8217;s statement can be viewed as a modern day form of kfc northampton double think because it attempts to combine the contradictory claims that an individual#8217;s rights can only be protected through the violation of those rights. Gelsey claims that the governmental #8220;techniques#8221;, which involve surveillance and obtaining unwarranted records, directly violate the #8220;ideals#8221; and rights that Dinh claims to protect. The capacity of being able to think and act freely are prohibited, if not restricted, hen people are aware that they are under constant surveillance, Innocent individuals being monitored would not be able to act freely because they would not know what actions are capable of Their Watching God by Hurston Essay being considered suspicious.

Gelsey connects her statement to 1984 and its protagonist Winston Smith, whose capability to act and think freely was tampered with due to kfc northampton, the strain of being under constant surveillance. Yet Dinh argues against diffusion answers, such claims by stating that #8220;During these times, when the foundation of liberty is under attack, we must reaffirm the ideals of our constitutional democracy and also discern the techniques necessary to secure those ideals against the threat of terrorism.#8221; Beneath all of the fanciful dictation and reiteration of words, the readers discover that such #8220;techniques#8221; only violate those #8220;ideals.#8221; The violation of privacy rights can only kfc northampton be regarded as a direct violation to the Constitution, not as a #8220;shield#8221; to those #8220;ideals.#8221; As Dinh discards the comparison of the Patriot Act with Orwell#8217;s illustration of the i am the slime lyrics, state#8217;s potential to invade individual rights, the readers discard Dinh#8217;s credentials as well, due to the inaccurate and inconclusive use of the #8220;techniques#8221; and #8220;ideals#8221; he regards as necessary in the fight against #8220;terrorism.#8221; Gelsey, Zara. #8220;The FBI is Looking Over Your Shoulder.#8221; The Brief Bedford Reader. Ed. X. J. K. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Jane E. Aaron. 9th. Ed.

Boston: Bedford, 2006. 473- 478. Dinh, Viet. Kfc Northampton? #8220;How the U.S. Patriot Act Defends Democracy.#8221; The Brief Bedford Reader. I Am The Slime? Ed. Kfc Northampton? X. J. K. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Jane E. Aaron. 9th. Ed.

Boston: Bedford, 2006. 479- 485. Orwell, George. _1984_. Afterword by Watching Zoe Neale Essay Erich Fromm. New York: Signet, 1992. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 25 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on #8220;1984#8221; by George Orwell Analysis. for kfc northampton, only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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conformity essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. Kfc Northampton? It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalisms inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movements growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for Some Solutions Essay further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the movements early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century.

This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nations lower and middle-class groups. Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Kfc Northampton? Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to i am the slime lyrics, the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism.

This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into kfc northampton, Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the diffusion, second phase of the Pentecostals origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the kfc northampton, ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. 3.

From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S. Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Some Bullying In Schools Essay? Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from kfc northampton, Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. 4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the movement itself. The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation.

These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is i am lyrics evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Kfc Northampton? Academics unfamiliarity with the world of lab 1 diffusion, ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight.

But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and kfc northampton not worthy of their interests. In the late 1960s, the of the flies, historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and kfc northampton within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in lord of the with the U. S. and kfc northampton abroad drew scholars interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the of mice and men summaries, increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. Kfc Northampton? The establishment of the Society for in Schools Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8.

As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on kfc northampton, the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the primacy of doctrine. Chapter Summaries? They note the importance of Pentecostalisms historical and kfc northampton theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the the slime lyrics, movement to it adherents. A few historians look at the movements interracial character to assess its origins and growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of kfc northampton, social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movements adherents according to Eyes Watching God by Hurston Essay, social status and class.

But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of deprivation to understand the movements appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhrs class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions. 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherents loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrells historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the kfc northampton, movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the Some Bullying in Schools, social class origins of Pentecostalism and kfc northampton discovered that extreme social strain among the nations poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Some Solutions Bullying In Schools? Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization.

The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at kfc northampton two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Pentecostals belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to chapter summaries, their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and kfc northampton maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Their Were Watching Hurston Essay? Because of the kfc northampton, Pentecostals negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into lab 1, the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in kfc northampton the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and i am conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Andersons study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. The breadth of Andersons book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history.

At the same time Wacker is critical of some of kfc northampton, Andersons basic arguments. Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals faith is i am the slime irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the kfc northampton, movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in performance the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the kfc northampton, reality of the supernatural. Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and Some in Schools racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions.

Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. Kfc Northampton? 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the lab 1 diffusion answers, restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the ancient order of kfc northampton, things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity.

17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the lord of the flies quotes numbers, new era of the spirit, before Christs second coming, would bring about kfc northampton, a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to and osmosis, primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Kfc Northampton? Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of doctrine. 18.

This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to to Prevent Bullying Essay, increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to kfc northampton, missionize the lord of the quotes, world before Christs second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christs immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Kfc Northampton? Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for i am lyrics the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the kfc northampton, movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and performance were then taken up by kfc northampton Pentecostals.

He stresses both the Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer. 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in diffusion the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. Kfc Northampton? By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synans The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing.

For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the Eyes God by Zoe Neale, pentecost account in Acts. Kfc Northampton? Thus, speaking in Solutions to Prevent Essay tongues became a sign of kfc northampton, sanctification. Lab 1 And Osmosis Answers? 23. Scholars from the kfc northampton, Reformed wing of Essay, Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movements origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in kfc northampton a second work of Some Solutions, grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofers 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synans thesis by kfc northampton accenting the of mice and men chapter summaries, theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view.

For them, Spirit baptism empowered the kfc northampton, believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synans view. Ideal? Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about kfc northampton, these struggles and of the flies with page how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict.

Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. Kfc Northampton? The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in lord of the tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to kfc northampton, schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals opposition to Americas political and social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on Some Solutions, soul-winning and kfc northampton perceived politics and Eyes Watching God by national events to be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress.

Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to kfc northampton, serve in positions of of mice chapter summaries, leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movements success to its racial progressiveness. Church of kfc northampton, God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the movements black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusas interracial character. Eyes Watching Zoe Neale Essay? He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the kfc northampton, black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism.

He argues that the the slime lyrics, white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movements sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of kfc northampton, Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of ideal performance, its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation.

34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35. Pentecostalisms diverse heritage has drawn the attention of kfc northampton, historians who have sought an explanation for the movements origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of Americas poor coped with the economic, social, and of the quotes with numbers religious challenges of modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.

Convinced of Christs immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in kfc northampton opposition to both racism and ideal the denigration of kfc northampton, women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostals views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in Their Eyes Were God by Zoe Neale Essay greater detail. However, the fields of American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship.

There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to kfc northampton, be undertaken. Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is lord flies with page numbers still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movements leadership. The documents of kfc northampton, Pentecostalisms rank and diffusion and osmosis answers file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched.

37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the kfc northampton, bottom up. Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the Some Bullying Essay, laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism?

The role of women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and kfc northampton evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Some Solutions To Prevent In Schools Essay? Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in kfc northampton Fundamentalist churches differ from lab 1, those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is also an kfc northampton, area that merits careful consideration.

A church such as the Their Eyes Watching God by Zoe Neale Essay, Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Womens Department of any black denomination in the U. Kfc Northampton? S. Were womens roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. The Slime Lyrics? The Church of kfc northampton, God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in the Holiness and flies Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and kfc northampton gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of lab 1, Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. Kfc Northampton? In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized.

Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in ideal performance the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions?

Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for the origins of Pentecostalism. Kfc Northampton? Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in Their Were the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is kfc northampton not equal to the movements numeric strength. Pentecostalisms mass appeal should challenge historians to and osmosis, look deeper into the movements distant past.

1. Grant Wacker, Searching for kfc northampton Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and Solutions to Prevent Bullying in Schools Essay 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the kfc northampton, Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of these new sects include: the i am, Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of kfc northampton, early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Of Mice And Men Summaries? Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of kfc northampton, American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and and men summaries Peter Williams, eds. Kfc Northampton? (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the diffusion and osmosis answers, Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing?

Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of kfc northampton, American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusens Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Forces Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Of Mice And Men? Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the movements importance. Kfc Northampton? There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and ideal John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol.

II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of kfc northampton, Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. Some To Prevent Essay? The number of kfc northampton, Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78.

9. The Slime Lyrics? H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is kfc northampton so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of and men chapter summaries, theology is kfc northampton necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among societys dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalisms response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Lord Of The Flies With Page? Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741.

Pope, Millhands and kfc northampton Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. Their Were God By Hurston Essay? For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and kfc northampton Social Conflict, Robert Lee and ideal Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?

Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status. 12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Kfc Northampton? Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Some Bullying in Schools Essay, Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the kfc northampton, Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances.

Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14. And Men Summaries? Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Kfc Northampton? Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142.

15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in ideal performance Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. Kfc Northampton? 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.

On the importance of restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupels, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of diffusion and osmosis, Eschatology in the Development of kfc northampton, Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. God By Zoe Neale Hurston? Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and kfc northampton the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.

Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. Ideal? On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of kfc northampton, power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The Enduement of the and men chapter, Holy Spirit in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. Kfc Northampton? 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22. Solutions To Prevent In Schools? Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508.

23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Kfc Northampton? Synan is ideal a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the kfc northampton, holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The Overcoming Life: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148.

Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Lab 1 Diffusion Answers? Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the kfc northampton, Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to of the flies numbers, baptize in Jesus name only. Kfc Northampton? The Significance of William Durham for the slime Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.

William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to kfc northampton, Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. Diffusion? 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.

Dayton, The Limits of kfc northampton, Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and ideal Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of kfc northampton, God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Some In Schools? Berends analyzes the kfc northampton, communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. And Men Chapter? Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30.

Crews, The Church of kfc northampton, God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martins Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. Of Mice? Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.

35. Joe Creech, Visions of kfc northampton, Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. According to diffusion and osmosis answers, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the kfc northampton, major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. Together and in ideal performance Harness: Womens Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70.

38. Kfc Northampton? Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39. Two biographies exist on diffusion and osmosis, key women leaders of kfc northampton, Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Lyrics? Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on kfc northampton, Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5.

41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the to Prevent Bullying, Role and Status of Women in kfc northampton the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. The Slime? Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. Kfc Northampton? University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of lord of the flies, Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, Together and in Harness: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of kfc northampton, Chicago Press, 1990). Some Solutions To Prevent Bullying? On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Kfc Northampton? Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Were Zoe Neale Essay, Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in kfc northampton History at the University of the slime lyrics, Florida. Mr. Stephens wishes to kfc northampton, express special thanks to Dr.

David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.