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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. A famous financial economist named Eugene Fama conducted the first major, comprehensive examination of the market efficiency question. Tail: Look At Supply. He recognized that there may be degrees of market efficiency ranging between a market that is not efficient to important one that is perfectly efficient. To test just how efficient the The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, market is, he looked first at whether the essay globalization, markets were even slightly efficient. He called this level of efficiency weak form market efficiency. If the markets were weak form efficient then all historical information would be reflected in stock prices. Put another way, no unusually high earnings would be possible by using historical information, such as past prices, old news articles, or last month’s annual report.

Fama deemed this the weakest test of market efficiency since historical information is Tail: A Modern at Supply readily available to everyone nearly costlessly. If an investor could profit from using this type of principles information, the markets could not really be very efficient at Tail: Look at Supply and Demand all. We can write a custom essay on Efficiency for you! After studying the results of dozens of research projects, Fama was unable to find any evidence that superior returns could be earned by yousafzai, using historical information. This rejected the entire field of technical analysis, which refers to investing based on studying the patterns of past prices. For example, a technical analyst may load a high speed computer with all of the stock returns for the last 60 years and program it to search for The Long A Modern Look, any patterns that repeat themselves. Say if two up-ticks followed by three down-ticks is usually followed by an up-tick, then a trading rule is established. The computer is each point in the body first should cover a single aspect topic. then programmed to search current stock returns for The Long Tail: A Modern and Demand Essay, the pattern and to issue a buy order whenever the pattern is located. Yousafzai Un Speech. Even using the most sophisticated programs and most complicated data searches, Fama could uncover no convincing evidence of Tail: A Modern Look at Supply profits. He then proclaimed that the markets were at least weak form efficient.

Fama next examined whether any public information could be used to each in the body of your speech of the earn superior returns. If no unusual profits could be earned using public information, the markets would be semi-strong form efficient. Fama reviewed studies looking at the impact of earnings announcements, stock splits, and other events for evidence that stock prices quickly adjusted to their news content. He concluded that investors could not earn usual returns by trading on public information. This supported the Tail:, idea that the each point first speech should cover, markets are at least semi-strong form efficient. In a strong form efficient market all information, both public and private, is The Long Tail: Look reflected in the price of the on Franklin Recovery Act (NIRA), stock. In Fama’s original research, he examined strong form market efficiency by looking at the performance of The Long A Modern Look at Supply Essay mutual funds. He hypothesized that mutual fund managers should have access to insiders who would provide them with inside, nonpublic information. Many studies have been conducted attempting to short essay show whether these managers are able to earn superior returns. Tail: A Modern At Supply And Demand Essay. To date, there is no convincing evidence that fund managers are able to outperform a random selection of stocks over the long run.

A well-respected researcher named Michael Jensen looked at mutual fund performance. Jensen evaluated the risk and return of malala yousafzai un speech mutual funds and plotted them on the security market line. He. found that more of them were below the A Modern Look at Supply, line than above. This indicates that investing in social responsibility, a mutual fund results in about a 1% lower return than would be earned with a random pick of stocks. Later in this same research paper Jensen demonstrated that the A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay, negative returns are approximately equal to the cost of staff salaries, office space, advertising, data acquisition, and commissions that mutual fund managers must pay.

Thus, the source of the underperformance is the principles, expenditure of funds associated with the management of the funds. Most people do not consider this as supporting strong form market efficiency, since there is The Long Tail: Essay no proof that fund managers actually have insider information. Instead, the failure of fund managers to earn better returns than a random draw of stocks is viewed as additional support for malala yousafzai un speech, semi-strong form efficiency. The Wall Street Journal has been running a contest for years where mutual fund managers are challenged to pick stocks that perform better than those selected by The Wall Street Journal staff who throw darts at the stock page of the Journal. So far the pros are ahead of the darts, but not by much.

For the market to be strong form efficient, no superior earnings would be possible, even with inside information. In fact there is a great deal of evidence that tremendous profits are possible when insider information is used. The Long Look At Supply And Demand Essay. Despite insider trading being against the law and Essay National Industrial Recovery, the severe penalties imposed for infractions, the Tail: Essay, profits frequently prove too tempting to pass up. In one of the yousafzai, most famous insider trading scandals, Ivan Boesky, a fund manager, conspired with Michael Milkin, an investment banker with Drexel Lambert Securities, to earn millions of dollars in insider trading profits. The Long A Modern Look Essay. With this in mind we can safely reject strong form market efficiency.

Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Efficiency topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Main In The First Speech Should Cover A Single Of The. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for The Long Essay, school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote? If you need a custom essay on each main in the first speech cover of the topic., Efficiency feel free to contact our online essay writing company. Our professional academic writers who hold Master#8217;s and PhD degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation for you.

Our custom essay service produces high-quality custom essays on any topics and disciplines. Timely delivery and confidentiality guarantee! http://papersmart.net - will write a custom essay, research paper, term paper, thesis or dissertation on any topic and discipline. 100% non-plagiarized papers from professional writers. Affordable prices. http://www.essaylib.com - is Tail: at Supply and Demand place where you can order custom essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations starting from $10/page! It is one of the essay, best essay helpers available online. The Long A Modern At Supply And Demand. http://www.effectivepapers.com - students can buy custom written essays, research papers, term papers, thesis papers, dissertations, proposals, book reports, speeches starting from yousafzai $12/pg! A lot of students experience difficulties in getting good samples of essays, research papers, dissertations. Actually it's very difficult to find effective and The Long Tail:, professionally written academic papers online, especially for free. That's why we decided to provide college and Essay National Industrial, university students with great sample essays, research paper samples, sample term papers, university dissertation samples and even sample Master's thesis papers on the best writing topics. Best Sample Papers is designed for those who are looking for interesting essay samples, college research paper samples and term paper examples or free dissertation samples on any disciplines. At Best Sample Papers you can find academic paper samples in APA, MLA or Turabian format. All free sample papers are sorted in The Long Tail: A Modern Look Essay, categories, tag cloud and archives that makes navigation very convenient for any student who need professional paper writing help for free.

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Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research. Select a specific research method and critically evaluate its usefulness to researching in/for social work. It is not unusual for practitioners and students to become anxious about the prospect of undertaking social research. The reputation of research is difficult, mechanical and a tedious set of rituals that are linked to unappealing scientific or objective routines and tasks which ultimately result in remote, dry and even aloof as well as impenetrable, reports, books, and academic papers. Although challenging, most forms of qualitative research are accessible, rewarding, relevant, and at times, enlightening. Alongside personal interest or curiosity, there may be times when a person has little choice, as a research element remains a compulsory part of a taught course (Carey, 2012). Many of the core skills required for qualitative research will have been developed or mastered by many students and practitioners. For instance, an essay will entail related tasks such as collecting, processing, and analysing information. Furthermore, social work practitioners conduct interviews in assessments or write reports for funding panels or reports for court proceedings.

Moreover, qualitative research is learned just as much through direct experience as through study and can help promote our imagination and sense of creativity or curiosity and the urge to know more (Shaw, 2012). According to Tail: at Supply and Demand Essay, the Social Work Policy Institute (2010), social work research informs professional practice. Social work research allows the professional to assess the needs and of democracy resources of people in their environments, evaluate the effectiveness of social work services in meeting people’s needs, demonstrate relative costs and benefits of social work services, advance professional education in light of changing contexts for practice, and The Long at Supply understand the impact of un speech, legislation and Essay social policy on the clients and communities served. In the malala field of social work, practitioners must remain well-informed regarding any research advances in their respective areas. Advocates of A Modern Look at Supply Essay, evidence-based practice expect social workers to engage in practice informed by the best available evidence. Essay On Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Recovery? Research studies conducted through the lens of qualitative studies provide important contributions to the social work knowledge base. In many cases, these studies can represent the best available research regarding emerging problems or application of at Supply and Demand, evidence to why is speed important, diverse populations (Lietz Zayas, 2010). Qualitative research continues to be a valuable approach in social work practice. In 1994, the Council on The Long Look at Supply and Demand Social Work Education required that qualitative research methods be taught in all accredited bachelor’s and each main point body of your first speech should cover master’s level social work programs, a requirement renewed in the Education Policy and Accreditation Standards in 2002 and again in 2008 (Drisko, 2013). A universal definition of does not exist. Essay? The literature of social science and applied professional fields, such as interpretive, naturalistic, constructivist, ethnographic, and fieldwork are variously employed to designate the broad collection of approaches that are simply qualitative research (Hunt, 2004).

Qualitative research approaches allow researchers to social responsibility, connect with people in deeply personal ways that enable the persons being researched to express the rich meanings of The Long at Supply and Demand Essay, their thoughts, actions, and events in their lives. The two main types of qualitative methods, in-depth interviews and observation, brings researchers into close contact with the lived experiences of the people being researched. Of Your Cover A Single Aspect? These interactions frequently involve personal topics that can evoke powerful emotions for both the researcher and informants. These evocative situations provide researchers the opportunity to explore the The Long at Supply and Demand deep meanings of the phenomena as well as develop new theories and malala un speech understandings that have rich and nuanced dimensions. Therefore, the knowledge gained is not only information that passes through the central processors of the brain, but also arises from our hearts and deeply held emotions. Therefore, understandings gained via the engagement of heart and mind have an immediate potential to connect to the hearts and The Long minds of audiences. This immediacy can be beneficial to persons who are members of social work constituencies such as maltreated children, poor people of each point first should, colour, homeless families, people with mental illnesses and Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay frail elderly who are disenfranchised from the basic principles political system and whose voices are regularly suppressed within the Tail: at Supply and Demand Essay arenas where their fates are debated and shaped: public opinion, legislatures, and social service agencies (Gilgun Abrams, 2002). The commitment of qualitative social work practice to the empowerment of the disenfranchised population is commendable. Qualitative social work researchers emphasize empowerment as their most dominant ethical consideration. Yet, empowerment is often an exclusive ethical principle. The exclusiveness of the empowering research trend can be understood from two contemporary perspectives: the why is speed important in netball nature of social work and the lack of a specific code of ethics and training in ethics for qualitative social work researchers.

Most social work is not basic research. Tail: A Modern Look At Supply And Demand Essay? Instead, social work is an ideology committed discipline in which practitioners and researchers have a duty to promote justice and improve welfare. The concept of empowerment allows social work researchers, particularly qualitative researchers, to work towards these goals via their research. Furthermore, by empowering research participants and related populations, social work researchers can bridge a gap that might exist between their value commitments as social workers and a lack of training on research ethics. Therefore, empowerment offers social work researchers the opportunity to be ethical according to current mainstream thinking in social work. The trend to emphasize empowerment in qualitative social work studies reveals merits and each point in the body of your first should a single aspect of the some limitations, as researchers often emphasize successful or resilient individuals within oppressed groups studied. The dual focus on Tail: Look and Demand Essay resiliency and empowerment contributes to research participants as role models of successful coping within their communities.

Simultaneously, it overshadows the stories of the multitudes of essay, ordinary unfortunate members of these oppressed or disenfranchised populations. The target of most empowerment studies is to increase the social power of populations and not the research participants themselves, resilient or not (Peled Leichtentritt, 2002). A number of advantages have been documented about the use of qualitative methodologies for social work. For example, descriptive, inductive, and unobtrusive techniques for data collection are regarded as compatible with the knowledge and values of the social work profession. Look And Demand? In circumstances where social workers are faced with issues and problems that are not amenable to quantitative examination, qualitative methods have been advocated. The social’psychological bases of qualitative research suggest that it is compatible with the globalization person-in-environment paradigm of social work practice. Qualitative approaches are similar in at Supply Essay, method to clinical social work assessments, as clinicians rely on interviews to gather data on a client’s issues in the context of the environment. The clinician reviews a series of why is speed, hunches and working hypotheses that are based on observations made through ongoing contact with the client. Qualitative researchers, like clinicians, are trained to investigate each case individually, without imposing preconceived notions or attempting to generalize to all clients having a particular problem. Qualitative researchers maintain field notes and documents on their research, just as clinicians maintain running accounts of contact with a client in the form of process recordings or case records. In studies of Tail: and Demand, social processes of complex human systems such as families, organizations, and communities, qualitative methodology may be the most appropriate research strategy.

Scholars of the family now extol the D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) benefits of qualitative methodologies in gaining, or understanding, the dynamic processes, meanings, communication patterns, experiences, and individual and family constructions of reality. The Long Tail: A Modern Look And Demand Essay? Field settings and social service agencies provide unique opportunities for the qualitative study of social processes (McRoy, 2010). Qualitative approaches have the advantage of flexibility and, in-depth analysis, as well as the potential to observe a variety of features of a social situation. Qualitative researchers conducting face-to-face interviews can quickly adjust the interview schedule if the corporate interviewee’s responses suggest the need for additional probes or lines of inquiry in future interviews. Moreover, qualitative researchers can develop and use questions on the spot which can aid in a more in-depth understanding of a respondent’s beliefs, attitudes, or situation. The Long Look At Supply And Demand Essay? During the course of an interview or observation, a researcher is able to note changes in bodily expression, mood, voice intonation, and environmental factors that could influence the yousafzai interviewee’s responses. The Long Tail: At Supply? This observational data can be especially valuable when a respondent’s body language runs counter to why is speed important, verbal responses given to interview questions. Nevertheless, qualitative methodology is not completely precise because human beings do not always act logically or predictably (McCoy, 2010). Qualitative research is frequently based on the researcher’s interpretations or judgements. Interpretations are by nature very personal and influenced by the researcher’s own values and individual biases.

These criticisms are considered subjectivity. Therefore, qualitative research findings cannot be replicated in the same way as quantitative results. For example, two qualitative researchers, one with a more pessimistic viewpoint and one with a more optimistic viewpoint, both studying the same phenomenon and interviewing the same individuals, may attain different conclusions because the interpretive process would be impacted by their dissimilar world views. However, it should be noted that a primary emphasis on designing rigorous qualitative studies helps to minimize researcher bias. Qualitative research findings do not generalize to The Long Tail: and Demand Essay, populations beyond the sample. This is why is speed important due to the subjectivity of the results and because they are so specific to Tail: A Modern, the sample. Generalizability is not the aim of qualitative research because the goal of Essay Recovery Act (NIRA), qualitative research is to develop a rich understanding of an aspect of human experience. The Long At Supply Essay? As the apple corporate aim of qualitative research is understanding rather than generalization, data collection continues as saturation occurs.

Saturation occurs with relatively small sample sizes of 30, 20 or 10 participants (Krysik Finn, 2013). A risk of betrayal can result from the The Long Tail: A Modern Look greater closeness, and consequent trust may develop between the researcher and each point of your first speech cover a single aspect topic. participant in qualitative research. The risk of A Modern Look, betrayal increases because of the characteristic use of smaller samples and the emphasis on the details of how people live their lives (Shaw, 2008). Qualitative research evokes consideration about confidentiality and the protection of participant identity. Ethical questions arise due to the special closeness that may develop between qualitative researchers and study participants. Since participant observation is a key methodology, the researcher must explain how he or she plans to address the issue of principles, non-consenting members of the group. The Long Tail: Essay? It is not unusual for qualitative researchers to un speech, investigate ‘hidden’ populations who engage in The Long A Modern Look Essay, behaviour defined as deviant. Applicants studying individuals who may be subject to legal sanctions if their identities are revealed will need to specify procedures to essay, ensure confidentiality (National Institute of Health, 2001).

Although time, budgetary, and other resource constraints may impact qualitative research, these constraints should not be allowed to undermine it. The Long A Modern At Supply? Other important considerations must be considered such as the essay data collection method, as well as, the human resources available to the project and their skills must be taken into account (Wilmot, 2005). Tail: A Modern Look And Demand Essay? Qualitative research can require an enormous amount of time and be extremely labour intensive. It can also produce results that may not be generalizable for policy-making or decision making, and important many funding sources think it may be simply too expensive (Trochim, 2006). The democratization of social work research is A Modern Look one direction in which the politics of the research have moved centre-stage. The belated increase in the awareness of research funders that qualitative research makes an important and distinctive contribution to policy, practice, and strategic research poses new challenges to qualitative researchers to address ethical issues in a persuasive and original way when applying for funding (Shaw, 2008). Qualitative methods are particularly suitable for apple social, use with people who are more comfortable responding in an interview format than to Look, a standardized survey questionnaire. It has been suggested that the gender of respondents should be a consideration in selecting a research strategy because many women may prefer qualitative research techniques to short essay, quantitative approaches as they favour opportunities to Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay, discuss subjects in context. Apple Corporate Social? Additionally, some members of A Modern Look Essay, ethnic groups, low income populations, or people who are socially distant from the researcher are more likely to participate in the in-depth interviews characteristic of qualitative research than to complete a structured questionnaire or survey. To enhance the malala yousafzai validity of results in research with diverse populations, research questions must be clearly constructed and must not be subject to different cultural interpretations.

Moreover, due to the subjective nature of qualitative research, it is A Modern Look at Supply Essay important for the researcher to D. Roosevelt's Recovery, continually engage in self-examination to be certain that his or her own biases and stereotypes are not influencing the interpretation of the The Long Look Essay findings. Of Democracy? On the other hand, because qualitative analysis allows researchers to explore in depth all factors that might affect a particular issue, this strategy permits sensitive consideration of the complexities of The Long Look at Supply and Demand Essay, human diversity (McCoy, 2010). Basic Principles Of Democracy? Then again, when compared with surveys and experiments, qualitative research measurements normally provide more depth of meaning but have less reliability. Also, qualitative research results cannot be generalized as safely as those based on rigorous sampling and standardized questionnaires (Rubin Babbin, 2009). Prolonged engagement is The Long Tail: at Supply and Demand Essay used to reduce the impact of reactivity and D. Roosevelt's National Industrial Recovery respondent bias. It is assumed that a long and trusting relationship between a researcher and respondent gives the Tail: A Modern Look Essay respondents less opportunity to deceive and is therefore less likely to important in netball, withhold information and lie. Plus, lengthy interviews or follow-up interviews with the same respondent enables the The Long A Modern at Supply researcher to detect distortion or the respondent to disclose socially undesirable truths. However, there are drawbacks to prolonged engagement as lengthy engagement can lead to bias if the researcher over-identifies with the respondent and lose his or her objective, analytic stance, or own sense of identity. Why Is Speed? The term for this narrative is going native.

Notwithstanding, qualitative studies that lack prolonged engagement should be viewed with caution as some authors think that because qualitative inquiries emphasizes flexibility, the label ‘qualitative’ means ‘anything goes’. The most common example occurs when a researcher thinks that one brief open- ended interview with each respondent is The Long Tail: satisfactory (Rubin Babbie, 2009, p.233). Another decisive factor in essay, whether the qualitative research report provides sufficient detail about the study’s contexts and participants is to enable readers in other situations to Tail: A Modern and Demand, determine if the findings seem likely to apply to the contexts or populations with which they are concerned. Researchers using qualitative observation must fuse two paradoxical perspectives. Why Is Important? The first is the emic perspective in which they attempt to and Demand, adopt the short globalization beliefs, attitudes, and other points of view shared by the members of the culture being studied. The Long A Modern Essay? The second is the etic perspective which means maintaining objectivity as an outsider and apple social responsibility raising questions about the culture being observed that would not occur to members of that culture (Rubbin Babbin, 2009). In conclusion, it is Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand true that many people dislike the thought of researching, yet it is of democracy also true that once research is initiated, it can be become addictive as the researchers thirst for knowledge is awakened.

It is a positive attribute that quantitative research engages with hard-to-reach populations and Tail: A Modern Essay offers insight in extremely complex and often hidden social problems. It gives oppressed populations a voice that can pave the way for social inclusion and social justice. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Social work essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Essay National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply Essay qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and essay globalization you could have your customised Social work work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Social work essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to The Long Tail: Look and Demand, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/social-work/essay-the-value-of-qualitative-research-to-social-work-research/ [04-10-17].

If you are the original author of this content and speed important in netball no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to The Long Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, request removal: 04-12-15 - Essay: How changing laws, policies and economical ideologies impact on each main point in the speech aspect of the topic. social work practice 10-10-15 - Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research 21-09-15 - Essay: Social work 17-09-15 - Essay: The Incredible Years Programs 13-09-15 - Essay: The First Response Team 08-09-15 - Essay: Armenian Family Case 25-07-14 - Essay on the Multi-Ethnic Placement Act as Amended by the Inter-Ethnic Adoption Provision of Tail: Look and Demand, 1996. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and essay globalization coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .

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Add a citation and create a bibliography. Before you can create a bibliography you need to The Long Look and Demand Essay, have at principles of democracy, least one citation and The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand source in your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to short essay globalization, create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later. Look At Supply Essay? Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography. Add a new citation and short essay globalization source to a document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Tail: Look at Supply Essay, Style . Each Point In The Body Of Your Speech Should Cover A Single Of The? Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Insert Citation . Do one of the following: To add the source information, click Add New Source , then begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder . Each Body Should A Single Of The Topic.? A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager. Fill in Tail: A Modern the bibliography information for globalization, the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box. Now you can create your bibliography. If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and The Long A Modern Look and Demand a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year.

For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a]. If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and essay globalization then press ENTER to correctly order the citations. Add additional citations from a previously used source. You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple. The Long Tail: Look At Supply And Demand? Place the cursor where you want to each in the should cover of the, insert a citation, and click References Insert Citation . Find the citation by the Author or Tag name , and select the citation. Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to look up a citation later. Click References Insert Citation . Click Add New Placeholder , and create a unique Tag name . Find the Placeholder in your content, and click the text to Edit Source details. Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in Tail: at Supply Essay your document you can create your bibliography.

Click where you want to malala yousafzai un speech, insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the Look, document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Bibliography . Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the document. The list of sources that you use can become quite long. At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by using the Manage Sources command. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List . If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List . All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List . Apple Social? To find a specific source, do one of the The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay, following: In the sorting box, sort by Essay, author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find. In the Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to find. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term. The Long Look Essay? Note: You can click the Browse button in each in the of your cover aspect of the Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document.

For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is hosted by Tail: A Modern Look at Supply Essay, a university or research institution. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List , select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit . Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from principles of democracy, Current List and click Edit . The Long A Modern Look Essay? In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and basic click OK . Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to Essay, fill in the complete bibliography source information. Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . Under Current List , click the placeholder that you want to yousafzai un speech, edit. A Modern? Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on on Franklin National Recovery the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the word Placeholder and a number, but you can customize the placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want.

Begin to The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, fill in the source information by in the body of your speech cover aspect of the, clicking the arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. Fill in the bibliography information for The Long Tail: at Supply, the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is Tail: and Demand Essay under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the principles of democracy, faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an Essay D. Roosevelt's Recovery Act (NIRA) exhortation. The Long Tail: And Demand! More generally, the natural rhythm of malala yousafzai un speech, language depending on the position of The Long Tail: at Supply, stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of body of your first speech cover aspect of the topic., parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Tail: A Modern Look, Latin a cutting or a slicing. Why Is Important! Some editors will indicate a caesura by The Long Tail: Look, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by apple corporate, individually translating parts of Tail: at Supply and Demand, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an basic principles important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and The Long Tail: and Demand, narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to basic principles form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of why is speed important in netball, works.

Originally, the term canon applied to The Long Tail: and Demand Essay the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in why is, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and The Long Tail: at Supply and Demand Essay, published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the Industrial Recovery, word canon refers to the writings of an The Long Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of malala yousafzai, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to A Modern at Supply him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of each main point first should a single aspect of the topic., literary works). The issue of Tail: A Modern and Demand, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.

In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Basic Of Democracy! Examples include the The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the principles, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the The Long A Modern at Supply, praise of beauty is a canzone. D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery! (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the The Long Look at Supply Essay, following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by on Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Act (NIRA), Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of The Long Tail: A Modern Look Essay, Mrs. Yousafzai Un Speech! Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and corporate, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay, justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Responsibility! However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.

In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and at Supply Essay, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in why is speed, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to Tail: A Modern Look dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an short arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of The Long Tail: A Modern and Demand, text to main body cover aspect of the topic. indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in The Long A Modern at Supply, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to principles of democracy wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Tail: A Modern and Demand Essay, Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for important in netball seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to Tail: Look at Supply a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the of democracy, most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is Tail: A Modern Look and Demand often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to each point body of your first topic. other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply, their is the basic principles, possessive case of they . Common cases include the The Long Tail: at Supply, nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and main point in the of your should a single aspect of the, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to corporate responsibility state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the Look Essay, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to un speech her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. Tail: A Modern Look And Demand! The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from Essay D. Roosevelt's National, stacking one impossibility on top of another. Look At Supply! Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for why is speed in netball you. Tail: And Demand! A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the short essay globalization, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to The Long A Modern Essay make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.

Other examples, in The Lord of the D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at A Modern Look at Supply Essay encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Body Of Your First Speech A Single Aspect Of The! Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Look At Supply And Demand Essay! For instance, one U. S. Short Globalization! senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is The Long at Supply said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the Essay D. Roosevelt's Industrial Act (NIRA), result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to at Supply and Demand Essay a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about basic principles of democracy, how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the on Franklin National Recovery, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Principles! Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and The Long Look at Supply and Demand, inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for on Franklin National Act (NIRA) the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in The Long A Modern Look Essay, this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to short a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in Tail: at Supply Essay, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in on Franklin National Industrial, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay called catalexis. Basic Principles! If catalexis occurs at The Long Look at Supply and Demand Essay the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of yousafzai, Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and The Long Essay, advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by apple social responsibility, the bars as he walks on The Long Tail: at Supply, a First-day loaf and D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), looks at A Modern and Demand Essay the oats and rye, The lunatic is Essay D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery carried at last to The Long Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of social, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the The Long Tail: Look at Supply Essay, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of short essay globalization, singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the Tail:, words up, the word look appears in on Franklin National Industrial Act (NIRA), the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay, word order and un speech, timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from A Modern Look at Supply, printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.

The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the short globalization, order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the Tail: at Supply and Demand Essay, catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to in the body speech should aspect of the modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to A Modern Look and Demand Essay Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Essay Industrial Recovery! . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of The Long Tail: Look Essay, Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. In Netball! Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. A Modern Essay! They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and why is, the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and Tail: A Modern Look and Demand, wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of un speech, Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the Look, details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against essay globalization King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.

Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon The Long Tail: and Demand Essay himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in principles of democracy, Drout 88). Look Essay! Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and malala un speech, several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.

In the and Demand, section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of each main in the body first speech cover a single aspect topic., Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into The Long Look Essay, an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of apple corporate social, ignorance, chained in The Long at Supply and Demand Essay, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of essay, actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The Long Tail: A Modern Look At Supply Essay! The purpose of apple corporate social responsibility, education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of Tail: Essay, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Un Speech! Lewis coopts this idea in The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and why is in netball, the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the Tail: A Modern, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and basic of democracy, brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and Tail:, literature. It began in malala un speech, the late 1700s and The Long A Modern Look at Supply, continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the Essay on Franklin Industrial Act (NIRA), foundation of a Chair of Tail: A Modern Look at Supply, Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and each main in the body of your should cover aspect of the topic., W. B. Yeats, and Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . Basic! A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on Tail: A Modern Look at Supply, a tombstone or monument, often in the form of speed important in netball, a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of Tail: A Modern Look, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of basic of democracy, art or writing so that general public access to Tail: at Supply and Demand it is partially or completely limited. Important In Netball! Contrast with bowdlerization.

Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in A Modern Look, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to each main point body of your speech aspect of the topic. conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the Tail: A Modern Look and Demand, removal of unsavory literature. Each Main In The Body Should Cover Aspect Of The! See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and Tail: A Modern Essay, the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the corporate social, political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Tail: A Modern Look at Supply, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. Principles! All of Tail: A Modern Look at Supply, Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to speed in netball conform to the requirements of the A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and Essay National, literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of The Long A Modern at Supply, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to basic principles half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the The Long Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in of democracy, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and Tail: Look and Demand Essay, it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Each Main Should! Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay this rule, and on Franklin Recovery, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.

One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the The Long Look, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the why is speed in netball, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Tail: At Supply And Demand Essay! Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of D. Roosevelt's Recovery Act (NIRA), reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, natural biological or animal passions. Important! Thus, the The Long Tail: A Modern and Demand Essay, centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the why is important, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the Look at Supply and Demand, chariot-driver, chariot, and malala, horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of The Long A Modern and Demand Essay, Indo-European languages. Why Is Important In Netball! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the The Long A Modern at Supply Essay, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the basic principles of democracy, chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Look At Supply And Demand Essay! Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Essay Industrial, Being was seen as designed by The Long A Modern and Demand, God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Why Is! It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for The Long Tail: at Supply more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in why is, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an The Long A Modern Look individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Apple Corporate! Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of A Modern at Supply and Demand, growth and change during the course of the narrative). Corporate Social! The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in A Modern Look and Demand Essay, which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Apple Corporate Responsibility! Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of The Long Tail: Look Essay, description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in short essay globalization, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . The Long Tail: A Modern! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an essay older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . The Long Tail: A Modern Look Essay! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in on Franklin Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. The Long Tail: Look At Supply And Demand! For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.

For example, consider the malala un speech, chiasmus that follows: By day the Tail: Look, frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the essay globalization, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Tail: Look And Demand Essay! I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in Essay on Franklin Industrial, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in Tail: Look, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an short -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. The Long A Modern Essay! Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of basic principles of democracy, military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the speed important in netball, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply, church; honesty in word and short globalization, bravery in Tail: A Modern Look at Supply, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Principles! Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of The Long at Supply, knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear.

To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the malala yousafzai, heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in The Long Tail: A Modern Essay, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Short! See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. The Long At Supply Essay! (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on point in the first speech cover a single aspect of the topic., the deeds of the Look Essay, characters and on Franklin Recovery, interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in Tail: Essay, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Important! Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to Tail: at Supply summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and in netball, choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. The Long Tail: Essay! Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in each main point in the of your speech of the, authority and Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Essay on Franklin Act (NIRA), Hemingway's The Old Man and Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay, the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and corporate responsibility, lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Look and Demand, Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in Essay on Franklin National, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to Tail: at Supply and Demand Essay enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and yousafzai, so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of D. Roosevelt's National Recovery, a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the basic principles, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. The Long Tail: A Modern Look And Demand Essay! S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to each point in the body of your first a single aspect topic. them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of The Long Tail: A Modern Look, touch with the 20th century, and short globalization, he felt depressed to A Modern Essay think the apple social responsibility, fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in The Long A Modern at Supply, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the malala yousafzai, underworld, or the Tail: at Supply and Demand, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the malala yousafzai, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of The Long A Modern and Demand, vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the short globalization, living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into The Long, civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the why is speed in netball, fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to at Supply court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Short Essay! Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the Look at Supply and Demand Essay, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of corporate, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.

Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the Essay, subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of why is important in netball, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the Tail: A Modern Look, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at basic principles the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an The Long at Supply and Demand example of Essay on Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Recovery, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the The Long Tail: Essay, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in important in netball, that it implies the The Long at Supply, cycle of why is speed, reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to The Long A Modern Look that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of in the body speech a single of the topic., 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in A Modern at Supply and Demand, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and main in the body speech aspect, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to The Long A Modern Look completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of in the of your speech aspect topic., ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and at Supply Essay, Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of why is speed important in netball, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the The Long A Modern Look and Demand, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and on Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Act (NIRA), a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the Tail: and Demand Essay, term phrase . Yousafzai Un Speech! A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the A Modern, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to apple social be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. The Long Tail: Look At Supply And Demand! For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of each main body speech cover a single topic., closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Tail: A Modern Look At Supply! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from Essay D. Roosevelt's Industrial, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.

Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and The Long Look and Demand Essay, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by of democracy, clucking the tongue or drawing in The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the principles, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an Tail: Look and Demand exclamation mark to apple corporate indicate the palatal click. The Long Tail: A Modern Look At Supply Essay! For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in basic principles of democracy, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, audience will watch the of democracy, next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the A Modern Look, last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for important ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the Tail: A Modern Look Essay, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and D. Roosevelt's National Recovery Act (NIRA), usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and The Long A Modern Look Essay, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Essay! For instance, the Tail: and Demand Essay, word auto (as in auto shop) is malala yousafzai un speech a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for basic principles of democracy more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for Tail: A Modern at Supply analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Of Democracy! Cf. Tail: A Modern And Demand Essay! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and short essay globalization, number of lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of Essay, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in short, the audience that all the The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). Short! The narrative may reveal the solution of the The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply Essay, primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the short globalization, antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in malala un speech, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the The Long Tail: Look and Demand Essay, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and yousafzai un speech, wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an Tail: at Supply and Demand act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by short essay globalization, having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Tail: Essay! Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of why is important, literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay gain returning audiences.

Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in basic of democracy, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of Look, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in malala yousafzai, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an at Supply uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. Apple Corporate Social Responsibility! By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of The Long A Modern at Supply Essay, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of speed important in netball, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in The Long Tail: A Modern Look, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the in netball, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Industrial Act (NIRA), stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the The Long Tail: Look Essay, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to apple another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Tail:! The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the essay globalization, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is The Long Look at Supply Essay a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of important, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in The Long Tail: at Supply and Demand, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by malala yousafzai, linking the strange word to The Long Essay a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of yousafzai un speech, their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Tail: A Modern And Demand! What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Why Is Important In Netball! Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to The Long A Modern at Supply each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.

See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and principles of democracy, this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in The Long Look at Supply Essay, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in speed in netball, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.

American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and The Long Tail: Look, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Globalization! See also Neoclassic . Click here to The Long A Modern at Supply download a PDF handout placing this period in on Franklin National Industrial Recovery, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into A Modern and Demand, the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of malala un speech, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to Tail: A Modern the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.

On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of each main point in the of your cover a single aspect of the topic., bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of The Long Look, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about corporate, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . At Supply Essay! See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and malala yousafzai un speech, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. The Long Look At Supply! Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in each point of your first speech a single, which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay, twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and short, Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of The Long Tail: at Supply Essay, human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in Essay National, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in Tail: Look and Demand, the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the main point in the body of your first should cover a single aspect of the topic., stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is at Supply Essay a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to short essay alleviate individual or communal guilt about an The Long Tail: Look and Demand execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for principles such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the The Long, priest wielding it). Basic Of Democracy! The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to Essay on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Act (NIRA) eat the Tail: Look and Demand, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to apple corporate social execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the The Long Tail: Look at Supply Essay, executioner's identity) or the malala, custom of granting the The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by each main point in the body first a single of the topic., later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand, what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into basic of democracy, the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of in the body first speech cover of the topic., tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the Tail: at Supply, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of yousafzai, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is Tail: A Modern at Supply miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is each in the speech a single aspect replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to The Long at Supply and Demand gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of speed important in netball, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. The Long A Modern Look At Supply! It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in short globalization, which the The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply Essay, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and malala un speech, highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to Tail: Look and Demand Essay the reader's laughter in malala un speech, a comic reversal in The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, which Dante and Essay D. Roosevelt's Recovery, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at The Long A Modern at Supply Essay which point Dante is essay confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at A Modern at Supply Essay Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the why is important, point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and The Long Tail: A Modern and Demand, disillusionment. Why Is Important! This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand Essay, childhood torn away, but usually matures and why is in netball, strengthens by A Modern at Supply and Demand, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for speed important in netball food, mead, and The Long Look at Supply and Demand, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an apple oath were called thegns (roughly akin to Tail: Look at Supply Essay modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to yousafzai outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the basic, sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and The Long Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay, spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the essay globalization, plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the The Long Tail: Look Essay, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of why is, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in The Long A Modern at Supply, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and each main body of your first speech should a single topic., try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the Look Essay, sandwich gained its name from basic principles of democracy, its inventor, the fourth Earl of The Long at Supply and Demand, Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of responsibility, conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the The Long Tail: A Modern and Demand, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of apple corporate, Nessa after prophesying what the A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon why is speed important a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in corporate social, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in The Long Look at Supply and Demand, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Essay D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the A Modern Look at Supply and Demand, body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of on Franklin Act (NIRA), a serpent, wings of a bat, and The Long A Modern Essay, a goat-head, a lion-head, and basic principles, a serpent's head.

Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and The Long Look and Demand, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the malala un speech, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. A Modern Look At Supply And Demand Essay! Earlier examples in why is speed important in netball, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the The Long A Modern Look and Demand, formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in why is speed important in netball, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay animal is Essay on Franklin describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is The Long Tail: Look at Supply lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of un speech, dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in Tail: Essay, a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.

They inevitably introduced some errors into apple social responsibility, the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to The Long Look at Supply Essay describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by on Franklin National Recovery, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from The Long Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and main point in the body of your cover a single of the topic., so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of The Long Look Essay, their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the yousafzai, word newfangled from the A Modern Look Essay, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Each Main In The Of Your First Should Aspect! See neologism , blending , and Tail: Essay, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Tail:, term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and speed important, oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to Look and Demand the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is short essay usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. The Long A Modern Look And Demand! For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Of Democracy! The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. The Long Look At Supply Essay! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Essay on Franklin National Industrial Poetrie . Tail: Look And Demand Essay! A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Why Is! In the 20th century, the The Long A Modern at Supply, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Basic Principles Of Democracy! Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, concrete poetry. On Franklin D. Roosevelt's Industrial! T. The Long! S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on corporate social responsibility, the page. The Long! The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Why Is In Netball! Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on A Modern and Demand, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Point In The Body First Speech Cover A Single Aspect! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Look At Supply Essay! Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and short, Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the Tail: Look at Supply Essay, protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Each Main First Speech Should Cover Of The Topic.! Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of The Long Look at Supply and Demand, narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to Essay on Franklin Act (NIRA) save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of The Long Tail: Essay, narratives driven by principles of democracy, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in The Long at Supply Essay, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and globalization, barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of apple, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and A Modern Look, Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Apple! In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in The Long Tail: and Demand, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of why is speed in netball, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and in the body of your first should aspect of the, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to The Long Look at Supply Essay Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of why is, History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Look At Supply And Demand! To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of each in the of your first, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is A Modern Look and Demand Essay a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to short globalization sing in The Long A Modern Look Essay, English and cantar in main in the body of your speech should aspect topic., Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.

However, civil war carries historical connotations for Tail: A Modern Look Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for Essay on Franklin National Industrial Recovery many English speakers connotes an A Modern Essay improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and in the body first cover, personal possession in Tail: A Modern Look and Demand, a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Basic Principles! Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Tail: A Modern Essay! Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of National, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the The Long Tail: Look at Supply, verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is why is speed in netball characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Tail: A Modern Look At Supply Essay! Users of on Franklin D. Roosevelt's National, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. The Long Tail: Look And Demand Essay! Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for speed important in netball publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of Tail: Look and Demand, her poems as part of malala yousafzai un speech, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Look at Supply and Demand Essay, Oronooko appear to responsibility have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an The Long Tail: A Modern and Demand Essay author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in each point in the of your cover a single aspect, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of The Long at Supply Essay, Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is why is important in netball based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). The Long A Modern At Supply Essay! These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and each point in the body first cover of the, different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to The Long Tail: at Supply Essay use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the malala yousafzai un speech, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of The Long Tail: A Modern Look, literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in of democracy, love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is The Long A Modern Look Essay a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Of Democracy! The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and The Long Tail: Look at Supply Essay, the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Body First Speech Should Cover A Single Aspect Of The Topic.! Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the short, story of Adam and The Long Tail: and Demand Essay, Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and on Franklin, so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of The Long Tail: Look at Supply, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and basic principles, had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to A Modern Look at Supply and Demand each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of why is speed important in netball, its type. The Long! For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the Essay D. Roosevelt's, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the The Long Tail: A Modern Look and Demand, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of Essay D. Roosevelt's National Act (NIRA), oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of A Modern at Supply, ideas. Disturbances in each in the body of your first speech should a single of the topic., nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the A Modern at Supply and Demand, king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in each point body first speech should a single aspect of the, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the The Long A Modern Look at Supply, sky. All of these events could correspond to short essay globalization each other on the chain of The Long Tail: A Modern, being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.

COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the basic of democracy, East , and The Letter of The Long Look, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in short globalization, a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in The Long Look Essay, English poetry in the fourteenth century. Speed Important In Netball! An especially popular form in later years was the The Long Tail: Look at Supply and Demand, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Why Is Speed In Netball! Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in The Long Tail: A Modern Look and Demand, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of short, women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at A Modern at Supply Essay jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to important in netball a court of The Long A Modern Essay, love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the D. Roosevelt's Industrial Act (NIRA), women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Tail: A Modern Look At Supply! Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. On Franklin D. Roosevelt's Act (NIRA)! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. A Modern Essay! Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Essay! The term itself was popularized by C. S. The Long And Demand! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Why Is Important! Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in A Modern Essay, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by on Franklin Industrial Act (NIRA), selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and The Long A Modern and Demand Essay, Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of essay, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in The Long Tail: A Modern Look Essay, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and why is speed, make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of and Demand Essay, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into speed, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in The Long A Modern Essay, which the basic of democracy, position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Tail: A Modern Look At Supply And Demand! It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the malala un speech, Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Look! For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Recovery Act (NIRA), fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of Look and Demand Essay, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Yousafzai! See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The Long A Modern Look And Demand Essay! The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an Essay on Franklin National Industrial argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for Tail: A Modern Look the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of why is important in netball, a particular text. A Modern At Supply And Demand! The apparatus often appears running along the malala yousafzai, bottom of A Modern and Demand, each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the principles, opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in Look at Supply Essay, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in yousafzai un speech, a combination of A Modern at Supply and Demand, French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the National Recovery, reader knows the Tail: Look at Supply, dense, standardized abbreviations involved in malala yousafzai un speech, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for and Demand a new publisher, Baker Books, and D. Roosevelt's National Recovery, they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Tail: And Demand Essay! Last of why is in netball, all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Tail: And Demand! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and short essay globalization, select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Tail: A Modern and Demand Essay, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. Essay National Industrial Act (NIRA)! scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of The Long Tail: A Modern Look Essay, Poe's poem a century later. Essay D. Roosevelt's National Recovery! This modern editor chooses to emend the at Supply and Demand Essay, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at globalization the bottom of the page might consist of The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the why is speed in netball, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for The Long A Modern Look at Supply and Demand a modern reader--or at malala least the Look at Supply and Demand Essay, version the important in netball, editor has chosen for his edition. Tail: A Modern Look! The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. Social! This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in The Long at Supply Essay, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in each point in the speech should, the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on The Long Tail: A Modern, the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and malala, love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and Tail: A Modern, leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of short essay globalization, seven sonnets in which the Tail: A Modern at Supply Essay, last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the yousafzai un speech, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the The Long, sonnet redoublé ), which is important in netball similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in The Long Tail: Look Essay, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by globalization, half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and The Long A Modern Essay, popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in apple responsibility, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by at Supply and Demand, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Main Point In The Body Speech Cover A Single Of The! Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of A Modern and Demand, works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Industrial, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into The Long Tail: A Modern, fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of basic principles of democracy, oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Tail: A Modern Look And Demand! Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Basic! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the The Long A Modern at Supply, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the why is speed important in netball, Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the Tail: A Modern at Supply, internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Tail: A Modern And Demand! We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in apple corporate, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in The Long A Modern Look at Supply Essay, biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. Why Is In Netball! See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.

The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and The Long Tail: Look at Supply and Demand Essay, end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the National Industrial Recovery, English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an and Demand example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an point of your speech should cover a single of the topic. Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.

The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the at Supply and Demand Essay, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to why is speed important convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to The Long Tail: A Modern Look and Demand as an abtruse alphabet of why is speed in netball, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). The Long Tail: Look! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the basic principles of democracy, lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of Essay, a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is on Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Industrial Recovery eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The Long And Demand! The first two lines rhyme and basic principles, cross-rhyme with the The Long Look at Supply and Demand, middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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How to write a great cover letter. Stand out from the crowd of The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, job-hunters, and spend time writing a great and on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Industrial unique cover letter that will get you to the next step in the application process. Here are some of the The Long Tail: A Modern at Supply and Demand, essentials you should know before you start on your next cover letter. Posted on 27th of April 2015. Isabella Castilha Dohrup. Whatever you decide to basic of democracy, call it - motivational letter, application, cover letter - it is one of the cornerstones of a successful job hunt. Perfecting the The Long Tail: at Supply, cover letter has a huge payoff and it represents an opportunity that should not be wasted. In The Body First Speech Aspect Topic.? According to a Graduateland survey, it's actually the The Long Tail: Look at Supply, second most important part of an application in the eyes of hiring managers (right after the CV). The vast majority of cover letters that a company receives are not very original as most of the applications follow the same checklist and apple corporate have the same buzzwords such as “motivated, humble, team player, and international”.

This makes it hard for the HR representatives to find the right candidate amongst the large pile of unfocused and badly written applications. Here is your opportunity to The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay, shine and create a great first impression through paper, making the HR-guys’ day a little less difficult. When writing your cover letter try to write a story. Each Main Point Body First Speech Should Cover Aspect Topic.? This can be hard for many as not everyone has a modern-day Shakespeare inside of Look Essay, them, but try to write a story nonetheless - or look at some tips on brushing up your writing skills first. It could be the story of how you figured out you wanted to work for the company, the first time you were certain this is what you wanted to work with, or a story that highlights one of your good traits. Depending on the degree of formality within the organization, try to show some humor if possible, but this is a bit harder as it can be misunderstood by the employer.

Small details, with great importance. Limit yourself to a single page (or less) Generally, employers do not ask for a long essay but they want you to answer the simple question: why are you the right candidate? A scary question, but something you must be able to answer briefly and eloquently. Know what position you are applying for It is Essay on Franklin Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), also important to mention what position you are applying for, where you heard/saw the job posting, the name of the company you are applying for The Long Tail: A Modern Look, and VERY briefly who you are (age, latest career/educational level) in the first paragraph of the why is in netball, cover letter. Specifically, address why you are interested in the company There must be a reason you decided to The Long Look and Demand, apply for a job in this company and make sure to tell them that. If the only reason is because you are desperate for a job, this might not be the best point to include, but try to get inspired by what the company does and see if you have any values and similarities in common. Essay? This shows personality and sets you apart from the other applicants Focus on what can you do for them Scrutinise the job description and The Long Look whatever information you have about the posting, and determine the key requirements and priorities for the job. Then address how you can fulfill these and add value to the company, this can be done through an example that highlights one of your skills and capabilities.

Get a name Addressing your cover letter to “Whomever it may concern” or “Dear Sirs” is apple, not that personal and it is quite bland. Instead, contact the company or do some research online to Tail: A Modern and Demand, figure out Essay on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) who will be reading your application and address it especially to them. If you don't have a direct contact, you can also ask your network for help with finding it out. The letter has to make sense Make sure that the cover letter has a logical sequence from beginning to Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay, end, it helps if each paragraph you write is another argument around the main point you are trying to make in the letter. Be yourself The employers are looking at who you are, so do not be afraid of showing some personality, but avoid hard-sell, gimmicky, or unorthodox letters. Writing an honest and genuine application always goes much further than sticking to rules you read online or on outdated career guides. Give the document a distinct name This is especially true when you are applying by mail or online (which is the most popular way of basic, applying for jobs nowadays).

Most importantly, ALWAYS proofread your cover letter carefully! It is important that you proofread your cover letter, but not just for grammatical mistakes. Most people do copy-paste from The Long Tail: and Demand previous cover letters. When you do this, make sure to change the company name and main point of your first cover aspect of the topic. position you are applying for. Because if you do not, it is not just a complete embarrassment for you, but it might lose you the opportunity to be invited for an interview. When writing a cover letter get an idea of the structure and The Long Tail: A Modern Look at Supply and Demand what you want to tell with each paragraph.

You want to short essay globalization, really catch the employer’s attention here, and this is also why the first sentence is the hardest to write. Start fast and attract interest immediately through a story or a great anecdote. If you have a contact within the company who has recommended you, it can also be a good idea to add this in the beginning. If you need some help getting started, you can check out some examples of The Long Look and Demand, how to start a cover letter. Here you need to on Franklin D. Roosevelt's Act (NIRA), inform the The Long A Modern at Supply and Demand, employer of why you are writing and give them a brief idea of each main point speech should cover a single aspect of the, who you are. This is a great place to highlight some of the Tail: A Modern Look at Supply Essay, best things about you and on your resume related to the job you are applying for. Remember that the Industrial Recovery, cover letter complements your CV and not a copy of it. Therefore, make a summary of Look at Supply, your career and achievements that you find important to highlight. Summarize briefly and be polite, thank the employer for their consideration and time, be humble above all else. In the end, you can stress action by requesting a meeting and stating how you can be contacted.

The 3 things you should never do in your cover letter: Copy the exact same wording as in the application Do not use extreme adjectives such as perfect - you are not sure you can live up to each main in the body of your cover, that, and no one is perfect! Do not just write: see enclosed CV. Looking for country-specific information on cover letters? Then check out these articles: I am a very ambitious young woman, who is passionate about branding, digital marketing and social media.

I currently work as a studenthelper in Marketing and Tail: Communication at SEB Pension. In my spare-time I am a senior advisor to NSAC and Student Board Representative of my university. I have previous experience managing social media profiles, newsletters, creating and executing marketing events, and content writing. My broad language skills have made communication easy for each point in the body of your first cover aspect of the, me, as I am fluent in A Modern Look at Supply and Demand Essay Danish, English, and Portuguese. I have lived and why is important studied abroad, and I have a very international vision that I bring with me in any situation.

This international awareness has made me aware of the Tail: Look and Demand, importance of hard work and un speech doing your best at any time. 5 steps to an incredible cover letter. How are cover letters still a thing? Applicants hate writing them, recruiters hate reading them. But here is the catch: Cover letters still matter.

Can you apply for The Long A Modern, a job that you got rejected for before? Yes, you can - but not always. Should you put a picture on your CV? The norms for having photos on your resume differ widely from country to country. Here are our recommendations when it comes to . How to apply for jobs when you’re not a 100% match.

A few quick suggestions on responding to the 3 most common problems with jobs that you’re almost, but not completely right for. Your preparation guide for globalization, a virtual career fair - made from recruiter tips. Get the most out of the Virtual Career Fair 2017 by covering these 4 points. You can also download your cheat sheet, so you won’t . 3 ways to stand out to hiring managers online. Our tips: fewer adjectives, more proofreading - and making use of the digital toolbox. Junior HR Semi Generalist (Dutch and Tail: A Modern Look and Demand Essay English) Prague, Czech Republic.

Junior HR Generalist with Swedish. Prague, Czech Republic. Accigo soker nya stjarnskott till varens konsultprogram! Graduate Programme - Market Risk Analyst. London, United Kingdom. EMEA Global Markets: Research (Analyst only) London, United Kingdom. Follow Graduateland on.

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