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Bootstrapping for leadership style a new architecture. Apple Financial Statement! Bootstrapping any system is a very arduous process, and I will not be making an attempt to trump leadership style, address every part of the facts policy, procedure, only what is relevant to Exherbo and Paludis. It will frustrate you, and you will want to mutilate your computers internal organs if you are serious about doing this. Cant say you werent warned. For the time being, bootstrapping is really only supported for systems that already have an operating system which can compile Linux and things such as coreutils , gcc , et cetera. The first Exherbo systems were started from leadership style, taking the half-dead bodies of Gentoo and Media Essay, Debian systems and revitalizing them with our programs, so any bootstrapping experience so far has been from the style, expectation of a toolchain and userland already in place in some form. Bootstrapping Linux and userland in general isnt in the scope of Examining the Timeless Novels Mystery of Edwin Drood this documentation. You are expected to understand our toolchain organization, the way that packages pick up on what toolchain programs to use, and things such as CHOSTs beforehand. Study the trump, layout of the system and Essay, the toolchain packages for tips. You may also be able to trump leadership style, catch a developer in charity, #exherbo and ask for tips and other pointers, if theyre feeling particularly selfless that day.

NOTE : If no one has ever actually used Exherbo on this platform, you should first discuss this with some of the developers a little. Supporting a platform is trump leadership, a lot of extra work, and you have probably noticed that we are a fairly small group of developers. If you talk it out Examining Novels The Hound Mystery Drood, with us, well likely be willing to help you support this platform and guide you along the trump style, way. Things like adding a new PLATFORM to arbor, and making new profiles should be done through discussions on IRC, and sending in apple, patches once you get it figured out. So, good luck. Take breaks when frustrated, and have some drinks nearby. Given that youd be a fool to try and leadership, bootstrap Exherbo on Essay, a system without a distribution of some sort actually on it, these are the leadership style, requirements that your host system should fulfill: bash Userland: coreutils , findutils GNU Toolchain gcc , binutils , autoconf , automake , m4 , pkg-config , make , ld , nm , ar , awk , sed , libtool , gettext , grep , etc. Should be a fairly recent version of gcc ; at least one we have in arbor. git Patience Its going to take a while. Rome was not built in a day.

For the sake of convenience, $CHOST should be set. You should also add the path that our compiled things will be in to your $PATH . Eclectic. Paludis requires eclectic , and eclectic can be installed before Paludis. Fairly straightforward, just get the persuade song, latest version and install it manually, the dependencies are very light and you already have them. Paludis. Since were on the SCMs cross branch right now, you should fetch that and install it. Trump! Its pretty unlikely your distribution will have packages for Paludis, but itll very likely have packages for about one child its dependencies; heres a short list for convenience: autoconf 2.5, automake 1.15, C++ standard libraries and a C++ compiler, asciidoc , xmlto , htmltidy , libmagic (comes with file ), pcrecpp (usually just called pcre ), eclectic , wget , and rsync . Trump Style! You must make sure that you specify --with-default-distribution=exherbo ; remember that Paludis is about, a multi-format package manager and also targets Gentoo. Paludis should be statically linked so that we dont screw ourselves over trump later when we start messing with libstdc++ and such.

It could be done dynamically but its a lot of policy extra work and not worth it. Notice how we used /usr/$ /bin instead of trump /usr/bin ? Make sure you keep doing that whenever you have to install stuff manually. Paludis needs the paludisbuild user and apple financial statement, group to actually build stuff. Make sure its in the tty group too. If all goes well, you now have some unholy combination of trump Paludis and your host systems package manager; only one will come back alive. Reconfigure and recompile eclectic so it picks up on Paludis being installed now. Birth! Now that youve got that out trump leadership style, of the way, its time to make the Paludis configs.

These should do well for your host; adjust for the differences in persuade song, profiles and such. Keep in mind that I bootstrapped Exherbo from trump leadership, a Raspberry Pi 2; these CFLAGS are what works for the Raspberry Pi 2, and you will have to change them for your host if it isnt one. The Timeless Mystery Of The Baskervilles And The Of Edwin! Binaries compiled with these CFLAGS use hardfloat and use the floating point hardware in the RPi2, so they will not be portable to other ARMv7 machines. Symbols arent stripped because your stripper might be broken until you have the system put together. Leadership! Save yourself the pain and just preserve them. We disabled it earlier during Paludis installation anyway. Examining Novels The Hound Of The Baskervilles And The Drood! And no, were not running tests either. Adds extra dependencies, usually takes too long, and leadership, bootstrapping already takes long enough.

Its better to keep the providers specified here; you can deviate after you have a comfortable system actually set up. Now that thats taken care of, you can run cave sync a few times and itll yell at you for charity organization society not having certain directories and not having certain write permissions. Fix them and trump style, itll shut up. Adjust for differences in persuade song, host system vs. Style! Exherbo system. Theres a pretty good chance your host system does the toolchain and other things differently from how we do it. This step is a bit of a variable and you may have to adjust this for how your host is. If the host doesnt prefix all the toolchain programs, you should make symlinks to Paludis can find them. Its better to facts one child policy, do this in a temporary directory out of the way of system files so you dont accidentally mess something up later on. Heres how I did it on an Arch Linux ARM host: Made symlinks for trump leadership ar , as , cc , c++ , cpp , gcc , g++ , ld , nm , objcopy , objdump , pkg-config , ranlib , readelf : Added an extra PATH to the Paludis bashrc; PATH=/tmp/makeshift-tools:$ A few extra configuration files: All packages should be installed in this order. Any dependencies which are needed should be resolved manually, which is Mystery Novels Baskervilles Mystery Drood, painful.

Youll already have some of the dependencies, but we will be re-installing some of trump leadership style these since we want to Examining the Timeless Mystery The Hound and The of Edwin, make packages that we build not care about what the host has. Its going to leadership, be messy. Essay! You will have to add your platform to trump leadership style, packages if they are masked by platform. Of Venus Myth! All packages should be installed with cave resolve -1z -0 #39;*/*#39; -x package so that we can tell cave to ignore dependencies and not do anything regarding updating other packages. Now, remove any binutils symlinks created earlier. You can use cave executables binutils to see what can be removed. Next, glibc and gcc actually need glibc to compile, so youll have to style, copy over its headers and Media, libraries from the host to /usr/$ /lib . Theres a lot of files that glibc actually provides, so rather than list what needs to be copied, Ill provide the command I used on my Arch Linux ARM host as an example. At this point, you should remove any gcc -related symlinks, since we will be using the toolchain that we have compiled, instead of the trump style, hosts toolchain. You shouldnt remove the hosts copy of the libraries though, or else things like gcc will fail because they cant find the libraries they were linked with. Organization! glibc needs the .o files from the host before we compile, or else it will fail soon after you start.

If glibc is failing with a sunrpc/cross-rpcgen error, thats because gcc is expecting the ld.so to exist at the hosts correct multiarch location; you need to copy the linker from the trump leadership, host system to /usr/$ /lib/ld-linux-armhf.so.3 , or whichever linker the output of file /var/tmp/paludis/build/sys-libs-glibc-*/work/build/sunrpc/cross-rpcgen gives you. One Child Policy! Resume compiling glibc with --skip-until-phase compile . Now, youll see some really scary errors from cave at the end of the trump style, install because you just installed a libstdc++ that it wasnt linked with. You can ignore these. Since we compiled Paludis with --enable-static , the gods have forsaken us. sys-devel/binutils dev-libs/mpfr dev-libs/mpc dev-libs/gmp sys-devel/autoconf-wrapper sys-devel/automake-wrapper sys-devel/autoconf:2.5 sys-devel/automake:1.13 sys-devel/automake:1.15 sys-libs/zlib sys-devel/gcc[threads] sys-libs/ncurses app-shells/bash app-arch/bzip2 sys-apps/coreutils. coreutils will fail at the merging because you just overwrote env , so copy the persuade song, hosts env binary to /usr/$ /bin . Then, run cave resolve -1z -0 #39;*/*#39; -x coreutils --skip-until-phase merge . Style! Also, after this cave will be complaining saying it couldnt get the mtime for something in /var/db/paludis/repositories/installed/data/sys-apps---coreutils/ ; this is from that failed merge, just remove the directory it mentions. Apple! dev-util/pkgconf ( dev-util/pkg-config works too, but it has a cyclic dependency on itself, so this is easier) Now, you can remove the rest of the symlinks from earlier, if there are any. The toolchain is now entirely bootstrapped and leadership style, we dont need the hosts programs for building. Good work. Birth! sys-apps/diffutils sys-apps/file sys-apps/findutils sys-apps/gawk sys-devel/gettext sys-apps/grep app-arch/gzip sys-devel/m4 sys-devel/make sys-devel/patch app-admin/eclectic sys-libs/ncurses sys-libs/readline dev-libs/check dev-libs/expat dev-libs/libffi dev-libs/libressl dev-libs/pcre sys-libs/libcap-ng dev-lang/perl dev-perl/Locale-gettext sys-apps/help2man sys-devel/libtool sys-apps/util-linux[-udev][-systemd] sys-devel/patch net-misc/wget sys-apps/sed app-arch/xz app-arch/tar sys-apps/texinfo app-arch/cpio sys-devel/bison sys-devel/libtool sys-devel/flex dev-perl/libintl-perl dev-perl/Unicode-EastAsianWidth dev-perl/Text-Unidecode sys-apps/bc app-text/xmlto dev-libs/libxml2 dev-libs/libxslt app-arch/unzip app-text/build-docbook-catalog app-text/sgml-common app-text/docbook-xml-dtd:4.1.2 app-text/docbook-xml-dtd:4.2 app-text/docbook-xml-dtd:4.3 app-text/docbook-xml-dtd:4.4 app-text/docbook-xml-dtd:4.5 app-text/docbook-xsl-stylesheets sys-apps/dbus[-systemd] sys-apps/groff sys-apps/man sys-apps/man-pages sys-fs/sysfsutils net-misc/iputils sys-apps/hdparm sys-libs/cracklib sys-libs/pam sys-apps/shadow sys-devel/gettext. Now that we have a system without any recursive dependencies or cyclic dependencies, we can proceed with the wonderful luxury of dependency resolution. Leadership Style! Do cave resolve -1zx sys-apps/paludis . Now that you have a fairly minimal, but self-hosting system, we can start cannibalizing the facts one child policy, hosts stuff and leadership style, remove/backup the binaries from the host. Birth Myth! This includes making the systems filesystem layout look like a regular cross system.

Instead of leadership style removing the folders though, well just rename them so we have backups if something goes wrong. Be really careful with these commands, if you mistype it could result in organization, having to do filesystem layout stuff from another machine. If at this point you can still run things like ls , mv , bash , and trump leadership style, other things, this means everything is correct and you managed to bootstrap without any of the packages depending on the hosts things. Yay! If you didnt something went wrong. Birth Of Venus! Make sure you followed all the leadership, steps earlier correctly. skeleton-filesystem-layout is happy now, so we can do cave resolve -cx world and start repairing things that break there rather than resolving manually. Financial Statement! It should be fairly straightforward from trump leadership style, here on out.

If you run into dependency cycles with pciutils , util-linux , etc. just disable [udev] and apple statement, [systemd] for trump leadership them, compile systemd , and persuade song, then enable the options again. Once youre done with that, clean up the configuration files that are waiting on you in eclectic config , and start combing through leftover files from the host that should be rid of with cave print-unmanaged-files . Dont blindly delete everything that it lists, since itll print some config files and other things that you shouldnt get rid of. It will take a while to make the leadership style, list, since its scanning all the directories under /. At this point you pretty much have an unconfigured system that is like the stages. You should follow some of the birth myth, configuration steps (locales, hostnames, etc.) listed in the install guide. Youre now done bootstrapping, and trump leadership style, you have a fully functional Exherbo system installed.

Have fun. :) You may wish to create a stage using make-exherbo-stages from infra-scripts for distributing to others. Copyright 2015 Kylie McClain. You can share, copy, redistribute and transform this document for any purpose, including commercial, but you must give appropriate credit.

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open source essay 1st Edition January 1999. 1-56592-582-3, Order Number: 5823. The Open Source Definition. The typical computer user owns lots of software that he bought years ago and style, no longer uses today.

He may have upgraded his computer or changed brands, and then the Examining Mystery of the Baskervilles and The Drood, program wouldn't work any longer. The software might have become obsolete. The program may simply not do what he needs. He may have bought two or more computers, and leadership, doesn't want to apple statement pay for a second copy of the software. Whatever the reason, the trump leadership style, software that he paid for years ago isn't up to the task today. Does that really need to happen? What if you had the right to get a free upgrade whenever your software needed it? What if, when you switched from a Mac to a PC, you could switch software versions for apple, free? What if, when the style, software doesn't work or isn't powerful enough, you can have it improved or even fix it yourself? What if the software was still maintained even if the company that produced it went out of business?

What if you could use your software on your office workstation, and your home desktop computer, and your portable laptop, instead of just one computer? You'd probably still be using the society, software you paid for years ago. These are some of the rights that Open Source gives you. The Open Source Definition is a bill of rights for the computer user. It defines certain rights that a software license must grant you to be certified as Open Source . Those who don't make their programs Open Source are finding it difficult to compete with those who do, as users gain a new appreciation of rights they always should have had. Trump Style? Programs like the Linux operating system and Netscape's web browser have become extremely popular, displacing other software that has more restrictive licenses. Companies that use open-source software have the advantage of its very rapid development, often by several collaborating companies, and much of it contributed by individuals who simply need an improvement to serve their own needs. The volunteers who made products like Linux possible are only there, and the companies are only able to cooperate, because of the rights that come with Open Source.

The average computer programmer would feel stupid if he put lots of work into a program, only to Examining the Timeless Mystery of the Mystery of Edwin have the owner of the program sell his improvement without giving anything back. Those same programmers feel comfortable contributing to Open Source because they are assured of these rights: The right to make copies of the program, and distribute those copies. The right to have access to the software's source code, a necessary preliminary before you can change it. The right to make improvements to the program. These rights are important to the software contributor because they keep all contributors at trump leadership style, the same level relative to each other. Everyone who wants to is allowed to sell an Open Source program, so prices will be low and development to reach new markets will be rapid. Anyone who invests the time to build knowledge in an Open Source program can support it, and this provides users with the option of providing their own support, or the economy of Examining Mystery Novels The Hound and The of Edwin Drood, a number of competing support providers. Any programmer can tailor an Open Source program to specific markets in order to trump reach new customers. Persuade Song? People who do these things aren't compelled to trump style pay royalties or license fees. The reason for the success of Piracy Essay, this somewhat communist-sounding strategy, while the trump leadership style, failure of communism itself is visible around the world, is statement that the economics of information are fundamentally different from those of other products.

There is leadership very little cost associated with copying a piece of information like a computer program. The electricity involved costs less than a penny, and the use of the facts one child, equipment not much more. In comparison, you can't copy a loaf of bread without a pound of style, flour. The concept of free software is an old one. Persuade Song? When computers first reached universities, they were research tools. Software was freely passed around, and programmers were paid for style, the act of programming, not for the programs themselves. Society? Only later on, when computers reached the business world, did programmers begin to support themselves by restricting the rights to their software and leadership style, charging fees for each copy. Free Software as a politica l idea has been popularized by persuade song, Richard Stallman since 1984, when he formed the Free Software Foundation and its GNU Project.

Stallman's premise is that people should have more freedom, and should appreciate their freedom. He designed a set of trump leadership style, rights that he felt all users should have, and codified them in the GNU General Public License or GPL. Stallman punningly christened his license the copyleft because it leaves the Media Piracy, right to copy in trump place. Stallman himself developed seminal works of free software such as the GNU C Compiler , and Piracy Essay, GNU Emacs, an editor so alluring to leadership style some that it is spoken of as it were a religion. Mystery The Hound Mystery? His work inspired many others to contribute free software under the GPL. Style? Although it is not promoted with the same libertarian fervor, the Open Source Definition includes many of Stallman's ideas, and can be considered a derivative of his work. The Open Source Definition started life as a policy document of the Debian GNU/Linux Distribution . Debian, an early Linux system and one still popular today, was built entirely of one child policy, free software. However, since there were other licenses than the copyleft that purported to leadership style be free, Debian had some problem defining what was free, and they had never made their free software policy clear to the rest of the world. I was the leader of the Media Piracy, Debian project, at leadership, that time, and I addressed these problems by Examining the Timeless Novels The Hound of the and The of Edwin Drood, proposing a Debian Social Contrac t and the Debian Free Software Guidelines in July 1997. Many Debian developers had criticisms and improvements that I incorporated into the documents. The Social Contract documented Debian's intent to compose their system entirely of free software, and the Free Software Guidelines made it possible to classify software into free and non-free easily, by comparing the software license to the guidelines.

Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system. When Netscape decided to make their web browser free software, they contacted Eric Raymond. Raymond is the Margaret Meade of leadership, free software: he has written several anthropological articles explaining the free software phenomenon and the culture that has grown around it, works that are the first of their kind and have shone a spotlight on this formerly little-known phenomenon. Netscape management was impressed with Raymond's essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a chronicle of a successful free software development using unpaid volunteer contributors, and asked him to consult, under a non-disclosure agreement, while they developed a license for birth myth, their free software. Raymond insisted that Netscape's license comply with Debian's guidelines for it to be taken seriously as free software. Raymond and trump leadership, I had met occasionally at the Hacker's Conference , an invitation-only gathering of the Timeless Novels Mystery of Edwin, creative and unconventional programmers.

We had corresponded on various subjects via email. He contacted me in February of 1997 with the idea for style, Open Source . Raymond was concerned that conservative business people were put off by Stallman's freedom pitch, which was, in contrast, very popular among the more liberal programmers. He felt this was stifling the development of Linux in the business world while it flourished in research. He met with business people in the fledgling Linux industry, and together they conceived of a program to market the free software concept to people who wore ties. Larry Augustin of of venus, VA Research and Sam Ockman (who later left VA to leadership form Penguin Computing) were involved, as well as others who aren't known to me. Some months before Open Source , I had conceived of the idea of Open Hardware , a similar concept but for hardware devices and their interfaces rather than software programs. Birth Of Venus? Open Hardware has not been as successful as Open Source to date, but it is still operating and you can find information on it at http://www.openhardware.org/ . Raymond felt that the Debian Free Software Guidelines were the right document to define Open Source, but that they needed a more general name and the removal of Debian-specific references. Trump Leadership? I edited the Guidelines to form the facts policy, Open Source Definition. I had formed a corporation for Debian called Software in the Public Interest, and trump, I offered to register a trademark for Open Source so that we could couple its use to the definition. Raymond agreed, and financial, I registered a certification mark, a special form of trademark meant to be applied to other people's products, on the term.

About a month after I registered the mark, it became clear that Software in the Public Interest might not be the best home of the Open Source mark, and I transferred ownership of the mark to trump leadership style Raymond. Raymond and I have since formed the Open Source Initiative, an organization exclusively for managing the Open Source campaign and its certification mark. At this writing, the Open Source Initiative is persuade song governed by a six-person board chosen from well-known free software contributors, and seeks to expand its board to about ten people. At the time of style, its conception there was much criticism for the Open Source campaign, even among the Linux contingent who had already bought-in to the free software concept. Many pointed to the existing use of the term Open Source in persuade song the political intelligence industry. Others felt the trump style, term Open was already overused. Many simply preferred the established name Free Software . I contended that the Examining the Timeless Novels Baskervilles and The Mystery, overuse of Open could never be as bad as the dual meaning of Free in the English language--either liberty or price , with price being the most oft-used meaning in the commercial world of computers and software. Trump Style? Richard Stallman later took exception to the campaign's lack of an emphasis on freedom, and the fact that as Open Source became more popular, his role in facts policy the genesis of free software, and that of his Free Software Foundation, were being ignored--he complained of being written out of history. This situation was made worse by a tendency for people in the industry to compare Raymond and Stallman as if they were proponents of competing philosophies rather than people who were using different methods to market the same concept. I probably exacerbated the situation by pitting Stallman and Raymond against each other in debates at trump, Linux Expo and Open Source Expo. It became so popular to type-cast the two as adversaries that an email debate, never intended for publication, appeared the online journal Salon . At that point, I asked Raymond to tone down a dialogue that it had never been his intent to enter.

When the Open Source Definition was written, there were already a large number of charity, products that fit the definition. The problem was with programs that did not meet the definition, yet were seductive to users. The case of KDE, Qt , and Troll Tech is relevant to this essay because the KDE group and trump leadership style, Troll Tech tried to place a non-Open-Source product in financial the infrastructure of trump leadership, Linux, and met with unexpected resistance. Public outcry and the threat of a fully open-source replacement for their product eventually convinced Troll to switch to a fully Open Source license. It's an interesting example of the community's enthusiastic acceptance of the Open Source Definition that Troll Tech had to make its license comply, if their product was to succeed. KDE was the first attempt at a free graphical desktop for Linux.

The KDE applications were themselves under the GPL, but they depended on Media Piracy Essay a proprietary graphical library called Qt , from Troll Tech . Qt's license terms prohibited modification or use with any display software other than the senescent X Window System. Other use required a $1,500 developer's license. Troll Tech provided versions of Qt for Microsoft Windows and trump leadership, the Macintosh, and this was its main revenue source. The pseudo-free license for X systems was meant to Media Piracy Essay leverage the leadership style, contributions of Linux developers into demos, examples, and accessories for their pricey Windows and Mystery of the and The of Edwin, Mac products. Although the trump leadership style, problems with the charity organization society, Qt license were clear, the prospect of a graphical desktop for trump, Linux was so attractive that many users were willing to overlook its non-Open-Source nature.

Open Source proponents found KDE objectionable because they perceived that the KDE developers were trying to blur the facts about one child policy, definition of what free software was to include partially-free items like Qt . The KDE developers contended that their programs were Open Source, even though there were no runnable versions of the programs that did not require a non-Open-Source library. Trump Leadership Style? I, and others, asserted that KDE applications were only Open Source fragments of non-Open-Source programs, and that an apple financial statement, Open Source version of Qt would be necessary before KDE could be referred to trump leadership as Open Source. The KDE developers attempted to partially address the problem of Qt's license by negotiating a KDE Free Qt Foundation agreement with Troll Tech, in statement which Troll and KDE would jointly control releases of the free version of Qt , and Troll Tech would release Qt under an Open-Source-complaint license if the trump style, company was ever purchased or went out of business. Another group initiated the GNOME project, a fully Open Source competitor of KDE that aimed to provide more features and facts one child policy, sophistication, and a separate group initiated a Harmony project to produce a fully Open Source clone of Qt that would support KDE. Leadership? As GNOME was being demonstrated to Mystery Novels The Hound of the Baskervilles and The of Edwin accolades and Harmony was about to leadership style become useful, Troll Tech realized Qt would not be successful in the Linux market without a change in license. Piracy Essay? Troll Tech released a fully Open Source license for Qt , defusing the conflict and trump, removing the motivation for the Harmony project. The GNOME project continues, and now aims to best KDE in terms of functionality and sophistication rather than in terms of its license. Before they released their new Open Source license, Troll Tech provided me with a copy for auditing, with the request that it be kept confidential until they could announce it. Persuade Song? In my enthusiasm to make peace with the trump leadership, KDE group and in an embarrassing feat of self-deception, I pre-announced their license eight hours early on persuade song a KDE mailing list. That email was almost immediately picked up by Slashdot and other online news magazines, to my chagrin. Troll Tech's new license is notable in that it takes advantage of a loophole in the Open Source Definition that allows patch files to be treated differently from other software.

I would like to address this loophole in a future revision of the Open Source Definition, but the new text should not place Qt outside of Open Source. At this writing, proponents of Open Source are increasing exponentially. The recent Open Source contributions of IBM and Ericsson have been in the headlines. Two Linux distributions, Yggdrasil and trump, Debian , are distributing complete Linux system distributions, including many applications, that are entirely Open Source, and several others, including Red Hat, are very close. With the organization, completion of the GNOME system, an Open Source GUI desktop OS capable of competing with Microsoft NT will have been realized. Analysis of the trump, Open Source Definition.

In this section, I'll present the entire text of the Open Source Definition, with commentary (in italic). You can find the canonical version of the Open Source Definition at http://www.opensource.org/osd.html . Pedants have pointed out minor ambiguities in the Open Source Definition. I've held off revising it as it's little more than a year old and charity organization, I'd like people to consider it stable . The future will bring slight language changes, but only the most minor of changes in trump leadership the intent of the document. The Open Source Definition (Version 1.0) Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. Apple Financial Statement? The distribution terms of an trump leadership style, open-source program must comply with the following criteria:

Note that the Open Source Definition is Essay not itself a software license. It is a specification of what is permissible in a software license for style, that software to be referred to as Open Source. The Open Source Definition was not intended to be a legal document. The inclusion of the Open Source Definition in software licenses, such as a proposed license of the Linux Documentation Project, has tempted me to write a more rigorous version that would be appropriate for that use. To be Open Source, all of the terms below must be applied together, and in all cases. For example, they must be applied to Essay derived versions of a program as well as the leadership style, original program. It's not sufficient to apply some and facts, not others, and it's not sufficient for the terms to leadership style only apply some of the time. Facts About Policy? After working through some particularly naive interpretations of the Open Source Definition, I feel tempted to trump leadership style add: this means you! The license may not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license may not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. This means that you can make any number of copies of the software, and sell or give them away, and of venus, you don't have to pay anyone for that privilege.

The aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources was intended to fit a loophole in the Artistic License, a rather sloppy license in my opinion, originally designed for Perl. Today, almost all programs that use the Artistic License are also available under the GPL. That provision is thus no longer necessary, and may be removed from leadership style a future version of the Open Source Definition. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of downloading the source code, without charge, via the Internet. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Charity? Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed. Source code is trump leadership style a necessary preliminary for the repair or modification of a program.

The intent here is for persuade song, source code to be distributed with the trump leadership style, initial work, and all derived works. The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. Software has little use if you can't maintain it ( fix bugs, port to new systems, make improvements), and modification is necessary for maintenance. The intent here is for modification of any sort to be allowed. It must be allowed for a modified work to be distributed under the same license terms as the original work. Persuade Song? However, it is not required that any producer of a derived work must use the same license terms, only that the option to trump leadership do so be open to them. Various licenses speak differently on this subject--the BSD license allows you to take modifications private, while the GPL does not. A concern among some software authors is that this provision could allow unscrupulous people to modify their software in ways that would embarrass the about policy, original author.

They fear someone deliberately making the software perform incorrectly in a way that would make it look as if the author was a poor programmer. Others are concerned that software could be modified for criminal use, by the addition of Trojan horse functions or locally-banned technologies such as cryptography. Trump Leadership? All of charity society, these actions, however, are covered by criminal law. Leadership? A common misunderstanding about software licenses is that they must specify everything, including things like don't use this software to commit a crime. However, no license has any valid existence outside of the body of persuade song, civil and criminal law. Trump Leadership Style? Considering a license as something apart from the body of applicable law is as silly as considering an English-language document as being apart from the apple, dictionary, in which case none of the words would have any defined meaning. Integrity of the Author's Source Code. The license may restrict source code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of trump leadership style, patch files with the source code for the purpose of Examining Mystery Novels Baskervilles and The Mystery of Edwin, modifying the program at build time. Some authors were afraid that others would distribute source code with modifications that would be perceived as the work of the trump, original author, and would reflect poorly on that author. This gives them a way to enforce a separation between modifications and their own work without prohibiting modifications.

Some consider it un-aesthetic that modifications might have to be distributed in a separate patch file from the source code, even though Linux distributions like Debian and Red Hat use this procedure for all of the modifications they make to the programs they distribute. There are programs that automatically merge patches into persuade song the main source, and one can have these programs run automatically when extracting a source package. Thus, this provision should cause little or no hardship. Note also that this provision says that in trump leadership the case of patch files, the modification takes place at build-time. This loophole is employed in Piracy Essay the Qt Public License to mandate a different, though less restrictive, license for the patch files, in contradiction of Section 3 of the trump, Open Source Definition. There is a proposal to clean up this loophole in the definition while keeping Qt within Open Source. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software. This means that Netscape, for example, can insist that only they can name a version of the persuade song, program Netscape Navigator(tm) while all free versions of the program must be called Mozilla or something else. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups. The license must not discriminate against any person or group of trump, persons.

A license provided by the Regents of the University of California, Berkeley, prohibited an electronic design program from being used by facts policy, the police of South Africa. While this was a laudable sentiment in the time of apartheid, it makes little sense today. Some people are still stuck with software that they acquired under that license, and their derived versions must carry the same restriction. Trump Style? Open Source licenses may not contain such provisions, no matter how laudable their intent. No Discrimination Against Fields of apple, Endeavor. The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in trump leadership a business, or from being used for facts, genetic research. Your software must be equally usable in an abortion clinic, or by an anti-abortion organization. These political arguments belong on the floor of Congress, not in software licenses. Some people find this lack of discrimination extremely offensive!

Distribution of License. The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the leadership, need for execution of an additional license by those parties. The license must be automatic, no signature required. Unfortunately, there has not been a good court test in persuade song the U.S. of the power of a no-signature-required license when it is passed from a second party to a third. However, this argument considers the license in the body of contract law, while some argue that it should be considered as copyright law, where there is more precedent for no-signature licenses. Style? A good court test will no doubt happen in the next few years, given the popularity of this sort of license and the booming nature of Open Source. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product. The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution.

If the program is extracted from Examining the Timeless Novels The Hound of the and The of Edwin Drood that distribution and used or distributed within the trump, terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the financial, program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in trump leadership style conjunction with the original software distribution. This means you can't restrict a product that is apple financial statement identified as Open Source to leadership style be free only if you use it with a particular brand of Novels and The, Linux distribution, etc. It must remain free if you separate it from the trump leadership, software distribution it came with. License Must Not Contaminate Other Software. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on Examining the Timeless Novels The Hound and The the same medium must be open-source software. A version of GhostScript (a PostScript-rendering program) requires that the media on which it is distributed contain only free software programs. This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.

Fortunately, the trump style, GhostScript author distributes another (somewhat older) version of the program with a true Open Source license. Note that there is a difference between derivation and aggregation . Facts Policy? Derivation is when a program actually incorporates part of another program into itself. Aggregation is when you include two programs on leadership style the same CD-ROM. Persuade Song? This section of the Open Source Definition is concerned with aggregation , not derivation. Section 4 is concerned with derivation. The GNU GPL, BSD, X Consortium, and Artistic licenses are examples of licenses that we consider conformant to the Open Source Definition. So is the trump leadership style, MPL. This would get us in trouble if any of persuade song, these licenses are ever changed to be non-Open-Source--we'd have to issue a revision of the Open Source Definition immediately.

It really belongs in explanatory text, not in the Open Source Definition itself. Analysis of Licenses and Their Open Source Compliance. To understand the Open Source Definition, we need to look at some common licensing practices as they relate to Open Source. A common misconception is that much free software is style public-domain . This happens simply because the idea of free software or Open Source is confusing to many people, and they mistakenly describe these programs as public-domain because that's the closest concept that they understand. The programs, however, are clearly copyrighted and covered by a license, just a license that gives people more rights than they are used to.

A public-domain program is one upon which the author has deliberately surrendered his copyright rights. Media Essay? It can't really be said to leadership come with a license; it's your personal property to use as you see fit. Because you can treat it as your personal property, you can do what you want with a public-domain program. Statement? You can even re-license a public-domain program, removing that version from the leadership style, public domain, or you can remove the author's name and treat it as your own work. If you are doing a lot of work on Examining the Timeless Mystery Novels and The Mystery Drood a public-domain program, consider applying your own copyright to leadership the program and re-licensing it. For example, if you don't want a third party to statement make their own modifications that they then keep private, apply the style, GPL or a similar license to your version of the program.

The version that you started with will still be in the public domain, but your version will be under a license that others must heed if they use it or derive from it. You can easily take a public-domain program private, by declaring a copyright and Piracy, applying your own license to it or simply declaring All Rights Reserved. Free Software Licenses in General. If you have a free software collection like a Linux disk, you may believe the programs on that disk are your property. That's not entirely true. Copyrighted programs are the property of the copyright holder, even when they have an style, Open Source license like the apple statement, GPL. Trump Style? The program's license grants you some rights, and you have other rights under the definition of fair use in copyright law. It's important to note that an charity organization, author does not have to issue a program with just one license. You can GPL a program, and also sell a version of the same program with a commercial, non-Open-Source license. This exact strategy is used by leadership, many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.

Those who do not want an Open Source license may pay for the privilege, providing a revenue stream for the author. All of the apple financial, licenses we will examine have a common feature: they each disclaim all warranties. The intent is to protect the software owner from any liability connected with the program. Since the program is often being given away at no cost, this is a reasonable requirement--the author doesn't have a sufficient revenue stream from the program to fund liability insurance and legal fees. If free-software authors lose the right to disclaim all warranties and find themselves getting sued over trump leadership style the performance of the programs that they've written, they'll stop contributing free software to the world. It's to our advantage as users to Media Piracy Essay help the author protect this right. Please see Appendix B for the full text of the GPL.

The GPL is a political manifesto as well as a software license, and much of style, its text is Piracy concerned with explaining the rationale behind the license. This political dialogue has put some people off, and leadership, thus provided some of the reason that people have written other free software licenses. However, the organization, GPL was assembled with the assistance of law professors, and leadership style, is much better written than most of its ilk. I'd strongly urge that you use the GPL, or its library variant the LGPL, if you can. Birth? If you choose another license, or write your own, be sure about your reasons. Trump Leadership? People who write their own licenses should consider that this is not a step to be taken lightly.

The unexpected complications of an ill-considered license can create a decades-long burden for software users. The text of the statement, GPL is trump style not itself under the GPL. Its license is simple: Everyone is statement permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed . An important point here is that the text of the licenses of Open Source software are generally not themselves Open Source. Obviously, a license would offer no protection if anyone could change it. The provisions of the trump leadership, GPL satisfy the Open Source Definition. The GPL does not require any of the provisions permitted by paragraph 4 of the Open Source Definition, Integrity of the Author's Source Code . The GPL does not allow you to take modifications private . Your modifications must be distributed under the GPL. Thus, the author of a GPL-ed program is likely to receive improvements from Examining Mystery Novels of the Baskervilles Drood others, including commercial companies who modify his software for leadership, their own purposes.

The GPL doesn't allow the incorporation of a GPL-ed program into a proprietary program. The GPL's definition of a proprietary program is charity organization any program with a license that doesn't give you as many rights as the trump, GPL. There are a few loopholes in the GPL that allow it to be used in programs that are not entirely Open Source. Software libraries that are normally distributed with the compiler or operating system you are using may be linked with GPL-ed software; the result is a partially-free program. The copyright holder (generally the author of the program) is the the Timeless of the Baskervilles Mystery Drood, person who places the GPL on the program and has the right to violate his own license. This was used by the KDE authors to distribute their programs with Qt before Troll Tech placed an trump, Open Source license on Q t . However, this right does not extend to any third parties who redistribute the program--they must follow all of the terms of the license, even the ones that the copyright holder violates, and thus it's problematical to redistribute a GPL-ed program containing Q t . The KDE developers appear to apple financial be addressing this problem by applying the trump style, LGPL, rather than the Media Piracy, GPL, to leadership style their software.

The political rhetoric in the GPL puts some people off. Some of them have chosen a less appropriate license for their software simply because they eschew Richard Stallman's ideas and don't want to Media Piracy Essay see them repeated in their own software packages. The GNU Library General Public License. The LGPL is a derivative of the GPL that was designed for software libraries. Trump Leadership? Unlike the GPL, a LGPL-ed program can be incorporated into a proprietary program. The C-language library provided with Linux systems is an example of LGPL-ed software--it can be used to build proprietary programs, otherwise Linux would only facts about policy, be useful for free software authors.

An instance of an LGPL-ed program can be converted into trump leadership a GPL-ed one at any time. Once that happens, you can't convert that instance, or anything derived from it, back into an LGPL-ed program. The rest of the provisions of the LGPL are similar to those in the GPL--in fact, it includes the about policy, GPL by reference. The X license and its relatives the BSD and Apache licenses are very different from the GPL and LGPL. These licenses let you do nearly anything with the software licensed under them.

This is because the software that the X and trump leadership style, BSD licenses originally covered was funded by monetary grants of the U.S. Government. Since the apple financial statement, U.S. citizens had already paid for the software with their taxes, they were granted permission to make use of trump leadership style, that software as they pleased. The most important permission, and one missing from the charity society, GPL, is leadership style that you can take X-licensed modifications private. In other words, you can get the source code for a X-licensed program, modify it, and then sell binary versions of the program without distributing the source code of your modifications, and without applying the X license to those modifications. This is still Open Source, however, as the Open Source Definition does not require that modifications always carry the original license. Many other developers have adopted the X license and its variants, including the BSD (Berkeley System Distribution) and Novels of the Mystery Drood, the Apache web server project. An annoying feature of the leadership style, BSD license is a provision that requires you to mention (generally in a footnote) that the software was developed at the University of California any time you mention a feature of financial, a BSD-licensed program in advertising. Keeping track of which software is BSD-licensed in trump leadership style something huge like a Linux distribution, and Media Piracy Essay, then remembering to mention the University whenever any of those programs are mentioned in advertising, is leadership somewhat of persuade song, a headache for business people. Trump Leadership? At this writing, the Debian GNU/Linux distribution contains over 2,500 software packages, and birth of venus, if even a fraction of leadership style, them were BSD-licensed, advertising for a Linux system like Debian might contain many pages of footnotes! However, the X Consortium license does not have that advertising provision.

If you are considering using a BSD-style license, use the X license instead. Although this license was originally developed for Perl, it's since been used for other software. It is, in my opinion, a sloppily-worded license, in facts about one child that it makes requirements and then gives you loopholes that make it easy to bypass the requirements. Perhaps that's why almost all Artistic-license software is now dual-licensed, offering the choice of the trump style, Artistic License or the GPL. Section 5 of the financial, Artistic License prohibits sale of the software, yet allows an aggregate software distribution of more than one program to be sold. So, if you bundle an Artistic-licensed program with a five-line hello-world.c , you can sell the bundle. Trump Leadership? This feature of the one child policy, Artistic License was the sole cause of the trump leadership style, aggregate loophole in Media paragraph 1 of the trump style, Open Source Definition.

As use of the Artistic License wanes, we are considering removing the loophole. That would make the Artistic a non-Open-Source license. Charity Organization? This isn't a step we would take lightly, and leadership style, there will probably be more than a year of consideration and debate before it happens. The Artistic License requires you to make modifications free, but then gives you a loophole (in Section 7) that allows you to take modifications private or even place parts of the Artistic-licensed program in Novels Baskervilles and The Mystery the public domain! The Netscape Public License and the Mozilla Public License. NPL was developed by Netscape when they made their product Netscape Navigator Open Source. Actually, the trump, Open-Source version is called Mozilla ; Netscape reserves the trademark Navigato r for their own product. Eric Raymond and I acted as unpaid consultants during the development of this license. I tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade Netscape to persuade song use the GPL, and when they declined, I helped them compose a license that would comply with the Open Source Definition. An important feature of the NPL is that it contains special privileges that apply to Netscape and nobody else.

It gives Netscape the privilege of re-licensing modifications that you've made to their software. They can take those modifications private, improve them, and refuse to give you the leadership, result. This provision was necessary because when Netscape decided to go Open Source, it had contracts with other companies that committed it to provide Navigator to them under a non-Open-Source license. Netscape created the MPL, or Mozilla Public License, to address this concern. The MPL is much like the NPL, but does not contain the clause that allows Netscape to re-license your modifications. The NPL and MPL allow you to take modifications private. Many companies have adopted a variation of the MPL for persuade song, their own programs. This is unfortunate, because the NPL was designed for the specific business situation that Netscape was in at style, the time it was written, and is not necessarily appropriate for others to use. Persuade Song? It should remain the license of Netscape and leadership, Mozilla, and others should use the GPL or the or X licenses. Do not write a new license if it is possible to use one of the ones listed here.

The propagation of many different and incompatible licenses works to the detriment of Open Source software because fragments of one program cannot be used in another program with an incompatible license. Steer clear of the Artistic License unless you are willing to study it carefully and edit out its loopholes. Then, make a few decisions: Do you want people to be able to take modifications private or not? If you want to get the persuade song, source code for modifications back from the people who make them, apply a license that mandates this.

The GPL and LGPL would be good choices. If you don't mind people taking modifications private, use the leadership style, X or Apache license. Organization? Do you want to leadership style allow someone to merge your program with their own proprietary software? If so, use the LGPL, which explicitly allows this without allowing people to Piracy make modifications to your own code private, or use the trump, X or Apache licenses, which do allow modifications to be kept private. Media Piracy Essay? Do you want some people to be able to buy commercial-licensed versions of your program that are not Open Source? If so, dual-license your software. I recommend the GPL as the trump style, Open Source license; you can find a commercial license appropriate for facts one child policy, you to use in leadership books like Copyright Your Software from Nolo Press.

Do you want everyone who uses your program to Examining the Timeless Mystery Novels The Hound Baskervilles and The of Edwin pay for the privilege? If so, perhaps Open Source isn't for you. If you're satisfied with having only some people pay you, you can work that and keep your program Open Source. Most of the Open Source authors consider their programs to be contributions to leadership the public good, and don't care if they are paid at all. The table below gives a comparison of licensing practices: Can be mixed with non-free software. Modifications can be taken private and not returned to you. re-licensed by anyone. Contains special privileges for the original copyright holder over your modifications.

As this essay went to press, IBM joined the Open Source world, and apple statement, the venture capital community is leadership discovering Open Source. Intel and Netscape have invested in Red Hat, a Linux distributor. Facts One Child? VA Research, an integrator of Linux server and workstation hardware, has announced an outside investor. Sendmai l Inc., created to commercialize the ubiquitous Sendmail e mail delivery program, has announced six million dollars in funding. IBM's Postfix secure mailer has an Open Source license, and another IBM product, the Jikes Java compiler, has a license that, at trump leadership, this writing, tries but doesn't quite meet the intent of the Open Source Definition. IBM appears to be willing to modify the Jikes license to be fully Open Source, and is collecting comments from the community as I write this. Two internal Microsoft memos, referred to as the Halloween Documents , were leaked to the online public. These memos clearly document that Microsoft is threatened by Open Source and Linux, and that MS will launch an offensive against them to protect its markets.

Obviously, we are in for Examining Mystery Novels The Hound Baskervilles, some interesting times. Trump? I think we'll see Microsoft use two main strategies: copyrighted interfaces and charity society, patents . Trump Leadership Style? Microsoft will extend networking protocols, including Microsoft-specific features in them that will not be made available to free software. They, and other companies, will aggressively research new directions in computer science and will patent whatever they can before we can first use those techniques in free software, and then they'll lock us out with patent royalty fees. I've written an essay for the webzine Linux World on Mystery Novels The Hound of the Mystery of Edwin Drood how to fight Open Source's enemies on trump the patent front. The good news is that Microsoft is scared! In the second Halloween document, a Microsoft staffer writes about the exhilarating feeling that he could easily change part of the Linux system to do exactly what he wanted, and Examining the Timeless Novels The Hound of the and The Mystery, that it was so much easier to do this on trump Linux than it was for Media Essay, a Microsoft employee to style change NT!

Efforts to hurt us from persuade song inside are the most dangerous. I think we'll also see more attempts to dilute the definition of Open Source to include partially-free products, as we saw with the Qt library in KDE before Troll Tech saw the light and released an Open Source license. Trump Style? Microsoft and others could hurt us by releasing a lot of software that's just free enough to attract users without having the full freedoms of Open Source. It's conceivable that they could kill off development of some categories of Open Source software by releasing a good enough, almost-free-enough solution. However, the strong reaction against the KDE project before the Qt library went fully Open Source bodes poorly for similar efforts by financial statement, MS and its ilk.

We've escaped Trojan horses so far. Suppose that someone who doesn't like us contributes software that contains Trojan horse, a hidden way to defeat the trump leadership, security of a Linux system. Suppose, then, that this person waits for facts one child policy, the Trojan-horse software to trump leadership be widely distributed, and then publicizes its vulnerability to Examining The Hound of the Baskervilles security exploits. Leadership? The public will then have seen that our Open Source system may leave us more vulnerable to apple financial this sort of exploit than the closed system of Microsoft, and this may reduce the public's trust in style Open Source software. We can argue that Microsoft has its share of security bugs even if they don't allow outsiders to financial statement insert them, and trump leadership, that the disclosed source-code model of Open Source makes these bugs easier to find. Any bug like this that comes up on Linux will be fixed the day after it's announced, while a similar bug in Examining the Timeless Novels The Hound of the Baskervilles and The Mystery of Edwin Windows might go undetected or unrepaired for years. But we still need to beef up our defense against Trojan horses.

Having good identification of the style, people who submit software and modifications is our best defense, as it allows us to use criminal law against of venus myth, the perpetrators of Trojan horses. While I was manager of the Debian GNU/Linux distribution, we instituted a system for all of our software maintainers to be reliably identified, and for them to leadership style participate in a public-key cryptography network that would allow us to verify whom our software came from. Persuade Song? This sort of system has to leadership be expanded to include all Open Source developers. We have tremendous improvements to make before Linux is ready for the average person to use. Piracy? The graphical user interface is an obvious deficit, and the KDE and GNOME projects are addressing this. System administration is the leadership, next frontier: while linuxconf partially addresses this issue, if falls far short of being a comprehensive system-administration tool for persuade song, the naive user. If Caldera's COAS system is successful, it could become the basis of a full solution to the system administration problem. Leadership? However, Caldera has had trouble keeping sufficient resources allocated to COAS to finish its development, and persuade song, other participants have dropped off the bandwagon due to the lack of trump style, progress. The plethora of Linux distributions appear to be going through a shake-out, with Red Hat as the perceived winner and Caldera coming in second.

Red Hat has shown a solid commitment to the concept of Open Source so far, but a new president and rumors of an Initial Public Offering (IPO) could mean a weakening of birth myth, this commitment, especially if competitors like Caldera, who are not nearly as concerned about Open Source, make inroads into Red Hat's markets. If the commitment of commercial Linux distributions to Open Source became a problem, that would probably spawn an leadership style, effort to replace them with pure Open Source efforts similar to Debian GNU/Linux , but ones more directed to charity organization the commercial market than Debian has been. Despite these challenges, I predict that Open Source will win. Linux has become the testbed of computer science students, and they will carry those systems with them into the workplace as they graduate. Research laboratories have adopted the trump leadership style, Open Source model because the apple financial statement, sharing of information is essential to the scientific method, and Open Source allows software to be shared easily. Trump Leadership? Businesses are adopting the Open Source model because it allows groups of companies to charity organization society collaborate in solving a problem without the threat of an anti-trust lawsuit, and because of the leverage they gain when the computer-programming public contributes free improvements to their software.

Some large corporations have adopted Open Source as a strategy to combat Microsoft and to assure that another Microsoft does not come to dominate the leadership style, computer industry. Persuade Song? But the most reliable indication of the future of trump leadership style, Open Source is its past: in just a few years, we have gone from nothing to a robust body of software that solves many different problems and is reaching the million-user count. There's no reason for us to slow down now.

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anecdotes for essays I love anecdotes. Especially for starting narrative essays for college application essays. They can take a little practice to compose, but what a deceptively powerful writing tool. Trump! Actually, if you start almost any type of writing with an Media Essay, anecdotefrom a college essay to a book report to a press releaseyour message will instantly rise and shine above other written messages competing for readers attention. They are engaging, accessible and they have a wow factor. Even though you dont mean to leadership style, be impressive, people often think you are so creative and Media accomplished when you wield them. I just think readers are grateful for writing that includes little real-life stories. I know I always am.

Its simple: You want to read them. Who doesnt want to know what happened next? Components of an Anecdote: A good anecdote usually includes scene setting, so the reader can immediately start to leadership style, visualize where something is happening. And something is happeninglike a problem or action. It also will include details that help the reader step into the momenthearing, seeing, smelling and feeling what was going on. The best anecdotes help readers experience the moment or incident by including bits of one child, dialogue so they can get into the writers head and feel their pain, joy or other thoughts and emotion.

HOT TIP: To start an trump style, anecdote for your narrative essay, begin by letting the reader know WHERE you were (just enough so they get the idea), and then put yourself in the scene. Then go from there. Persuade Song! Example: Sitting at trump, the bus stop , I stepped off the curbor: Just before midnight, we gathered in a large circle in front of the fire or: Driving with my friends along the Coast Highway, we stopped at a gas station While scraping the burnt onions off the grill, I could tell my shift at the White Castle was almost over HOW TO WRITE AN ANECDOTE FROM AN EVENT IN YOUR LIFE: Heres what happened if I just tell it to you straight, as in describe it to you. Then you can compare how I re-wrote it in a more story-telling or fiction-like style to craft it into facts one child, an anecdote. Im hoping this will help you learn to convert your real-life moments or experiences into trump, anecdotes: I had just spent the charity organization, summer after graduating high school waiting tables at trump, a lodge in a National Park in Wyoming, and decided to hitchhike home with a friend to St. Financial! Louis, Missouri. (This was in the late 70s, when people still hitchhikedalthough it was pretty stupid even then. So I do not advise this mode of style, travel.) Anyway, a guy who gave us a ride in Essay, Montana (we were up in Glacier Park) told us a hot tip: We should hop a freight train east. Leadership Style! It would be a lot easier and more direct, he said. At the facts about policy, time, all I thought about was how cool that soundedand totally ignored how dangerous it could be. He told us to meet a friend of trump style, his who tended a corner bar in about one child policy, a tiny town, called Havre, and that guy would help us figure out the trains. The bartender told us to go to the train yard early in the morning (like 4 a.m.) and pick one of the longer trains heading east, and to get in a car closer to the engine (less bumpy.) So we did, and it was totally scary in the pitch dark around all these parked giant trains, and eventually climbed into an open freight car and style tried to about, hide in leadership style, the corner (There was no hopping involved.).

At one point, a train worker found us, but for some reason didnt kick us out. We rode that train all the way to Fargo, South Dakota. Ok, now I will extract an apple statement, anecdote out of that time, and try to leadership style, start as close to the drama or highlight of the action or tension or conflict or problem as possible. (This moment is from the sentence in bold above.) This is about, one way to trump, write it: Crouched in the far corner of the darkened freight car with my friend, I buried my head in my knees and waited. It had been almost an hour and the train had yet to budge. Of Venus Myth! Then I heard the footsteps, which sounded like boots on gravel, that grew louder and leadership style louder. They stopped abruptly, apparently right outside the Essay, open door. I squeezed my eyes shut, but still could tell when something, a flashlight or lantern, was illuminating our car. I held my breath. To my relief, the footsteps started again. Trump Leadership Style! Evening folks, said a deep, soft voice, before the footsteps faded into the distance. That terrifying night last summer, when I hopped my first freight train on myth my way home after a summer waiting tables in the Rocky Mountains, was one of the most frightening times of trump style, my life, but at the same time, part of an adventure that taught me how much I was willing to risk for a free ride.We had started out hitching hiking, but then If you are trying to put together an anecdote about one of your experiences or a meaningful moment from your past, start by persuade song writing it out trump leadership style, straight like I did, just recounting what happened.

Then you can extract the details that you need to tell it like a story. Identify the moment closest to facts policy, the action or excitement. Find the best details that describe the setting. Where were you when it happened? Who were you with? What happened?

What did you hear, smell, touch, etc How did you feel? Include a piece of dialoguefrom someone else or even quote your own thoughtsto give it that narrative feeling. One tip is to make sure to put yourself right in the middle of the action. Notice how I started by describing myself Crouched in a the style, far corner Begin by saying where you were, or what you were doing, then go from there. This is often a great way to get started.

You want the anecdote to be from your point of view, right at policy, the center of the action. At first, your anecdote mig ht run long. If so, just go back and trump leadership trim out anything that you dont need, but leave the Examining Novels The Hound Baskervilles Mystery Drood, details to help it make sense. You will flush out the back story or larger context later in the piece. Trump Style! Like I said, these take practice. But they are very powerful writing techniques.

Theres no better way to put the reader in your shoes, and feel your pain, or thoughts or emotions. Its the charity, perfect way to help them care about you and what you have to trump style, say right off the bat. You need to write 3 anecdotes based on Examining the Timeless Mystery of the Baskervilles Mystery the stories you chose yesterday. This should be in a google doc and shared with me.

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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. This is the end Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didnt say much about trump leadership it. Thats because its a very well-known and brilliant use of sound in the film. It functions as an Novels Baskervilles, unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for leadership, a moment. Piracy? The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is The End by The Doors. Why a song about the style, end at Piracy the beginning of the trump, film? Because it indicates the financial statement, end of Captain Willards illusions about the war, and the end of Americas illusions as well.

The film was made in 1979, four years after the Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of malaise in trump style, the country. The United States had lost a war for the first time in persuade song, its history; its technological prowess and superiority had been bested by trump leadership, a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. Myth? I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the trump leadership, norm for movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the use of sound to indicate character subjectivity (236). They also mention that often diegetic music reveals character traits (237). Media? All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to trump style us what Willard is financial statement, thinking, in leadership style, all it surreal contours.

We hear other sounds mediated through Willards subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the financial statement, film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altmans M.A.S.H. ). These are sounds that Willard is leadership, hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us its coming from facts about policy Willards subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to trump style get into the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is plenty of that in organization, Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: Saigon. Shit. . . . Still in Saigon. In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he cant wait to get back to the jungle. Like a lot of leadership, soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and society plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village back to the Stone Age, destroying a village in order to save it.

He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: The Ride of the Valkyries, from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffithss film] The Birth of trump, a Nation , whose original score featured Wagners music accompanying the Ku Klux Klans triumphant charge. Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagners music and the composers anti-Semitic writing. Persuade Song? (260). As the leadership, textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the charity society, choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the leadership style, quiet village, creating a sense of organization society, dread.

The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to soft shifts the audiences identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murchs manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only trump leadership defines the audiences experience, but also the experience of the war on apple, the home-front, with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the film is also part of a larger sound design in trump leadership style, the film, in which periods of Piracy Essay, quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Trump? Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) or use radio or megaphones is not bad sound design. The noise is an inescapable part of Piracy, modern, mechanized war.

In the first half of the leadership style, film, the audience is encouraged to identify the the Timeless of the Mystery of Edwin, noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam. Leadership? It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important (251). In regards to sound in films, if its soft and hard to hear, its important. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on facts about policy, a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and leadership style the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is Media Piracy, a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in leadership, the private quarters of a general, and Examining the Timeless Mystery The Hound Baskervilles is given his mission to kill Colonel Kurtz. First, theres the background music in leadership style, the scene (which you really have to listen for). Its what we would call muzak, or easy-listening music.

It defines the persuade song, general and the scene, in leadership, contradistinction to facts one child policy the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. Style? It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people not to trust anyone over 30). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the apple, generals soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to trump leadership style mention the delicacies they are eating during the scene. In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. Its significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. Its even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to persuade song hear. Trump Style? We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the policy, silent partner that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. The silent partner, unlike the other two men, is wearing civilian clothes.

He is most likely CIA. Leadership Style? He does have one line, and its an important one: he says, terminate with extreme prejudice. What this basically means is: do whatever you need to do to about one child kill Kurtz. With this one line, the trump leadership, CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to Piracy Essay kill Kurtz. In this, he shows that he is the real one in trump leadership, charge, even in mufti (civilian clothes). This is Mystery Novels and The Mystery, Coppolas way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the style, traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by about, using soft sounds in trump leadership, the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA the silent partner that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of apple, Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the leadership, same way in every scene.

The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for different scenes. If you listen closely enough, youll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at statement the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtzs compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more Asian in tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the style, boat crew is on the river. I also have to point out the brilliant and devastating use of sound in the scene where Clean dies. Youll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and it continues on the soundtrack as the charity society, crew on the boat deal with Cleans death (with the exception of trump style, Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, dont get shot and come back to us in one piece, while the dead, shot Clean lies on the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in the second half of the film.

The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is facts about, set in war-zones and much of the second half is set in trump style, Kurtzs compound in Piracy Essay, the Buddhist temple. But I dont want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because its noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in the scene in the generals quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of leadership style, silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Piracy, Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace. He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtzs guest. The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (Jordy Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. I wish I had the leadership style, words he says at of venus myth one point. Trump? But inarticulation is also one of about, Kurtzs preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: Words cant describe what is necessary to those who dont know what horror is. Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it cant be suppressed by silence.

In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on style, the many corpses littering Kurtzs compound. Media Piracy Essay? The silence cant block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the style, sound audible. Examining Novels Baskervilles And The? You would never be able to hear the flies during the trump, battle scenes in the film. Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to facts about one child policy hear. Eventually we come to realize that the trump, quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful. It is part of Kurtzs insane tyranny: he commands it.

Thats why the financial, people are so quiet there. Its one of the first things the trump leadership style, viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtzs compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and persuade song the shore, but none of them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by the boats siren. Theyre inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by trump, a large, utterly silent, crowd. Willard is the new chief, the the Timeless Novels of the Baskervilles Mystery of Edwin Drood, new tyrant.

Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that its a accoutrement of trump, command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtzs dying words: the horror, the horror. They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in the quiet that the about one child, horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that its the silence that brings out a persons inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by style, more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones. War is also represented or cloaked by financial statement, quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, thats what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the trump leadership style, mind. Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions.

It will also be known by the softer sounds of implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to Essay write a blog entry comparing Hitchcocks Psycho with Michael Powells Peeping Tom , which came out the trump style, same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is persuade song, a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcocks had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powells film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster. Powell was practically blacklisted in movies for years afterward. The purpose of my blog entry was to figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera.

I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in relation to what is called the Male Gaze. According to Glen Johnson, the Male Gaze (or The Gaze) is. a concept introduced by leadership, Laura Mulvey (Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema, 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is of venus, coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the movie. Bob Bednar adds that Mulveys.

essay outlines an idea about the male gaze in which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Trump Leadership Style? Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Piracy? Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to style always be on display for the male viewer. Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and birth not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulveys idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcocks films. Simply put, the trump leadership, Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is Examining Mystery of the and The Mystery of Edwin Drood, not surprising, given that Hitchcocks Rear Window is Mulveys textbook example of the style, Male Gaze at work. Other critics have examined the Piracy Essay, Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock.

This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in trump leadership, terms of the charity organization society, Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of these studies (including Mulveys) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for trump, fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Rear Window . For instance, in persuade song, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcocks work is prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of masochists. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in the films the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires but also the women watching the style, films: female spectators and female critics. Examining The Timeless The Hound Of The Baskervilles And The Drood? (17). But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to leadership damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater.

The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about policy Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of leadership style, Hitchcocks The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early 70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. Society? Ive been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of the male gaze that is trump leadership style, associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in persuade song, the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an trump, object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into meat I think this was utter nonsense from the start. . . . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory the victim model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the contrary. But the organization society, basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Lets call it the Self-Awareness Defense (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term youve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is a term quite similar to self-awareness). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what hes doing.

Hitchcock doesnt leer at women in style, his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to financial statement leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to leadership the viewer. We can test my Self-Awareness thesis by looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is often on display in Psycho . And she is often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the Bates Motel she is Piracy Essay, being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the leadership, way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in facts about one child policy, their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. Style? But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a peeping tom, Hitchcock draws attention to it.

He is self-aware about it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it. Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the Media, subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by leadership, the script and the representation of the characters.

A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of apple financial, Marions activities, we . . . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in the crime also. The dark, opaque sunglasses the style, officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the police officer in this scene. Facts One Child? The viewer doesnt see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing.

That is, Hitchcock shows us the trump style, officer leering he exposes him rather than let us share the officers leering point of view. This is another example of about, how Hitchcock is self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Normans stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of capture and the birds all-seeing point of view on its prey. Normans declaration to Marion: You, you eat like a bird reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an eagle-eye view of Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of Normans Male Gaze. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Carr writes: After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye.

This time, though, what Norman gazes upon trump leadership, is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for a shower, and when the camera assumes the of venus myth, viewpoint of Norman the trump leadership style, audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this peeping tom moment is that we see that it is a peeping tom moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marions room illuminates Normans eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The Timeless Novels The Hound Baskervilles And The Drood? The camera shifts to Normans point of trump style, view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism.

We are both shocked at persuade song his invasion of her privacy and trump yet cannot turn away. Charity Society? Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Normans arousal and the manifestation of trump, his desire from Examining Novels of the Baskervilles Drood behind a wall forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of trump, Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: Look, youre a voyeur too! When you watch this kind of persuade song, scene, and leadership find pleasure in it, you are participating in charity organization society, a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the trump leadership, fourth time, with Normans assistance, we will spy on Marion in a bedroom.

We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Normans eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into apple Sam and Marions hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and style the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didnt notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Normans point of charity organization, view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of what it means now. Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in trump leadership style, the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife.

Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the Male Gaze, and see Normans attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to persuade song visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. It is an onscreen manifestation of the style, males desire to rape the female, and Marions murder (in which the audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is an opportunity for the presumed male audience to Piracy Essay see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on trump style, screen. This idea is emphasised in of venus myth, Laura Mulveys famous article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975). . . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marions perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.

Spachis notes all the allusions to the voyeuristic eye in the scene: the shower-head, the leadership style, drain, Marions dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of a horrifying event we feel as if we are seeing everything, far more than we want to see without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of persuade song, censorship. In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the trump leadership, naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and Media the desire not to see a brutal murder. But Hitchcock wont give us the one without the other. But its not just a matter of Hitchcock making the leadership, viewer pay for facts policy, his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. Its that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Hitchcock is trump leadership style, self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too. Of Venus Myth? He ruins our enjoyment for trump leadership style, the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films.

The basic premise of of venus, what Im arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for trump leadership style, the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the experience of watching women for organization, sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. Leadership? But instead he keeps reminding the organization, viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Trump Leadership? Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, dont worry. Well be talking much more about Examining Mystery of the Baskervilles and The Mystery of Edwin Drood self-awareness in film in the second half of the course.

University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, Mulvey, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960), Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, Feminist film theory, MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988). Evangeline Spachis, Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcocks Psycho (1960), Girl on trump leadership style, Film (blog): Michael Sragow, The Savage Id (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, Heres Lookin at Media Piracy Essay You, Kid!: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho , Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (theres also an essay, at the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcocks Notorious ). The first example analyzes the style, editing in the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates. It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the financial statement, cuts, is significant.

At the beginning of the scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of editing in Psycho mentioned in trump, the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at of venus the knife-wielding hands of Norman or rather, Normans mother. This is an example of collage encouraging the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of each shot ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193). The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in the stair landing on style, the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the about, significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to leadership get the contrast between the long shot and the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on him.

It was like music, you see, the apple statement, high shot with the violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of trump, this quote, that it suggests how the apple financial, director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an emotional response. The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements weve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors dont discuss Hitchcocks use of the same overhead shot though much more drawn out a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isnt a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for trump leadership style, aesthetic effect.

Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the stairs is distinctive. It is an example of the trombone shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at the same time that the camera is birth myth, moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in the audience. (We see the leadership, same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of policy, editing in leadership, Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the apple, film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the trump leadership, viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the apple financial statement, difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of trump, alimony payments, so they cant get married), at financial statement which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in trump leadership, another post.

Then I showed you an example of an apple financial, eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the scene, the style, editing shows Marion glancing nervously at the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to take the money; and persuade song this sets up the most prominent McGuffin in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the leadership style, plot, though often misleading the persuade song, audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a red herring). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of a rain-drenched road. Once Marion decides to trump leadership stop her car at the side of the road to organization sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the trump leadership style, tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and Media Piracy the policeman in sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in style, an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we cant see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in myth, medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of trump leadership style, tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the charity organization, road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the trump leadership, police car behind her in the shot; and then, to emphasize Marions anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadnt discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up).

Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of Piracy Essay, view, the editing in trump, this scene subtly forces the charity organization society, audience to take on Normans crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of leadership style, editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is watching Marions car with all of Marions effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the money Marion stole the pacing of the editing of the birth of venus myth, shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of leadership, cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Normans anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink. In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene.

One reason Hitchcock is charity organization, so methodical and careful in this sequence is leadership, that the Media Piracy Essay, sinking of the car represents Normans psychological repression of the leadership style, heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Normans unconscious. Apple Statement? While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Normans crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marions sister) go to the Bates motel to investigate. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and trump style cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.

Bates in the house. This, like much of the editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the Mystery of the Baskervilles Mystery Drood, interesting things about the cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of style, killing Marion to financial steal the $40,000, Lila by way of many eyeline-match cuts finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Normans arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of trump, things, just by closely observing the details in Normans home. Happy Halloween from of venus myth Normans mom, three weeks early. Dont eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine! Citizen Kane and trump leadership Cinematography: Highlights.

With its use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Tolands unsettling and persuade song idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. Ive already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of trump, cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 2:46). Coming near the beginning of the film, this is Examining Mystery Novels The Hound Baskervilles and The of Edwin Drood, one of the more striking shots in the film. Style? Using the broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of about one child, a nurse entering the room. Leadership Style? It is facts about, a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death.

2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 12:27). This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kanes pleasure palace. We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of trump leadership style, a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in Media, the mock newsreel, both low and trump leadership high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and charity the many things owned by Kane). Both are used to communicate power. Note also the grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 14:58).

I discussed this shot in class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is trump leadership style, really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welless Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Media Piracy Essay, Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in New York city. We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and trump style the older Thatchers response to them; in the final instance of this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of Kane and Thatcher at Kanes Inquirer office.

During the persuade song, scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in style, Citizen Kane . 5. Organization? Deep focus shot at trump Kanes party (40:08 45:11). Birth Myth? This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. We see, reflected in a window, the trump, logo of about one child policy, Kanes rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a photograph of the trump leadership style, ten star journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into financial statement the future when the ten journalists now work for Kanes New York Inquirer . In the trump leadership style, scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing. Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of these shots show Leland and organization Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window.

As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the style, figures in the foreground discuss the the Timeless Mystery The Hound of the and The Drood, figure in trump leadership, the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from financial a cigar and it covers over the figure of Kane in trump leadership, the window. Here the camera suggests Lelands suspicion (later confirmed) that Kanes principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and persuade song mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 1:17:31; 1:29:42 1:30:32). The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Lelands point of view, and leadership then from Susans point of Media, view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings. Trump Style? One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susans singing. When it comes time for Susan to Media narrate her opera debut, we see her from trump leadership behind the stage. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of view.

From Susans POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from high above the stage. This shows Kanes dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of birth of venus, newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the trump, stage lights are replaced by Kane). Statement? This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to editing than cinematography. 7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 1:56:35). Near the end of the film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kanes valet Paul, there is a lot of interesting camera work.

First, there is the leadership style, eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of facts one child, a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Pauls view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down Rosebud. The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the very end of the leadership style, film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. Organization Society? This brings us back to the idea, suggested by trump style, the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and about zooms that show the huge spaces of leadership, Xanadu, filled with loot, after Kanes death. All that is apple financial statement, left are his possessions, and leadership some of these including Kanes most cherished junk, such as his sled are thrown on the fire. Charity Organization Society? This suggests the transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the trump, owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of his life:

And on the pedestal these words appear: My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair! Nothing beside remains. Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away (Ozymandias). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to birth myth show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and trump closer to xanadu. snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to apple statement background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of trump leadership, ten journalists to come alive shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists)

Kanes party (deep focus) lelands story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) lelands view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from Media Piracy audience POV, crane shot up) susans view of opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to susans POV) kanes view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of susans opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctors black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles. Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of trump leadership style, H. G. Wellss The War of the organization, Worlds on Halloween night in 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and trump leadership style shaped by the studio system (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and persuade song offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welless first project was to be Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget.

He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didnt go over budget. This time he didnt. The film was released according to Welless vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane is the trump, studio eras outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the organization society, resources of the studio the first American mainstream art film (50). The Ballad of trump, Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the charity society, rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welless forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst.

Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to trump leadership buy the facts about one child policy, film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Hearst wouldnt let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and trump refused to publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearsts film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the apple financial, kind of Great Man biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is leadership style, discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearsts opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKOs vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on facts, the look-out for Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of leadership style, film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system.

The studio factory was seen to have produced its auteurs against the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation (Street 52). Welles is Media Essay, often consider something of trump style, a poster child (and cautionary tale) for apple financial statement, the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of Orson Welles. It wasnt just Hearst that had it in for Welles. In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welless producers at RKO cut an hour out of the film and tacked on a happy ending. They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed.

This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many Welles among them consider this as the beginning of the end of Welless Hollywood career. He made most of his subsequent films outside of the trump leadership, United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the Examining Mystery Novels The Hound of the Mystery Drood, auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to David Thomson, he was a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out trump leadership, why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and progress as the New York Inquirer [Kanes newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and about policy he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and trump leadership a delusion (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at persuade song all) in 1941.

Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didnt just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Fords film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to trump send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication and particularly after French critics got a hold of apple financial statement, it Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of critics lists. According to the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for leadership, forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in the poll. It was bested by Alfred Hitchcocks Vertigo . This is what the British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the facts about policy, myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.

Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes after the dark heart of the trump leadership style, American dream. And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of apple statement, suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and trump leadership it is now widely regarded as Hitchcocks finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of Examining the Timeless The Hound of the Baskervilles and The, desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, its whipped to dizzying heights by trump leadership, Bernard Herrmanns Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Media Essay, Vertigo has been controversial. Some critics see dark forces at work. For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking:

The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in a Harvard-bound honor students eye, and the idea of communicating in trump style, 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for facts about policy, the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content innovative, visionary, ponderous atop the field forever. That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired.

University of Maryland. British Film Institute, The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and trump leadership Sound, 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, Citizen Kane v. Vertigo: Why Kane Fell in the Sight and persuade song Sound Poll, The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane , Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, Film in Context: Citizen Kane , History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. The Mark of Kane, Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48.

Stanley Kubrick and his Conspiratorial Interpreters. According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubricks The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is trump leadership style, studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Examining The Hound And The Mystery Of Edwin Drood? Vary adds that The Shining is a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the leadership, last 40 years. Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of financial statement, The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations. There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubricks cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen Kings novel. Watercutter explains Weidners thesis further:

As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (its 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the rooms key: ROOM No 237. Theres only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them, Weidner says. And thats moon and room and so on the key, the tag, it says moon room.' (Those letters also spell moron, but that seems like more of a coincidence.) One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is trump leadership style, that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in apple financial statement, the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullmans office. According to trump leadership style Weidner, Ullmans paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the Piracy Essay, window in leadership style, that scene does not exist in Novels The Hound Baskervilles and The Mystery Drood, the floor plan on trump, the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of persuade song, classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the trump, labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the Media Piracy Essay, monster. As evidence, Kearns argues that Jacks face gets progressively bull-like in the film. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film. Her evidence is quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to trump style allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film.

Vary discusses Aschers contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name Monarch, a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Media Piracy, Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on trump leadership, his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jacks Adler typewriter goes from of venus myth a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Trump Leadership? Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriters color shift has significance to about policy his theory that Kubricks film has a deeply-laid subtext about the Holocaust. That typewriter, that German. typewriter which by trump style, the way changes color in the course of the film, which typewriters dont generally do is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event. This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny).

It doesnt help Cockss case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for what other people would call continuity errors (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . For instance, there is Novels The Hound Baskervilles and The Mystery, a chair that disappears in style, one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubricks attempt to parody the horror genre. Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryans ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and persuade song forwards. Ryan doesnt really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and trump leadership style deconstruct (or hack) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. Mystery Novels The Hound And The? For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jacks abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse.

Note that the figure on trump, the cover of the facts about one child, magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of trump leadership, BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter. Watercutter doesnt say much about Media Essay Blakemores larger theory that the film is trump style, about the facts one child, genocide of Native Americans. In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is quite a bit of style, Native American art on charity society, the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on Wendys clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film which is somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is full of Native American designs.

Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing. In the art deco design of the carpet in trump style, room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): The design on the rug shows basically in geometric form with round curves the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . . Sort of like the picture of down through the generations of what produces life. More evidence of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have but did not made the organization society, cut in trump, Aschers documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in apple financial statement, an in-depth analysis of leadership, The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of charity society, his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in trump style, the film are not Delbert Gradys daughters, the one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the persuade song, gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. Trump Style? She writes:

There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of charity organization society, theories online is only something thats been around in the latter part of the films history. We can only guess what kind of theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at trump style anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and backwards to their hearts content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed Immersion Criticism: the about, kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of leadership style, times. Its not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by of venus myth, anyone whos perceptive, Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at Grantland . Its a matter of noticing things that the trump leadership style, director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention. Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the producer of Room 237 : '[ The Shining ] doesnt solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We dont really know.

Rodney has pointed out the Timeless Mystery and The Mystery of Edwin, that the photograph at the end is leadership, played almost like a big reveal of Aha! But its not really. If anything, it just deepens the Media Essay, mystery (qtd. in Vary). Kubricks reputation as an trump leadership, auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and theres a reason, says Kirk. Media Piracy? That is a jumping off point for a lot of trump leadership style, people. . Facts Policy? . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection, he adds, that if you dont get something . . . theres a trust that its not that its a mistake, its that you didnt figure it out. All work and no play means too tired to leadership style notice obvious continuity errors This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. Its an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.

The Shining is persuade song, a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the leadership, mise-en-scene isnt necessarily so. A reading of the Timeless Mystery of the and The of Edwin, a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesnt list the trump style, one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the apple statement, same incident with the style, ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before). The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy persons conspiracy theory!

So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. Birth? I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death or from the grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of trump, blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the missing Dopey, the floor plan of the persuade song, hotel, and the changed room number. How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, Americas abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in trump leadership style, the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. Its only birth of venus a matter of time before someone links The Shining to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the Mayan Apocalypse.

I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood. Leadership? Prepare yourself. . . Piracy Essay? . Im outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. Trump Style? 5 Conspiracy Theories About The Shining That Arent In Room 237. Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).

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[Essay Tip for leadership, Newcomers] What to write What not to write in Mains IAS exam? This is what I learned from my seniors and toppers. There are plenty of facts policy, articles on internet on how to prepare the essay (=read. editorials daily etc.) Im writing one about how to leadership actually write it inside. In the Essay, Essay paper, they give you 4-5 essays and youve to. write only one. Time limit -3 hours, Max-marks=200. In a 2 marker question, UPSC specifically mentions that answer it in 20 words.

So with that logic, youre expected to write an essay containing around 2000 words for the 200 marks. before you start the Essay writing. Take this example. They asked an style, essay on facts one child Gandhi, I start writing it. I write something like. Gandhi was born in trump leadership style Porbandar then He went to of venus myth Englandafrica..come backfreedom struggle..Gandhi-Irwin..2nd. After 1 hour of writing, I realize that I forgot mention about Champarans Indigo Struggle when Gandhi got actively involved in Indian Freedom struggle for the first time!

Now I cant add it. Because there is trump leadership no space in policy initial pages. However I can still try to trump style add it in the conclusion like. in 1947 Gandhi won the fight he started with Champaran But when Examiner doesnt find the mention of Champaran in the initial pages, then he gets an impression you forgot it = less marks. Hence everything has to apple financial statement be written in its place. Thats why you must.. Think for 30-45 minutes before you start the leadership style, Essay writing. Youve 3 hours to write the essay. Dont immediately start. 1st try to recall everything that you can remember / want to Media Piracy Essay say about the.

essay. Take a pencil and leadership style, write them all (in very brief) on myth the end of the answer. sheet See if there is any chance of trump leadership, adding some diagram or table in of venus it? any famous quotes? Current events People Historical events Laws / Administrative polices related to it. Once youre done adding everything. that you can think about, regarding the essay- then give those topics, order of. The order is very important, just like in wedding.

parties you start with Soupdal-roti andIce cream in the end. Introduction Background / History related Main concept / theory / what the subject is about Current scenario related to it. Good sides Negative sides / obstacles Suggested reforms Conclusion. everything has to be written in its place. Gandhis Champaran must come in the beginning not in the end. 1. Autocracy is better than democracy. (know that its the democracy thats allowing you to criticize it) so you should never justify certain solution to leadership Indias problems. 2. Excessive criticism of Govt. / administration (I mean the persuade song, frontline and The Hindus stand)

3. Style! Seeing negative sides with out suggesting reforms in. Sometimes the essay topics are given in such a way, that you want to agree all the birth of venus, way. E.g. Panchayati raj is wastage of tax payers money. (yes it seems so, just like NREGA but when youre writing an Essay you need to maintain some balance) Poor people are their own enemies. In such cases just because he gave you statement doesnt mean youve to sing in his tune throughout the trump leadership, paper.DO NOT forget to show the other side of the mirror. Its Easier to birth myth criticize a non working things than to fix it. (Remember this all time during essay.)

Donot give filmy solutions to real life problems. Trump! (Munna Bhai MBBS / Slum Dog Millioner.) Dont go naming individual politicians their achievement / scandals (Kalmadi, Raja,Amar Singh etc.) (except in Piracy Essay the foreign policy related essay, where youve to trump leadership style analyse from persuade song entire Nehrus Panchsheel era to Vajpayees Lahore Bus visit and current affairs.) our Foreign policy has changed with every prime minister so their names need to trump be mentioned. Never write essay talking like Congress did this and BJP did that. Its the trait of a common man, not of a future officer. Give a balanced answer With out getting into hero-worship or mud slinging If criticizing Govenrment in the essay alone was going to make you IAS officer, then every journalist of Aaj Tak would be an IAS officer. An officers trait is to remain anonymous, faceless and charity organization, neutral- meaning your essay should look like it has been written by a graduate. Same applies for. 1. Religion / culture/ language-literature (in philosophical essays) 2. States (in polity / federalism / Development) Im not saying you should transform into a sterile person writing the leadership, essay with out having any personal view/ opinion or righteous anger but, you mustnt become too much passionate about about one child certain things. Im saying all this because you can never be sure about what will be the style, political / ideological / religious / regional alignment of the examiner. This suggestion also applies while dealing with Public Administration (optional subject).

1. Dont make mistakes in writing who said what. E.g. you quote Abraham Lincons sentence and write George Washington said it. About One Child Policy! nothing will make you look more stupid in the eyes of the examiner than that. 2.Quote Exactly as it was said. Mao said Power flows from the barrel of a gun so you should not write it as. barrel of the gun contains power muzzle of the gun flows the power You must quote the quote verbatim.

If youre not sure then dont quote it. Tip#6: Padding Deviating from the subject. Even in the worst case, youre supposed to write 1200-1500 words for a 250 marks essay. Padding means, you dont know the exact answer so you just beat around the bushes and write the trump, garbage stuff to fill up the pages, while this tactic does work in the school and college exams but dont try it in the essay paper. Dont write too many proverbs / quotes/ (invented) case studies/examples per page.

It makes the apple financial, examiner think that youve no input of your own so youre just filling up the pages. Donot pick up the trump, subject where your idea or thought content is very low. Ex. Examining Mystery! you picked up Do we need nuclear power So you start with how thermal power-stations create pollution, there is leadership style huge demand and Media Essay, low supply of electricity, nuke power is cheap, and. then the dangers such as Japanese Tsunami etc. After 4 pages, your thoughts and ideas are exhausted-youve nothing more to say and assuming that you write 100 words per style, page, you realise that only 400 words wont get you any marks ! now you cant scratch those pages and write a new essay on the Timeless Mystery Novels of the Mystery new topic, youve wasted enough time on this one. So you decide to continue with this nuke-power essay and start rewriting the same stuff you already stated in different ways and then youll deviate from the leadership, main topic- like nuke power is unsafe as we saw in Japan.

so we need to switch to renewable energy source like Sun, Wind and Water - then 4 pages on Examining the Timeless The Hound of the and The Drood advantages of trump leadership, renewable energy as if this is an essay on the benefits of Media Piracy Essay, Non-renewable energy and not on nuke power, you write about the pro-cons of hydro-electricity like dams and leadership, displacement of people. Then you realise omg, displacement of facts, people also applies while making nuke-powerplants like in Maharashtra! so you come back to the topic -half page written but still youve not filled up enough pages so you start talking about to land-acquisition policy and style, start writing the pro-cons..another half page on it. Then you think oh i must talk something about the apple financial, Indo-US nuke deal so you go on talking about leadership style how we havent signed the CTBT and yet N.S.G gave us clearance and China-Pakistan couldnt stop it so we are a global power now and birth, we deserve a permanent seat in UNSC! This kind of padding goes on until time is up. Youve messed up the leadership style, whole thing, you totally deviated from the subject.

Your essay doesnt have any flow of thoughts or proper rhythm. The seasoned examiners immediatly sniff out this padding and they dont give much marks for the Timeless Novels Mystery of Edwin, it, your expected score for this kind of garbage writing is less than 50/200, means even with decent score in all other papers, your chances of trump leadership style, getting interview call is close to zero. Youve jeopardised your chances. of selection in of venus myth IAS, youve digged your own grave. Style! Thats why take great care in picking up the subject first 30-40 minutes for thorough thinking. Piracy! stick to the subject. Same applies while dealing with the big 60 marker question in GS and leadership style, optional papers. Persuade Song! (not 30 minutes of thinking but atleast 5-7 minutes!) Essay is not something that can be learned reading one book or reading for 1 month. Its a continuous and long process takes some diverse reading before youve enough content to write something decent and something big enough to fill 20 pages to fetch 100+ marks.

Editorials of trump leadership style, english newspapers ( but dont get swayed about by either leftist. or capitalist stuff preched by both sides) Magazines like Frontline, yojana, Kurukshetra. (it gives you the fodder material: statistical data to quote like how many % illiterate and so on Piracy but again dont use too much statistical data for padding and most importantly dont invent your own case studies and stat.data) Watch English news channel discussions / debates. See the old question papers and try to style make an outline of each and persuade song, every Essay asked so far. To increase your idea and fodder-material for trump leadership style, brain storming, you can read some books outside studies, related to Indian culture, democracy and Development, just for time-pass for example. In 2009s mains attempt, I got only 20/200 marks in facts one child policy the Essay. Leadership Style! It was about are we a soft state? . I wrote it only from the Media, foriegn policy and law-n-order point of leadership, view, without seeing the persuade song, cultural -historical contexts. It was a monotonous essay without any spark.

Moral of the story: do try to see different angles of the subject and give a thorough thought before you start writing. Some veterans are in opinion that you should pick up the essay on technical subject, example space-technology, advances in medical science, how IT has changed lives and leadership style, so on. Because only a few people attempt them, and due to technical nature, your ideas are unlikely to be in conflict with the Media Piracy Essay, examiner so youll get more marks. But then again you need enough content to write 1500+ words else the leadership style, padding route=digging your own grave. And there are enough toppers who wrote the non-technical essay and still got in the top-merit list so as usual for every generalisation made about UPSC, youll find a counter example! Predicting Essays for 2011 Mains paper. As usual coaching classes try to anticipate which essays will be asked, and UPSC makes sure they are not asked. Society! So be prepared for everything- dont just rely on selected hot-topics like Lokpal and Civil society. Trump Style! In old times, it was quite predictable, see the papers from 1997 to 2006: almost every year there is an charity society, essay on polity-judiciary, one on women empowerment, one on Science-tech, one on democracy and governance. But nowadays UPSC is rapidly breaking the leadership, trends.

Lets look @ the 2010 paper. People predicted: there will be some essay on games, due to CWG or Asiad or even on the Timeless and The Mystery Drood corruption and good Governance given CWG and 2G scams. But there was nothing. Im putting the comparative list of essays asked in last two years (2009 and 2010). Leadership! Make your own judgement and apple financial statement, prediction and trump leadership, prepare accordingly.

Vulnerable groups of society (India vs. Bharat Debate) Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country? (2010) (can be classified as current affairs due to Mines regulation bill) Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? (2009) From traditional Indian philanthropy to the Gates-Buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift?-2010 The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the facts about policy, haves of trump leadership, our society-2009. Preparedness of persuade song, our society for trump leadership, Indias global leadership role. 2010 Are we a soft state? 2009 Good Fences make good neighbors. Novels Of The Mystery Of Edwin Drood! 2009.

One more bad news: in 1997 to trump 2006 era, UPSC gave 6 subjects and you had to write one essay, in 2009: five options and in 2010 : only 4 options. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Environment by ShankarIAS Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Art Culture by facts Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Bipin Chandra: Post Independence Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma MK Pandeys Analytical Reasoning 23 Years Topicwise Paperset Hindi or English School Atlas Mains: Language papers Samnya Hindi by Unique Publication Compulsory English by AP Bhardwaj (TMH) (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Lucents General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshis Objective General English Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe Kirans SSC paperset since 1999. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar Objective General English SP Bakshi Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha. Sarvesh Kumar AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Number theory: Nishit Sinha Reasoning: Nishit Sinha AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe IIM Day to day Economics Beyond that Max Practice. (FREE) Previous Solved papers Lucents General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshis Objective General English. 198 Comments on leadership style “[Essay Tip for about policy, Newcomers] What to write What not to write in Mains IAS exam?” My birth in november 1990, will I be eligible for style, CAPF? if you are under 25 than you are eligible otherwise sorry bro but you miss the chance in this life but dont worry you have too many ooportunities in your life because CAPF is not the end of life we have actuaaly so many golden chances in our life so dear be happy be positive.

if you belong to obc caste,you can apply..you have 3 years age relaxation..so upto 27 years you can apply..all the best. upsc cha eassay marathi bhashet lihu shakto ka. thanx for useful info. Please upload a sample of charity organization, essay and elaborate it how you thought about points on that particular essay means step by step framing so it would be more clear to style us Thanks a lot for your kind support What is your Message? Search before asking questions confine discussions to myth exams related matter only. Very useful information is leadership given .

Past some more in society this context. sir please tell me can we start writing essay with the trump leadership, help of anecdotes. what should be the predicated essay topics for capf(ac) 2016??n please also suggest how to prepare for paper2 as very few days are left.. I want to give my essay GS paper in Hindi medium and optional paper in persuade song English. Can I do this? Eassy marathi language madhe lihu shakte ka mi?? What are the trump style, basic requirements for sitting in UPSC exams? Like the age criteria or the qualification and birth of venus myth, much more. Leadership Style! Would u please tell me? How to write a essay?My topic is drought If I have to write only 2 page about Media mahila or vikas such kind of topic than what we should mention. I want to ask about leadership courses and books . which types of book and of which writers we should prefer for examination ? could you pls elavorate any topic so that we will abe to understand more and thanks for guideline.

i forgot to write title before my essay? Will my essay be evaluated? Please upload one sample essay. dear sir i compose a essay in per week it will be enough for the Timeless Novels The Hound Baskervilles and The Mystery, me forpreparation of civil service examination. Hi,I am doing LLB in Punjab,so I want to go for law optional with Punjabi language of leadership, mains,is this possible to write law optional in Punjabi.Plz reply tnx.

Eassy me hindi me likh sakta hu kyuki english mere uthane achi nhi hai. Likh to sakte ho lekin seekh lo English. Officer bn gye to bahut kaam aayegi. Sir, myself Shangreipam from manipur. Please help me to prepare for essay topics. What book should i study for these. Kya me in essay paper Punjabi language me in de Sakta hu.

Sir asp mujhe please bataye ke me in essay paper Punjabi language me in society de Sakta hu because English mujhe aachi taren se aati NAHI hai. Sir, please update this content. Marathi language madhe aslele mock essay pn upload karal ka? Idea yeil mother tongue madhe essay kasa write karaycha.mag tyanusar survat karu aamhi. hai please tell some useful websites for learning online classes and you tube channels for upsc preparation.