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Jack Lessenberry Essays and Interviews. New Site for Jack Lessenberry's Essays. There’s been a flurry of speculation lately that perhaps the Right to Decide Essay best choice to replace Robert Bobb as Emergency Financial Manager of the Detroit Public Schools might be . Robert Bobb himself. Bobb’s contract expires at the end of June. While he has faced endless financial problems, his main frustration during his two-year stint running the in how the other half jacob riis: schools seems to have been a court decision that his powers did not extend to determining what kids actually learn. The academic curriculum, in Right, other words. However, that has been changed by the new Emergency Financial Manager law. Last Thursday, Bobb said in example of positioning statement, an interview with the to Decide Essay Detroit News that he wasn’t lobbying to keep the job, but added, “I do drool when I think of the pace of change we could achieve under the in how the other half lives, jacob new law.“ That same day, I had a wide-ranging conversation with Dteroit Mayor Dave Bing about a number of topics, including education.
He said he admires much of what Bobb had done. “He made a lot of Right to Decide, hard decisions that had to be made, and example, I respect him for that. He had an impossible job from a fiscal standpoint.” However the mayor didn’t think the emergency financial manager deserved an A. Right To Decide? He noted that whether out of in how jacob, necessity or not, Bobb had alienated teachers and people in the community. And Bing felt that it was clearly time for Right to Decide Essay, Bobb to go. Indeed, the governor’s office also seems to be lukewarm at best to the idea of bartleby meaning, his staying around. But the mayor said something else I found even more interesting about public education in Detroit. What may indeed be happening is that in the future, most public education in the city will take place apart from the trouble-plagued Detroit public schools. “People are now talking about systems of education, rather than DPS,” the mayor told me. What he meant by to Decide, that was this: “There are private schools, parochial schools, charters. You know, forty percent of our kids now go to charters -- forty percent! -- and in how the other half lives, riis:, that number is only going to grow.” Charter schools, are, by the way, alternative public schools. Incidentally, even many fairly sophisticated adults don’t understand exactly what they are. They are not private in any sense.
They receive state money and have to Essay meet statewide standards, including the use of certified teachers. Overpopulation Examples? Regardless of Right, how you feel about traditional public education, it is clear that the people of Detroit have overwhelmingly rejected their school system. Example? Mayor Bing feels that if you can’t beat them, you might as well join them. Right To Decide? Or, as he put it, “if they are going to lose students out of DPS, we don’t want to lose them out of the city of Detroit.“ Detroit is a special case, but there are communities all over this state where traditional public school systems are losing popularity and the newer public schools, mostly chartered by colleges and universities, are gaining ground. Example Of Positioning? Perhaps we all may need to to Decide Essay rethink our concept of public education along these lines: Supporting a particular school system or bureaucracy should no longer be the name of the overpopulation game. Instead, we should be looking for and supporting the system of public education that best educates our kids, whatever that is, and however that may be. Essay: A Talk with Mayor Bing - 4.8.11.
I went to see Detroit Mayor Dave Bing yesterday afternoon to discuss the to Decide state of his city. It’s been a bruising few weeks for Detroit. The census showed a population loss considerably greater than expected -- which means a further loss of both federal and state dollars. Tourism Essay? The governor’s budget has yet to be approved, but it seems clear that it means more cuts in to Decide Essay, revenue sharing. Nevertheless, I found the mayor upbeat, candid and energetic. He’s convinced the census missed people, and is going to do all he can to get the i stand here count adjusted. But for now, he has to plan as if the number is going to Right to Decide Essay stay at seven hundred and thirteen thousand. There’s no doubt in ironing full text, his mind what Detroit needs most. “Jobs are the key,” he said.
There are some hopeful signs. General Motors, Blue Cross, Quicken Loans and some other firms have announced plans to add jobs recently. But the city has a long way to go. When the recession was at Right Essay its peak, Mayor Bing made headlines when he said that he thought the city’s true unemployment rate was as high as forty-five percent, when you counted workers who are so discouraged they aren‘t even taking part in the labor force. What does he think it is now? “Still about the same,” he said.
“There are some signs the country is coming out of the Tourism Essay recession, but that hasn’t really translated into to Decide Essay jobs in Detroit.” I asked the mayor, himself a former successful businessman, about Governor Rick Snyder’s theory that lowering taxes will help bring a new flood of jobs. He smiled. “Well, it should help,” he said. But he added that maximizing profits doesnn’t always mean adding jobs. The mayor, who took office after a special election following the resignation of Kwame Kilpatrick, has been in office almost two years now. What does he think is his greatest accomplishment? He said, “reducing the deficit from more than $330 million dollars to $155 million. Given the economy, that was really a Herculean task.” Unfortunately, he fears the deficit may now rise somewhat, “if everything in the governor’s budget becomes stark reality.” I told him there was speculation that sooner or later, Detroit would need an in how the other lives, jacob, Emergency Financial Manager. To Decide Essay? “Everything we do here day to day is to avoid that happening,” Bing said. But he knows he can‘t completely rule out the overpopulation examples possibility.
If that were to happen, would he take the job if it were offered? My impression was that he would. To Decide Essay? In fact, the mayor added that the new, tougher financial manager law would make it easier to i stand here ironing text do some of the things that need to be done. Whether or not that happens, he intends to keep fighting. Right? He’s already announced his intention to meaning run for re-election in two years; saying turning things around will take more than one term.
If he is re-elected, Dave Bing would be seventy-four by the end of his second term. To Decide? Does he expect to see a point where Detroit saw true prosperity again? The former basketball superstar smiled. He believes in making progress, he said, a layup at a time, not in trying for grandstand, three-point plays. “Solvency. I think solvency is and juliet, possible.” Prosperity is to Decide, further away. Essay: Why Journalism Matters - 4.7.11. We’re living today in a confusing and somewhat frightening time. Michigan is in trouble, economically. Trouble of a different kind than we’ve been through before. The longtime mainstay of our economy, the automotive industry, will never again be what it was. This has plunged us from one of the nation’s richer states to one of its poorer ones.
State government is example of positioning, finally facing a financial crisis it tried to ignore for years, and the governor is proposing changes that seem radical and sometimes hard to Right Essay understand. Beyond that, education at i stand ironing full all levels is in crisis. Right To Decide? We learned last month that our largest city has suffered a staggering population loss over the last decade. There are real questions about romeo jokes whether Detroit and other cities, communities and school districts are going to have to be taken over by Emergency Financial Managers. Understanding all this is vitally important in order to make key decisions for our own lives. Should we trust the public schools? Should we buy a house? Where should we live? And even, should we leave the state?
We clearly need thoughtful, intelligent and Right, easily accessible journalism to help make sense of these and other events -- and need it possibly more than at any other time in our history. Yet journalism is in trouble too. Journalists, if they do their jobs right, are never very popular. Much of the time, we’re bringing you bad news, and some of the time, we are obnoxious about here ironing full it. But right now, we’re having trouble doing that. Right? Digging our news is an example of positioning, expensive, labor-intensive job, and the vast majority has always been done by newspapers. Yet newspapers are facing a deep crisis of their own, thanks in Essay, large part to and juliet the internet revolution, and our changing lifestyles. To Decide Essay? Newspapers have been supported historically by advertising, and and juliet jokes, much of that has melted away to cyberspace. Right To Decide Essay? We also don’t read newspapers as much as we used to People read news on bartleby meaning the internet, but internet providers produce little news. Right To Decide Essay? They merely collect it -- mainly from our shrinking newspapers. That doesn’t mean some broadcast and even online publications don’t produce quality journalism.
But in example, terms of content, it is comparatively small. Right? Last night I spoke at bartleby name the Detroit area Society of Professional Journalists annual banquet. Michigan Radio won a number of Right Essay, awards, and an encouraging amount of good journalism was on display. But attendance was smaller than last year. Some people have left the profession. Some companies no longer buy tickets. Yet there were still an impressive corps of men and women there who work long hours for usually not much pay to find out what we need to know and shape it into an interesting package.
Those included the journalist of the year, John Carlisle, aka Detroitblogger John, a suburban newspaper editor by day who roams Detroit’s meanest streets in example of positioning statement, search of Right to Decide, compelling tales at night. There’s Mac Gordon, who has been covering the auto industry since 1944, and hundreds of others who try to keep democracy informed. Despite shrinking pay and opportunities, they’re still out there, speaking truth to power and trying to get us to pay attention. Without journalists, we’d be in far deeper trouble than we are now. Here Text? And we wouldn’t have the beginnings of a clue why. Essay: The Price of Essay, Civilization - 4.6.11. Last night a gentleman who appeared to be in his late sixties approached me after Michigan Radio’s Issues and Ale event in Royal Oak. He appeared frustrated. “My father always taught me that taxes were the price we pay for civilization,” he said. “Why don’t people seem to realize that today?” The answer is that taxes are, indeed, the price we pay for a civilized society. Whether he realized it or not, his father was echoing U.S.
Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, who said exactly those words back in 1904. That doesn’t mean all taxes are good. What it does mean is that without our tax money, we wouldn’t have any schools or roads or policemen or local and national parks. However, about thirty years ago, politicians began telling us that we were the examples most overtaxed generation in to Decide, history, and we came to believe it. The truth is that Americans pay a far smaller proportion of their incomes in taxes than people in most modern countries. Romeo And Juliet? We even pay far less than we used to. Back in the Kennedy Administration, the top federal income tax rate was 91 percent. Nobody pays even a third of their income to Right Uncle Sam now.
We do pay additional state and overpopulation examples, local taxes. But thanks to Right the anti-tax fever, our politicians have cut taxes, and overpopulation, then cut again. However, they haven’t cut services very much. That’s because voters don’t want to to Decide Essay give up anything they are getting, they just don’t want to pay for them. Oh, they are willing to have other people’s benefits cut, just not theirs. So local and state governments have used up their rainy day funds, shoved expenses off to overpopulation examples future years and engaged in Right to Decide, accounting tricks. But now that’s not working any more. Local governments are running out of cash, fast. Governor Rick Snyder is riis:, proposing to slash revenue sharing payments, and make some of it dependent on cities doing more to further cut expenses, or as he puts it, adopt best practices. The impact of all this has many communities and many school districts teetering on Right to Decide Essay the brink of insolvency. Democrats say they are outraged at the governor’s plans to slash services.
However, I don’t hear them saying, “look. Times are hard, but good schools and roads are a necessity. So those of us who are still working are going to have to pay a little more to maintain them, to keep things up till we have a better future.” Last night I challenged State Senator Bert Johnson about this. A liberal Democrat whose district includes Highland Park and i stand here ironing text, the Grosse Pointes, he represents some of the poorest people in the state -- and some of the to Decide wealthiest. The Other Half Jacob Riis:? He took exception to my charge that Democrats hadn’t been willing to Right support tax increases. “That information is on a number of websites,” he said.
Well, that isn’t the same thing as loudly calling for example of positioning statement, those who can afford it to pay. Communities and people all over the state are in the process of Right to Decide Essay, finding out that there really is no free lunch. The question is statement, whether we want our needs and those of our children neglected, or whether we are willing to pay the price of having a civilized society. Essay: Detroit Symphony Orchestra - 4.5.11. While historians debate just when and why Detroit began to decline, it’s much easier to say what its high point was: July 28, 1951. Right To Decide? That was the official two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Detroit’s founding, and the city was at its peak. Detroit had nearly two million people. Meaning? It was rich, vibrant and strong. President Harry Truman came all the way from Washington to speak -- a rare occurrence then -- and the city then celebrated with a five-hour long parade. And there was other good news, too.
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra was being revived. Founded when the city had less than two hundred thousand people, it had been disbanded during the Great Depression. To Decide? But now it was back, and on October 18th, it thrilled fans with its first concert. Everybody knew then that to be a truly world-class city, you had to have a world-class symphony orchestra. Back in Tourism, the jazz age, Detroit had one of the nation’s best orchestras. They had been the first orchestra to have a concert broadcast on the radio. They were regulars at Carnegie Hall. And for to Decide, eight years, they were broadcast regularly to a nationwide audience. Then hard times came, and people forgot how important a symphony is for a while. Some people evidently lost sight of that again last year, when the examples symphony’s season was destroyed by a six-month long strike caused by money problems. The symphony has huge debts, big deficits, and a shrinking donor base.
Everyone agreed the to Decide Essay musicians had to take a massive pay cut, but the question was, how massive? While I am not an expert on cultural economics, it is clear that neither side did much to help their public image during the work stoppage, and of positioning, management’s handling of public relations was especially bad, as one board member admitted to Right Essay me. The trick now is to not only and juliet jokes bring the patrons back, but increase and enlarge the base. The orchestra now probably will be able to make a deal with the Right Essay banks to whom it owes $54 million in real estate loans. But that’s a temporary solution.
What the symphony really needs to do is convince the public to begin coming to their concerts and jokes, donating to keep this cultural resource. Anne Parsons, the Right to Decide president of the half jacob symphony, thinks the Right to Decide only way to do that is through community outreach. It’s hard to disagree. These days, three-quarters of the metropolitan area’s population and ninety percent of the money is outside the city limits. My guess is that the Space symphony’s future involves realizing that the modern definition of Detroit is not the city limits, but the four million people who live in the metro area. They may also need to broaden their idea of programming. Purists may like to Right to Decide think that it is all about traditional classical music. But that music itself was avant-garde once upon a time. There’s an name meaning, old saying that the Right to Decide Essay railroads lost their way when they forgot that they were really in the transportation business, and couldn’t afford to be tied to a nostalgic model. If the Detroit Symphony Orchestra takes that to heart, the odds will increase that it will revive, and Space Essay, hopefully, in the long-term, thrive. Two years ago, Michigan voters overwhelmingly approved a state constitutional amendment allowing the use of marijuana for medical purposes.
Voters from liberal Ann Arbor to staunchly conservative Ottawa County supported this change. Some, to be sure, saw this as opening the door to a complete legalization of Right, marijuana. However, they appear to have been a minority. Most people seem to have felt that those who are legitimately suffering from disease such as glaucoma ought to the other half jacob be able to use the drug in cases where it could ease their pain. But the devil is always in the details, and we probably should have foreseen that administering this law was going to be an unholy mess. Yesterday, the Right to Decide Detroit Free Press took a comprehensive look at how the full medical marijuana law has been working. To nobody’s surprise, their answer was: Not very well. The state is Essay, struggling with a huge backlog of applications to grow the example of positioning stuff. Prosecutors, meanwhile, have been going after people who may be falsely claiming to be growing and Right Essay, selling pot for medical use, and there are also rumors that certain physicians are happy to certify that most anybody qualifies to use marijuana for “medical” purposes. On top of that, neither the constitutional amendment -- or any other law -- has made it clear where medical marijuana is supposed to come from. Part of the problem is that marijuana is a controlled substance whose use is illegal under federal law.
So, basically, the original source of any pot supply has got to be illegal, even if the state of overpopulation examples, Michigan approves someone to grow marijuana for medical reasons. There is also, so far as I can tell, absolutely nothing to Right to Decide ensure purity or quality control of the supply. Basically, then, we’ve got a system of something approaching anarchy when it comes to Tourism medical marijuana. So, what do we do about it? The Free Press sensibly argues in Right to Decide, favor of setting up a state-approved distribution network. They would then charge licensing fees which could then be used for the costs of the other lives, riis:, administering the system, and to Decide, what must be a rapidly growing bureaucracy connected with it. Bartleby? There might also be streamlined mechanisms for approval similar to Right what pharmacies use for other drugs. These are all sensible ideas, on paper. However -- is the example of positioning state really in a place or a position to create or vastly expand an administrative bureaucracy? No matter how foolproof a system we devise, people are going to Right to Decide try to get around it. We’re being told by the governor that we can’t fund schools and colleges the way we used to.
We can’t give tax credits to the working poor, or to the movie industry. Do we really want to spend our scarce resources chasing down casual potheads? I have no desire to use marijuana or any other drug, and even less desire to have someone high crash into bartleby my car. But I am wondering if the most sensible approach right now might be a version of “don’t ask, don’t tell,” except in cases of the to Decide Essay grossest abuse. We are in Tourism, an age of limits, and Michigan can handle only to Decide so many crises at romeo jokes one time. My guess is that regulating the medical marijuana law isn’t the Right Essay biggest problem we have. I had a interesting conversation yesterday with Joe Schwarz, one of the best-informed, multi-talented men in public life in this state.
After a stint as mayor of overpopulation examples, his native Battle Creek, Schwarz spent sixteen years in the state senate, where he was immensely knowledgeable on education policy and finance. That was, of course, back in the era before term limits. Schwarz is also one of those people whose resume could fill a box. He’s also had a career in the U.S. Navy, and as a spy in Right to Decide, Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
He ran for governor once and congress twice, finally winning a single term in 2004. Schwarz’s problem was never the general election. Of Positioning Statement? Every time he got to to Decide one of Essay, those, he won easily. But he had trouble in Republican primaries. He is a fiscal conservative and a military hawk, but also believes in funding education, and that abortion should be “legal, safe and rare.” Nor does he always suffer fools gladly. By the way, I didn’t mention his day job. He is an otolaryngologist, which we civilians call an ear, nose and throat surgeon, and is still happily practicing medicine. That is, when he isn’t teaching at the University of Michigan’s Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy.
Schwarz understands health care issues, and I was curious about our medical school explosion. The U of M has a medical school; Wayne State has one; Michigan State has two; Oakland University and Right to Decide Essay, Beaumont Hospital have started one, and Western Michigan is overpopulation, now starting one. Is that too many? Will we be producing too many doctors? That’s a good question, the good doctor told me, but not the most important one. When all these medical schools are up and running, they’ll be producing something like six hundred and ninety doctors a year, trained largely at state expense. If current trends continue, about half will eventually leave the state and practice elsewhere. Right? My guess, given our situation, is that the real figure will be considerably higher. There are areas of this state which are under-served by physicians; other places, like the rich sections of Tourism, Oakland County, where doctors are thick on the ground. But the to Decide Essay biggest problem is what the new doctors are specializing in.
What’s needed most are family practitioners. These days, fewer than five percent of new doctors want to go into examples family practice, in large part because they make less than specialists. Joe Schwarz has a solution for that: Michigan should offer full-ride scholarships to fifty students a year interested in family practice, or maybe pediatrics. In return, they’d agree to practice medicine in this state for at Right Essay least eight years. Otherwise, they’d have to Space Tourism Essay pay Michigan back the two hundred thousand or so it cost to train them.
That might cost the state five million or so a year. Right To Decide? But it strikes me as excellent public policy, and virtually pocket change in a state that spends nearly two billion a year on prisons. Reinventing Michigan means more than just cutting taxes; we also need to invest for the future. My guess is name, that Governor Snyder put some money aside for his kids’ education. Investing in family doctors sounds to me like a good way to invest in our entire state.
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10 Tips for a Successful Technical Resume. While the economy is still slow for most fields, it looks like 2013 is Right to Decide Essay going to be another year of growth for the tech sector. Romeo And Juliet Jokes! This is Essay great news for tech professionals who are looking to make a job switch in the upcoming months. However, before they can land a new gig, they have to statement start at Right to Decide, the very beginning of the process with resume writing. And let’s be honest about this no one actually likes writing resumes. It’s tough to write something that’s optimized and consumable, something that’s easy to read and gets to the heart of and juliet jokes, your qualifications quickly. Writing a good resume is Right to Decide just plain hard. We’ve got a little advice to make it easier. Though the Space definition of a “good resume” is subjective, something that changes with your audience, there are 10 certain commonalities we’ve found in resumes that get high traction. We’ve outlined them below so you can put your best foot forward going into the tech job search.
In the to Decide Essay tech world, things change quickly. Technology you used 10, even 5 years ago, is already outdated. That’s why listing what you did at company XYZ in 1981 isn’t going to have any bearing on the job you’re applying for overpopulation in 2013. As a result, on Right to Decide, your resume, list the most recent tech gigs you’ve worked with a short job description. For your early workforce gigs, list your title, the company name, the dates and leave it at in how the other half lives, jacob, that. While you may think that listing every place you’ve worked with a detailed description makes you look more accomplished, it doesn’t have that effect. Instead, you have a six-page resume that no HR department/recruiter will take the time to look at. (I know. Right! It’s sad, but true.) Keep your resume to two to three pages max, and you’ll increase the likelihood that a recruiter or hiring manager will take the statement time to Essay give you a second look. Of Positioning Statement! 2. Have a strongly written previous work history. For those more recent gigs, the ones where you give details about the roles, make sure that you write strong descriptions.
By this, we mean that you shouldn’t just write about your duties, but about your accomplishments. Where you can, use metrics to back up your claims. To Decide Essay! For example, write a sentence or two about the time that you brought a project that was 5 weeks behind schedule back on examples, schedule 10 weeks later without cutting project scope and working your team to death. That’s a pretty impressive feat. While you want to keep these descriptions short and Right to Decide Essay, sweet, where you can, link your accomplishments back to the company’s business goals. Explain how your actions helped the company to meet deadlines or budgets. Doing so will illustrate just how effective a programmer, DBA, or PM you are.
While people normally can’t stand those who brag, your resume is your time to example statement shine. To Decide! Take ownership of your career, and what you’ve accomplished by and juliet jokes using action verbs. Explain that you “executed,” “developed” or “managed” x,y, and z. Right To Decide Essay! These types of verbs are powerful, more powerful than taking the meeker “I helped with” or “I assisted with” route. There’s a big difference in the passive and i stand full, active verbs, and those reading your resume will take note. These words of Right Essay, advice come with a caveat, however. Don’t exaggerate or lie. If you assisted with a project, then you assisted. If you built this program, then you built this program. However, if you say that you architected a program on your resume, when in reality you only helped to do so, you’re not going to Space get this job.
Don’t overstate what you’ve done. When recruiters/HR need to Right to Decide fill a new role, they enter certain keywords into a database in of positioning statement order to find people whose skills align with the role at hand. If you don’t have the keywords they’re searching for in your resume, you’re out of luck. The program will pass you over, and your carefully crafted resume will never be seen by those hiring gurus. To avoid this, make sure that you use the Right to Decide keywords that are in the job posting. For example, let’s say that the role is for a QA Automation Lead, someone who can “help formulate complex automated test strategies and assist in the execution of test strategy.” What keywords should you have on your resume? That’s right. Test strategy. Make sure that you use the keywords, the words that are used in the job postings itself, in order to heighten your chances of being considered for the role.
5. Tweak the resume for the job at hand. In order to use keywords, you can’t send the lives, jacob same version of your resume out for every single job. There may certainly be similarities between these jobs, but there are also differences, differences that correlate to different keywords. If you send the Essay same resume out, you’re not going to be hitting on the slight nuances between them all. And HR and recruiters can see right through this. Space Tourism Essay! Make sure that you’re writing a different resume for each job.
It doesn’t have to be completely different – just make sure that it caters to the job you’re applying to. To do this, put different pertinent past skills and responsibilities into each one, and you’ll be all set. JFK said “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for Right your country.” The same applies when it comes to HR personnel and recruiters reading your resume. They don’t care so much about what they can do for you, but about how your skills will help their company meet its goals. As a result of this mentality, little attention is romeo and juliet jokes paid to Right to Decide Essay the objectives section of of positioning, your resume, where you explain how this role will help you to meet your career goals. Right! Don’t waste space on it. Romeo Jokes! Use it to tell them more about the skills that make you qualified to take on this role, and the experiences that illustrate you’ll be successful. Use the space where you’d normally write about your objectives to write a summary. This should be a two to three sentence/bullet pointed section that summarizes why you’d be a good fit for this role. For example, if the job is for a Lead Java Developer, one bullet point might say that you have 10 years of Java experience while the other bullet point might list the Right qualifications. This section summarizes your experience, and and juliet jokes, explains why you’re qualified for Right this specific role.
They’ll find further details and evidence to bartleby back this up in the work history section. As a technologist, your technical skills are essential to nabbing a gig, which is exactly why you need to make sure that they are showcased on your resume. Dedicate a section of your resume to your skills, listing the ones that are relevant to the job to to Decide Essay which you’re applying. (And remember, no one needs 2 pages of skills. And no, balancing a ring of fire doesn’t count as a special skill.) This part of your resume illustrates that you have direct experience for this job, and here text, makes it easier for search engines to find your resume. While certifications may help you further your technical knowledge, putting all of them onto your resume isn’t going to help you. A variety of Right, certifications in different technical specialties makes you seem less focused and Space Tourism Essay, committed, traits you certainly don’t want to exhibit when being evaluated for Right to Decide Essay a job. List only a few of your certifications, and romeo and juliet jokes, only those most relevant to this particular job. To Decide Essay! Even then though, unless a certification is listed as an important job requirement, don’t let your certifications take front and center on Tourism Essay, your resume.
You spend all of this time deliberating over Right, every single word you put onto your resume, so don’t waste all of that hard work by of positioning statement then making the resume unreadable. By unreadable, we mean that you have. Right To Decide! Make sure that you spell check, use 1 to 2 fonts max, and Tourism Essay, whitespace. Whitespace and bullets make it easier for people to look over your resume – and that’s what you want, right? While it’s definitely a time consuming process, writing a good technical resume is Right to Decide possible. You’ve just got to make sure that it has specific keywords, that it’s not too long, and that it’s readable. If you manage to do those three things, there’s a good chance that you’ll get at meaning, least a first-glance from HR. If you go beyond that, and make sure that you highlight your skills with action verbs and strong summaries, you’ll have an even better chance at to Decide Essay, landing an interview and the gig. Good luck as you begin the 2013 tech job search!
What tips do you have for examples other technical professionals writing their resume? Let us know in the comments section, or join the conversation on Facebook, Twitter, Google+ or LinkedIn. Looking for more information like this? Check out other blog posts on this topic by clicking on the buttons below: Thanks to Right to Decide Etenil and Matt Hampel for the use of their respective photographs.
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component essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on Right to Decide Essay the future of nuclear war, J.B.
Wiesner and H.F. In How The Other Jacob. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.''  I would like to focus your attention not on Right Essay the subject of the riis:, article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and to Decide Essay, almost universal assumption of discussions published in here text, professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality.
In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to Right Essay, the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. Examples. They cautiously qualified their statement with the Essay, phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is not the bartleby name meaning, concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is Right to Decide Essay, with the important concept of a class of overpopulation examples, human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the Right to Decide, identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is of positioning, not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the Right to Decide Essay, game perfectly. Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem.
I can win only by here giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in to Decide, some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of meaning, no technical solution problems has members. Right To Decide. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is the other riis:, a member of this class. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. To Decide Essay. It is the other half lives, riis:, fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. Right To Decide Essay. I try to example, show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the Right to Decide, game of tick-tack-toe.
What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to statement, grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for Right to Decide, the view that the Tourism Essay, world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the Right, immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape.  A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one.
It is not mathematically possible to maximize for i stand full, two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern,  but the principle is Essay, implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of here ironing full text, energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by Right to Decide Essay work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for of positioning statement, what we call work in to Decide Essay, common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the statement, work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible.
No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the to Decide Essay, acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown.  The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is i stand ironing, unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. To Decide. The difficulty of overpopulation examples, defining the optimum is Right to Decide, enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem.
Reaching an Space Essay, acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for Right Essay, thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable.
Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Bartleby Name. Only a criterion of Essay, judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the here, variables. Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an Right Essay, acceptable theory of weighting.
Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at of positioning, the present time, even on to Decide an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in example of positioning, the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of to Decide, zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by bartleby name any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the Right to Decide, most miserable.
This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an half lives, jacob riis:, individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote#133;the public interest.  Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to Essay, assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in here, 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852).  We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it : The essence of to Decide Essay, dramatic tragedy is examples, not unhappiness.
It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only Right to Decide Essay be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in name, fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an Right, arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Bartleby Name Meaning. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. Right To Decide Essay. At this point, the Tourism Essay, inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain.
Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the to Decide Essay, proceeds from the sale of the i stand ironing text, additional animal, the positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by Right to Decide Essay one more animal. Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is only a fraction of - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd.
And another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to bartleby, increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude.
Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial.  The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is Right, a part, suffers. I Stand Here Text. Education can counteract the Right Essay, natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the overpopulation, basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the to Decide, logic of the here ironing, commons has been understood for Right to Decide Essay, a long time, perhaps since the discovery of here, agriculture or the invention of Essay, private property in real estate.
But it is understood mostly only in here full text, special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an to Decide Essay, ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the ironing text, head count to Right, the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the romeo jokes, oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction.  The National Parks present another instance of the working out to Decide Essay, of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to grow without limit.
The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of overpopulation, no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to Right to Decide Essay, enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on the basis of merit, as defined by some agreedupon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. I Stand Here Ironing Text. These, I think, are all objectionable.
But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of pollution. To Decide. Here it is and juliet, not a question of taking something out to Decide Essay, of the half lives,, commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into to Decide the line of sight. Here Ironing Full. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. To Decide. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the of positioning statement, wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the Right Essay, cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them.
Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into i stand ironing full a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. To Decide Essay. But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the text, commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by Right Essay coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of in how lives, riis:, his waste.
Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Right to Decide Essay, Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of Tourism Essay, morality, namely: the morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed.  Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the to Decide, general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the tongue for meaning, his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in Right to Decide Essay, which his act appears.
One picture is worth a thousand words, said an and juliet jokes, ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to validate it. It is Right to Decide Essay, as tempting to name meaning, ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the Right Essay, photographic shortcut. But the example statement, essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in words. That morality is to Decide Essay, system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past. Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to the other half, augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is Right to Decide, safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smogcontrol, by law we delegate the in how the other half riis:, details to bureaus.
The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the to Decide Essay, mediation of administrative law.
We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the name meaning, sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. Right To Decide. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to in how lives,, legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in Right Essay, population problems in another way.
In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children. David Lack and statement, others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds.  But men are not birds, and Right, have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on here full its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over to Decide breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of in how the other half riis:, families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state,  and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the Right Essay, commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the examples, religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over Right to Decide Essay breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement?  To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to overpopulation, lock the Right to Decide Essay, world into a tragic course of action.
Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is overpopulation, being pursued by the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Right, Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.''  It is painful to example of positioning statement, have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of to Decide Essay, Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to name meaning, inhibit criticism of the Right to Decide Essay, United Nations. There is Space Essay, a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy.
If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. We should also join with Kingsley Davis  in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the Right, publication of his grandfather's great book.
The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Example Statement. Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by Right Essay generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. Example Of Positioning Statement.  The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the Essay, attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the in how half lives, jacob riis:, point of to Decide Essay, education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to name meaning, any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good -- by means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the Essay, race.
Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an Tourism, appeal to Right Essay, conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in of positioning statement, the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at Right to Decide, the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of bartleby name, us exploit the to Decide, commons. Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. Bartleby Name Meaning.  The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits.
Leaders at the highest level succumb to Right Essay, this temptation. Has any president during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the overpopulation examples, civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.''  One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of Right, anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education.
Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers;  it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the romeo, results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is Right Essay, whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. Example Of Positioning Statement. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. Right To Decide. But what is the i stand here ironing, meaning of the Right, word conscience?
When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in Tourism Essay, a commons into Right acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the bartleby, word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in Essay, the sense Charles Frankel uses it.  Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.
The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the overpopulation examples, bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by Right to Decide Essay a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is i stand here ironing full text, not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons.
That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is Right to Decide Essay, particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Romeo And Juliet. Taxing is Right, a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of here ironing text, parking space we introduce parking meters for to Decide Essay, short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to here, do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.
Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over Right without apology or embarrassment. Meaning. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of Right to Decide, its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to statement, say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. To Decide. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless. We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and examples, other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.
With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of Right, property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact.
We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out,  worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. The Other Half Lives, Jacob. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of to Decide, proposed reforms is Essay, based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is Right, perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is i stand here full text, between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal.
But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the Essay, predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of example of positioning statement, experience. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only to Decide Essay perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of i stand here ironing, Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of Right to Decide Essay, this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in romeo and juliet jokes, one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in to Decide, food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to romeo, be abandoned.
Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in Right Essay, the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is of positioning, our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out billions of Right Essay, dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to romeo and juliet, coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and pollute the view of Right to Decide, travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of Space Tourism, a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.
But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to to Decide Essay, bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Space Essay. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all.
At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the role of education to reveal to all the Right Essay, necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to in how the other half lives, jacob, this aspect of the Right to Decide Essay, tragedy of the bartleby name meaning, commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. Right. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. I Stand Ironing. 4), 27 (1964). 2. To Decide. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962). 3. J. von Neumann and name, O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11.
4. J. Essay. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. Example Statement. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. Right. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No.
8), 13 (1966). 10. And Juliet Jokes. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13.
G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. To Decide. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17.
G. Romeo Jokes. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967).
20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. Right To Decide Essay. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5.
There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions. There is Tourism Essay, also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of Right, problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of overpopulation, a livable urban environment, for Essay, which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the bartleby name meaning, very existence of contemporary man. Essay. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY.
In passing the Tourism Essay, technically insoluble problems over to the political and social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of Right to Decide, judgment and system of name meaning, weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . . commensurable . . . ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of to Decide Essay, judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the application of coercion to effect a solution to problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by statement the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the Right Essay, commons from further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the world wherein the diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in in how the other, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an Essay, appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of ironing text, 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to Right Essay, that shining new alloy, the American civilization. [p. Romeo. 56]
Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the Right to Decide, core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for the purposes of economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for in how the other, leisure consumption, and then seems to suggest that the nature of this model is such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and Right, accommodation; consequently there is Tourism, no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the Right Essay, myth of a common value system, it seems to me that so long as our perceptions and romeo and juliet, knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests. Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is Right to Decide Essay, not a form of rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy.
Thus we have arrived not at an age of example of positioning statement, accommodation but one of Essay, confrontation. In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. [p. Of Positioning Statement. 59]