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LDRSHIP in an Army of O.N.E. War Philosophy! , Essay by CPL Charles D. Wells. LDRSHIP in Great Black- Essay, an Army of O.N.E. Every private has spent countless hours writing meaningless essays where they babble nonsense because they did something their sergeants did not like. This is war philosophy not one of those essays. I am going to Failure examples, try to make an war philosophy argument. I will first present you with a statement, and what did anti when you arbitrarily decide that statement is war philosophy wrong, I will do my damnedest to prove it right.

There are three major Army Publications, one military website, and the objective of a human resource one civilian leadership program I will use in this essay. They are: FM 7-21-13 Soldiers Guide FM 6-22 Army Leadership FM 7-22.7 The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide Tradoc Command Website The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People. War Philosophy! The point I am making is that the Seven Army Values of Successful Essay examples Loyalty , Duty , Respect , Selfless Service , Honor , Integrity , and war philosophy Personal Courage all remain at the core of soldiering but change as a soldier progresses. Remember that an the objective resource Army of ONE is Officers , Non-commissioned officers , and Enlisted . Young enlisted can learn about the Seven Army Values by thinking about specific examples (such as duty or respect). The NCOs (and up-and-coming NCOs), on the other hand, must learn how to grow and maintain it through actions and good decisions. Officers , because of their education, and their freedom to war philosophy, think outside the Failure Essay box, have access to civilian leadership techniques. In fact, most college ROTC programs require classes in The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Remember, while the war philosophy Values remain the same, how they are used changes whether you are lower enlisted or NCO.

This is reflected in the subtle differences between the above-mentioned FMs. Tropical! FM 7-22.7 recommends that NCOs stand by your soldiers honest mistakes , allowing them to sink or swim on their own merits while learning from war philosophy, their mistakes. It means allowing them to work it out Essay on themselves so they earn the respect and loyalty of their peers and their supervisors. Without loyalty towards your lower enlisted, your enlisted will not show loyalty in return. War Philosophy! On the other hand, the Tradoc Command Website states Open criticism and being disloyal to leaders. destroys the foundation of the organization and results in diminished mission accomplishment . This makes it very clear that the lower enlisted do not have any rights in publically challenging an Education: Black- Divide NCOs order. Even if that NCO made a mistake ( The loyalty of subordinates is a gift given when a leader deserves it FM 6-22). War Philosophy! A single poor decision from either an NCO or an Enlisted can turn this into a cycle of backbiting and finger-pointing . An Enlisted may try to earn the loyalty of his fellow enlisted and Essay Technical Communication and the Programmer the respect of his NCOs, but may make an honest mistake. An NCO may step in and prevent that Enlisted from fixing that mistake, or make an honest mistake himself. Everybody begins feeling a little bit disloyal towards everybody else. Of course, this can easily be avoided by using good judgment.

Good enlisted acknowledge when they are wrong, and good NCOs do their best to help Enlisted accomplish the mission and work through whatever mistakes get made. War Philosophy! The simplest answer is duty means accomplishing all assigned tasks to the best of your ability (Tradoc Command Website). That is exactly what an did anti want enlisted believes Duty is, and war philosophy is the minimum that is expected from every soldier. Successful Failure Essay! NCOs earned their promotions by war philosophy going beyond the call of duty and exercising initiative. FM 6-22 mentions anticipating what needs to be done before being told what to Essay on Technical, do . FM 7-21-13 recommends Sacrific[ing] personal time in pursuit of excellence . An interesting thought is that duty is war philosophy nothing more than some intestinal fortitude combined with the Warrior Ethos.

A heavy force of will that keeps us on track and keeps us moving towards whatever mission we are trying to accomplish. A tenacity of purpose. From reading the Field Manuals, Respect is the most fundamental building block of trust, and trust is the most important element of Essay Communication and the Computer Programmer cohesive teambuilding. It is the golden rule, the most basic customs and courtesies shared by every culture on this planet. Something every soldier expects. According to 7-22.7 its the war philosophy professionalism and mutual considerations that allow the rainforest impact noncommissioned officers to war philosophy, work smoothly with each other and higher headquarters, and the enlisted to maintain a standard of training that will allow them to survive on the battlefield. It envelopes everything, including the way you give orders, the way you interact with your peers, the Failure Essay way you respect the bounds and limitations of another human being (personal space, personal property, use of language or gestures, etc). It is our discretion, tactfulness, and professionalism in the workplace (FM 7-21-13).

FM 6-22 best summarizes The leader knows that the Army cannot function except as a team. For a team to war philosophy, excel, the individual must give up self-interest for the good of the whole. An enlisted man could very easily chop Selfless Service off as another word for The White Divide Essay Duty. Both the Tradoc Command Website and FM 7-22.7 describe Selfless Service as your duty towards your fellow soldiers and war philosophy your team. What! It is war philosophy important that leaders do not confuse Selfless Service with Duty. FM 7-21-13 proposes the following points: Focus your priorities on service to the Nation. Place the needs of the Army, your unit and your fellow soldiers above your personal gain. Balance the mission, your family, and your personal needs.

Accept personal responsibility for your own performance . Ultimately, FM 7-22.7 says it best Placing [] your soldiers welfare before your personal desires has always been key to the uniqueness of the American NCO, which is, as we all know, the backbone of the army. An officer may point out that this concept of Selfless Service extends throughout American Society, and Black- Essay is what makes the United States of America the greatest country in the world. Community leaders, the Roosevelt New Deals, and even the American Work Ethic is based upon war philosophy the ideal of selfless service. In social philosophy, this is called Social Utilitarianism, where social benefit is more important than personal benefit. A scholar could very easily turn a company clean around using only the principles of Social Utilitarianism.

Both the Tradoc website and 7-22.7 state [Honor] starts with being honest with oneself and being truthful and happy life macomber analysis sincere in all our actions . War Philosophy! An honorable individual does not delude, confuse, or deny himself the Education: Great Divide Essay truth. War Philosophy! How can an individual or team be truly mission capable if he/they cannot accept the facts the way they are. If a person is honest with himself, then not even ignorance can be used as an excuse, because actions could have been made to prevent that ignorance. Stonewall Jackson What is life without honor? Degradation is worse than death (FM 7-22.7). This goes far beyond the the short happy life of francis analysis concept of face, where a persons public image is the primary concern. Stonewall Jackson was referring to the degradation of good training, good health, good work ethics, good team cohesion, etc. Degradation is anything that takes away from Mission Readiness. War Philosophy! According to 7-21-13 Noticing a problem and deciding to take action involves Honor . Those problems are probably an example of or a cause of degradation.

To ignore or reinforce a problem, or to prevent someone else from solving a problem, is dishonorable. It takes away from Mission Readiness. It promotes the Education: Black- White further degradations of the individual and the individuals peers and/or subordinates. War Philosophy! Leaders of integrity consistently act according to clear principles, not just what works now (FM 6-22). These clear principles are aimed towards the welfare of the soldiers and the mission itself. Quickly sending the most accurate information up the chain of what did anti command regardless of personal embarrassment is essential for mission accomplishment. These clear principles must take the both the individual soldiers and the nature of the mission into consideration. Its easy to get caught up in what seems to work right now, even if it may cost the group in the long run. Again from 6-22 Identifying the underlying maintenance issues and raising the war philosophy quality bar could ultimately save Soldiers lives. FM 7-21-13, The Soldiers Guide summarizes, [ Soldiers with integrity] can be counted on to do the what federalists right thing, [] without playing games or having false agendas. War Philosophy! [] As your integrity develops, so does the trust others place in you. This playing games or having false agendas is what distracts an otherwise integrity-filled soldier from clear successful principles. Again, this is one of those values that grows as a soldier progresses. It starts out in every enlisted as the physical personal courage as overcoming fears of bodily harm (FM 7-21-13).

But as a soldier progresses its becomes a moral courage Moral courage is sometimes overlooked, both in discussions of Essay on Technical Communication personal courage and in routine, daily activities. Moral courage often expresses itself as candor. Candor means being frank, honest, and sincere with others while keeping your words free from bias, prejudice, or malice . Being willing to stick your own head out, or to take point, or to observe a problem and try to step up and solve it before it gets worst requires personal courage. To reward moral and war philosophy physical Personal Courage is to reward Bravery itself. Civilian Leadership Techniques. All seven of the Army Values are reflected by soldiers actions and Education: decision making ability, loyalty is earned by war philosophy taking just and fair actions, duty itself is of a human nothing more than taking appropriate action, respect shines through actions not words, etc. Anything that helps a soldier make better decisions can be included in the Warrior Ethos and the Seven Army Values. One especially useful tool for war philosophy making appropriate actions and making good decisions is the 7 Habits of Highly Successful People. Human Resource Strategy! Be Pro-active . War Philosophy! Here, Covey emphasizes the Failure original sense of the term proactive as coined by Victor Frankl. You can either be proactive or reactive when it comes to how you respond to war philosophy, certain things.

When you are reactive, you blame other people and circumstances for obstacles or problems. Being proactive means taking responsibility for every aspect of your life. Initiative and taking action will then follow. Covey also shows how man is different from other animals in that he has self-consciousness. He has the ability to detach himself and observe his own self; think about Education: Great White Divide Essay, his thoughts. He goes on to say how this attribute enables him: It gives him the power not to be affected by his circumstances. Covey talks about stimulus and response. Between stimulus and response, we have the power of war philosophy free will to choose our response. Begin with the End In Mind . This chapter is about setting long-term goals based on true north principles. Covey recommends formulating a personal vision statement to document one's perception of one's own vision in life. He sees visualization as an important tool to develop this.

He also deals with organizational vision statements, which he claims to be more effective if developed and supported by all members of an human is to organization rather than prescribed. Put First Things First . Here, Covey describes a framework for prioritizing work that is aimed at short-term goals, at the expense of tasks that appear not to be urgent, but are in fact very important. Delegation is presented as an important part of war philosophy time management. Successful delegation, according to Covey, focuses on results and benchmarks that are to be agreed upon in advance, rather than prescribed as detailed work plans. Think Win/Win describes an attitude whereby mutually beneficial solutions are sought that satisfy the needs of oneself, or, in the case of a conflict, both parties involved.

Seek First to Understand, Then to The Essay, be Understood . Covey warns that giving out advice before having empathetically understood a person and their situation will likely result in rejection of war philosophy that advice. Thoroughly reading out your own autobiography will decrease the on Technical Communication chance of establishing a working communication. Synergize describes a way of working in teams. Apply effective problem solving. Apply collaborative decision making. War Philosophy! Value differences. Build on divergent strengths. Leverage creative collaboration. Embrace and leverage innovation.

It is put forth that when synergy is pursued as a habit, the result of the teamwork will exceed the sum of what each of the Technical and the members could have achieved on their own. The whole is greater than the sum of war philosophy its parts. Sharpen the of a human resource is to saw focuses on balanced self-satisfaction: Regain what Covey calls production capability by engaging in carefully selected recreational activities. War Philosophy! What My Mother Taught Me: These famous quotes, applied to the ARMY of ONE paradigm, reflect the best application of the BE-DO-KNOW approach to Successful Failure Essay examples, METL. Perhaps sergeants must BE in order to be able to DO. But could it be the opposite for war philosophy the enlisted? Perhaps the lower enlisted must be able to DO before they can BE! And if the NCOs are BEing and then DOing, and the Enlisted are DOing and the BEing, then maybe the only thing the what did anti federalists want officers will ever need to war philosophy, do is twiddle their thumbs and go DO BE DO BE DO. You need to be a member of LegacyConnect to add comments! Please be respectful of others.

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War philosophy

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The Real Reason You Shouldnt Put Your Address on Your Resume. When you put your address on your resume, recruiters know exactly where you live. This matters because a person with a one-hour commute has to earn 40% more money to be as happy with life as someone who walks to the office (more here). Recruiters Calculate How Long Your Commute Is. You might not have thought about it, but in-house recruiters know that people with long commutes have more stress and often eventually quit because of the commute. If you quit, they dont look good, and they have to replace you. Thats more work, with no more money, for war philosophy, them. So address on resume? They do the math.

If you live too far away, you dont get an interview. Instead of giving your address on your resume, give your current or most recent employers city location, like this: The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA (if you work at Essay the mother ship) The Coca-Cola Company, Oakland, CA (if you work at a branch office) Sharing your employers location places you in a broad metropolitan area. It gives recruiters enough information to know youre local without sharing that youre not local enough. Note: Per a helpful comment below, you can see how this looks on war philosophy a full resume here. Beyond the push to get a job, think about the stats in this posts opening paragraph when you decide where to live and where to Technical Communication apply for war philosophy, work. Working close to what home can make you and war philosophy your family happier and prevent you from looking like a job hopper on of a resource your resume. I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles.

Save time. Get hired. Email me at donnasvei@gmail.com for war philosophy, more information. Updated June 2017. Donna, as usual your research and reporting on on Communication Computer Programmer a topic is spot on, however there is a consideration that should be seen by war philosophy, job seekers before changing their tactics about publishing their address: It may also signal that there is something to hide and Failure immediately disqualify the resume. If I am the corporate recruiter and daily fight the company bureaucracy as well as candidates trying to game the war philosophy system, the blind resume is almost always immediately discarded. If I am an outside recruiter trying to the short happy life of francis macomber analysis find the best fit, the address is war philosophy less relevant than the Successful Failure Essay qualifications to do the job and we will discuss the requirements for relocation or commuting honestly before moving forward.

In both cases, recruiters generally have the war philosophy interests of the candidate in mind. Believe it or not, it is not always an adversarial relationship that requires stealth and deceit on either side to make a connection and Successful Failure Essay examples a good hire. In years past, I was concerned about candidates who didnt provide their addresses for just the reasons you outlined above. Now, as concerns about identify theft have become realistic, and most communication is electronic (thus no need to snail mail applicants for any reason), I think people can provide general metropolitan area information and be OK. Its definitely a best resume practice in war philosophy transition. People have to balance between the pros and cons on so much of the information they include on their resumes. In the end, they have to weigh what seems best for them and Failure Essay examples make an informed decision. I appreciate you raising this perspective for people to war philosophy consider. Im curious to hear what other people think about this topic! Valid points. How would you approach applying for Successful, jobs in a different city?

The same question came up on LinkedIn this morning. War Philosophy. Heres what I wrote: I recently worked with a resume client who wanted to move across the U.S. What Did Anti Federalists. He was willing to pay his own relocation costs. We put his aspirational city location in his contact info and showed his current employers city location. We also put a line at the bottom of his resume that said, Willing to relocate to [desired location] at own expense. It worked. I usually just put the war philosophy city / state on clients resumes, like this: Oakland, CA | 510-000-0000 | name@companyname.com | LinkedIn address. That way, it shows the job seeker is local, but doesnt go into unnecessary detail.

Kathy. Thank you for this. My concern is of a resource that a recruiter might think Oakland is not local enough for a job in their Bay Area location. Thats why I avoid giving my clients home location and use their employers location instead. As Ive never seen a resume without a full home address front and centre, its most intriguing to give this a re-think. And come to think of it, its surely a vestige of snail mail times that we so unthinkingly offer up the exact mailing address of our domiciles to all and sundry surely workarounds like the one Donna is suggesting here will become the norm soon enough! But for war philosophy, those currently unemployed, Donna, do you really suggest using the address of their last employer at the top of the document? Id be worried this could be unnecessarily puzzling, so not sure I could sell my clients on the idea. Thank you for tropical human, your clarifying question. War Philosophy. I added a link to a sample resume above. All good thoughts but even a city or for that matter a State may be grounds for Commute Discrimination!

I always suggest that if this was the what did anti federalists dream job would you be willing to war philosophy re-locate and Successful Failure if so put that information at war philosophy the end of the objective is to a Career Summary. Thank you for war philosophy, this. I dont get that from an employers location. Tropical Human Impact. It just tells me they manage to get themselves there from somewhere. Who knows? Maybe my clients location is war philosophy closer to home for a candidate! Its always interesting to see how other people interpret information. Thats one of my favorite aspects of blogging. It makes me realize how uncertain anything that seems certain really is! I have not used a physical address on my personal resume for years, and of a human resource strategy is to I have advised clients that it is war philosophy no longer a requirement to have it there (some choose to Essay Technical include it, and thats fine) for the reasons youve cited above, as well as the concerns with identity theft, etc.

Employers rarely use snail mail to communicate with candidates these days, so the address doesnt really add valueit provides another chance to war philosophy lose out on an opportunity for reasons other than qualifications and ability to Great White Divide do the job. War Philosophy. It also gives a little bit more real estate on the resume, which can be used to Education: Great Black- provide info that does add value, such as social media profile links. Wearing my recruiter hat for a moment, I am MUCH more interested in your LinkedIn profile than your home address. War Philosophy. If as recruiters the Education: The Black- White objective is to war philosophy identify the did anti want best possible candidates for war philosophy, the job, then we ought to be looking for more ways to include good candidates than somewhat arbitrary (in some cases) reasons for rejecting them. Awesome Warren. Thank you for what did anti want, the wonderful guest post! Donna. I dont care about a physical address when Im reviewing resumes. Im not a recruiter, but Im involved in recruiting. I do care about email, phone, and war philosophy time zone though. And i care if you have a decent internet connection. My company hires remotely, so candidates dont have a commute to worry about, at least for the positions Im involved in hiring for.

I recognize that many people dont yet work remotely and of a human strategy is to that there are jobs that wont ever be distributed either. But from my own point of view the concern about an exact physical address seems dated. If the person is hired though, we do need that for records, to ship stuff to, etc. When review resumes I want to see contact info: email, phone, name, city. I want to see what youve done thats notable, and your skills, and that youre legal to work in war philosophy my country. Its amazing the the short happy macomber number of resumes that come in that dont satisfy those basic requirements! I dont need to see a link to war philosophy your dancing lessons (true), nor do I need to know your married or not, or have kids or not. Thank you Malcolm.

Donna. I have been working remotely for a company based in another state for four years. The nearest major city is human impact about a 35-45 minute commute. War Philosophy. In the past, interviewers have remarked on what a long commute it is from Small Town, USA. Impact. What would be the best way to handle the no address on a new resume?

Thats a tough one Jesse. Like Minh (see below), I would go with the location that shows me closest to prospective employers. Thank you, Donna. What if you are currently commuting to work, and your current job is far away from war philosophy that which you want to be at? For instance, I currently live with a friend an hour away from an apartment I still have a lease on Essay Technical to commute an hour to go to work, but I want to war philosophy apply to a job that is within commuting distance of my apartment that I still have the lease on. Of Francis Analysis. This makes the jobs I am applying to hail from cities that are 2 hours away from my current job location. What should I do? Good question Minh. In that case, I would use the city were your leased apartment is because its closer to war philosophy potential employers than your current employer. What Did Anti. Thank you, Donna. Would you REALLY put US Resident Alien. on a resume?

Seriously? Good question. I have placed many people from other countries in war philosophy the U.S. and tropical rainforest human impact the EU. War Philosophy. In those cases, employment eligibility is often a concern. The questions go like this: 1. Can we legally employ this person here? 2. If theyre not a citizen, are they otherwise already legally entitled to work here? 3. If not, how long would it take (extremely important) and how much would it cost (less important)? Because of this, when there is any potential question about someones work eligibility, and they are fully eligible, I spell it out on the resume. Not doing this could easily cost them the did anti federalists opportunity to interview. In the case you ask about, U.S.

Resident Alien, this legal term shares clear information that the individual has full status to work in the U.S. long-term without any visa, time, or cost issues. Thank you for asking about this! Donna, I stopped using a full street address on my clients resumes more than a year ago, with no problems reported. As others have pointed out, the war philosophy job search isnt done by snail mail anymore. Providing your street address doesnt add any value to Education: The Essay the process. War Philosophy. It does, however, raise concerns about personal security and identity theft. And one other concern I didnt see mentioned elsewhere: the practice of recruiters running your street address through a real estate database like Zillow to determine home valueand use that as a factor in negotiations.

Sounds bizarre, I know, but my contacts in HR and recruiting were familiar with the tactic. They actually show previous purchase prices on what Zillow and war philosophy other Internet locationswhich would let a company estimate your mortgagesmart background research for them to what did anti want dowith a TOTAL creeper feel to it. Thank you for the heads up on this Robert. Donna. Just want to thank you again for your input earlier on twitter, as I came across this article after the war philosophy fact. Sorry about that. Federalists Want. Next time, I have a resume or career issue Im heading to your blog first before conducting a Google search. I have to war philosophy agree with you about the fact that a job candidates home address takes up essential space on a resume, that can be better used on value added material. In my case, it was the home address line that was the only factor holding me back from creating a concise one-page resume.

I suppose it was a no-brainer to leave it out, but I just had to hear it from a Pro. Donna, you provide such a valuable service for us job/career seekers. Cant thank you enough. It seems down the road when I am financially ready to relocate to Dallas from San Diego Ill be contacting you directly to make use of your services to butcher or polish up my resume and LinkedIn profile. Simply impressed with your background, accomplishments, and kindness of did anti federalists want helping those in war philosophy need. Wow, Shel, thank you!

What a lovely way to did anti federalists start the week. Good post. When I create CVs for my customers, I usually create one with a full address and one with just the town or county. War Philosophy. The latter is for uploading online. Security is and the Computer Programmer a major issue and I recommend giving too much personal data when posting online. Thank you David. Donna. They will find out your address someway. It is war philosophy always best to put your full information on a resume and Education: The Great Black- White Divide Essay not lie or withhold any information. They certainly can if they want to Caleb.

However, they probably wont do it before they make their interviewing decision. War Philosophy. Once recruiters and hiring managers know more about a person, positives often outweigh negatives. There arent many clear answers in job search so I appreciate your perspective. Looking at issues from multiple angles helps job seekers evaluate where they fit and decide on a course of action. What if your current employer and home are in the same town? Im in that situation, and applying for jobs in Boston, about an hour away. Ed, I would probably show my employers location and leave mine off. On Technical Computer Programmer. That puts you in the vicinity of Boston without definitively saying that you live an war philosophy, hour away. Donna. Interesting discussion.

One can sway to either side given the Education: The Great White Divide Essay circumstances. Please note, however, that a high percentage of employers request that resumes, cover letters and other relevant documents be uploaded online. The online system then extracts the information from the uploaded document (e.g, resume) and populates required data fields (e.g., name, address, phone, email, dates of employment, titles, employer name, location, duties, etc.). Of course one can view the employers online application web address for the recognized secure prefix URL protocol that starts with https:// in the hopes that it is in war philosophy fact a safe entry portal. So unless you are sending your resume to an HR department or other recipient email address, the street address will be required from the initial application (resume). And finally, I have worked a relocated job and telecommuting across the the objective of a resource country. Please note that those jobs clearly indicated such employment options.

This highlights yet another reason its good to war philosophy network ones way into job opportunities and avoid the applicant tracking system until after an the objective of a human is to, interview has been secured.

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analysis of essay Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. Do you remember when you were child; in language class you were asked to war philosophy express your opinion on certain issue. Poem analysis essay is just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and deeply define each and every point in the written poem you can highlight the value of the poem. Tropical Human! More Writing Tips on a Literary Analysis Essay. Critical analysis essay is written to inform many things to the readers. It is war philosophy written to the short happy macomber notify all the reasons, features and other emotions of the topic. It is war philosophy also written to Great Divide entertain people, well entertainment is depends on the theme, like when it is on the gossip of Hollywood or Bollywood then it comes under entertainment. More Critical Analysis Essay Writing Tips. While writing a critical analysis essay you must remember few major points.

Initially you must give a small intro about the nature of war philosophy work and the short life of francis, the theme. You intro can be fulfilled when you describe the title of the work, name of the author, information of publisher and lastly the elaboration of the theme with the purpose of writing. More Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example. The following rhetorical analysis essay example of a narrative story demonstrates the writers ability to capture the interest of the readers while narrating an war philosophy, unforgettable experience. The short story is a good reading material for students because the reader is given a clear idea on the techniques used by excellent writers. A story about human experience does not have to be a long one to be interesting and have an impact on its reader. When writing an analysis essay , always bear in mind that you are writing someone elses work and Education: Great White Divide Essay, you are simply elucidating for war philosophy the reader what message the the objective of a human resource is to author is trying to convey in war philosophy his work.

The format to be used should be in the form of a summary of the strategy authors work, pointing out its salient points. Analysis essays are usually undertaken in the academic world where students study the work of known authors and professors attempt to utilize the essays as tools for imparting certain writing techniques. When a student is asked to write a causal analysis essay , he might be tempted to simply rewrite a literary work that contains typical causal relationships. This is war philosophy not a surprising occurrence since this type of essay, also called a cause and of a human resource strategy, effect essay deals with how things work or the relationship between two situations where one causes the war philosophy effect on another. To avoid the mistake of virtually copying an essay with similar content, one should strive to write an did anti, original essay that has the elements of war philosophy a cause and effect situation.

This way, one can be confident of doing his own work on the subject and refrain from the temptation of committing plagiarism. When asked to The Great Black- Divide Essay write an analytical essay , one has to follow some suggested procedures to succeed. The suggested writing process is a good guide for students to keep them on track while writing the essays assigned to them. As always, it is by constant practice that a writer gets to hone his writing skills and improve his ability to communicate his ideas. The best advice that students can get is to follow the steps taught by their teacher on how to write an analytical paper. If no specific instructions were given, this will serve as a guide that the war philosophy students can use. Example of Analytical Essay Outline. The analytical essay outline example is a guide for tropical rainforest students, professionals, or those people who simply love to write so that they can make properly-structured and well-thought-out essays and war philosophy, analytical compositions. Normally, the outline of the analytical essay comprises the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. However, there are also other outlines on Successful Essay, how an analytical essay should be structured and these are more complicated than the average outline.

Topic Ideas for Analysis Essay Writing. One may choose any of analysis essay topic ideas; however, there are some ideas that may be assigned to war philosophy him or her, especially a student trying to Successful Failure comply with school requirements. Analysis essays can also be notoriously difficult to write as the writer should also analyze facts as well as presenting them. These essays may evaluate both the students ability to analyze topics and express thoughts and they can evaluate the knowledge of the student on particular issues. War Philosophy! Example of a Process Analysis Essay.

What is Essay on Technical Communication a process essay ? It is an essay or a paper that tells the reader how to do something (a how to essay) or it can describe how something is done. War Philosophy! The example below shows how one can easily bake a chicken pot pie. Here is a process analysis essay sample: Chicken pot pie is a wonderful short order and comfort food that can be cooked now and then stored in a refrigerator to be heated later. It can be eaten as a snack or it can be part of a meal. Crytical Analysis Essay on A Rose for Emily. Resistance to change is the underlying theme of American author William Faulkners short story entitled A Rose for did anti federalists want Emily. The critical analysis essay on A Rose for Emily is an in-depth exploration of how the main character, Emily Grierson , relates with the war philosophy society. Moreover, it is also a story about a woman who had been in Education: The Great Black- Essay the shadow of the war philosophy overbearing nature of her father for human a very long time.

Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. War Philosophy! Do you remember when you were child; in language class you were asked to express your opinion on certain issue. Poem analysis essay is just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and deeply define each and every point in the written poem you can highlight the value of the of francis analysis poem.

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay? Literary, Literacy is quite important for all of us. War Philosophy! The word designates the style of attitude in the written article of every author. Human! Whenever you search out any product, topic or anything else deeply said analysis and it is very important to hunt every topic before buying or writing on it. Literary analysis essay is a brief note about literacy which describes it till the depth.

Through the note writer expresses his inner thoughts about the theme. Literary analysis essay includes A to Z concepts of the topic which give you knowledge around the topic. While writing note author shows each and every point by which.

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essay turn The Turn of the Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. War Philosophy? Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of Successful Failure Essay Henry James, which appeared in the April-June, 1934 issue of Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in war philosophy, the history of the criticism of The Turn of the Screw . Wilson's assertion that the young governess who tells the Essay on Computer Programmer, story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and war philosophy the ghosts are not real ghosts at all but merely the governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and critic. Cole, for Education: Great, example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in 1934. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). War Philosophy? Sidney E. Lind, in his brief survey of the criticism, compliments Kenton for her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the Kenton thesis, studied the governess as `a neurotic case of the short macomber analysis sex repression', with the ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the critical history:

Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the Screw a study in psychopathology, only three 1 persons had had the temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. War Philosophy? The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. . . (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and Clark consider Wilson's essay to be by did anti all odds the most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on the story, if not on James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to the Freudian camp of critics as Edmund Wilson and his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.

In 1935, Stephen Spender, in alluding to the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to war philosophy Wilson, not to Kenton (35). Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of The Turn of the Screw is best known in the discussion of it by Mr. Edmund Wilson . . . though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the scholarly foundation for the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of three kinds: internal evidence from the story itself; James's statements about the on Technical and the Programmer, story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and war philosophy The Two Faces ; and a consideration of fictional characters in other works by James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by Goddard, or by both of on Communication and the Computer Programmer them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by war philosophy being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.

This debt is obvious both from his use of did anti federalists want Freud's name in his essay and war philosophy from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in his discussion of the events of the story. Observe also, he says, from the Freudian point of view, the resource strategy is to, significance of the governess's interest in the little girl's pieces of wood and war philosophy of the fact that the male apparition first appears on impact a tower and the female apparition on a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and romantic attraction to the children's uncle as these items of war philosophy information are presented by Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of her proclivity for jumping to conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for reasons into which she does not inquire but which she colors, on rainforest no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to seem ominous in the same way (386). The governess continues to see the spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and more hysterical. She believes that the children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the war philosophy, employer.

Also, like Goddard and Kenton, he finds great significance in the fact that only the governess admits to seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the ghosts. She believes that the children see them but there is the objective of a human resource is to never any proof that they do. War Philosophy? The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the governess who frightens her. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is evidently the Successful Failure Essay examples, governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for an apparitionist interpretation of the war philosophy, story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the specter as the ghost of Peter Quint on the objective of a human the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to this argument, however, is different from war philosophy Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose has been inattentive to of a resource most of the description and has jumped to a hasty conclusion after hearing that the apparition is war philosophy hatless and did anti dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and the employer may have been similar in appearance, so that the governess, in war philosophy, describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.

Grose, whose approbation the governess values so highly, is illiterate and a simple soul (386). On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the the objective of a is to, governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of war philosophy herself and this pre-pubescent boy to some young couple who, on their wedding-journey, at the inn, feel shy in on Technical Computer Programmer, the presence of the war philosophy, waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the story, the governess has frightened Miles to happy of francis macomber analysis death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition, reminding us of the following points: (1) having designated the war philosophy, story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the order of those involved in the objective of a resource, witchcraft cases rather than of those in war philosophy, cases of psychic research, suggesting, in Wilson's view, that the governess is to be seen as an inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on the charge that the governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for did anti federalists want, the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of war philosophy them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the collected edition . . . James has not included The Turn of the Screw in the volume with other ghost stories but in another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against The White Divide Essay the world, behaving with the war philosophy, same sort of deceptive `authority' as the happy life macomber, governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on a consideration of broad patterns of personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. War Philosophy? We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the Screw ] is the short of francis simply a variation on one of James's familiar themes: the frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and others about the sources and war philosophy character of Essay Technical their emotions (391).

Wilson provides an war philosophy impressive list of examples of such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is so successfully disguised as a zeal to did anti want advance the cause of Feminism that the strong-willed spinster is herself entirely in war philosophy, the dark leads her to tropical rainforest human impact discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the unmarriageable heroine of The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and obsessed by war philosophy the memory of a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in Black- White Divide, the conviction that, by ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to her duty to her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to understand what courtship and marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and sister in the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the pathetic Milly Theale of The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). War Philosophy? These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of tropical impact missing out on emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the hero of The Beast in the Jungle , who is finally crushed by war philosophy the realization that his fate is to be the man in the whole world to whom nothing at all is to happen; the cagy Mr. Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and secure in his neat little house, deciding not to marry the agreeable baroness who has proved such an Successful Failure Essay upsetting element in the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to Paris too late in war philosophy, life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is often deliberately ironic and that the element of irony . . Essay Technical And The? . is often underestimated by his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in doubt as to whether or not the war philosophy, author knew that the heroes would seem unsympathetic.

He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to the objective strategy be a sensitive and war philosophy interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . Of A Resource? . . War Philosophy? because he is afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to be taken seriously (393-4). The Sacred Fount is one of the most interesting examples of such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an Failure Essay examples ambiguity in James' own mind as to the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the war philosophy, Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and a nuisance; but many of James' inquisitive observers who never take part in the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to being this sort of person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an Technical and the Programmer inability to understand and accept his own sexuality. Wilson dismisses the narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to accept it (395).

Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and the fear of which finally devastates the narrator so that he can never again . . . War Philosophy? quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. What Did Anti Want? He himself has no access to it and war philosophy consequently does not understand it. But they have the forces of life on their side and when they find that he is becoming a nuisance, they are able to frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to be a sort of companion-piece to what did anti federalists want The Turn of the Screw , pointing out that the former work was written shortly after the latter and suggesting that, in the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to characterize the narrator as the apparitions characterize the governess (394-5).

And, in war philosophy, The Turn of the Screw , Wilson finds the same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for Essay on Communication and the Computer Programmer, his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the thing away: everything from beginning to end can be taken equally well in either of two senses (389). This last observation would appear to war philosophy be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the story's publication, still continues. The genesis of the short happy life this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in James's inability to come to terms with his own sexuality. And here we come to Wilson's fourth line of argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the chronology of war philosophy his literary productions, Wilson attempts to rainforest human demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into James's gallery of characters, so she and the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of a man like James and complement other elements in his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into three major periods, as do many other critics. In the first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and most elaborate criticism of war philosophy life. It is the only period in which his heroes and Essay on Communication heroines are really up to anything in particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.

Politics figure prominently in all of them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and The Tragic Muse . War Philosophy? This period of novel writing ended in bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of disappointment over his fiction's lack of on Communication and the Computer Programmer popularity. War Philosophy? Wilson considers particularly important the failure of The Bostonians , which seems to have embittered James . The Short Happy Life Of Francis Macomber? . . and . . War Philosophy? . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of on Technical Computer The Turn of the Screw . War Philosophy? In his revision of of a resource strategy this essay for publication in The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on his discussion of James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for the failure of much of his fiction and also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by the collapse of his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of which the most obvious feature is a subsidence back into himself. In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and In the Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the war philosophy, story is usually relayed to us. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in Failure Essay examples, any other capacity except that of week-end guest and who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.

The lonely governess of war philosophy The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and equivocal way. In all of these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on Essay Technical Computer Programmer the diabolic value of the specters of The Turn of the Screw , and this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and war philosophy only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of sorts occurred, and in The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and Successful Failure examples The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into the picture and score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and a formidable group of middle-class English people who are shown in a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of this Jamesian ambiguity of war philosophy treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of a certain type, of whom James was one. The type is the cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on human resource is to an income derived from war philosophy some form (usually left extremely vague) of American business activity but who has never taken part in the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at least some of James's problems in his particular historical and sociological milieu, and this opens the door to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. Wilson points out James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of his life and art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in America and Europe and a disappointment with the limitations of both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is there.

Like sex, we never get very close to it; but its effects are a part of the picture. The Short Macomber Analysis? It is for war philosophy, those things of which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to Europe and it is their inability to find in other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of on Programmer social conditions on war philosophy individual psychology is applied directly to the short happy of francis analysis the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from including her in the same category with the foregoing American types. He points out that James did not write about Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and heroines are English they assimilate themselves to these [American] types (399).

Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in his revision of the war philosophy, essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and warm in the Americans at the beginning of the new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in common with the Frederic Moreaus and with the daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to questions about The Turn of the Screw in his correspondence (396) and his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to have been particularly inspired by tropical human impact L'Education Sentimentale . War Philosophy? Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of James's antagonism: It seems to me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to the debit side of civilization (309-400). Were we to consider only Wilson's first two lines of Essay on argument--his internal evidence from the story itself and his comments on James's statements about the story and his decision to war philosophy include the novella in Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the reputation of its author. In the first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is White Divide sexually attracted to the employer and later to Miles and war philosophy that the ghosts are in the objective of a resource strategy, some way caused by this attraction (he reminds us that the governess first sees Quint while in the middle of a daydream about the war philosophy, employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to why these problems cause the governess to need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. We may, on this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of how the tropical rainforest, governess's need to perform some heroic and self-sacrificial service for the employer and her incomplete information about past happenings at war philosophy, Bly combine to form a deadly psychodrama. We also do not find in Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Of A Strategy? Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.

Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the employer and Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and war philosophy certainly one for which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the story in the Preface to the New York Edition, while interesting and Successful Failure Essay plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to be beyond all question. As was pointed out in the first chapter of this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to avoid the war philosophy, mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Moreover, as a number of critics--among them, Charles G. The Short Happy Of Francis Macomber? Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and war philosophy Evil 102). Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.

In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out that the governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of federalists want Quint and Miss Jessel to war philosophy tempt the children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Both Sheppard and Roellinger have emphasized the fact that parapsychologists, in James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in their theoretical explanations of what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of James's statement that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her is particularly weak. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by a reference to the general proposition of our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities . . Essay On Communication Computer? . it would seem reasonable to war philosophy agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the children are concerned but where the the objective of a human resource, reader is.

Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to breaking upon encountering the charge that the governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to make her particular credible statement of such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to Wilson's essay, the war philosophy, most outstanding features of which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on other Jamesian fiction and is itself elucidated by Great White Divide Wilson's insightful analyses of other works in the canon--and his brilliant relation of other biographical material to the chronology of James's literary productions so as to provide considerably greater insight into the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and other psychological processes of the man who wrote them. And, in so doing, Wilson has opened at least two doors to a fusion of Freudian and war philosophy Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the governess to Failure Essay a certain type of American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at least partly rooted in the social and economic milieu which has bred them and in war philosophy, which they find themselves. He has specifically discussed the middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and Successful examples their destructive effects on the children.

He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is obviously related to war philosophy her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and economic barriers that separate her from the employer, for example. These connections between her personal problems and the structure of the society in which she finds herself would later be developed by other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in want, 1963. Secondly, by his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and lukewarm reception of much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the door to war philosophy a greater awareness of sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Wilson's suggestion of how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of sexual material in The Turn of the Screw is an important insight into the ways in which literary works can be partly shaped by the anticipated response of a particular public. There are, of course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to understand the author; that which focuses primarily on the analysis of fictional characters; and that which is concerned mainly with understanding the responses of the reader. The three types, of course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to the total exclusion of the other two.

And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for the critic to lose sight of literary values as he turns an author or a fictional character into a psychiatric case history or to become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of did anti what some people like and war philosophy why. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. The Black- White Divide? Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the first type of war philosophy psychoanalytic criticism. While he is primarily concerned with the author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the literary works under discussion--i.e., with the author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. The psychological processes of James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in the psychology of his fictional characters and thus help us to understand the literary works and their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the analysis, anonymous narrator of war philosophy The Sacred Fount , the governess in The Turn of the Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for answers in psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and whether the author consciously intended them or not. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the Screw among a small group of fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by reason of the Successful, fact that they have behind them, whether or not the war philosophy, authors are aware of it, a profound grasp of subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on his discussion of federalists other Jamesian works as they are related to his points about The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of how each novel of war philosophy James's first major phase begins strangely to run into the short happy life of francis analysis the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the excitement seems to war philosophy lapse at what federalists want, the same time that the color fades from the picture; and war philosophy the ends are never up to did anti want the beginnings. For example, in the first half of The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . . . War Philosophy? comes nearer to carrying Henry James out of the enclosure of puritan scruples and prim prejudices . . . than any other character he has drawn.

However, this initial promise is not fulfilled in the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the Successful Failure examples, story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in London, The Tragic Muse is an almost total blank. Of the war philosophy, two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in Failure Essay examples, love with her (146-7). Wilson is unconvinced by James's later statement in the Preface to the New York Edition of The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from war philosophy allowing Miriam Rooth to have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out that, after all, Hardy and Meredith did write about Jude and Lord Ormont and Black- White Divide Essay his Aminta and war philosophy let the public howl; and it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by no means to Great Divide have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of something incomplete and unexplained about James's emotional life, the novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and war philosophy was much too honest to try to fake it (148-9). The relationship of this problem to The Turn of the Screw is Essay made a bit more direct in the 1938 revision of the war philosophy, essay. Essay And The Computer? James was willing to leave his readers in war philosophy, doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to Wilson, because, in this middle period, the novelist seems to be dramatizing the frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to confess it, without always fully admitting it to himself (138-9). But we find the Successful, most striking improvements in Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Screw itself. The most notable addition is a new theory as to why the governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to her in a conversation with the housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and the idea of this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and with the master's possible interest in her, the war philosophy, present governess. And has she not, in tropical, her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from this, identified herself with her predecessor and conjured up an image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to stoop to love her!)? (125-6).

This explanation of the genesis of the governess's psychodrama is certainly as detailed and plausible as Goddard's. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in 1962, M. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the idea that the love between the two ghosts is reflective of three other loves--that between the governess and Douglas, that between the governess and the employer, and that between the governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the story as an attempt by war philosophy James to control his own anxiety arising from the traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by Technical Communication and the discharging it onto others (476), namely the readers of the war philosophy, story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to the surface. These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and on Technical Computer Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the war philosophy, scale' which is so important to the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is the short happy of francis macomber analysis easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into war philosophy a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. It is not unusual for Jungian critics to tropical human impact see such projections of the war philosophy, shadow onto strategy, both masculine and war philosophy feminine figures. For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on The Lord of the Rings , reminds us of the episode in which.

Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on their journey to the evil land of Mordor to fulfill the task laid upon The Great White Divide Frodo, are led by war philosophy Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is primarily embodied in the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in dreams, mythology, and literature. Examples? As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to fight, for example. In that case, he might be haunted in his dreams by a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the spider in war philosophy, the dark cave as also informed by Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . . . masculine potential we have mentioned.

As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of happy life macomber analysis him might very likely fuse with the war philosophy, anima, the unfaced feminine in him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Bryant then provides an rainforest human example from common experience: A common form of the anima in its negative aspect is war philosophy that of the possessive mother who prevents her children from growing up and living their lives independently of her (97). This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the tropical, devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in ourselves. War Philosophy? An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is Failure examples only able to dominate her son and prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in him that colludes with her, that wants to war philosophy remain a child. There is something in Failure Essay examples, us that prefers to be looked after and protected, rather than face the risks of fighting our own battles (97).

It is war philosophy easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. He with his white face of damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the Essay on Technical, most horrible of war philosophy women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon Education: Great White Divide Essay the governess's description. We have said that there is no evidence in the story for such an unlikely coincidence. War Philosophy? In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and his appearance is described in detail. When we look back, we find that the master's appearance has never been described at all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for us to know how much the ghost resembles the master--certainly the governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in The Divide Essay, mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of war philosophy a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the scene in the schoolroom in chapter fifteen in which the governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. . . . she had looked at me long enough to appear to say that her right to sit at the short life macomber analysis, my table was as good as mine to sit at hers, the governess tells us. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the morbid half of war philosophy her split personality is getting the Successful Failure, upper hand of the other . . . War Philosophy? it is she who is intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is intruding upon Essay her (127).

In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on his earlier discussion of the story's final scene, recalling the governess's vision of the war philosophy, white face of Essay on Technical Programmer damnation at the window and war philosophy asking, But is the governess condemning the spirits to damnation or is she succumbing to damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in 1964, be developed in more detail by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw . West considers in detail the context of the governess's final outburst and Successful Failure concludes that, in this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the governess succumbs to possession herself. Wilson makes a number of additional points about the war philosophy, story in Failure examples, this more detailed discussion. He observes, for example, that the ghosts stop appearing for awhile after Mrs. War Philosophy? Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the governess suppresses the letters the Essay Technical Computer Programmer, children write to their uncle, and that Miles and Flora may have met after the final vision of Jessel at the lake. This last occurrence would, of course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the story's final scene. Wilson also, in this revision, calls attention to war philosophy the peculiar psychology of Education: The Black- Essay governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the family and the servants, are likely to become ingrown and morbid (131). Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.

Commenting on the scene in war philosophy, which the candle is blown out while the governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the only detail which is Essay on Technical Programmer readily susceptible of double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the war philosophy, governess later sees that the the objective resource is to, window is tight (127-8). War Philosophy? Wilson's assumption that there is no ambiguity here is unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of his article for the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on his discussion of Jamesian works as they are related to The Turn of the Screw and has looked in more detail at the story itself. His explanation of the psychological origins of the tropical rainforest human, phantoms provides telling insights into the story and war philosophy opens the door to additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the Failure examples, reality of the war philosophy, ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of in-reading on the part of the critic. He considered Kenton's attempt to press on tropical human `toward the story behind the story` an war philosophy example of the now timeworn fallacy of confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the heroines or the Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of James's description of the work in the Preface to the New York Edition as an amusette to catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . . . not catching the readers in a trap but capturing their attention and interest (230).

Stoll correctly points out examples, a long literary tradition of genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and invisible to others--citing examples from Hamlet , Macbeth , and Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by other means--by suggestion of indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Stoll seems here to be overstating the similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . The ghost of Hamlet's father, after all, is seen by quite a few people at the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to war philosophy Gertrude when it appears to Hamlet in the Queen's chamber. Similarly, while it is true that the ghost of Banquo is invisible to all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to both Macbeth and the objective human is to Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the employer so completely as to make him a horror and no gentleman.

The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the war philosophy, strange distortions wrought by Technical Communication Computer the subconscious mind--in dreams, for war philosophy, example. His suggestion that Wilson reads into events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to the mind of James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per se influenced James in his composition of the Education: Great Black- White Divide, work. The argument is less compelling when applied to a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to historical figures such as statesmen or clients of psychoanalysts. War Philosophy? Stoll begs the question by objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to explain the children's taking so keen an interest in rainforest human impact, secretly looking at and holding commerce with the ghosts and intriguing and conspiring together for that purpose, as well as their corruption under the war philosophy, influence of the valet and The Great Divide Essay the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to us only by war philosophy the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is Great White Essay nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about these happenings. Stoll is also on slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is invalidated by the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the war philosophy, girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the Successful, housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.

Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the war philosophy, governess's relentless persecution of the children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the girl without postulating supernatural entities. Tropical Rainforest Impact? And Goddard's theory of how the war philosophy, governess' fears and repressed desires and Essay on Computer Programmer the housekeeper's memories and anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is war philosophy highly recommended by Douglas in the prologue. On Technical? Douglas, however, is seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by assuming that the evaluation given by the second narrator--i.e., by Douglas, must be accepted at face value. If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to question a narrator in a fictional work is like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the war philosophy, audience and happy life analysis necessarily to war philosophy be taken at face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the on Communication Computer, outset and war philosophy that evidence adduced from another narrator is redundant.

When Stoll suggests that Wilson is forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and character (232), in not taking the governess's account at face value, he seems, like some critics of the Chicago School, to be unthinkingly and Successful Failure Essay rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to have no relevance. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in the New York Edition Preface about agents and war philosophy demons, forgetting apparently the difference between the want, statements made by a fictional character and war philosophy an author's comments about his own work. Education: The Great Black- White Divide Essay? He also seems to fall into the trap of the intentional fallacy. War Philosophy? Stoll may be right to fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at the objective of a strategy is to, all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to be sought is not in the author but in the text (Guerin 268). Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the war philosophy, hallucinated (231) is manifestly untrue. The Black- White? Certainly the story of children in the care of an insane governess--as the novella is read, for example, by Goddard or by Cranfill and Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the points made by Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in the period under discussion.

In 1947, for example, Robert N. Heilman, in war philosophy, an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the resource strategy, Screw , also relied heavily on what he perceived to be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the statement, She has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to war philosophy invest the governess with credibility and, in so arguing, lashing out intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an what did anti federalists want emotional spasm which has resulted in a kind of emotional blindness (434). In arguing that the story is not primarily about the governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on page xix in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition: . . . I saw no way, . . . to exhibit her in relations other than those; one of which, precisely, would have been her relation to her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of war philosophy her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and deductions. . Successful Essay? . . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of war philosophy ignoring the first part of this quotation and then proceeds himself to ignore the second part. Heilman also refers to James's statements about the story in correspondence but with the what federalists, same selectivity, quoting extensively only the 1898 letter to H. G. Wells. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in the open and are joyously talked about: even in the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.

Heilman suggests that the infatuation is a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to war philosophy communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the Essay Technical and the Programmer, story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in war philosophy, explaining this dereliction of duty only if it is considered normal--not reporting to the employer these unusual and dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at some time comment upon the strange resemblance of master and man (438). However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to tropical impact this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is known to see the ghosts.

This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of evil (439) on the part of the war philosophy, children and to the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the obvious in life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the subtler manifestations of Education: White Essay evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is war philosophy certainly superior to Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and Education: The Great Divide Essay misleading comparisons to Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the dismissal of Miles from war philosophy school--a dismissal which is the short life of francis macomber analysis unexplained and which is war philosophy absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to Successful Failure appreciate, however, the significance of the fact that the war philosophy, governess has not given us the tropical rainforest impact, text of the headmaster's letter and Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for a residential school.

Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the name of Quint at war philosophy, the end of the novella. In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to Wilson when he asserts that in The Great Black-, plain defiance of the war philosophy, text Wilson says that Miles has managed to see Flora before her departure and thus to find out what the governess is thinking about (439). Wilson, instead of making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out that the text leaves open the Technical Communication Computer Programmer, possibility of such a meeting with Flora and a discussion of the governess among the two children and Mrs. Grose. War Philosophy? Goddard had earlier made the same point in his then unpublished essay.

Heilman summarizes the rainforest human, unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to have thought of the explanation later to be advanced by Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the governess herself (40). In A Treatise on the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to be a thorough and irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the governess's character and give a very strained explanation of her description of Quint (141). We considered these two points in our discussion of Stoll, so there is no need for repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into war philosophy touch with Flora after the scene by the Lake (142). However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by Goddard. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the the objective of a resource is to, assumption that the governess is war philosophy deluded about the very sense-data experienced in Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).

Here, however, Liddell seems to beg the question, for a woman capable of hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the very sense data experienced on that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to Essay on Technical Communication Programmer assert his position and then announce that his mere assertion in war philosophy, some way constitutes proof: But the chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the `clue'. Happy Life Macomber Analysis? This is the ultimate answer to all such theories, from the war philosophy, Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is human impact a desire for a `scientific' explanation, an unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the war philosophy, book should be read. It is only because Mr. Wilson is such a distinguished critic that the Successful Essay examples, theory is worth further examination, and final refutation (142).

Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. Commenting on war philosophy James's distinction in the Preface between the governess's record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an interpretation which is a plausible alternative to Wilson's hallucination theory: . . . we can doubt her explanation of the happenings, without supposing her to of a human be the victim of hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of their eschatological status. War Philosophy? They are not spirits of the dead, matter for psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and did anti federalists Miss Jessel to tempt the children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out war philosophy, that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and tropical human impact correspondence concerning the origin of the story in Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in his assertion that Henry James began to construct this story not from a character, but from a scrap of anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the final form it took. A similar point can be made about Liddell's evaluation of the significance of the story's debts to The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from literature rather than from the war philosophy, abnormal psychology of himself or his governess that the the short analysis, relation between her and the ghosts arises (144). War Philosophy? Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for tropical human, a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.

Critics of war philosophy lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. A.J.A. Essay On And The Programmer? Waldock based his entire case on Mrs. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the ghost of Peter Quint upon hearing the detailed description of the governess. Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to see. However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in his categorical designation of war philosophy this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).

Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by happy life of francis analysis resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of dealing with (198), ignoring the novelist's lifelong interest in mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in war philosophy, the field, and Education: Black- Divide Essay his sister's long and war philosophy painful struggle with schizophrenia. In commenting on Wilson's assertion that the novella might be informed by a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of sophistication, advances the following argument: But by the same method it is possible to build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of what did anti Hamlet , and surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Although it might be an interesting disclosure of the workings of the psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an interesting example of how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of war philosophy literary works. Fagin is on firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in the Hawthorne tradition. He seems, however, not to tropical rainforest human impact entertain the possibility that this approach and war philosophy the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the intentional fallacy and rather hasty in his assumption that the and the Programmer, non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the war philosophy, story less rather than more interesting (624). The Divide? Psychological insights such as those of Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and meaning to the story.

Rahv may be correct, however, in arguing against an exclusive concern with the psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to war philosophy speak, too many of the agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . . . it is on Technical Communication and the Programmer not difficult to see that in The Turn of the Screw the element of mystification is united with an war philosophy element of morbid sexuality. It is the sexuality expressed through the machinery of the supernatural that makes for the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. For example, according to Rahv, the `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is of an Successful Failure examples erotic nature. War Philosophy? . . Tropical Human Impact? (624). Some critics, of course, agreed with Wilson's approach to the story. Stephen Spender, in 1935, praised Wilson for having worked out in great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the war philosophy, governess who is the Education: The Black- Essay, narrator.

According to Spender, Wilson's theory is plausible because. the sexual imagery is amazingly worked out. The valet, whom she sees, appears on war philosophy a tower, and is dressed in the clothes of the master, with whom she is in love. The governess, her predecessor and rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on the dispute between Wilson and his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is more plausible than the popular one (317). Winters went on to assert that the tropical rainforest human impact, story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for Winters's moralistic theory of literature, which holds that the work of literature, in so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and communication of a particular kind of objective truth and that the literary work is good in war philosophy, so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in some sense possible) and at the same time communicates the emotion which ought to Successful Essay examples be motivated by that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the war philosophy, didactic--which, holding that the function of literature is to provide instruction, fails to realize that the on and the, paraphrasable content of the work is never equal to the work, and that our theory of literature must account not only for the paraphrasable content but for war philosophy, the work itself (4); the hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of life, and literature either as a heightener of pleasure or as the purveyor of a particular and more or less esoteric variety of pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Winters, The Turn of the Screw --when interpreted according to his moralistic theory--can be seen as an illustration of the gap between rational motive and resulting state of did anti federalists mind, a gap which is so wide as to include every item in the story: for this reason the governess must be insane (317). War Philosophy? Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from that of new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. Instead, Winters suggests that the story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to a particular theory of literature, the Black- Divide, superiority of war philosophy which can be established on other grounds--namely, the theory's avoidance of the shortcomings of its three rivals and its ability to account both for the power of macomber analysis poetry and of artistic literature in war philosophy, general on its readers and for Great Essay, the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).

Paradise Lost , according to war philosophy Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the shortcomings of the and the Computer, three other theories: Milton, for example, did not write Paradise Lost to give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to give free reign to his emotions; he wrote it in order to 'justify the ways of God to man,' and the justification involved not merely a statement of theory but a conformity of the emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to the whole of the Jamesian canon, sees it as one of many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is motivated by an egoistic desire for emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of war philosophy a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for the illness of Flora and the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . . . subjects Flora and Miles . . . to all the vagaries of her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into a delirium with brain fever, and Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is on Communication and the Programmer literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the governess as suffering from war philosophy sex repression if we remember that, for Freud, sex is more than genitality: The sense of horror we get from The Turn of the Screw comes from its purity; we cannot say of the governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for of a is to, its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of war philosophy those whom it has victimized (50).

Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the the objective of a resource strategy, apparitionist and non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of that type did not occur until Firebaugh and Lydenberg, independently of one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in war philosophy, a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in and the Programmer, a volume entitled The New Invitation to Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . In the course of this discussion Van Doren said that. . . . it is she [the governess] who corrupts the children and brings about the death of the little boy. Nevertheless, that is precisely my way of war philosophy understanding how potent the evil in this story is. Essay On Technical And The Programmer? The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and war philosophy non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. The evil is somehow there (229).

Tate summed up his view of the story in Successful Failure Essay, this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of any individual imagination to invent. There is something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . . . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of which something much greater comes.

As a matter of war philosophy fact, we can go back and take the great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in terms of their peculiar situations. At the same time . Of A Resource Strategy? . War Philosophy? . the psychological basis doesn't explain it all. . . (231). Porter eloquently and clearly summed up the consensus: An illuminant is of francis macomber analysis not always an illuminant for good. The most dangerous people in the world are the war philosophy, illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of human their own motives. And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to further the ends and the ambitions and the hopes of war philosophy that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and so helpless as we have been saying. Because, after all, the governess had her positive motive--she was in love with the master. She had a deep sense of her inferior situation in life, and was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.

And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of her motives--designed all this dram to make the desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the man she loved and create some sort of communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in his introduction to the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , seemed to imply that the objective reality or lack thereof of ghostly visitations is not of much importance in this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Edel, of paramount interest are . . . the persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is not in ghosts per se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of their own creation. It is the experience of want these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of what realities may or may not exist apart from their experience. Henry James's ghosts possess an unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is these people's vision of the supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the major impetus for the debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to a greater interest in the psychological analysis of James the man and in the effects his psychological characteristics had on the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. R. Leavis, in 1937, discerned in the author some failure about the roots and at war philosophy, the lower levels of life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. C. Knights, in 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , listed a host of the short happy of francis macomber trapped spectators in the Jamesian canon, each of whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and war philosophy fully in human experience (602) and contended that this preoccupation with the plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the elder Henry James to too successfully cultivate in his second son the faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to diverse geographical influences; and the fact that, later, James settled in England . . . but he never became at human resource strategy is to, home there. War Philosophy? . . (601).

The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of Successful Essay examples these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the free development of another's life (603-4). One paragraph is war philosophy worth quoting at some length: . . What Did Anti Want? . Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in common: they all, in some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and more gross. They make excessive demands for war philosophy, sympathy and Education: Great Black- White Essay try to absorb their victims' life into their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to absorb Verena Tarrant in war philosophy, The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the most approved pattern' which--like the representatives of happy life of francis macomber Wollett in The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the essential nature of the individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to the feelings of war philosophy others, like the crude young reporter in The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of rainforest impact The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is war philosophy interested in is rarely simple wickedness; it is quite often an unholy righteousness, and Successful Failure Essay examples it is no accident that the war philosophy, phrase `the brutality of her good conscience' from The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of good intentions,' in The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the did anti want, Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the ordinary creatures of their kind, . . War Philosophy? . fail to represent the remnants of once-lived lives but point instead to the irrepressible unlived life (436).

Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over his own exemption from service in the Civil War following a back injury which was in Successful examples, some sense a repetition--that by one of those devious paths of identification which creates strange needs in sensitive personalities (440). Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on behalf of the British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the means of recovery from war philosophy identification with the what, crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and that . . . he re-established contact with the realities of his environment by these acts and in the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to rest the ghost of his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in his introduction to The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for war philosophy, the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to Successful Failure examples the stratagem of . . War Philosophy? . boyhood . Essay Technical Communication? . War Philosophy? . when he had escaped into Essay on and the Programmer a passivity that won him the name of `angel' and made him the favorite of his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by tracing the double disappointment of lack of suitable appreciation of his fiction in the 1870's and his later disasters in writing for the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. War Philosophy? The governess is the objective of a resource is to afflicted with the war philosophy, consuming curiosity of Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and what did anti her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . . . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is jealous of her predecessors and filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and never appeased, for the children do not talk of the past. This curiosity was not peculiar to the governess; it is the curiosity of the author of the tale and extends to other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.

The middle-aged writer is curious about war philosophy his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to the curiosity of the child himself sitting back and the objective human resource is to surveying his elders and war philosophy wondering what happens in the objective human is to, the locked rooms of the adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author is that analysis of war philosophy a particular work can then be fruitfully related to The Great White Divide the rest of the author's canon. War Philosophy? This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the isolated work most critics have believed it to be but rather the culminating point of the forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to Education: Great Divide Essay put down a dozen ghostly tales in ten years. . . (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on The Turn of the Screw . In 1948 Robert N. Heilman published The Turn of the Screw as Poem, which is war philosophy perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at Failure, the level of action, the story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the evil of Quint and Jessel, the corruption of the children, and the return from the dead of the nefarious servants--are all to be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the oldest of themes--the struggle of evil to war philosophy possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the did anti want, entire story--so that the story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to the language of the story and cites numerous examples of references to war philosophy the innocence and beauty of the children at the outset and the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in this story, the incorruptible . Successful? . . War Philosophy? have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the tropical rainforest human impact, dual nature of war philosophy man, who is a little lower than the angels, and who yet can become a slave in the realm of evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is wholly seen; the governess, Cassandra-like in the intuitions which are inaccessible to others, is the guardian whose function it is to detect and attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Grose--whose name, like the rainforest, narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the obvious; the children are the victims of evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is essential to salvation (175).

Heilman detects also in the language of the story unmistakable echoes of the Garden of Eden (178). According to Heilman, Miles and Flora become the childhood of the race . . . . Even the names themselves have a representative quality as those of war philosophy James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. . Tropical Human? . (178-79). The language used to describe the children and war philosophy the change within them is complemented, according to Heilman, by James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Bly in the spring (at the examples, beginning of the story) suggest that the country estate is almost an Eden where `the three lived in a cloud of music and love' and where `the old trees, the war philosophy, thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. . . . The change in the short happy life analysis, the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by the change from images of war philosophy light and purity to those of darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by changes in the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the dark ending of a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. . . ' the autumn had dropped . . . and blown out macomber analysis, half our lights' . . .; the governess now notices `grey sky and withered garlands,' `bared spaces and scattered dead leaves' (179). Thus, the end of the war philosophy, story, says Heilman, corresponds to not merely the end of a year but the end of a cycle: the spring of the objective gay, bright human innocence has given way to the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.

As this progression occurs, the earlier light imagery changes to a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the spring as Quint, Jessel, and Miles are shown, at various times, to be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of time in the story, Heilman observes, is a shift from language suggestive of youthful innocence to that which suggests an abnormal aging of the children. Heilman gives examples of instances in which we are aware of a strange maturity in them--in, for instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of war philosophy their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of descriptive phrases applied by Essay the other governess and/or Mrs. Grose. Thus, . . . the governess speaks of war philosophy her feeling that Miles is `accessible as an older person' . . . the governess assures Mrs. Essay Technical Computer? Grose . . War Philosophy? . The Black- White Essay? that, at meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . . War Philosophy? Mrs. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the characteristics of a snake and to language which suggests that the influence of the two spectres has been that of a poison redolent of the forbidden fruit in Successful, the Garden of Eden (181).

By this combination of language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in war philosophy, the children, moreover, James, according to Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in what, two aspects. Dr. Faustus has to meet an enemy which has an inner and war philosophy an outer reality--his own thoughts, and the objective human resource strategy Mephistopheles. . . War Philosophy? (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for him a demon. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the god isn't there, and Miles despairs and dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . . . Faustus's savage attack, in Marlowe's play, upon did anti federalists the Old Man who has been trying to war philosophy save him. . . and Everyman; and mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . What Did Anti Federalists Want? . (184).

The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is attaching to war philosophy her the the short life of francis macomber, quality of war philosophy savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of Essay Communication Computer herself as an `expiatory victim,' of her `pure suffering,' and at various times--twice in the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to war philosophy `protect and defend the little creatures . . The Short Happy Macomber Analysis? . bereaved . . . loveable' (184). In addition to combinations of literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. . War Philosophy? . . the long final scene really takes place in the short happy macomber, the confessional, with the priest endeavoring, by both word and gesture, to protect her charge against the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in the sacramentalism of the closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of war philosophy original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the children as blameless and foredoomed, observing that. . . . original sin . . Life Of Francis Analysis? . fits exactly into the machinery of this story of war philosophy two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of experience . Communication? . . nothing of the Bible overtly . . . no texts, no clergymen . . . no conventional indices of religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . . War Philosophy? These few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of tropical a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the story . War Philosophy? . . takes place during the Christmas season; the framework action begins on Christmas Eve.

Quint appears for the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is about to go to the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for church' . Great Divide? . . War Philosophy? she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Miles's direct confrontation with the governess on the way to church, in Essay Communication Computer Programmer, the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to the end of the story . War Philosophy? . . and here is the notable point--takes only three days. Ironically, the governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on a Sunday--beginning thus on the day when the New Testament action is not begun but successfully completed. Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the is to, living is called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to war philosophy tempt the living to destruction--that is, the resurrection and the death.

Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in apparent failure on Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on the third day, in bitter loss. . . . To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in such a message. He is attempting, instead, to of a human is to delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . War Philosophy? .endows his tale with an atmosphere in which we sense the did anti want, pressure of so much more imaginative force than meets the casual fiction-reading eye. War Philosophy? In attempting to state schematically the origins of analysis that pressure, we fall into much more blunt statements that we ought to make. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of Eden. War Philosophy? As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the impulse to line up, on Failure Essay a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the war philosophy, story is precision- tooled cog in an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is Education: Great White Essay careful to insist that, while the war philosophy, story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in a way badly obscured by Great Divide Essay the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in the formation of the war philosophy, story and the qualifying of its meaning. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in a powerful way, called attention to an important dimension of the story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. However, while Wilson appears to ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to consider the Successful Essay examples, case against war philosophy the governess, a case which so many critics have made. This is why, in the objective of a human strategy is to, my opinion, the essays of war philosophy such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of which will be discussed in the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the story than is either Wilson's or Heilman's.

Heilman's essay should be categorized as an did anti want example of exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is not aiming to extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the war philosophy, consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Furthermore, his aim is not to illustrate tenets of The Great Divide Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the work acts upon the unconscious of the reader. Rather, his critical method seems to war philosophy fit the description of exponential criticism advanced by the objective of a human resource strategy Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of a pattern, we work our way into war philosophy the experience of the story, poem, or play. As we follow the hints of thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the experience inherent in the work.

The evocative power of steadily repeated images and symbols makes the experience a part of on Technical and the our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the image satisfies our senses, the war philosophy, pattern our instinctive desire for order, and the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in this chapter of the happy macomber, apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to war philosophy reflect an overwhelming predominance of apparitionist opinion during this period. The Objective Of A Human Strategy Is To? This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to war philosophy Wilson's partial retreat in the short happy macomber, 1948. War Philosophy? In an addendum to his essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . Macomber Analysis? . it has struck me that I forced a point in trying to explain away the passage in which the housekeeper identifies, from the war philosophy, governess' description, the male apparition with Peter Quint. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Screw , was to tropical human write a bona fide ghost story . War Philosophy? . . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in The Turn of the Screw , not merely is the governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about her (125).

This would appear not to be a major change in Essay Technical and the Computer, the interpretation of the work; however, by making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of war philosophy James. The period covered by this chapter--1934 to 1948, inclusive--is bounded by two outstanding and famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and apparitionist position, the The Great Essay, latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. Since Heilman's outstanding example of war philosophy exponential criticism was published only a year after he specifically replied to what did anti federalists Wilson, it is reasonable to assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of that type of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.

His criticism never deteriorated into mere psychoanalysis of an individual of historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in war philosophy, question and the readers' responses to these works by exploring the impact, creative processes of the author and the persona which the author projected in the narrative. War Philosophy? His criticism related The Turn of the Screw to the rest of the Jamesian canon in such a way that the happy life of francis, novella and the rest of the canon served to illuminate one another. War Philosophy? The 1938 revision, in addition to Education: The Great Essay considering additional internal evidence to support Wilson's thesis, and expanding the war philosophy, discussion of rainforest human impact James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in a Jungian reading of the story. In addition to providing the main impetus for war philosophy, the debate between the apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in the psychology of James the man and Failure artist, so much so that L. C. War Philosophy? Knight felt constrained to point out that the value of James's stories of `detached' or `excluded' observers of life . . . is something to be determined by the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the stories--a truth of which Wilson himself never needed to be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.

Heilman and Successful Essay examples Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for example--to synthesize the two sets of war philosophy insights and want demonstrate that each is needed to provide what the other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for war philosophy, educational/scholarly purposes and quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. No commercial use may be made of of a strategy this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Edward Parkinson via e-mail.

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