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annotated essay wiki In order for an athlete to consistently reach peak performances, there are 3 necessities that need to be withheld. These include good conditioning, training, and Meteorology Final, most importantly, good dieting. Obtaining essential nutrition requirements can be drastically beneficial when working towards becoming a better athlete. With researching the correlation between nutrition and athletics, one area that was analyzed was what to eat before and after performing at conditions an athletic event. Brad Gouthro emphasizes three main ideas to make sure you are obtaining the nutrients you need before participating in sporting events; staying hydrated, eating foods you are familiar with, and avoiding any types of nutrients that will slow you down.
As an athlete prepares for the foods they will consume for pre and post workout, they need to keep in mind that these foods need to be composed of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats for energy. Although these macro-nutrients are beneficial to the body, it is important to know that too much of those indicated can become very disadvantageous. Often to avoid any faults when focusing on meals, athletes will go on Final Exam Essay specific diets. Freedom Towers? These diets can include strict foods for building muscle, supplying energy and/or loosing weight. Final Exam Essay? Pre-Game and Post-Game Nutrition. Brad Gouthro, Author of Awaken The Abs Within and How To Lose Fat Build Muscle – 10 Unique Workout Strategies Your Personal Trainer Never Told You gives a detailed explanation on what to fuel your body with on game days. Gouthro has three goals for a pregame meal; ensure you stay hydrated, eat foods that you know you are familiar with, and avoid eating raw vegetables, especially those involved in othello english, the cabbage family.
Abiding by Meteorology Final Exam Essay, these simple rules will ensure beneficial fuel going into the body so an athlete’s body reaches its maximum potential when competing in any athletic event. About three to four hours before the game, it is Commandments of Exodus suggested that an athlete fills up with the Meteorology Essay, right kind of carbohydrates. Eating carbs with high fiber such as bran flakes will slow down the digestion which can leave you feeling full and have to go to anasarca define the bathroom more often than needed, and can decrease energy levels during the Exam, game. Depending on body weight and the activity being performed, a 500-1000 calorie plate will be best. Pasta is one of the best energy sources, as NHL star TJ Oshie of the freedom vs twin, St. Louis Blues enjoys penne pasta with a Chicken Carbonara sauce and added bacon bits to fuel himself before almost every home game (Oshie, 2009). Gouthro also suggests avoiding fatty foods unless you have more time to digest them, because much like foods with high fiber content they sit in the stomach and don’t digest as quickly, causing athletes to feel slow and groggy during the event. Getting closer to game time, about an hour before beginning physical activity, having a simple carb will give an energy boost, such as a protein bar or fruit.
A common snack is an orange because the Exam, glycogen cells give a healthy burst of energy while not giving the feeling of fullness and being sluggish. Vs The Of Exodus Essay? Zach Parise of the Minnesota Wild makes peanut butter toast or oatmeal to get his energy boost right before he leaves to Final go to the rink (Gulitti, 2011). The essential pregame idea is to make sure to stay hydrated. High intensity sports require a lot of water to be replaced with how much water is being lost through sweat. Participation in a high intensity requires refueling with caloric drinks such as energy drinks, the best would be coconut water.
If it is lower intensity activities drinking water will replenish your systems well enough. Cry Freedom Book? After you compete, it is important to fuel your body with food as soon as you can to gain calories that you lost. Meteorology Essay? Olympic swimmer Eric Shanteau stated that the best nutrition advice he had ever received was “Getting the right food in my body 30 minutes after working out helps so much more with the next workout and has really changed my training” (Edelbaum, 2012). Anything with lots of protein is a really good way to refuel your body, such as chicken or eggs. Cry Freedom Book? It is also good to refuel your body with carbs and Final Exam, glycogen, as they are lost in a workout.
Eating something such as a sweet potato will give you both. The Ten Movie Of Exodus? Nutrition for Meteorology Final Exam, Athletes. In order to survive long and strenuous activities, the body constantly needs to be fueled with a great deal of energy. Age Working? Considering the fact that athletes generally burn more calories than the average person and Meteorology Final Exam, have a faster metabolism, eating three main meals and three smaller meals per day is suggested. To accommodate the body's steady demand for energy, each meal has to have a sufficient amount of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Carbohydrates amount to being one of the body’s main sources of energy, providing nearly 50%. Othello? An athletes ability to prolong vigorous activity correlates to Meteorology Final Exam Essay the levels of glycogen stored, which is the product of vs twin towers carbohydrates after they have been broken down. It is Exam Essay partitioned into two types: Simple and Complex. Cry Freedom Book? Simple carbohydrates (naturally occurring sugars) can be found in milk, honey and fruits, and Complex carbs can be located in vegetables, grains, and beans. The health care team at the University of Utah suggests that a daily consumption of 2 cups fruit, 2.5 cups vegetables, and 3-8 servings grains, is an acceptable amount of carbohydrates to maintain good health. Similarly, fat provides the body with a great amount of Meteorology Final Exam energy.
Although unlike carbs, energy consumed from fats depends on the duration of activity and the physical condition of the athlete. From this, potentially 75 percent of english energy demands can be provided by fats. There are four types of this macro-nutrient: polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, saturated, and trans. The unsaturated group are the “healthier” fats and are what athletes should aim to Final Exam Essay consume. Good sources of unsaturated fats can be found in Olive oil, canola oil, nuts, and reduced- fat milk. Trans fats and saturated fats can potentially raise cholesterol levels and amount to possible heart disease. Anasarca Define? The last macro-nutrient crucial for survival is Meteorology protein. There are two amino acids that belong to bolam principle the protein section: Essential and Nonessential. Meteorology? Nonessential amino acids are proteins your body is unable to generate naturally.
These “complete proteins” can be found in foods such as red meat, fish, milk and eggs. “Incomplete proteins” on freedom vs twin towers the other hand can be found in plant sources. Providing ones body with a good source of protein after a workout is very essential. Proteins main function is to preserve lean muscle mass and Meteorology Final Exam, repair tissues for recovery. Athletics and Diets. Diets can help athletes with getting them to where they want to be in their sport. Specific diets can aid in vs twin towers, building muscle, lend energy, loosing weight, and make an athlete feel all around better. Athletes have been watching what they eat ever since the first Olympics to Essay improve their performance. Movie Vs The? In Ann C. Grandjeans article of Diets of Elite Athletes: Has the Discipline of Sports Nutrition. she explains how diets have changed over the history of the Olympics. During the first Olympiads the Olympians where mostly vegetarians, they ate cereals, fruits, vegetables, and wine with diluted water. Exam? When meat was eaten it was mostly goats or pork (Grandjeans, 874s).
Ann brings another source into her work stating “According to one source (Harris 1966) ‘‘The earliest Greek athlete of whose special diet we are told anything is Charmis of Sparta, who is said to have trained on dried ?gs.”. Cry Freedom? Alcohol is another odd part of Olympians diet in the early years of athletics. Alcohol was used by nutritionists and psychologists would use ergogenic aids today (Grandjeans, 875s). As early as the Exam Essay, 1900s there was a distance runner that drank 22 glasses of bear and a half bottle of wine before and anasarca define, during his race. Exam Essay? The meat diet wasn’t introduce until the middle of the freedom, 15th century.
The most famous dietary success was of Milo of Croton, he was a wrestler that became very well known (Grandjeans, 875s). His trainer put him on a diet that consisted of 20 lbs of Meteorology Final meat, 20 lbs of bread, and 18 pints of wine. Grandjeans notes that this is highly unlikely that a human was able to consume this much calories (Grandjeans, 875s). Today athletes try to have a diet that consists of 20% protein 40% fats, and 40% carbohydrates according to one of the freedom vs twin towers, first studies on Olympians diets by Jokl in 1952. Jokl’s diet also was on a per kilogram body weight basis (Grandjeans, 876s). Most Olympians figure out their “ideal diets” through trial and error. All trainers and athletes at the Olympic level know that a good performance and Meteorology Essay, a good diet go hand and hand. Even though that in the past Olympians had wine, or something else we think is unhealthy now for athletes, there has always been consistent beliefs for one thing. Athletes were to age working conditions have three meals a day consisting of fruits, vegetables, and Exam, meat with a lot of hydration (Grandjeans, 876s).
Some diets people may think work and others think it doesn't, a vegan diet for athletes has always been prone to bolam principle skepticism. Gretchen Reynolds a New York Times journalist that wrote Can Athletes Perform Well on a Vegan Diet? an Exam Essay article about the barriers and benefits of athletes on anasarca define vegan diets. For protein vegans have grains and soy but often run into a deficiency of vitamin b-12 which is important for giving the body energy to function. Supplements or cereals can be taken to Essay achieve a normal vitamin b-12 level. Reynolds brings up another question frequently asked, is it hard for for someone that trains vigorously to get enough calories on a vegan diet. The answer is to drink juice like pomegranate or tart cherry juice.
These juices contain plenty of calories and help with the recovery process. Some people think that vegans can help you loose weight. Gilded Age Working Conditions? In Reynolds article it says that although that vegans weigh 6 to 10 pounds less it is only due to vegans healthy food habits. If a vegan decided to Final Exam Essay eat animal products or any kind of meats they would weigh the same. There is such thing as a vegetarian over eating. Vegetarians that over eat end up being obese. Cry Freedom Book? So regardless of your diet if you make healthy food choices and eat right you will have a healthy body. Athletes and the Effect of Caffeine. The world of athletics and sports has often been littered with words such as performance enhancing drugs, and steroids. Often times, the athletic field can be seen as something of Meteorology a challenge.
For many athletes, the desire and anasarca define, will to succeed can be something that overtakes their careers. Followers of Major League Baseball have heard the names of men like Barry Bonds, baseball’s homerun leader, now retired, Sammy Sosa and Mark McGuire, and even Roger Clemens. All these men have been thought to Meteorology Exam Essay have been linked to othello modern english PEDs at one point or another in their careers. Some people may say the only reason for Meteorology Exam, this is the desire to gilded win. Others may see it as a cowardly move geared toward even more publicity on an already public stage. In assessing the connection between the food you eat and your athletic performance, the Final Essay, articles demonstrated the very imperative reasons to ensure you fuel your body correctly. Modern? From these articles athletes can learn that keeping a regulated diet with the correct amounts of protein, carbs and fats will help regulate the energy levels an Meteorology Essay athlete has, as well as nutrition before and after athletic events helps you maintain consistency and keeping your body fueled. Working to figure out modern, what kind of diet a certain athlete needs is also pertinent to understand what kind of foods your body needs. Also, staying away from dangerous substances such as caffeine can really benefit your overall performance. Meteorology Final? Athletes can benefit from gilded, this information because it can benefit your athletic abilities with simple solutions and switches to the daily routines. Gouthro, Brad.
Pre-Game Nutrition for Game Day. YouTube . YouTube, 03 June 2011. Meteorology? Web. 19 Nov. 2013. Brad Gouthro is an author, trainer, endorser, and host.
He wrote Awaken The Abs Within as well as How To Lose Fat Build Muscle – 10 Unique Workout Strategies Your Personal Trainer Never Told You. Movie Vs The? He created the Meteorology Final Exam, workout sensation Live Lean Afterburn as well. This video found on YouTube details exactly what athletes should be eating before an athletic event, at what time, and how much of it. The video goes into detail on gilded age working why ingesting complex carbs is more beneficial than ones with high amounts of fiber and so on, so after questions don’t come up on why athletes should not eat this but should have this. The video talks about making sure to avoid high fibrous foods, as they will sit in Meteorology Final, the stomach and not be digested, leaving the athlete feeling slow and heavier. If possible, eating some pasta about cry freedom book, three to four hours before a game would fuel the Meteorology Final Exam, body so its maximum potential can be reached.
Having a pregame snack about an gilded age working hour before you compete is Meteorology a good idea as well, such as a protein bar or fruit to give the extra boost an conditions athlete may need to get through the entire event. Reynolds, Gretchen. Meteorology Essay? Can Athletes Perform Well on cry freedom a Vegan Diet? Well Can Athletes Perform Well on a Vegan Diet Comments. New York Times, June-July 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. Gretchen Reynolds wrote a New York Times article about Meteorology Exam Essay, how a vegan diet effects athletes.
In her article she questions David Neiman, a professor for health and exercise at Appalachian State University, and Nancy Clark, a nutrition expert and the author to “Nancy Clark’s Food Guide for Marathoners”, two very credible people when it comes to athletics and diets. Reynolds brings up many questions like would an cry freedom book athlete get enough protein or calories in their diet. Final Exam Essay? For protein David Neiman says “vegans have grains nuts and soy, but vegans often run into a problem with a lack of vitamin b-12.” Vitamin B-12 is an tower vs twin important source of Meteorology Final Exam energy and can help athletes with long vigorous workouts. Athletes can avoid this vitamin b-12 deficiency with supplements and certain cereals. Gretchen brings up the question is it hard for bolam principle, someone that trains vigorously to get enough calories on a vegan diet. Final Essay? Nancy says that’s it is not hard at all. Cry Freedom? All she says you have to do is Meteorology Final Exam drink juice. Juice has enough calories if you drink the right juice like pomegranate or tart cherry juice plus these juices can help with the recovery process.
Some people believe that vegan diets can help you lose weight. Neiman says that vegans weight 6 to 10 pounds less but only due to their choice to eat healthier foods, even if they were to eat meat they would still weigh less than normal. It is also possible to The Ten vs The Book of Exodus Essay over eat on an all-vegetable diet. Exam Essay? There are some vegetarians that are obese. Cry Freedom? Neiman says that whatever your diet you can still make healthy choices and lose weight. Coffee is a popular drink that is often used to wake a person or give them needed energy. Many Americans turn to coffee as a boost because of the caffeine provided in Exam Essay, most coffee. The lure of Commandments Essay caffeine is Meteorology Final Exam one that is strong and often overtakes people on a daily bases. Nancy Clark explains the effects of caffeine and how it can affect overall performance of the student athlete. When coffee is brought up in conversation, people are often looking for something to get them going during the day. Caffeine found in coffee often “serves as a stimulant, in The Ten Commandments vs The of Exodus Essay, turn increasing the Final, activity levels of the central nervous system” (Clark 63).
Increased activity helps the body stay alert and energized throughout a period of time. Due to the elapsed time period, the energy created from the english, ingestion of caffeine to the body can be seen as a performance enhancer. Meteorology Exam? Clark disproves this by stating that “athletes would have to drink three to four mugs of coffee, within the hour before exercising to reach the illegal limit” (64). Edelbaum, Michelle. Olympic Appetites: How 8 Top Athletes Eat to Win. Healthy Recipes, Healthy Eating, Healthy Cooking . Eating Well, 10 July 2012. Web. English? 14 Nov. Exam? 2013.
Gouthro, Brad. ABOUT | Brad Gouthro Fitness. NextGEN Gallery RSS . Fitness.com, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. Gulitti, Tom. Fire Ice - Zach Parise Answers Your Questions (Part 2).
Fire Ice - Zach Parise Answers Your Questions (Part 2) . N.p., 26 Apr. 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. Vs Twin? Oshie, TJ. PreGame Meal. NHL VideoCenter . St. Louis Blues, 19 Nov. 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
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Rogerian Argument Topics Essays and Research Papers. For hundreds of years there had been only Meteorology Essay, one excepted way of written argument , which was Aristotle’s model. Now there are several more, . Othello Modern. including Rogers and the Toumlin Rhetoric’s. Every day we face different situations, some good some bad. Meteorology Essay. When the one situation comes up where you are left in disagreement with another person, have you ever thought of how you can argue over the matter?
Clearly most do not, and will argue their point until they win or the other person finally understands. I can honestly. Argument , Aristotle , Carl Rogers 1786 Words | 5 Pages. write/make a good Rogerian argument in modern your essay, it is important to keep in Meteorology Final mind some important outlines and pointers as well . keeping in mind your Rogerian argument topics and ideas. While conventional wisdom might tell you to simply consider the anasarca define common grounds between your proposition and the opposing argument , it is likewise crucial to get a formidable grasp of what you're really trying to argue and the opposing views to it. Here are a few tips for Meteorology Exam Essay writing a Rogerian argument that you can use.
Argument , Argumentation theory , Arguments 676 Words | 2 Pages. ‘’Evaluate the Claim That Person-Centred Therapy Offers the Therapist All That He/She Will Need to Treat Clients‘’. person-centred therapy is considered one of the major therapeutic approaches nowadays, whose concepts and english methods have influenced and inspired the practice . of many therapists. Meteorology Final. Different types of counsellors and therapists use in an eclectic way the anasarca define Rogerian approach, in order to help individuals achieve personal development and growth or come to terms with specific psychological problems. In this essay, I will initially attempt to explain the person-centred approach with its therapeutic. Abraham Maslow , Carl Rogers , Humanistic psychology 2560 Words | 7 Pages. First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
for Americans to Exam Essay, be able to express disagreement without fear of reprisal. Men and women of this country have been trained for their voices to be heard. The Ten Commandments Movie Vs The Essay. . Real life problems are often resolved through negotiation. This is stated on pages 1 and 2. Argument , according to Meteorology Exam Essay, most authorities, gives primary importance to othello modern, logical appeals; however, a writer or speaker must take into account the audience’s emotional response to the subject and the way it is Exam Essay presented. Commandments Movie Vs The Book Of Exodus. Success in convincing the Final audience depends. Argument , Argumentation theory , Critical thinking 491 Words | 2 Pages. students research a question or problem and assert an interpretation or solution. Table of Contents Course Objectives After successfully completing . this course, you will be able to: CO-1: Produce a major writing assignment from identifying the topic to polishing a final draft; CO-2: apply principles of citing and documenting sources; CO-3: use the discipline-appropriate resources required for the assignment; CO-4: recognize a scholarly source; and vs twin towers CO-5: apply the Meteorology rhetorical principles to. Bibliography , Modern Language Association , Parenthetical referencing 1901 Words | 14 Pages. Chisum Rogerian Argument , 15% of final grade, 1300 words Having analyzed a visual argument , a written . argument , and your own writing processes, you will now be asked to present two opposing views on tower vs twin the same social justice issue, and, in whatever way possible, propose a solution that would please both parties.
Rough Draft (3 printed copies) Due: 3/18 Final Draft Due: 3/20 by Final, the beginning of class via Turnitin The Assignment: Using at gilded age working, least three sources, craft a Rogerian Argument focusing. Argument , Capital punishment , Death penalty 810 Words | 3 Pages. withstand legal challenge” (Should the NBA). The rule he was referring to was eventually put into action, but not without disagreement from both sides of the . argument . The following will present to you the reasoning behind both points of view on this matter. Those who oppose this rule use past players’ success as an example for their argument . Meteorology Final Essay. According to a study by Michael McCann, a professor at Vermont Law School, of the twenty six players drafted between 2002 and 2005, twenty were still playing. Basketball , Cleveland Cavaliers , College basketball 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Ashley Thornton April 11, 2012 Rogerian Argument Brines Religion In Your Schools Religion, whether we realize it or not, . is a major element of American society (and also worldwide history). For many, religion is anasarca define a significant part of their cultural identity. Religion plays a part in all levels of politics and is often an aspect of community events and Meteorology Exam organizations.
Everyday, we all interact with people who have different religious backgrounds and personal beliefs. Children born into religious. Belief , Christianity , Education 1221 Words | 4 Pages. Donica Morris Dr. P. D. Reed March 20, 2014 Composition II Rogerian Argument : Does Facebook, Twitter and other social . networking websites do more harm than good? Twitter and Facebook are only two of the online connections people use today to stay in contact with friends and family.
The internet is a place to interact with new people and a way to be exposed to strangers. The partial anonymity available online can be used as a mask for sexual offenders and psychos; they can appear to be ordinary. Facebook , LinkedIn , MySpace 1306 Words | 4 Pages. possibly harm the Earth’s planetary biosphere, or has it already done so; in fact, many worldwide scientists have protested that the Earth is at othello, its ‘tipping . point’ but no efforts have been adapted to save the biosphere? A support of Meteorology Exam Essay, this controversial topic ; congressional meeting and anasarca define testimony, is from one of the top U.S. climate scientists, James Hansen to Former Vice President Al Gore, with an emphasis on the cause of C02. Beyond the Meteorology Exam Essay ozone layer is atmospherically holey, Earth’s temperature is rising. Carbon , Carbon dioxide , Coal 1184 Words | 4 Pages. ESL Argument Topic Are we too dependent on internet? Nowadays, more and more people depend very heavily on cry freedom book the internet . Final Exam. because of The Ten Movie Book of Exodus Essay, studying, working and living. Internet has become one of most important parts in modern life.
As the outstanding achievements of Final, modern science and technology revolution, the rapid development of internet into the various domains of society. The internet changed human living mode. The internet is advantageous because of it lets us search the information, shop and. History of the Internet , Internet , Massively multiplayer online game 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Rogerian Argument: Airport Scanners. ? Rogerian Argument Research Paper Millions of people fly annually.
Almost everyone has or will travel by freedom tower, plane in his . lifetime whether he is Meteorology traveling for the holidays, visiting family, or important business trips. This must mean that they must have been at an airport, and anasarca define if they have been to Meteorology Final, an airport, that means they have shared the experience of airport scanners. After 9/11, security measures have been increased which seems to have led to racial profiling. Freedom Towers. The major frustrations for many. Airport security , Background radiation , Federal Air Marshal Service 1715 Words | 5 Pages. Amber Smith Critical Thinking Rogerian Argument Zombies have taken over.
They dominate television shows, movies and . anything else related to pop culture and have become increasingly more popular as the years progress. Whether it’s a mob of zombies sucking the brains out of a helpless victim on the big screen or zombies terrorizing families on television shows, it is hard to Final, ignore the gory entourage. Conditions. Fans of zombie lore generally fall into two categories: those who are attracted to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, the popularity. Brain , Cerebellum , Cerebral cortex 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Rogerian Argument Drilling in ANWR.
?To Drill or Not to Drill, That is the tower vs twin towers Question: Finding Common Ground in the Battle Over ANWR The Alaskan National Wilderness Refuge has been the . topic of political debate for Meteorology Essay decades. A large, beautiful piece of the world, ANWR as it is often referred to, is cry freedom book not a only a refuge for hundreds of species of birds, fish and mammals, but also a political battleground that is used to ignite the Meteorology Final Essay debate on America’s dependence on foreign fuel sources. The possibility of The Ten Movie vs The Book of Exodus Essay, drilling for oil in ANWR brings. Arctic Refuge drilling controversy , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Fuel 2026 Words | 6 Pages. can also face criminal charges. Punishment varies depending on whether the Meteorology Essay woman consented or not to the procedure or if the fetus is six . months' gestation at the time. This is modern english a very emotional subject that leads to Meteorology Essay, passionate and controversial arguments amongst the The Ten Movie vs The Book Essay Costa Rican society and people?s opinion on Meteorology Final Exam the matter is divided into two groups: pro-choice or pro-life. Proponents of legalizing abortion, or Pro-Choice, claim that women have the right to choose whether to have an abortion or not. Abortion , Abortion debate , Costa Rica 1413 Words | 7 Pages. I. Paragraph One: Introduction Topic /issue: external intervention by the international committee and age working world powers like the Meteorology Final Exam United States . into the national affairs of warring nations is essential for domestic conflict resolution. Opposing view: Warring nations should be responsible for their own domestic conflicts and find ways to resolve them.
Others nations should limit their intervention to just the mediation of peace talks. Vs The Essay. Writer’s view: External military and Final diplomatic intervention. Art intervention , Dispute resolution , Intervention 461 Words | 3 Pages. Rogerian Argument - handguns in US. users feel that if handguns are illegal it may not be impossible for criminals to obtain them but it would be much more difficult. If that were true some . Anasarca Define. believe there will be a drastic decrease in gang violence and armed robbery. The ultimate argument pro-gun users have is the second amendment which states an individuals right to keep and bear arms. They feel it is there right to be able to Meteorology Essay, own a gun to protect themselves from those who want to cause harm. If guns were outlawed and anasarca define criminals.
Breech-loading weapon , Cannon , Crime 553 Words | 4 Pages. with this essay? What do you hope the reader takes away from this argument ? This essays purpose is to education people about gun regulations . without favoring one side over the other. By using facts and not flat out saying what your stance is, I hope to persuade the reader to not listen to Meteorology Final, the media and anasarca define make their own options. Final. 2) What did you learn from completing this assignment? Did you experience a new understanding of the othello modern english topic ? Did you change your perspective after completing the research? . Cannon , Concealed carry in the United States , Crime 1579 Words | 4 Pages. ENG122: Composition II An Introduction to Final Exam, Argument English 122: Composition II An Introduction to Argument . Book. Argument and Rhetoric An argument can take many forms. It is, at its root, a method for communicating a singular position with evidence, logic, and Meteorology Essay persuasion. There are essential elements to bolam principle, all valid arguments , though they may take different forms. 1. Claim 2. Evidence 3. Counterargument 4. Rebuttal A successful argument depends upon the delicate balance between these elements. Imagine a.
Argument , Arguments , Counterargument 1323 Words | 5 Pages. Letter from Meteorology Birmingham Jail a Rogerian Argument Traditional and rogerian argumentation approaches are very . different. For instance, a traditional argumentation is more confrontational towards the opponent’s point of view as to rogerian argumentation more negotiable with the opponent’s point of bolam principle, view. Rogerian argumentation creates cooperation, the possibility that both sides might change, and Meteorology Essay a mutually advantageous outcome. However in a traditional argument the writer seeks to change the opponent's. African American , Discrimination , Letter from anasarca define Birmingham Jail 627 Words | 2 Pages. Useful Argumentative Essay Words and Phrases Examples of Argumentative Language Below are examples of Meteorology Final, signposts that are used in argumentative essays. . Signposts enable the bolam principle reader to follow our arguments easily. Meteorology Exam. When pointing out english, opposing arguments (Cons): ? ? ? ? Opponents of this idea claim/maintain that… Those who disagree/ are against Meteorology, these ideas may say/ assert that… Some people may disagree with this idea, Some people may say that…however… When stating specifically why. Conclusion , Critical thinking , Idea 730 Words | 4 Pages. since the beginning of mankind.
Currently, there are only thirteen states that do not enforce the death penalty; meaning over half of the modern english nation agrees with . it. To this day, this subject remains very controversial. The main opposing view in Exam Essay this argument is that the death penalty is immoral; claiming that it under values human life. Also, many people with religious view oppose capital punishment because their religion preaches against The Ten Book, the killing of any human being. Is seems this is an issue in which. Capital punishment , Crime , Death row 430 Words | 2 Pages. Ashley Suter Coffey WR-122 Rogerian Argument Male Sports Dominate Female Sports An issue that I have always been concerned . with is how much attention male sports get, while female sports get pushed aside. Males and Exam females put forth the The Ten Book of Exodus Essay same amount of Exam, effort and the same amount of hard work towards the sports they play, and in return males dominate the limelight. Arguments opposing this show that males are obviously better athletes than females.
According to Mariah Burton Nelson, controversial. Boy , Female , Gender 738 Words | 2 Pages. 20 April 2013 The Death Penalty is Fair and Effective It is a complicated determination, that of cry freedom, a death sentence. The topic of the death . penalty in the United States is based primarily on ethics and ultimately whether the death penalty is considered to Meteorology Exam Essay, be acceptable (or even effective) is a decision that begins as a moral quandary. One must ponder one’s faith before considering statistics in support of the laws defined individually by the states that have implemented the death penalty.
The. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 3062 Words | 8 Pages. As defined by The American Heritage Dictionary, free will means “The power of making free choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by vs The of Exodus, an . agency such as fate or divine will.” My stance on Final Exam the topic : Free will? I don’t think it’s “free” if perhaps everything one does has a purpose behind it. Thoughts/ Quotes about free will: “The will is never free- it is always attached to an object, a purpose. It is anasarca define simply the engine in the car- it can’t steer.” – Joyce Cary Support: . Causality , Choice , Experiment 862 Words | 2 Pages. Rogerian Argument of Genetic Engineered Foods. Rogerian Paper: Genetically Modified Food “Biotechnology has been used for more than 6,000 years for lots of interesting and practical . Meteorology Final Essay. purposes: making food such as bread and cry freedom cheese, preserving dairy products and Meteorology Final Exam Essay fermenting beer” (Biotechnology - Promising a Brighter Future for the World). Although we do not always realize it, biotechnology is a huge part of bolam principle, our everyday lives, from the Final medicine we use to keep us healthy, the bolam principle fuel we use to Exam, take us where we need to go, and even the food we. Food industry , Genetic engineering , Genetically modified food 1154 Words | 3 Pages.
Rogerian: Parenthetical Referencing and Position. ?English 112 / Guidelines for the Rogerian Paper 1. Select a topic from List of Topics under Course Documents . and write a 2 ? - three page, (maximum) Rogerian argument . Present your paper orally to Commandments vs The Book, the class from the projector screen for critiquing by your peers and final grading by the instructor. Exam Essay. Study Chapter Six (pages 145 - 153) and cry freedom refer to Chapters One through Eleven for many specific details and examples of the Essay effective argumentation as needed. Include the Opposing Position, Common Ground. Bibliography , Citation , Error 919 Words | 3 Pages.
addressing our argument to a group of representatives from corporate companies in the country. Movie Book Essay. In 2011 we successfully held a fundraising event . which helped us raise enough funding to support the activities of our organization. We used the Final funding to buy the healthiest vegetables from local farmers and purchase only the naturally raised meat. While our goal is to fight hunger in Movie vs The Book Essay the country, we also maintain an eco-friendly outlook. Meteorology Essay. A clear statement of purpose for the argument After the financial. Argument , Arguments , Donation 1286 Words | 4 Pages.
Rogerian Argument For Legalization The cannabis plant has been the topic of much debate throughout the anasarca define history . of this country. Many people don't know that it was not the Exam effect of cannabis that originally spurred its banning. It was actually originally the work of the cotton industry who put big money behind illegalization for the plant's mind altering effects. Anasarca Define. The cotton industry was afraid that hemp, a product of the Final Exam cannabis plant, would soon overpower the strong hold of cotton since it. Cannabis , Drug , Drug addiction 1174 Words | 3 Pages. An Intro To Argument Week 1 Discussion 1. ?English 122: Composition II An Intro to Argument Argument and bolam principle Rhetoric An argument's a method for communicating a singular . position w/evidence, logic, persuasion. There are essential elements to all valid arguments , though they may take different forms.
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You can talk about many speech topics , but always refer back to bolam principle, - reinforce - that theme or a thesis. It's the only way the audience will remember your message. 2. Capture the Meteorology Exam Essay central idea of anasarca define, your extemporaneous in one full sentence. It should be a single, declarative sentence. Make sure that you make a specific statement. Final. What do you want.
Critical thinking , Phrase , Point 716 Words | 3 Pages. CORE Arguments, Opinions and suggestions. Each group must select ONE of the Topics below: Research the Topic and Write an essay. Conditions. In preparing their assignments, . students are expected to do a thorough research on the chosen topic and also provide case examples to illustrate/defend their arguments . Where possible, students are encouraged to Exam Essay, use UAE/GULF OR Middle-East organizations as an example. In agreement with the lecturer, they may also change the topic slightly to suit a special topic -area in cry freedom book their organization. . Critical thinking , Human resource management , Management 497 Words | 2 Pages. 2013) RNTREF002 Essay topic three The important problems of the mind module are: how do we understand the nature of mental events, their . relation to the physical world and physical events and fundamentally the problems with other minds. Meteorology. This essay essentially serves to evaluate whether the Zombie argument against Cartesian Dualism is sound by: criticising the Zombie argument through analysing the gilded conditions validity of each premise of the Meteorology Exam Zombie argument , defending the Zombie argument against one of anasarca define, its objections. Argument , Consciousness , Mind 1641 Words | 4 Pages. Euthanasia: The Argument Euthanasia is defined as; “the intentional killing by act or omission of Essay, a dependant human being for cry freedom book his or her . alleged benefit. (The key word here is “intentional”. If death is not intended, it is not an act of Meteorology Final Exam, euthanasia.)” Source: www.euthanasia.com/definition The act of euthanasia is a very controversial issue which has many supporters, both for and against and has been a topic of the world’s media, time and time again. There are arguments both for and against.
Argument , Arguments , Euthanasia 2012 Words | 6 Pages. [pic] PCR0025 Critical Thinking All Foundation ONLINE NOTES Topic 3: Argumentation . Tower. • Argument is a claim put forward and defended with reasons. • Arguments are composed of: 1. Premises 2. Conclusion • Statement: A sentence that can sensibly be regarded as either true or false. • 2 things about Meteorology Exam Essay statements: 1. A sentence may be used to express more than one statement. 2. Not all sentences are statements. Analogy , Argument , Critical thinking 919 Words | 6 Pages. University and age working Argument Essay Topic. Argument essay Topic : Any student caught cheating in school or college exams should be automatically dismissed. Do you agree or . Exam. disagree?
I. Bolam Principle. Introduction General statement: Students in these days have followed the path of trying to do anything to achieve best grade. And they may think cheating on an exam might seem like an easy way for Essay a student to get a good grade and get ahead in his or her career. Thesis statement: Although there are many. Argument , Argument map , Cheating 519 Words | 2 Pages. Research Paper and othello Argument Topics.
1 The University Writing Center “Because writers need readers” Research Paper and Argument Topics Race and Ethnicity . Meteorology Final Exam Essay. Gender and Sexuality Multiculturalism and cry freedom Diversity Advertising and Marketing Economic Issues Environmental Issues Media Issues Consumerism and Convenience Culture TV and Film Sports and Meteorology Essay Entertainment Race and Ethnicity • • • • • • • • • • • Should racial profiling be a legitimate law enforcement policy in some areas? Should Affirmative Action for state university enrollment. Argument , Education in the United States , Federal government of the United States 4459 Words | 15 Pages. ?Andrew Jones 10.25.13 EN140 MWF 8-8:50 Ethical/ Evaluation Argument Health benefits from banning smoking Smoking should be banned on . college campuses because it is in the best interest of public health to do so. For this ethical/ evaluation argument assignment I have chosen the topic of the increase of health benefits from the ban of smoking on anasarca define college campuses. I chose this topic because I feel very strongly about the fact that there is an increased number of Meteorology Exam Essay, college students that smoke. Nicotine , Passive smoking , Smoking 1314 Words | 4 Pages. ? Three arguments Word critical argument analysis essay, focuses on bolam principle three professional essays and how these authors . construct their arguments using opinion and evidence. There are many different ways in which authors can construct their arguments . In the highly controversial topic of legalizing marijuana I found three very different styles of arguments in which the authors backed up their opinions with facts.
In my reading of these arguments each writer had there own style. The. Cannabis , Global Marijuana March , Hashish 734 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Topics for Meteorology Final Exam Essay CPHL 550 – Knowledge, Truth and Belief “Plan your work, work your plan”. Othello Modern. – Vince Lombardi General Instructions Make sure to . Exam. consult the bolam principle Basic Style Guidelines Document and the Tips for Meteorology Exam Essay Writing an Effective CPHL 550 Essay Document in order to confirm the details for english each assignment (both the minor and the major essay) especially with respect to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, the minimal length requirement. Since there is no final exam in this course, your essay assignments need to be treated with the same attention.
Argument , Belief , Critical thinking 2149 Words | 6 Pages.
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An Introduction to the Ancient Festival of Nowruz. Some people say that it’s the 5,774 th time that Iranians across the world are celebrating the ancient Persian New Year festival, Nowruz. However, some history experts believe that Nowruz has been enshrined and observed for more than 15,000 years, well before the official establishment of the Persian Empire. Like Christmas, Nowruz is an Essay, elaborate festival that brings millions of cry freedom people together, but there are certain elements in Nowruz that make it a distinctive tradition, and one of these important elements is its historicity. Cyrus the Great, the first king of the Exam Essay Persian Empire, came to throne in 550 BC, but for almost 2000 years before him, when In-Su-Kush-Siranna was the ruler of the Kingdom of Aratta, Nowruz had been celebrated in Greater Iran, which consisted of several provinces that currently constitute modern countries like Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Pakistan, Iraq, and anasarca define parts of Final Exam Essay India and Turkey. Nowruz is considered the most important national holiday in Iran as it marks the beginning of a new solar year and the arrival of spring. Bolam Principle? According to the Persian calendar, Nowruz begins on Meteorology Essay, the vernal equinox, which starts on March 20 or 21. The beauty and wonderfulness of Commandments Movie vs The Nowruz is that it starts on a unique moment each time and people excitedly and breathlessly wait for the announcement of what is known as the moment of the transition of the year. This moment is astronomically calculated according to the Jalali solar calendarand officially inaugurates the Meteorology Final New Year. Unquestionably, Nowruz is one of the prominent hallmarks of the Persian culture and Iranian civilization. It represents the glory and magnificence of ancient Iran and manifests a sense of national pride and dignity for Iranians around the world.
In his long epic poem, Shahnameh, the 10 th century Iranian poet and philosopher Ferdowsi talks in detail about the origins and bolam principle roots of Nowruz. He says that when the legendary, prehistoric Iranian king Jamshid Jam conquered the world and ascended the throne, he declared that day as Nowruz and the beginning of Iranian New Year. On that day, Iranians from across the country would come to visit Persepolis (the ancient capital of the Persian Empire) to Essay, hold festivals, receive rewards and gifts from the king, enjoy eating festive meals of dried nuts, fruits, and sweetmeat, sing happy songs, and perform plays. Nowruz is important in that it comes as winter ends, and that is why Iranians believe Nowruz is a feast of book rebirth and rejuvenation that injects fresh and warm blood into the veins of the frosty and Meteorology Exam frozen nature. Iran, which is book famous for its climatic diversity and Exam Essay unique nature, is very beautiful in the spring, and especially during the 13 days of Nowruz festivals. Fragrant flowers and attractive plants grow in large quantities in northern, central, and The Ten Movie Book of Exodus southern parts of Meteorology Exam Essay Iran, and the weather is predominantly mild and moderate in the majority of the cities all around the country. Nowruz is celebrated from the Farvardin 1 to 13 (Farvardin is the first month of the gilded age working solar calendar whose name is taken from the Zoroastrian word “Faravashis” meaning “the spirits of the dead.” Iranians believe that the Meteorology Exam Essay spirits of their deceased beloved ones will return to cry freedom book, the material world in the last 10 days of the year.) One of the common traditions of Nowruz that the Iranians are strongly committed to is paying visit to Final Exam Essay, the elderly and meeting the other members of the family. In such meetings, Iranian families entertain each other with delicious Iranian cuisines, spring fruits, dried nuts, candies, confections, deserts, rice-cakes, pastries, and bolam principle cookies. Setting the “Haft-Seen” table is Final Exam Essay also one of the customs of Nowruz that is seen as a quintessential part of the New Year celebrations. Age Working Conditions? Haft means “seven” in Persian, and “seen” stands for the sign of the 15 th letter of Persian alphabet which sounds “s”. The Haft-Seen table is named so because there are seven items on this table whose name start with the Persian letter “seen”.
Each of these seven items signifies a certain meaning. These items include “Senjed”, or silver berry, the sweet, dry fruit of the lotus tree, which denotes love and affection; “Sumaq”, or sumac, the crushed spices of berries, which symbolizes sunrise and the warmth of life; “Seeb”, or red apple, which stands for Final Exam, health and beauty; “Seer”, or garlic, which indicates good health and wellbeing; “Samanu”, a sweet paste made of wheat and sugar that represents fertility and the sweetness of life; “Sabzeh”, or sprouted wheat grass, which is a sign of renewal of life; and “Sonbol”, or the purple hyacinth flower, which represents prosperity and goodwill in the New Year. However, the majority of Iranian families put more than 7 items on their “Haft-Seen” table settings. The additional things are “Sekkeh”, coins that herald wealth and affluence; “Serkeh”, vinegar that symbolizes age, patience, and the toleration of hardships; and “Sangak”, a plain whole wheat sour dough flatbread that characterizes blessing and good luck. Iranians also put colored eggs and a bowl of goldfish on their traditional Haft-Seen table and consider these two elements as signs of fertility, welfare, and happiness.
One of the other elements placed on the beautiful Haft-Seen table is a mirror, a symbol of purity, reflection, and honesty. Iranians never forget to anasarca define, put a beautifully adorned and decorated mirror on their traditional table setting. They also put a copy of the Holy Quran on their Haft-Seen table, which they believe will guard their life in the coming year. In an elaborate and well-researched article about Nowruz published on the Iran Review website, the cultural researcher Firouzeh Mirrazavi writes, “The festival, according to some documents, was observed until the fifth of Farvardin, and Meteorology Final Essay then the special celebrations followed until the end of the month. Possibly, in the first five days, the conditions festivities were of a public and national nature, while during the rest of the month it assumed a private and royal character.” Since Nowruz was historically celebrated in Iran’s ceremonial capital Persepolis [Takht-e-Jamshid] in the southern city of Meteorology Shiraz, every year thousands of Iranians travel to Shiraz to cry freedom, take part in Meteorology Exam Essay the national celebrations of Commandments vs The of Exodus Nowruz. Even the foreign tourists who travel to Iran to take part in the celebrations prefer to visit Shiraz or Isfahan during the 13 days of Nowruz. Exam Essay? But why is Nowruz extended for 13 days? According to the ancient belief of the Iranians, 13 is an inauspicious number. On the 13 th day of Farvardin, Iranian families gather in parks, gardens, farms, and other green places to eat cuisines containing certain local herbs and have friendly conversations. They also throw sprouted wheat grasses into rivers believing that by leaving the “Sabzeh” in the waterways, they throw away the misfortune associated with the number 13 and the 13 th day of the year, and this way, they guarantee their New Year and prevent hardships and calamities from coming into book their life. They think that the Sabzeh that is pitched into the rivers will take the Meteorology Final bad luck with itself to an unknown destination.
In Nowruz, the adults in the family pay the younger members certain amounts of cash as a gift for the New Year. This reward is freedom towers called “Eidi” and is not usually spent during the whole year but saved and kept as a token of blessing and Final wellbeing. With all of its beauties and splendor, Nowruz is now considered a global festival as it was officially recognized and registered on the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of freedom vs twin Humanity in February 2010. Meteorology Exam? The same year, the UN General Assembly recognized March 21 as the International Day of Nowruz, describing it as a spring festival of book Persian origin which has been celebrated for thousands of years. Nowruz is a relic of past days, a remnant from the dawn of human civilization. It removes religious, cultural, lingual, and national boundaries and connects the hearts of millions of people who want to take part in a unique ceremony marking not only the beginning of New Year, but the end of the Final Essay distressed winter and arrival of the delightful spring. It’s not simply a source of honor for Iranians who observe and celebrate it, but an age working conditions, opportunity for the congregation and solidarity of all the peace-loving and peace-making nations around the world. Kourosh Ziabari is an award-winning Iranian journalist and reporter. Meteorology Final? He has won three prizes in Iran's National Press Festival. In August 2015, he was named the recipient of the bolam principle Senior Journalists Seminar Fellowship by the Hawaii-based East-West Center. In June 2015, he was selected by Deutsche Welle and European Youth Press to Final Exam Essay, be part of a team of 16 young reporters and journos from different countries covering the Global Media Forum 2015 in Bonn, Germany.
Kourosh is also the recipient of the Gabriel Garcia Marquez Fellowship in Cultural Journalism 2015 by the FNPI Foundation in Colombia. Kourosh is bolam principle a staff writer and reporter at Meteorology Exam, Iran Review. He is the Iran correspondent of Fair Observer, an international media corporation based in California. He writes for The Huffington Post, Your Middle East, Middle East Eye and International Policy Digest. Follow him on Twitter at @KZiabari.
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essay horror fiction Supernatural Horror in Literature. By H. P. Lovecraft. The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is Final Exam fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown. These facts few psychologists will dispute, and their admitted truth must establish for all time the book genuineness and dignity of the Meteorology Final Exam Essay weirdly horrible tale as a literary form. Against it are discharged all the shafts of a materialistic sophistication which clings to frequently felt emotions and external events, and of a naively insipid idealism which deprecates the aesthetic motive and calls for a didactic literature to uplift the reader toward a suitable degree of smirking optimism. But in spite of all this opposition the weird tale has survived, developed, and attained remarkable heights of perfection; founded as it is on a profound and elementary principle whose appeal, if not always universal, must necessarily be poignant and permanent to minds of the requisite sensitiveness. The appeal of the spectrally macabre is book generally narrow because it demands from the reader a certain degree of imagination and a capacity for detachment from every-day life. Relatively few are free enough from the spell of the daily routine to Exam Essay, respond to rappings from outside, and tales of ordinary feelings and events, or of common sentimental distortions of such feelings and events, will always take first place in the taste of the gilded conditions majority; rightly, perhaps, since of Essay course these ordinary matters make up the english greater part of Meteorology Final Essay human experience.
But the sensitive are always with us, and sometimes a curious streak of fancy invades an obscure corner of the very hardest head; so that no amount of bolam principle rationalisation, reform, or Freudian analysis can quite annul the thrill of the Final Essay chimney-corner whisper or the lonely wood. There is bolam principle here involved a psychological pattern or tradition as real and Final Essay, as deeply grounded in tower, mental experience as any other pattern or tradition of mankind; coeval with the religious feeling and closely related to many aspects of it, and too much a part of our inmost biological heritage to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, lose keen potency over a very important, though not numerically great, minority of our species. Man’s first instincts and emotions formed his response to the environment in which he found himself. Gilded? Definite feelings based on pleasure and pain grew up around the phenomena whose causes and effects he understood, whilst around those which he did not understandand the Final Exam universe teemed with them in the early dayswere naturally woven such personifications, marvellous interpretations, and sensations of awe and book, fear as would be hit upon by a race having few and simple ideas and limited experience. The unknown, being likewise the unpredictable, became for our primitive forefathers a terrible and omnipotent source of boons and calamities visited upon mankind for cryptic and Meteorology Essay, wholly extra-terrestrial reasons, and thus clearly belonging to spheres of bolam principle existence whereof we know nothing and wherein we have no part. The phenomenon of dreaming likewise helped to build up the notion of an unreal or spiritual world; and in general, all the Exam Essay conditions of savage dawn-life so strongly conduced toward a feeling of the supernatural, that we need not wonder at the thoroughness with which man’s very hereditary essence has become saturated with religion and superstition. That saturation must, as a matter of plain scientific fact, be regarded as virtually permanent so far as the subconscious mind and inner instincts are concerned; for though the area of the unknown has been steadily contracting for thousands of years, an infinite reservoir of mystery still engulfs most of the outer cosmos, whilst a vast residuum of powerful inherited associations clings around all the objects and processes that were once mysterious, however well they may now be explained.
And more than this, there is an actual physiological fixation of the old instincts in modern english, our nervous tissue, which would make them obscurely operative even were the conscious mind to be purged of all sources of wonder. Because we remember pain and the menace of death more vividly than pleasure, and because our feelings toward the beneficent aspects of the unknown have from the first been captured and Exam, formalised by The Ten Movie vs The Book Essay conventional religious rituals, it has fallen to the lot of the darker and more maleficent side of cosmic mystery to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, figure chiefly in our popular supernatural folklore. This tendency, too, is naturally enhanced by the fact that uncertainty and danger are always closely allied; thus making any kind of an unknown world a world of peril and evil possibilities. Modern English? When to this sense of fear and evil the inevitable fascination of wonder and curiosity is superadded, there is born a composite body of keen emotion and imaginative provocation whose vitality must of necessity endure as long as the human race itself. Children will always be afraid of the dark, and men with minds sensitive to hereditary impulse will always tremble at the thought of the Meteorology Final Exam Essay hidden and The Ten Commandments Movie vs The of Exodus, fathomless worlds of strange life which may pulsate in the gulfs beyond the stars, or press hideously upon our own globe in unholy dimensions which only the dead and Final Exam, the moonstruck can glimpse. With this foundation, no one need wonder at the existence of a literature of cosmic fear. It has always existed, and always will exist; and freedom towers, no better evidence of its tenacious vigour can be cited than the impulse which now and then drives writers of totally opposite leanings to Meteorology Exam Essay, try their hands at it in isolated tales, as if to discharge from their minds certain phantasmal shapes which would otherwise haunt them. Cry Freedom Book? Thus Dickens wrote several eerie narratives; Browning, the hideous poem “Childe Roland”; Henry James, The Turn of the Meteorology Final Exam Essay Screw; Dr. Bolam Principle? Holmes, the subtle novel Elsie Venner; F. Marion Crawford, “The Upper Berth” and a number of other examples; Mrs.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, social worker, “The Yellow Wall Paper”; whilst the humourist W. W. Jacobs produced that able melodramatic bit called “The Monkey’s Paw”. This type of Final Exam fear-literature must not be confounded with a type externally similar but psychologically widely different; the literature of mere physical fear and the mundanely gruesome. Such writing, to be sure, has its place, as has the conventional or even whimsical or humorous ghost story where formalism or the author’s knowing wink removes the true sense of the cry freedom book morbidly unnatural; but these things are not the literature of cosmic fear in its purest sense. The true weird tale has something more than secret murder, bloody bones, or a sheeted form clanking chains according to Meteorology Exam, rule. A certain atmosphere of breathless and bolam principle, unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces must be present; and there must be a hint, expressed with a seriousness and portentousness becoming its subject, of that most terrible conception of the human braina malign and particular suspension or defeat of those fixed laws of Nature which are our only safeguard against the assaults of chaos and the daemons of unplumbed space. Naturally we cannot expect all weird tales to conform absolutely to any theoretical model. Creative minds are uneven, and the best of fabrics have their dull spots. Moreover, much of the choicest weird work is unconscious; appearing in memorable fragments scattered through material whose massed effect may be of a very different cast. Atmosphere is the all-important thing, for the final criterion of authenticity is not the dovetailing of a plot but the creation of a given sensation. We may say, as a general thing, that a weird story whose intent is to teach or produce a social effect, or one in which the Final Exam Essay horrors are finally explained away by natural means, is not a genuine tale of cosmic fear; but it remains a fact that such narratives often possess, in isolated sections, atmospheric touches which fulfil every condition of true supernatural horror-literature. Therefore we must judge a weird tale not by the author’s intent, or by the mere mechanics of the plot; but by bolam principle the emotional level which it attains at its least mundane point.
If the proper sensations are excited, such a “high spot” must be admitted on its own merits as weird literature, no matter how prosaically it is Meteorology Final later dragged down. The one test of the really weird is simply thiswhether or not there be excited in the reader a profound sense of dread, and age working conditions, of contact with unknown spheres and powers; a subtle attitude of awed listening, as if for the beating of black wings or the scratching of Meteorology Final Exam outside shapes and entities on the known universe’s utmost rim. Tower? And of course, the Meteorology more completely and unifiedly a story conveys this atmosphere, the better it is as a work of art in the given medium. As may naturally be expected of a form so closely connected with primal emotion, the horror-tale is as old as human thought and anasarca define, speech themselves. Cosmic terror appears as an Final Exam, ingredient of the earliest folklore of all races, and is crystallised in the most archaic ballads, chronicles, and sacred writings. It was, indeed, a prominent feature of the elaborate ceremonial magic, with its rituals for the evocation of daemons and spectres, which flourished from prehistoric times, and which reached its highest development in Egypt and the Semitic nations. Fragments like the Book of Enoch and the Claviculae of book Solomon well illustrate the power of the weird over the ancient Eastern mind, and upon such things were based enduring systems and traditions whose echoes extend obscurely even to the present time. Touches of this transcendental fear are seen in Meteorology Final Exam Essay, classic literature, and there is evidence of its still greater emphasis in a ballad literature which paralleled the classic stream but vanished for anasarca define, lack of a written medium. The Middle Ages, steeped in fanciful darkness, gave it an enormous impulse toward expression; and East and West alike were busy preserving and amplifying the Meteorology Exam Essay dark heritage, both of random folklore and of academically formulated magic and cabbalism, which had descended to them. Witch, werewolf, vampire, and ghoul brooded ominously on the lips of bard and grandam, and needed but little encouragement to take the final step across the boundary that divides the chanted tale or song from the formal literary composition. In the Orient, the weird tale tended to towers, assume a gorgeous colouring and sprightliness which almost transmuted it into sheer phantasy.
In the West, where the mystical Teuton had come down from his black Boreal forests and the Celt remembered strange sacrifices in Druidic groves, it assumed a terrible intensity and convincing seriousness of atmosphere which doubled the Exam Essay force of othello its half-told, half-hinted horrors. Much of the power of Western horror-lore was undoubtedly due to the hidden but often suspected presence of a hideous cult of nocturnal worshippers whose strange customsdescended from pre-Aryan and pre-agricultural times when a squat race of Mongoloids roved over Final Essay, Europe with their flocks and herdswere rooted in the most revolting fertility-rites of immemorial antiquity. This secret religion, stealthily handed down amongst peasants for thousands of years despite the outward reign of the Druidic, Graeco-Roman, and book, Christian faiths in the regions involved, was marked by wild “Witches’ Sabbaths” in Essay, lonely woods and atop distant hills on Walpurgis-Night and Hallowe’en, the traditional breeding-seasons of the goats and sheep and cattle; and became the source of The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Book of Exodus vast riches of sorcery-legend, besides provoking extensive witchcraft- prosecutions of Meteorology Exam which the Salem affair forms the chief American example. Akin to it in essence, and perhaps connected with it in fact, was the frightful secret system of inverted theology or Satan-worship which produced such horrors as the famous “Black Mass”; whilst operating toward the same end we may note the activities of those whose aims were somewhat more scientific or philosophicalthe astrologers, cabbalists, and alchemists of the Albertus Magnus or Raymond Lully type, with whom such rude ages invariably abound. The prevalence and depth of the mediaeval horror-spirit in Europe, intensified by the dark despair which waves of pestilence brought, may be fairly gauged by the grotesque carvings slyly introduced into much of the freedom tower vs twin finest later Gothic ecclesiastical work of the time; the daemoniac gargoyles of Notre Dame and Mont St. Michel being among the most famous specimens. And throughout the period, it must be remembered, there existed amongst educated and Meteorology Exam, uneducated alike a most unquestioning faith in every form of the supernatural; from the freedom towers gentlest of Christian doctrines to the most monstrous morbidities of witchcraft and Meteorology Essay, black magic. Tower? It was from no empty background that the Renaissance magicians and alchemistsNostradamus, Trithemius, Dr. John Dee, Robert Fludd, and Meteorology Essay, the likewere born. In this fertile soil were nourished types and characters of sombre myth and legend which persist in weird literature to this day, more or less disguised or altered by modern technique.
Many of them were taken from the earliest oral sources, and cry freedom book, form part of Final mankind’s permanent heritage. The shade which appears and cry freedom book, demands the burial of its bones, the Essay daemon lover who comes to bear away his still living bride, the death-fiend or psychopomp riding the night-wind, the cry freedom book man-wolf, the sealed chamber, the deathless sorcererall these may be found in that curious body of mediaeval lore which the late Mr. Baring-Gould so effectively assembled in Meteorology Exam Essay, book form. Wherever the mystic Northern blood was strongest, the atmosphere of the popular tales became most intense; for in the Latin races there is towers a touch of basic rationality which denies to even their strangest superstitions many of the overtones of glamour so characteristic of our own forest-born and ice-fostered whisperings. Just as all fiction first found extensive embodiment in poetry, so is it in poetry that we first encounter the permanent entry of the weird into standard literature. Most of the Meteorology Exam ancient instances, curiously enough, are in prose; as the werewolf incident in Petronius, the gruesome passages in Apuleius, the brief but celebrated letter of Pliny the Younger to Sura, and the odd compilation On Wonderful Events by the Emperor Hadrian’s Greek freedman, Phlegon. It is in othello modern, Phlegon that we first find that hideous tale of the corpse-bride, “Philinnion and Machates”, later related by Proclus and in modern times forming the inspiration of Goethe’s “Bride of Corinth” and Meteorology, Washington Irving’s “German Student”. But by the time the old Northern myths take literary form, and in The Ten Commandments Movie Book Essay, that later time when the weird appears as a steady element in the literature of the day, we find it mostly in metrical dress; as indeed we find the greater part of the strictly imaginative writing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Essay? The Scandinavian Eddas and Sagas thunder with cosmic horror, and shake with the stark fear of Ymir and his shapeless spawn; whilst our own Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and the later Continental Nibelung tales are full of eldritch weirdness. Dante is a pioneer in the classic capture of macabre atmosphere, and in Spenser’s stately stanzas will be seen more than a few touches of fantastic terror in landscape, incident, and character. Prose literature gives us Malory’s Morte d’Arthur, in which are presented many ghastly situations taken from early ballad sourcesthe theft of the sword and silk from the corpse in bolam principle, Chapel Perilous by Sir Launcelot, the ghost of Sir Gawaine, and the tomb-fiend seen by Sir Galahadwhilst other and cruder specimens were doubtless set forth in the cheap and sensational “chapbooks” vulgarly hawked about and devoured by the ignorant.
In Elizabethan drama, with its Dr. Faustus, the witches in Macbeth, the ghost in Hamlet, and the horrible gruesomeness of Webster, we may easily discern the strong hold of the daemoniac on Final the public mind; a hold intensified by the very real fear of living witchcraft, whose terrors, first wildest on the Continent, begin to echo loudly in English ears as the witch-hunting crusades of James the First gain headway. To the lurking mystical prose of the ages is added a long line of treatises on witchcraft and daemonology which aid in exciting the imagination of the reading world. Through the seventeenth and into the eighteenth century we behold a growing mass of The Ten Book fugitive legendry and balladry of darksome cast; still, however, held down beneath the surface of Meteorology Essay polite and accepted literature. Anasarca Define? Chapbooks of horror and Meteorology Exam Essay, weirdness multiplied, and we glimpse the eager interest of the vs twin towers people through fragments like Defoe’s “Apparition of Mrs. Veal”, a homely tale of a dead woman’s spectral visit to Final Exam Essay, a distant friend, written to advertise covertly a badly selling theological disquisition on death. The upper orders of society were now losing faith in the supernatural, and indulging in a period of classic rationalism.
Then, beginning with the translations of Eastern tales in othello modern, Queen Anne’s reign and taking definite form toward the middle of the century, comes the revival of Exam Essay romantic feelingthe era of new joy in Nature, and in the radiance of past times, strange scenes, bold deeds, and incredible marvels. We feel it first in the poets, whose utterances take on bolam principle new qualities of wonder, strangeness, and shuddering. And finally, after the timid appearance of a few weird scenes in the novels of the Final Exam Essay daysuch as Smollett’s Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom the released instinct precipitates itself in othello modern, the birth of a new school of writing; the “Gothic” school of horrible and fantastic prose fiction, long and short, whose literary posterity is destined to Meteorology, become so numerous, and in many cases so resplendent in artistic merit. It is, when one reflects upon it, genuinely remarkable that weird narration as a fixed and of Exodus, academically recognised literary form should have been so late of final birth. The impulse and Meteorology, atmosphere are as old as man, but the The Ten of Exodus Essay typical weird tale of standard literature is a child of the eighteenth century. The shadow-haunted landscapes of “Ossian”, the chaotic visions of Meteorology Final Essay William Blake, the grotesque witch-dances in bolam principle, Burns’s “Tam O’Shanter”, the sinister daemonism of Meteorology Final Essay Coleridge’s Christabel and Ancient Mariner, the ghostly charm of James Hogg’s “Kilmeny” , and the more restrained approaches to cosmic horror in Lamia and many of Keats’s other poems, are typical British illustrations of the bolam principle advent of the weird to formal literature. Our Teutonic cousins of the Continent were equally receptive to Meteorology Essay, the rising flood, and gilded age working conditions, Bürger’s “Wild Huntsman” and the even more famous daemon-bridegroom ballad of “Lenore”both imitated in English by Scott, whose respect for Exam, the supernatural was always greatare only a taste of the eerie wealth which German song had commenced to anasarca define, provide. Thomas Moore adapted from such sources the legend of the ghoulish statue-bride (later used by Prosper Mérimée in “The Venus of Ille”, and Meteorology Final Essay, traceable back to great antiquity) which echoes so shiveringly in bolam principle, his ballad of “The Ring”; whilst Goethe’s deathless masterpiece Faust, crossing from mere balladry into the classic, cosmic tragedy of the ages, may be held as the ultimate height to Meteorology Exam, which this German poetic impulse arose. But it remained for a very sprightly and worldly Englishmannone other than Horace Walpole himselfto give the growing impulse definite shape and become the actual founder of the literary horror-story as a permanent form. Fond of mediaeval romance and mystery as a dilettante’s diversion, and with a quaintly imitated Gothic castle as his abode at Strawberry Hill, Walpole in modern, 1764 published The Castle of Otranto; a tale of the supernatural which, though thoroughly unconvincing and mediocre in itself, was destined to exert an almost unparalleled influence on the literature of the weird. First venturing it only as a translation by one “William Marshal, Gent.” from the Meteorology Exam Essay Italian of a mythical “Onuphrio Muralto”, the author later acknowledged his connexion with the book and took pleasure in bolam principle, its wide and instantaneous popularitya popularity which extended to many editions, early dramatisation, and wholesale imitation both in England and in Germany.
The storytedious, artificial, and melodramaticis further impaired by a brisk and prosaic style whose urbane sprightliness nowhere permits the creation of a truly weird atmosphere. It tells of Manfred, an unscrupulous and usurping prince determined to found a line, who after the mysterious sudden death of his only son Conrad on the latter’s bridal morn, attempts to put away his wife Hippolita and Final, wed the lady destined for the unfortunate youththe lad, by the way, having been crushed by the preternatural fall of a gigantic helmet in the castle courtyard. Isabella, the widowed bride, flees from this design; and encounters in subterranean crypts beneath the castle a noble young preserver, Theodore, who seems to be a peasant yet strangely resembles the old lord Alfonso who ruled the domain before Manfred’s time. Shortly thereafter supernatural phenomena assail the age working conditions castle in divers ways; fragments of gigantic armour being discovered here and there, a portrait walking out of its frame, a thunderclap destroying the Exam Essay edifice, and a colossal armoured spectre of vs twin towers Alfonso rising out Final Exam of the ruins to ascend through parting clouds to the bosom of St. Nicholas. Theodore, having wooed Manfred’s daughter Matilda and lost her through deathfor she is slain by her father by mistakeis discovered to be the son of The Ten vs The Essay Alfonso and rightful heir to the estate. He concludes the Final Exam tale by wedding Isabella and othello modern, preparing to live happily ever after, whilst Manfredwhose usurpation was the cause of his son’s supernatural death and his own supernatural harassingsretires to a monastery for penitence; his saddened wife seeking asylum in a neighbouring convent.
Such is the tale; flat, stilted, and altogether devoid of the true cosmic horror which makes weird literature. Yet such was the thirst of the age for those touches of strangeness and spectral antiquity which it reflects, that it was seriously received by the soundest readers and raised in spite of its intrinsic ineptness to Meteorology Final Essay, a pedestal of lofty importance in literary history. What it did above all else was to towers, create a novel type of Meteorology Final Exam Essay scene, puppet-characters, and incidents; which, handled to anasarca define, better advantage by Exam Essay writers more naturally adapted to weird creation, stimulated the growth of an imitative Gothic school which in turn inspired the real weavers of cosmic terrorthe line of actual artists beginning with Poe. This novel dramatic paraphernalia consisted first of all of the Gothic castle, with its awesome antiquity, vast distances and ramblings, deserted or ruined wings, damp corridors, unwholesome hidden catacombs, and galaxy of ghosts and appalling legends, as a nucleus of suspense and daemoniac fright. In addition, it included the tyrannical and malevolent nobleman as villain; the saintly, longpersecuted, and generally insipid heroine who undergoes the major terrors and serves as a point of view and focus for the reader’s sympathies; the valorous and immaculate hero, always of cry freedom high birth but often in humble disguise; the convention of Meteorology Final Exam Essay high-sounding foreign names, mostly Italian, for the characters; and cry freedom, the infinite array of stage properties which includes strange lights, damp trap-doors, extinguished lamps, mouldy hidden manuscripts, creaking hinges, shaking arras, and Meteorology Exam Essay, the like. All this paraphernalia reappears with amusing sameness, yet sometimes with tremendous effect, throughout the history of the Gothic novel; and is by no means extinct even today, though subtler technique now forces it to assume a less naive and obvious form. An harmonious milieu for a new school had been found, and gilded age working conditions, the writing world was not slow to grasp the opportunity. German romance at Meteorology Final Exam Essay once responded to modern english, the Walpole influence, and soon became a byword for the weird and ghastly. In England one of the first imitators was the celebrated Mrs. Barbauld, then Miss Aikin, who in 1773 published an unfinished fragment called “Sir Bertrand”, in which the strings of genuine terror were truly touched with no clumsy hand.
A nobleman on a dark and lonely moor, attracted by a tolling bell and distant light, enters a strange and Exam, ancient turreted castle whose doors open and close and whose bluish will-o’-the-wisps lead up mysterious staircases toward dead hands and animated black statues. A coffin with a dead lady, whom Sir Bertrand kisses, is finally reached; and upon the kiss the The Ten Commandments of Exodus Essay scene dissolves to give place to a splendid apartment where the lady, restored to life, holds a banquet in honour of her rescuer. Walpole admired this tale, though he accorded less respect to an even more prominent offspring of Meteorology Final Essay his Otranto The Old English Baron, by Clara Reeve, published in cry freedom, 1777. Truly enough, this tale lacks the real vibration to the note of outer darkness and mystery which distinguishes Mrs. Barbauld’s fragment; and though less crude than Walpole’s novel, and more artistically economical of horror in its possession of only Meteorology Final, one spectral figure, it is gilded age working conditions nevertheless too definitely insipid for greatness. Here again we have the virtuous heir to Meteorology Final Essay, the castle disguised as a peasant and bolam principle, restored to his heritage through the ghost of his father; and Meteorology, here again we have a case of wide popularity leading to many editions, dramatisation, and ultimate translation into French.
Miss Reeve wrote another weird novel, unfortunately unpublished and lost. The Gothic novel was now settled as a literary form, and instances multiply bewilderingly as the eighteenth century draws toward its close. The Recess, written in 1785 by Mrs. Sophia Lee, has the historic element, revolving round the twin daughters of Mary, Queen of Scots; and though devoid of the supernatural, employs the Walpole scenery and mechanism with great dexterity. Five years later, and all existing lamps are paled by the rising of a fresh luminary of wholly superior orderMrs. Ann Radcliffe (17641823), whose famous novels made terror and suspense a fashion, and who set new and higher standards in the domain of bolam principle macabre and fear-inspiring atmosphere despite a provoking custom of Meteorology destroying her own phantoms at the last through laboured mechanical explanations.
To the familiar Gothic trappings of her predecessors Mrs. Radcliffe added a genuine sense of the unearthly in scene and modern english, incident which closely approached genius; every touch of setting and action contributing artistically to the impression of illimitable frightfulness which she wished to convey. A few sinister details like a track of Meteorology Final Essay blood on castle stairs, a groan from a distant vault, or a weird song in a nocturnal forest can with her conjure up the anasarca define most powerful images of imminent horror; surpassing by far the extravagant and toilsome elaborations of others. Nor are these images in themselves any the less potent because they are explained away before the end of the Meteorology novel. Mrs. Radcliffe’s visual imagination was very strong, and appears as much in freedom tower vs twin towers, her delightful landscape touchesalways in broad, glamorously pictorial outline, and never in close detailas in her weird phantasies.
Her prime weaknesses, aside from the habit of prosaic disillusionment, are a tendency toward erroneous geography and Final Exam, history and a fatal predilection for bestrewing her novels with insipid little poems, attributed to one or another of the othello english characters. Mrs. Exam Essay? Radcliffe wrote six novels; The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne (1789), A Sicilian Romance (1790), The Romance of the Forest (1791), The Mysteries of The Ten Commandments Movie of Exodus Udolpho (1794), The Italian (1797), and Gaston de Blondeville, composed in 1802 but first published posthumously in 1826. Of these Udolpho is by far the most famous, and may be taken as a type of the early Gothic tale at its best. It is the Exam Essay chronicle of Emily, a young Frenchwoman transplanted to an ancient and portentous castle in the Apennines through the death of her parents and the marriage of her aunt to the lord of the age working conditions castlethe scheming nobleman Montoni. Mysterious sounds, opened doors, frightful legends, and a nameless horror in a niche behind a black veil all operate in quick succession to unnerve the heroine and her faithful attendant Annette; but finally, after the death of her aunt, she escapes with the Meteorology Exam aid of a fellow-prisoner whom she has discovered. On the way home she stops at freedom vs twin a chateau filled with fresh horrorsthe abandoned wing where the departed chatelaine dwelt, and the bed of death with the black pallbut is finally restored to security and happiness with her lover Valancourt, after the clearing-up of a secret which seemed for Meteorology Final, a time to involve her birth in mystery. Clearly, this is only the familiar material re-worked; but it is so well re-worked that Udolpho will always be a classic. Mrs.
Radcliffe’s characters are puppets, but they are less markedly so than those of her forerunners. And in atmospheric creation she stands preëminent among those of her time. Of Mrs. Radcliffe’s countless imitators, the American novelist Charles Brockden Brown stands the closest in spirit and method. Like her, he injured his creations by natural explanations; but also like her, he had an uncanny atmospheric power which gives his horrors a frightful vitality as long as they remain unexplained. He differed from her in contemptuously discarding the external Gothic paraphernalia and properties and choosing modern American scenes for bolam principle, his mysteries; but this repudiation did not extend to the Gothic spirit and type of incident.
Brown’s novels involve some memorably frightful scenes, and excel even Mrs. Radcliffe’s in describing the operations of the perturbed mind. Edgar Huntly starts with a sleep-walker digging a grave, but is later impaired by Final Exam touches of Godwinian didacticism. Ormond involves a member of a sinister secret brotherhood. That and Arthur Mervyn both describe the plague of yellow fever, which the author had witnessed in othello modern, Philadelphia and New York.
But Brown’s most famous book is Meteorology Wieland; or, The Transformation (1798), in which a Pennsylvania German, engulfed by a wave of religious fanaticism, hears voices and slays his wife and children as a sacrifice. His sister Clara, who tells the story, narrowly escapes. The scene, laid at the woodland estate of Mittingen on the Schuylkill’s remote reaches, is drawn with extreme vividness; and the terrors of Clara, beset by spectral tones, gathering fears, and the sound of strange footsteps in the lonely house, are all shaped with truly artistic force. In the end a lame ventriloquial explanation is offered, but the atmosphere is genuine while it lasts. Carwin, the malign ventriloquist, is a typical villain of the Manfred or Montoni type.
Horror in literature attains a new malignity in the work of Matthew Gregory Lewis (17751818), whose novel The Monk (1796) achieved marvellous popularity and earned him the nickname of “Monk” Lewis. Commandments Book? This young author, educated in Germany and saturated with a body of wild Teuton lore unknown to Mrs. Radcliffe, turned to Essay, terror in freedom tower towers, forms more violent than his gentle predecessor had ever dared to think of; and produced as a result a masterpiece of active nightmare whose general Gothic cast is spiced with added stores of ghoulishness. Meteorology Final? The story is bolam principle one of a Spanish monk, Ambrosio, who from a state of overproud virtue is tempted to the very nadir of evil by a fiend in the guise of the maiden Matilda; and who is finally, when awaiting death at the Inquisition’s hands, induced to Exam Essay, purchase escape at the price of his soul from the Devil, because he deems both body and soul already lost. Tower Towers? Forthwith the mocking Fiend snatches him to a lonely place, tells him he has sold his soul in vain since both pardon and a chance for salvation were approaching at the moment of his hideous bargain, and completes the sardonic betrayal by rebuking him for his unnatural crimes, and casting his body down a precipice whilst his soul is borne off for ever to perdition. The novel contains some appalling descriptions such as the incantation in the vaults beneath the convent cemetery, the burning of the convent, and the final end of the wretched abbot. In the sub-plot where the Marquis de las Cisternas meets the spectre of his erring ancestress, The Bleeding Nun, there are many enormously potent strokes; notably the visit of the Meteorology Essay animated corpse to english, the Marquis’s bedside, and the cabbalistic ritual whereby the Wandering Jew helps him to fathom and banish his dead tormentor. Nevertheless The Monk drags sadly when read as a whole.
It is too long and too diffuse, and much of its potency is marred by Exam Essay flippancy and by an awkwardly excessive reaction against those canons of decorum which Lewis at first despised as prudish. One great thing may be said of the author; that he never ruined his ghostly visions with a natural explanation. He succeeded in breaking up the Radcliffian tradition and expanding the field of the Gothic novel. Lewis wrote much more than The Monk. His drama, The Castle Spectre, was produced in 1798, and anasarca define, he later found time to pen other fictions in ballad form Tales of Terror (1799), Tales of Wonder (1801), and a succession of translations from the German.
Gothic romances, both English and Meteorology Essay, German, now appeared in multitudinous and mediocre profusion. Most of them were merely ridiculous in the light of mature taste, and Miss Austen’s famous satire Northanger Abbey was by no means an unmerited rebuke to a school which had sunk far toward absurdity. Gilded Age Working? This particular school was petering out, but before its final subordination there arose its last and Meteorology Exam Essay, greatest figure in cry freedom book, the person of Charles Robert Maturin (17821824), an obscure and eccentric Irish clergyman. Out of an ample body of miscellaneous writing which includes one confused Radcliffian imitation called Fatal Revenge; or, The Family of Final Exam Essay Montorio (1807), Maturin at bolam principle length evolved the vivid horror-masterpiece of Melmoth the Wanderer (1820), in which the Gothic tale climbed to altitudes of sheer spiritual fright which it had never known before. Melmoth is the Meteorology Final Exam Essay tale of an Irish gentleman who, in the seventeenth century, obtained a preternaturally extended life from the Devil at the price of his soul. If he can persuade another to take the bargain off his hands, and assume his existing state, he can be saved; but this he can never manage to effect, no matter how assiduously he haunts those whom despair has made reckless and frantic. The framework of the story is very clumsy; involving tedious length, digressive episodes, narratives within narratives, and laboured dovetailing and coincidences; but at various points in the endless rambling there is felt a pulse of power undiscoverable in gilded age working, any previous work of this kinda kinship to the essential truth of human nature, an understanding of the profoundest sources of actual cosmic fear, and a white heat of sympathetic passion on Meteorology Final Essay the writer’s part which makes the book a true document of aesthetic self-expression rather than a mere clever compound of book artifice. No unbiassed reader can doubt that with Melmoth an enormous stride in the evolution of the horror-tale is represented.
Fear is taken out of the realm of the conventional and exalted into a hideous cloud over Final Essay, mankind’s very destiny. Maturin’s shudders, the work of one capable of Commandments Movie vs The Essay shuddering himself, are of the sort that convince. Mrs. Radcliffe and Meteorology Essay, Lewis are fair game for the parodist, but it would be difficult to find a false note in anasarca define, the feverishly intensified action and high atmospheric tension of the Irishman whose less sophisticated emotions and strain of Celtic mysticism gave him the finest possible natural equipment for his task. Without a doubt Maturin is Meteorology Final a man of authentic genius, and he was so recognised by Balzac, who grouped Melmoth with Molière’s Don Juan, Goethe’s Faust, and Byron’s Manfred as the supreme allegorical figures of modern European literature, and wrote a whimsical piece called “Melmoth Reconciled”, in which the Wanderer succeeds in passing his infernal bargain on to a Parisian bank defaulter, who in turn hands it along a chain of victims until a revelling gambler dies with it in his possession, and by english his damnation ends the Exam curse.
Scott, Rossetti, Thackeray, and freedom, Baudelaire are the other titans who gave Maturin their unqualified admiration, and Exam, there is much significance in the fact that Oscar Wilde, after his disgrace and exile, chose for his last days in Paris the assumed name of “Sebastian Melmoth”. Melmoth contains scenes which even now have not lost their power to evoke dread. It begins with a deathbedan old miser is dying of sheer fright because of something he has seen, coupled with a manuscript he has read and a family portrait which hangs in an obscure closet of his centuried home in bolam principle, County Wicklow. He sends to Trinity College, Dublin, for his nephew John; and the latter upon arriving notes many uncanny things. The eyes of the portrait in the closet glow horribly, and Meteorology, twice a figure strangely resembling the portrait appears momentarily at the door.
Dread hangs over that house of the Melmoths, one of whose ancestors, “J. Melmoth, 1646”, the portrait represents. The dying miser declares that this manat a date slightly before 1800is alive. Finally the miser dies, and the nephew is told in the will to destroy both the portrait and a manuscript to be found in a certain drawer. Reading the manuscript, which was written late in the seventeenth century by an Englishman named Stanton, young John learns of a terrible incident in Spain in 1677, when the writer met a horrible fellow- countryman and was told of how he had stared to age working, death a priest who tried to Final Exam, denounce him as one filled with fearsome evil. Bolam Principle? Later, after meeting the man again in London, Stanton is cast into a madhouse and visited by the stranger, whose approach is heralded by spectral music and whose eyes have a more than mortal glare. Melmoth the Wandererfor such is the malign visitoroffers the Meteorology Final Exam captive freedom if he will take over his bargain with the Devil; but like all others whom Melmoth has approached, Stanton is proof against book, temptation.
Melmoth’s description of the Meteorology horrors of a life in a madhouse, used to tempt Stanton, is age working one of the most potent passages of the book. Stanton is at length liberated, and spends the rest of his life tracking down Melmoth, whose family and ancestral abode he discovers. With the family he leaves the manuscript, which by young John’s time is sadly ruinous and fragmentary. John destroys both portrait and manuscript, but in Meteorology, sleep is visited by his horrible ancestor, who leaves a black and tower, blue mark on Meteorology Essay his wrist. Young John soon afterward receives as a visitor a shipwrecked Spaniard, Alonzo de Monçada, who has escaped from compulsory monasticism and from the bolam principle perils of the Inquisition. Exam Essay? He has suffered horriblyand the descriptions of his experiences under torment and in the vaults through which he once essays escape are classicbut had the strength to resist Melmoth the Wanderer when approached at his darkest hour in prison. At the towers house of Exam Essay a Jew who sheltered him after his escape he discovers a wealth of Book of Exodus Essay manuscript relating other exploits of Melmoth including his wooing of an Exam Essay, Indian island maiden, Immalee, who later comes to her birthright in Spain and is known as Donna Isidora; and of his horrible marriage to anasarca define, her by the corpse of a dead anchorite at midnight in the ruined chapel of a shunned and abhorred monastery.
Monçada’s narrative to young John takes up the bulk of Maturin’s four-volume book; this disproportion being considered one of the chief technical faults of the Meteorology Essay composition. At last the colloquies of John and gilded age working conditions, Monçada are interrupted by the entrance of Exam Melmoth the Wanderer himself, his piercing eyes now fading, and decrepitude swiftly overtaking him. Book? The term of his bargain has approached its end, and he has come home after a century and a half to meet his fate. Warning all others from the room, no matter what sounds they may hear in Meteorology, the night, he awaits the end alone. Young John and Monçada hear frightful ululations, but do not intrude till silence comes toward morning. They then find the bolam principle room empty.
Clayey footprints lead out a rear door to a cliff overlooking the sea, and near the edge of the precipice is a track indicating the forcible dragging of some heavy body. The Wanderer’s scarf is found on a crag some distance below the Final brink, but nothing further is ever seen or heard of him. Such is the story, and none can fail to notice the anasarca define difference between this modulated, suggestive, and Final Exam, artistically moulded horror andto use the words of anasarca define Professor George Saintsbury“the artful but rather jejune rationalism of Mrs. Meteorology Final Exam Essay? Radcliffe, and the too often puerile extravagance, the bad taste, and the sometimes slipshod style of Lewis.” Maturin’s style in bolam principle, itself deserves particular praise, for its forcible directness and vitality lift it altogether above the pompous artificialities of which his predecessors are guilty. Exam? Professor Edith Birkhead, in her history of the Gothic novel, justly observes that with all his faults Maturin was the greatest as well as the last of the Goths. Melmoth was widely read and eventually dramatised, but its late date in the evolution of the Gothic tale deprived it of the tumultuous popularity of Udolpho and The Monk. Meanwhile other hands had not been idle, so that above the dreary plethora of trash like Marquis von Grosse’s Horrid Mysteries (1796), Mrs. Of Exodus? Roche’s Children of the Abbey (1796), Miss Dacre’s Zofloya; or, The Moor (1806), and the poet Shelley’s schoolboy effusions Zastrozzi (1810) and St.
Irvyne (1811) (both imitations of Zofloya ) there arose many memorable weird works both in Meteorology Final Exam Essay, English and tower, German. Classic in merit, and Exam Essay, markedly different from its fellows because of freedom its foundation in the Oriental tale rather than the Walpolesque Gothic novel, is the Meteorology Exam Essay celebrated History of the Caliph Vathek by the wealthy dilettante William Beckford, first written in the French language but published in an English translation before the appearance of the original. Eastern tales, introduced to European literature early in the eighteenth century through Galland’s French translation of the inexhaustibly opulent Arabian Nights, had become a reigning fashion; being used both for allegory and for amusement. The sly humour which only the Eastern mind knows how to mix with weirdness had captivated a sophisticated generation, till Bagdad and Damascus names became as freely strown through popular literature as dashing Italian and Spanish ones were soon to be. Bolam Principle? Beckford, well read in Eastern romance, caught the atmosphere with unusual receptivity; and in his fantastic volume reflected very potently the Meteorology Final Essay haughty luxury, sly disillusion, bland cruelty, urbane treachery, and shadowy spectral horror of the Saracen spirit. His seasoning of the ridiculous seldom mars the force of his sinister theme, and the tale marches onward with a phantasmagoric pomp in which the laughter is that of skeletons feasting under Arabesque domes.
Vathek is a tale of the grandson of the Caliph Haroun, who, tormented by that ambition for super-terrestrial power, pleasure, and learning which animates the bolam principle average Gothic villain or Byronic hero (essentially cognate types), is lured by an evil genius to seek the subterranean throne of the mighty and fabulous pre-Adamite sultans in Meteorology Final Essay, the fiery halls of Movie vs The of Exodus Eblis, the Mahometan Devil. Exam? The descriptions of Vathek’s palaces and diversions, of othello modern his scheming sorceress-mother Carathis and her witch-tower with the fifty one-eyed negresses, of his pilgrimage to the haunted ruins of Istakhar (Persepolis) and of the impish bride Nouronihar whom he treacherously acquired on Meteorology the way, of Istakhar’s primordial towers and terraces in the burning moonlight of the waste, and of the terrible Cyclopean halls of Eblis, where, lured by glittering promises, each victim is compelled to wander in anguish for ever, his right hand upon bolam principle, his blazingly ignited and eternally burning heart, are triumphs of Meteorology Essay weird colouring which raise the book to a permanent place in English letters. No less notable are the bolam principle three Episodes of Vathek, intended for insertion in the tale as narratives of Vathek’s fellow-victims in Eblis’ infernal halls, which remained unpublished throughout the author’s lifetime and Meteorology Final Exam, were discovered as recently as 1909 by anasarca define the scholar Lewis Melville whilst collecting material for his Life and Letters of Meteorology Exam William Beckford. Beckford, however, lacks the essential mysticism which marks the acutest form of the weird; so that his tales have a certain knowing Latin hardness and clearness preclusive of sheer panic fright. But Beckford remained alone in his devotion to english, the Orient. Other writers, closer to the Gothic tradition and to European life in general, were content to Meteorology Essay, follow more faithfully in the lead of Walpole. Among the countless producers of terror-literature in these times may be mentioned the Utopian economic theorist William Godwin, who followed his famous but non-supernatural Caleb Williams (1794) with the intendedly weird St. Leon (1799), in which the theme of the elixir of life, as developed by freedom towers the imaginary secret order of “Rosicrucians”, is handled with ingeniousness if not with atmospheric convincingness. This element of Rosicrucianism, fostered by a wave of popular magical interest exemplified in Meteorology Essay, the vogue of the gilded charlatan Cagliostro and the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), a curious and compendious treatise on occult principles and ceremonies, of which a reprint was made as lately as 1896, figures in Bulwer-Lytton and in many late Gothic novels, especially that remote and enfeebled posterity which straggled far down into Meteorology the nineteenth century and was represented by George W. Othello? M. Reynolds’ Faust and the Demon and Wagner, the Wehr-wolf.
Caleb Williams, though non-supernatural, has many authentic touches of terror. It is the tale of a servant persecuted by a master whom he has found guilty of murder, and displays an invention and skill which have kept it alive in a fashion to this day. It was dramatised as The Iron Chest, and in that form was almost equally celebrated. Meteorology? Godwin, however, was too much the conscious teacher and prosaic man of thought to gilded, create a genuine weird masterpiece. His daughter, the Meteorology Exam wife of Shelley, was much more successful; and bolam principle, her inimitable Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is one of the horror-classics of all time. Composed in Meteorology Final, competition with her husband, Lord Byron, and Dr. John William Polidori in an effort to prove supremacy in horror-making, Mrs. Shelley’s Frankenstein was the only one of the rival narratives to conditions, be brought to an elaborate completion; and criticism has failed to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, prove that the best parts are due to Shelley rather than to gilded age working conditions, her. The novel, somewhat tinged but scarcely marred by moral didacticism, tells of the Meteorology Exam artificial human being moulded from charnel fragments by Victor Frankenstein, a young Swiss medical student.
Created by its designer “in the mad pride of anasarca define intellectuality”, the monster possesses full intelligence but owns a hideously loathsome form. It is rejected by mankind, becomes embittered, and at length begins the successive murder of all whom young Frankenstein loves best, friends and family. It demands that Frankenstein create a wife for it; and Meteorology, when the student finally refuses in horror lest the world be populated with such monsters, it departs with a hideous threat ‘to be with him on his wedding night’. Upon that night the bride is strangled, and from that time on Frankenstein hunts down the monster, even into the wastes of the Arctic. In the end, whilst seeking shelter on the ship of the man who tells the story, Frankenstein himself is english killed by Meteorology Final Exam the shocking object of his search and creation of his presumptuous pride. Some of the scenes in Frankenstein are unforgettable, as when the newly animated monster enters its creator’s room, parts the curtains of his bed, and gazes at him in the yellow moonlight with watery eyes“if eyes they may be called”. Mrs. Shelley wrote other novels, including the fairly notable Last Man; but never duplicated the success of her first effort.
It has the true touch of cosmic fear, no matter how much the movement may lag in places. Dr. Polidori developed his competing idea as a long short story, “The Vampyre”; in which we behold a suave villain of the true Gothic or Byronic type, and encounter some excellent passages of stark fright, including a terrible nocturnal experience in a shunned Grecian wood. In this same period Sir Walter Scott frequently concerned himself with the weird, weaving it into Book of Exodus many of his novels and poems, and Exam Essay, sometimes producing such independent bits of narration as “The Tapestried Chamber” or “Wandering Willie’s Tale” in Redgauntlet, in anasarca define, the latter of Meteorology Exam which the force of the spectral and the diabolic is enhanced by a grotesque homeliness of speech and atmosphere. In 1830 Scott published his Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, which still forms one of our best compendia of European witch-lore. Washington Irving is another famous figure not unconnected with the bolam principle weird; for though most of his ghosts are too whimsical and humorous to form genuinely spectral literature, a distinct inclination in this direction is to be noted in Final Exam Essay, many of his productions. “The German Student” in Tales of a Traveller (1824) is a slyly concise and effective presentation of the old legend of the dead bride, whilst woven into the comic tissue of “The Money-Diggers” in age working, the same volume is more than one hint of piratical apparitions in Meteorology, the realms which Captain Kidd once roamed.
Thomas Moore also joined the ranks of the macabre artists in the poem Alciphron, which he later elaborated into the prose novel of The Epicurean (1827). Though merely relating the adventures of a young Athenian duped by the artifice of cunning Egyptian priests, Moore manages to infuse much genuine horror into his account of subterranean frights and wonders beneath the primordial temples of Memphis. De Quincey more than once revels in grotesque and arabesque terrors, though with a desultoriness and anasarca define, learned pomp which deny him the rank of specialist. This era likewise saw the rise of Exam William Harrison Ainsworth, whose romantic novels teem with the english eerie and the gruesome. Capt. Marryat, besides writing such short tales as “The Werewolf”, made a memorable contribution in The Phantom Ship (1839), founded on the legend of the Flying Dutchman, whose spectral and accursed vessel sails for ever near the Cape of Good Hope.
Dickens now rises with occasional weird bits like “The Signalman”, a tale of Exam Essay ghostly warning conforming to a very common pattern and touched with a verisimilitude which allies it as much with the Movie vs The of Exodus Essay coming psychological school as with the dying Gothic school. Meteorology Final Exam? At this time a wave of interest in tower vs twin, spiritualistic charlatanry, mediumism, Hindoo theosophy, and such matters, much like that of the present day, was flourishing; so that the number of weird tales with a “psychic” or pseudo-scientific basis became very considerable. For a number of these the Final Essay prolific and popular Lord Edward Bulwer-Lytton was responsible; and despite the large doses of turgid rhetoric and empty romanticism in age working, his products, his success in the weaving of a certain kind of bizarre charm cannot be denied. “The House and the Brain”, which hints of Rosicrucianism and at a malign and deathless figure perhaps suggested by Louis XV’s mysterious courtier St. Germain, yet survives as one of the best short haunted-house tales ever written. The novel Zanoni (1842) contains similar elements more elaborately handled, and introduces a vast unknown sphere of being pressing on our own world and guarded by a horrible “Dweller of the Threshold” who haunts those who try to Meteorology Essay, enter and fail. Here we have a benign brotherhood kept alive from age to age till finally reduced to a single member, and as a hero an ancient Chaldaean sorcerer surviving in cry freedom book, the pristine bloom of youth to perish on the guillotine of the French Revolution.
Though full of the Essay conventional spirit of romance, marred by a ponderous network of symbolic and The Ten Essay, didactic meanings, and left unconvincing through lack of perfect atmospheric realisation of the situations hinging on the spectral world, Zanoni is really an Meteorology Exam, excellent performance as a romantic novel; and The Ten Commandments vs The of Exodus Essay, can be read with genuine interest today by the not too sophisticated reader. It is amusing to note that in describing an attempted initiation into Meteorology Final the ancient brotherhood the author cannot escape using the stock Gothic castle of Walpolian lineage. In A Strange Story (1862) Bulwer-Lytton shews a marked improvement in the creation of weird images and moods. The novel, despite enormous length, a highly artificial plot bolstered up by opportune coincidences, and an atmosphere of homiletic pseudo-science designed to please the matter-of-fact and purposeful Victorian reader, is exceedingly effective as a narrative; evoking instantaneous and unflagging interest, and furnishing many potentif somewhat melodramatictableaux and climaxes. Again we have the mysterious user of life’s elixir in the person of the soulless magician Margrave, whose dark exploits stand out with dramatic vividness against age working conditions, the modern background of a quiet English town and of the Australian bush; and again we have shadowy intimations of a vast spectral world of the unknown in the very air about usthis time handled with much greater power and vitality than in Final, Zanoni.
One of the two great incantation passages, where the hero is gilded age working conditions driven by Meteorology Final Essay a luminous evil spirit to cry freedom, rise at Meteorology Final Exam night in anasarca define, his sleep, take a strange Egyptian wand, and Final Essay, evoke nameless presences in Essay, the haunted and mausoleum-facing pavilion of a famous Renaissance alchemist, truly stands among the Essay major terror scenes of literature. Just enough is suggested, and just little enough is told. Unknown words are twice dictated to the sleep-walker, and as he repeats them the ground trembles, and bolam principle, all the dogs of the countryside begin to bay at half-seen amorphous shadows that stalk athwart the moonlight. Final Essay? When a third set of unknown words is prompted, the sleep-walker’s spirit suddenly rebels at uttering them, as if the soul could recognise ultimate abysmal horrors concealed from the mind; and at book last an apparition of an absent sweetheart and Final Essay, good angel breaks the malign spell. This fragment well illustrates how far Lord Lytton was capable of progressing beyond his usual pomp and stock romance toward that crystalline essence of anasarca define artistic fear which belongs to Essay, the domain of poetry. In describing certain details of anasarca define incantations, Lytton was greatly indebted to his amusingly serious occult studies, in the course of which he came in touch with that odd French scholar and cabbalist Alphonse-Louis Constant (“Eliphas Lévi”), who claimed to possess the secrets of ancient magic, and to have evoked the spectre of the Meteorology old Grecian wizard Apollonius of anasarca define Tyana, who lived in Nero’s time.
The romantic, semi-Gothic, quasi-moral tradition here represented was carried far down the nineteenth century by Meteorology Final such authors as Joseph Sheridan LeFanu, Thomas Preskett Prest with his famous Varney, the Vampyre (1847), Wilkie Collins, the late Sir H. Rider Haggard (whose She is really remarkably good), Sir A. Anasarca Define? Conan Doyle, H. G. Wells, and Robert Louis Stevensonthe latter of whom, despite an atrocious tendency toward jaunty mannerisms, created permanent classics in “Markheim”, “The Body-Snatcher”, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Indeed, we may say that this school still survives; for to it clearly belong such of Meteorology our contemporary horror-tales as specialise in events rather than atmospheric details, address the intellect rather than the impressionistic imagination, cultivate a luminous glamour rather than a malign tensity or psychological verisimilitude, and take a definite stand in sympathy with mankind and its welfare. It has its undeniable strength, and because of its “human element” commands a wider audience than does the sheer artistic nightmare. If not quite so potent as the latter, it is because a diluted product can never achieve the intensity of a concentrated essence. Quite alone both as a novel and as a piece of terror-literature stands the book famous Wuthering Heights (1847) by Meteorology Essay Emily Brontë, with its mad vista of bleak, windswept Yorkshire moors and the violent, distorted lives they foster. Though primarily a tale of life, and of human passions in agony and conflict, its epically cosmic setting affords room for horror of the most spiritual sort.
Heathcliff, the modified Byronic villain-hero, is a strange dark waif found in the streets as a small child and speaking only a strange gibberish till adopted by the family he ultimately ruins. That he is in truth a diabolic spirit rather than a human being is more than once suggested, and the unreal is further approached in the experience of the visitor who encounters a plaintive child-ghost at a bough-brushed upper window. Between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw is a tie deeper and more terrible than human love. After her death he twice disturbs her grave, and is haunted by an impalpable presence which can be nothing less than her spirit. Cry Freedom? The spirit enters his life more and more, and at last he becomes confident of some imminent mystical reunion. He says he feels a strange change approaching, and ceases to Final Exam, take nourishment. At night he either walks abroad or opens the casement by bolam principle his bed. When he dies the casement is still swinging open to the pouring rain, and a queer smile pervades the stiffened face.
They bury him in a grave beside the mound he has haunted for eighteen years, and small shepherd boys say that he yet walks with his Catherine in Meteorology Exam, the churchyard and on the moor when it rains. Their faces, too, are sometimes seen on rainy nights behind that upper casement at Wuthering Heights. Freedom Tower Vs Twin? Miss Brontë’s eerie terror is no mere Gothic echo, but a tense expression of man’s shuddering reaction to Final Exam, the unknown. In this respect, Wuthering Heights becomes the symbol of a literary transition, and marks the growth of bolam principle a new and sounder school. On the Continent literary horror fared well.
The celebrated short tales and novels of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (17761822) are a byword for mellowness of background and maturity of form, though they incline to levity and extravagance, and lack the Meteorology Exam exalted moments of stark, breathless terror which a less sophisticated writer might have achieved. Age Working Conditions? Generally they convey the grotesque rather than the terrible. Most artistic of all the Exam Essay Continental weird tales is the German classic Undine (1811), by Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte Fouqué. In this story of age working conditions a water-spirit who married a mortal and gained a human soul there is a delicate fineness of craftsmanship which makes it notable in any department of literature, and Exam Essay, an easy naturalness which places it close to the genuine folk-myth. The Ten Commandments Movie Vs The? It is, in Final, fact, derived from a tale told by the Renaissance physician and alchemist Paracelsus in his Treatise on vs The Book Elemental Sprites. Undine, daughter of a powerful water-prince, was exchanged by Meteorology Exam her father as a small child for gilded age working conditions, a fisherman’s daughter, in order that she might acquire a soul by wedding a human being. Meeting the noble youth Huldbrand at the cottage of her foster-father by the sea at the edge of a haunted wood, she soon marries him, and accompanies him to his ancestral castle of Ringstetten. Huldbrand, however, eventually wearies of his wife’s supernatural affiliations, and especially of the appearances of her uncle, the malicious woodland waterfall-spirit Kühleborn; a weariness increased by his growing affection for Bertalda, who turns out to Final, be the fisherman’s child for othello english, whom Undine was exchanged. At length, on a voyage down the Danube, he is provoked by some innocent act of his devoted wife to Meteorology Final, utter the angry words which consign her back to her supernatural element; from which she can, by the laws of freedom tower vs twin towers her species, return only onceto kill him, whether she will or no, if ever he prove unfaithful to her memory.
Later, when Huldbrand is about to be married to Bertalda, Undine returns for her sad duty, and bears his life away in tears. When he is buried among his fathers in the village churchyard a veiled, snow-white female figure appears among the mourners, but after the Meteorology Final Exam Essay prayer is seen no more. In her place is seen a little silver spring, which murmurs its way almost completely around the new grave, and freedom towers, empties into a neighbouring lake. Final Exam? The villagers shew it to this day, and say that Undine and her Huldbrand are thus united in death. Many passages and atmospheric touches in this tale reveal Fouqué as an accomplished artist in the field of the macabre; especially the descriptions of the haunted wood with its gigantic snow-white man and various unnamed terrors, which occur early in the narrative. Not so well known as Undine, but remarkable for its convincing realism and freedom from Gothic stock devices, is the Amber Witch of bolam principle Wilhelm Meinhold, another product of the German fantastic genius of the earlier nineteenth century.
This tale, which is laid in the time of the Meteorology Exam Essay Thirty Years’ War, purports to bolam principle, be a clergyman’s manuscript found in an old church at Coserow, and Exam Essay, centres round the writer’s daughter, Maria Schweidler, who is wrongly accused of witchcraft. She has found a deposit of amber which she keeps secret for various reasons, and the unexplained wealth obtained from this lends colour to bolam principle, the accusation; an accusation instigated by the malice of the wolf-hunting nobleman Wittich Appelmann, who has vainly pursued her with ignoble designs. The deeds of Meteorology a real witch, who afterward comes to a horrible supernatural end in towers, prison, are glibly imputed to the hapless Maria; and Meteorology Final Exam, after a typical witchcraft trial with forced confessions under torture she is about to be burned at the stake when saved just in time by her lover, a noble youth from a neighbouring district. Meinhold’s great strength is in his air of vs twin towers casual and realistic verisimilitude, which intensifies our suspense and sense of the unseen by half persuading us that the menacing events must somehow be either the truth or very close to the truth. Meteorology Final? Indeed, so thorough is this realism that a popular magazine once published the main points of The Amber Witch as an actual occurrence of the seventeenth century! In the present generation German horror-fiction is most notably represented by Hanns Heinz Ewers, who brings to bear on english his dark conceptions an effective knowledge of modern psychology. Novels like The Sorcerer’s Apprentice and Alraune, and short stories like “The Spider”, contain distinctive qualities which raise them to a classic level. But France as well as Germany has been active in the realm of weirdness. Exam? Victor Hugo, in book, such tales as Hans of Iceland, and Balzac, in The Wild Ass’s Skin, Séraphîta, and Louis Lambert, both employ supernaturalism to a greater or less extent; though generally only as a means to some more human end, and without the Final Exam Essay sincere and freedom tower vs twin towers, daemonic intensity which characterises the born artist in shadows.
It is in Meteorology Final Exam, Théophile Gautier that we first seem to find an freedom tower, authentic French sense of the unreal world, and here there appears a spectral mastery which, though not continuously used, is recognisable at once as something alike genuine and Exam, profound. Short tales like “Avatar”, “The Foot of the Mummy”, and “Clarimonde” display glimpses of tower forbidden visits that allure, tantalise, and Final Exam, sometimes horrify; whilst the Egyptian visions evoked in “One of Cleopatra’s Nights” are of the keenest and most expressive potency. Gautier captured the inmost soul of aeon-weighted Egypt, with its cryptic life and bolam principle, Cyclopean architecture, and uttered once and for all the eternal horror of its nether world of catacombs, where to the end of time millions of stiff, spiced corpses will stare up in the blackness with glassy eyes, awaiting some awesome and Final Exam Essay, unrelatable summons. Bolam Principle? Gustave Flaubert ably continued the tradition of Gautier in orgies of poetic phantasy like The Temptation of Exam St. Anthony, and but for bolam principle, a strong realistic bias might have been an arch-weaver of tapestried terrors. Later on we see the stream divide, producing strange poets and Essay, fantaisistes of the Symbolist and Decadent schools whose dark interests really centre more in abnormalities of human thought and instinct than in the actual supernatural, and subtle story-tellers whose thrills are quite directly derived from the night-black wells of cosmic unreality. Of the former class of “artists in sin” the illustrious poet Baudelaire, influenced vastly by Poe, is the supreme type; whilst the psychological novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans, a true child of the eighteen-nineties, is at once the summation and finale.
The latter and purely narrative class is freedom towers continued by Prosper Mérimée, whose “Venus of Ille” presents in terse and convincing prose the same ancient statue-bride theme which Thomas Moore cast in ballad form in “The Ring”. The horror-tales of the powerful and cynical Guy de Maupassant, written as his final madness gradually overtook him, present individualities of their own; being rather the morbid outpourings of a realistic mind in a pathological state than the healthy imaginative products of a vision naturally disposed toward phantasy and sensitive to the normal illusions of the Meteorology Final unseen. Nevertheless they are of the keenest interest and poignancy; suggesting with marvellous force the imminence of nameless terrors, and the relentless dogging of an anasarca define, ill-starred individual by hideous and Exam Essay, menacing representatives of the othello outer blackness. Of these stories “The Horla” is generally regarded as the masterpiece. Relating the advent to Final, France of an invisible being who lives on water and milk, sways the minds of others, and seems to be the vanguard of a horde of extra-terrestrial organisms arrived on earth to subjugate and overwhelm mankind, this tense narrative is perhaps without a peer in its particular department; notwithstanding its indebtedness to a tale by the American Fitz-James O’Brien for details in describing the actual presence of the unseen monster. Other potently dark creations of age working conditions de Maupassant are “Who Knows?”, “The Spectre”, “He?”, “The Diary of a Madman”, “The White Wolf”, “On the River”, and Final Essay, the grisly verses entitled “Horror”. The collaborators Erckmann-Chatrian enriched French literature with many spectral fancies like The Man-Wolf, in which a transmitted curse works toward its end in othello english, a traditional Gothic-castle setting. Their power of creating a shuddering midnight atmosphere was tremendous despite a tendency toward natural explanations and scientific wonders; and few short tales contain greater horror than “The Invisible Eye”, where a malignant old hag weaves nocturnal hypnotic spells which induce the successive occupants of a certain inn chamber to hang themselves on a cross-beam. “The Owl’s Ear” and “The Waters of Death” are full of Meteorology Final Exam engulfing darkness and mystery, the latter embodying the familiar overgrown-spider theme so frequently employed by weird fictionists. Villiers de l’Isle-Adam likewise followed the macabre school; his “Torture by gilded Hope”, the Meteorology Final Exam tale of a stake-condemned prisoner permitted to escape in order to feel the pangs of recapture, being held by some to constitute the freedom tower vs twin most harrowing short story in literature. This type, however, is less a part of the weird tradition than a class peculiar to itselfthe so-called conte cruel, in Final Exam, which the wrenching of the emotions is accomplished through dramatic tantalisations, frustrations, and gruesome physical horrors.
Almost wholly devoted to this form is the living writer Maurice Level, whose very brief episodes have lent themselves so readily to theatrical adaptation in the “thrillers” of the Grand Guignol. As a matter of fact, the French genius is more naturally suited to english, this dark realism than to the suggestion of the Exam Essay unseen; since the latter process requires, for its best and most sympathetic development on a large scale, the inherent mysticism of the Northern mind. A very flourishing, though till recently quite hidden, branch of weird literature is that of the Jews, kept alive and nourished in obscurity by the sombre heritage of early Eastern magic, apocalyptic literature, and cabbalism. The Semitic mind, like the conditions Celtic and Teutonic, seems to possess marked mystical inclinations; and the wealth of underground horror-lore surviving in ghettoes and synagogues must be much more considerable than is generally imagined. Cabbalism itself, so prominent during the Middle Ages, is a system of philosophy explaining the universe as emanations of the Deity, and involving the existence of strange spiritual realms and beings apart from the Meteorology Final visible world, of which dark glimpses may be obtained through certain secret incantations. Its ritual is bound up with mystical interpretations of the Old Testament, and attributes an esoteric significance to each letter of the Hebrew alphabeta circumstance which has imparted to Hebrew letters a sort of spectral glamour and potency in the popular literature of magic.
Jewish folklore has preserved much of the terror and mystery of the past, and when more thoroughly studied is likely to exert considerable influence on weird fiction. The best examples of its literary use so far are the German novel The Golem, by Gustav Meyrink, and the drama The Dybbuk, by the Jewish writer using the pseudonym “Ansky”. The former, with its haunting shadowy suggestions of The Ten Commandments vs The Book of Exodus marvels and Meteorology Final, horrors just beyond reach, is laid in Prague, and describes with singular mastery that city’s ancient ghetto with its spectral, peaked gables. The name is derived from a fabulous artificial giant supposed to be made and animated by mediaeval rabbis according to a certain cryptic formula. The Dybbuk, translated and produced in gilded conditions, America in 1925, and Meteorology Final Exam Essay, more recently produced as an opera, describes with singular power the possession of a living body by the evil soul of a dead man.
Both golems and dybbuks are fixed types, and serve as frequent ingredients of later Jewish tradition. In the eighteen-thirties occurred a literary dawn directly affecting not only the history of the weird tale, but that of cry freedom book short fiction as a whole; and Meteorology, indirectly moulding the trends and fortunes of a great European aesthetic school. It is our good fortune as Americans to be able to claim that dawn as our own, for it came in the person of our illustrious and unfortunate fellow-countryman Edgar Allan Poe. Poe’s fame has been subject to curious undulations, and it is now a fashion amongst the modern english “advanced intelligentsia” to minimise his importance both as an artist and as an Meteorology Essay, influence; but it would be hard for book, any mature and reflective critic to deny the tremendous value of his work and Final, the pervasive potency of his mind as an opener of artistic vistas. True, his type of outlook may have been anticipated; but it was he who first realised its possibilities and othello modern english, gave it supreme form and systematic expression. Meteorology Final Exam Essay? True also, that subsequent writers may have produced greater single tales than his; but again we must comprehend that it was only he who taught them by example and precept the art which they, having the way cleared for them and given an explicit guide, were perhaps able to carry to greater lengths. Whatever his limitations, Poe did that which no one else ever did or could have done; and to him we owe the modern horror-story in its final and perfected state. Before Poe the bulk of weird writers had worked largely in the dark; without an understanding of the psychological basis of the horror appeal, and othello english, hampered by more or less of conformity to certain empty literary conventions such as the happy ending, virtue rewarded, and in general a hollow moral didacticism, acceptance of popular standards and Final, values, and Book, striving of the author to obtrude his own emotions into the story and Final Essay, take sides with the partisans of the majority’s artificial ideas. Cry Freedom? Poe, on the other hand, perceived the Final Exam Essay essential impersonality of the real artist; and knew that the function of creative fiction is merely to express and interpret events and sensations as they are, regardless of how they tend or what they provegood or evil, attractive or repulsive, stimulating or depressingwith the author always acting as a vivid and detached chronicler rather than as a teacher, sympathiser, or vendor of opinion.
He saw clearly that all phases of life and cry freedom book, thought are equally eligible as subject-matter for the artist, and being inclined by temperament to strangeness and gloom, decided to be the interpreter of those powerful feeling, and Meteorology Final Exam, frequent happenings which attend pain rather than pleasure, decay rather than growth, terror rather than tranquillity, and which are fundamentally either adverse or indifferent to the tastes and traditional outward sentiments of mankind, and to Movie vs The Essay, the health, sanity, and normal expansive welfare of the species. Poe’s spectres thus acquired a convincing malignity possessed by none of their predecessors, and established a new standard of realism in the annals of literary horror. The impersonal and artistic intent, moreover, was aided by a scientific attitude not often found before; whereby Poe studied the human mind rather than the usages of Meteorology Exam Gothic fiction, and worked with an analytical knowledge of terror’s true sources which doubled the The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Book of Exodus force of his narratives and emancipated him from all the Exam Essay absurdities inherent in merely conventional shudder-coining. This example having been set, later authors were naturally forced to anasarca define, conform to it in order to compete at all; so that in Meteorology Final, this way a definite change began to affect the main stream of macabre writing. Freedom Tower Towers? Poe, too, set a fashion in consummate craftsmanship; and although today some of Final Essay his own work seems slightly melodramatic and freedom, unsophisticated, we can constantly trace his influence in such things as the maintenance of a single mood and achievement of a single impression in a tale, and the rigorous paring down of incidents to such as have a direct bearing on the plot and Final, will figure prominently in gilded conditions, the climax. Truly may it be said that Poe invented the short story in Exam Essay, its present form. His elevation of disease, perversity, and decay to the level of artistically expressible themes was likewise infinitely far-reaching in effect; for avidly seized, sponsored, and intensified by towers his eminent French admirer Charles Pierre Baudelaire, it became the nucleus of the principal aesthetic movements in France, thus making Poe in a sense the father of the Decadents and the Symbolists.
Poet and critic by nature and supreme attainment, logician and philosopher by taste and mannerism, Poe was by no means immune from defects and affectations. Meteorology Final Essay? His pretence to profound and obscure scholarship, his blundering ventures in Commandments Movie vs The of Exodus Essay, stilted and laboured pseudo-humour, and his often vitriolic outbursts of critical prejudice must all be recognised and forgiven. Beyond and above them, and dwarfing them to insignificance, was a master’s vision of the terror that stalks about and within us, and the worm that writhes and slavers in the hideously close abyss. Penetrating to every festering horror in the gaily painted mockery called existence, and in the solemn masquerade called human thought and feelings that vision had power to project itself in blackly magical crystallisations and Meteorology Essay, transmutations; till there bloomed in the sterile America of the ’thirties and ’forties such a moon-nourished garden of bolam principle gorgeous poison fungi as not even the nether slope of Saturn might boast. Verses and Meteorology Final, tales alike sustain the burthen of cosmic panic. The raven whose noisome beak pierces the heart, the ghouls that toll iron bells in pestilential steeples, the vault of Ulalume in the black October night, the shocking spires and The Ten Commandments vs The Book Essay, domes under the sea, the Meteorology “wild, weird clime that lieth, sublime, out of The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Spaceout of Time”all these things and more leer at us amidst maniacal rattlings in the seething nightmare of the poetry. And in the prose there yawn open for us the Final Essay very jaws of the pitinconceivable abnormalities slyly hinted into The Ten Commandments vs The of Exodus Essay a horrible half-knowledge by words whose innocence we scarcely doubt till the cracked tension of the speaker’s hollow voice bids us fear their nameless implications; daemoniac patterns and presences slumbering noxiously till waked for one phobic instant into Meteorology Exam a shrieking revelation that cackles itself to sudden madness or explodes in memorable and gilded age working, cataclysmic echoes. A Witches’ Sabbath of horror flinging off decorous robes is flashed before usa sight the more monstrous because of the scientific skill with which every particular is marshalled and brought into an easy apparent relation to the known gruesomeness of material life.
Poe’s tales, of course, fall into several classes; some of which contain a purer essence of spiritual horror than others. The tales of logic and ratiocination, forerunners of the modern detective story, are not to be included at all in weird literature; whilst certain others, probably influenced considerably by Hoffmann, possess an extravagance which relegates them to the borderline of the grotesque. Still a third group deal with abnormal psychology and monomania in such a way as to express terror but not weirdness. A substantial residuum, however, represent the Meteorology Exam literature of supernatural horror in its acutest form; and give their author a permanent and unassailable place as deity and fountain-head of all modern diabolic fiction. Who can forget the terrible swollen ship poised on the billow-chasm’s edge in “MS. Found in othello modern english, a Bottle”the dark intimations of her unhallowed age and monstrous growth, her sinister crew of unseeing greybeards, and her frightful southward rush under full sail through the ice of the Antarctic night, sucked onward by some resistless devil-current toward a vortex of eldritch enlightenment which must end in Final Essay, destruction? Then there is the unutterable “M.
Valdemar”, kept together by hypnotism for seven months after his death, and uttering frantic sounds but a moment before the breaking of the spell leaves him “a nearly liquid mass of loathsomeof detestable putrescence”. In the anasarca define Narrative of A. Gordon Pym the voyagers reach first a strange south polar land of Meteorology Final Exam Essay murderous savages where nothing is white and where vast rocky ravines have the form of titanic Egyptian letters spelling terrible primal arcana of earth; and thereafter a still more mysterious realm where everything is white, and where shrouded giants and snowy-plumed birds guard a cryptic cataract of mist which empties from freedom tower vs twin towers immeasurable celestial heights into a torrid milky sea. “Metzengerstein” horrifies with its malign hints of a monstrous metempsychosisthe mad nobleman who burns the stable of his hereditary foe; the colossal unknown horse that issues from the blazing building after the owner has perished therein; the vanishing bit of ancient tapestry where was shewn the giant horse of the victim’s ancestor in the Crusades; the madman’s wild and constant riding on the great horse, and his fear and hatred of the steed; the meaningless prophecies that brood obscurely over the warring houses; and Exam, finally, the burning of the madman’s palace and the death therein of the owner, borne helpless into the flames and up the vast staircases astride the beast he has ridden so strangely. Afterward the rising smoke of the ruins takes the form of a gigantic horse. “The Man of the Crowd”, telling of one who roams day and night to mingle with streams of cry freedom book people as if afraid to be alone, has quieter effects, but implies nothing less of cosmic fear. Poe’s mind was never far from terror and decay, and we see in Essay, every tale, poem, and philosophical dialogue a tense eagerness to fathom unplumbed wells of night, to pierce the veil of death, and to reign in fancy as lord of the frightful mysteries of time and space. Certain of othello modern english Poe’s tales possess an almost absolute perfection of artistic form which makes them veritable beacon-lights in the province of the short story.
Poe could, when he wished, give to his prose a richly poetic cast; employing that archaic and Orientalised style with jewelled phrase, quasi-Biblical repetition, and recurrent burthen so successfully used by later writers like Oscar Wilde and Lord Dunsany; and in the cases where he has done this we have an effect of lyrical phantasy almost narcotic in essencean opium pageant of dream in Meteorology, the language of dream, with every unnatural colour and grotesque image bodied forth in a symphony of corresponding sound. “The Masque of the Red Death”, “SilenceA Fable”, and “ShadowA Parable” are assuredly poems in every sense of the word save the bolam principle metrical one, and owe as much of their power to aural cadence as to visual imagery. But it is in two of the less openly poetic tales, “Ligeia” and “The Fall of the Meteorology Essay House of Usher”especially the latterthat one finds those very summits of book artistry whereby Poe takes his place at the head of fictional miniaturists. Simple and straightforward in plot, both of these tales owe their supreme magic to the cunning development which appears in the selection and collocation of every least incident. “Ligeia” tells of a first wife of lofty and mysterious origin, who after death returns through a preternatural force of will to take possession of the body of a second wife; imposing even her physical appearance on the temporary reanimated corpse of her victim at the last moment. Despite a suspicion of prolixity and topheaviness, the narrative reaches its terrific climax with relentless power. “Usher”, whose superiority in detail and proportion is very marked, hints shudderingly of obscure life in inorganic things, and displays an abnormally linked trinity of entities at the end of a long and Meteorology Exam Essay, isolated family historya brother, his twin sister, and their incredibly ancient house all sharing a single soul and meeting one common dissolution at the same moment. These bizarre conceptions, so awkward in unskilful hands, become under Poe’s spell living and convincing terrors to haunt our nights; and all because the author understood so perfectly the very mechanics and physiology of fear and strangenessthe essential details to emphasise, the precise incongruities and conceits to othello english, select as preliminaries or concomitants to horror, the exact incidents and allusions to throw out innocently in advance as symbols or prefigurings of each major step toward the hideous denouement to come, the nice adjustments of Final cumulative force and the unerring accuracy in linkage of parts which make for faultless unity throughout and thunderous effectiveness at the climactic moment, the delicate nuances of scenic and landscape value to select in establishing and sustaining the desired mood and vitalising the desired illusionprinciples of this kind, and dozens of obscurer ones too elusive to be described or even fully comprehended by any ordinary commentator. Melodrama and unsophistication there may bewe are told of one fastidious Frenchman who could not bear to read Poe except in Baudelaire’s urbane and Gallically modulated translationbut all traces of age working such things are wholly overshadowed by a potent and Meteorology Final Exam, inborn sense of the cry freedom book spectral, the morbid, and the horrible which gushed forth from every cell of the artist’s creative mentality and stamped his macabre work with the ineffaceable mark of supreme genius.
Poe’s weird tales are alive in Meteorology Final Essay, a manner that few others can ever hope to be. Like most fantaisistes, Poe excels in incidents and broad narrative effects rather than in character drawing. His typical protagonist is generally a dark, handsome, proud, melancholy, intellectual, highly sensitive, capricious, introspective, isolated, and sometimes slightly mad gentleman of ancient family and opulent circumstances; usually deeply learned in strange lore, and darkly ambitious of The Ten Commandments Book of Exodus Essay penetrating to forbidden secrets of the universe. Aside from a high-sounding name, this character obviously derives little from the early Gothic novel; for he is Final Exam Essay clearly neither the wooden hero nor the bolam principle diabolical villain of Radcliffian or Ludovician romance. Indirectly, however, he does possess a sort of genealogical connexion; since his gloomy, ambitious, and anti-social qualities savour strongly of the typical Byronic hero, who in turn is definitely an offspring of the Gothic Manfreds, Montonis, and Exam Essay, Ambrosios. More particular qualities appear to be derived from the psychology of Poe himself, who certainly possessed much of the depression, sensitiveness, mad aspiration, loneliness, and extravagant freakishness which he attributes to his haughty and solitary victims of Fate. The public for whom Poe wrote, though grossly unappreciative of towers his art, was by Final Exam no means unaccustomed to the horrors with which he dealt. America, besides inheriting the usual dark folklore of Europe, had an additional fund of weird associations to draw upon; so that spectral legends had already been recognised as fruitful subject-matter for literature. Charles Brockden Brown had achieved phenomenal fame with his Radcliffian romances, and towers, Washington Irving’s lighter treatment of eerie themes had quickly become classic. This additional fund proceeded, as Paul Elmer More has pointed out, from the keen spiritual and theological interests of the first colonists, plus the strange and forbidding nature of the scene into which they were plunged.
The vast and gloomy virgin forests in whose perpetual twilight all terrors might well lurk; the hordes of coppery Indians whose strange, saturnine visages and Final Exam Essay, violent customs hinted strongly at traces of infernal origin; the free rein given under the influence of Puritan theocracy to anasarca define, all manner of notions respecting man’s relation to the stern and Final Exam, vengeful God of the tower Calvinists, and to the sulphureous Adversary of that God, about whom so much was thundered in the pulpits each Sunday; and Exam, the morbid introspection developed by an isolated backwoods life devoid of normal amusements and of the recreational mood, harassed by commands for bolam principle, theological self-examination, keyed to unnatural emotional repression, and forming above all a mere grim struggle for survivalall these things conspired to produce an environment in which the black whisperings of sinister grandams were heard far beyond the chimney corner, and in Exam Essay, which tales of witchcraft and unbelievable secret monstrosities lingered long after the dread days of the Salem nightmare. Poe represents the newer, more disillusioned, and more technically finished of the weird schools that rose out of Commandments Movie Book Essay this propitious milieu. Another schoolthe tradition of moral values, gentle restraint, and mild, leisurely phantasy tinged more or less with the whimsicalwas represented by another famous, misunderstood, and lonely figure in American lettersthe shy and sensitive Nathaniel Hawthorne, scion of antique Salem and great-grandson of one of the bloodiest of the old witchcraft judges. In Hawthorne we have none of the violence, the daring, the high colouring, the intense dramatic sense, the cosmic malignity, and the undivided and Final Essay, impersonal artistry of Poe. Here, instead, is a gentle soul cramped by the Puritanism of early New England; shadowed and wistful, and Movie vs The Book of Exodus Essay, grieved at an unmoral universe which everywhere transcends the conventional patterns thought by our forefathers to represent divine and immutable law. Evil, a very real force to Hawthorne, appears on every hand as a lurking and conquering adversary; and the visible world becomes in his fancy a theatre of infinite tragedy and woe, with unseen half-existent influences hovering over it and through it, battling for supremacy and Meteorology Final Exam, moulding the destinies of the hapless mortals who form its vain and self-deluded population. Bolam Principle? The heritage of American weirdness was his to a most intense degree, and he saw a dismal throng of Final Exam vague spectres behind the common phenomena of life; but he was not disinterested enough to value impressions, sensations, and beauties of narration for their own sake. He must needs weave his phantasy into some quietly melancholy fabric of freedom vs twin didactic or allegorical cast, in Exam, which his meekly resigned cynicism may display with naive moral appraisal the perfidy of a human race which he cannot cease to age working conditions, cherish and mourn despite his insight into its hypocrisy. Supernatural horror, then, is never a primary object with Hawthorne; though its impulses were so deeply woven into his personality that he cannot help suggesting it with the force of Meteorology Final genius when he calls upon the unreal world to illustrate the pensive sermon he wishes to preach.
Hawthorne’s intimations of the bolam principle weird, always gentle, elusive, and restrained, may be traced throughout his work. The mood that produced them found one delightful vent in the Teutonised retelling of classic myths for children contained in A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales, and at other times exercised itself in casting a certain strangeness and intangible witchery or malevolence over Final Essay, events not meant to be actually supernatural; as in the macabre posthumous novel Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret, which invests with a peculiar sort of repulsion a house existing to this day in Salem, and abutting on the ancient Charter Street Burying Ground. In The Marble Faun, whose design was sketched out in an Italian villa reputed to be haunted, a tremendous background of genuine phantasy and mystery palpitates just beyond the common reader’s sight; and glimpses of fabulous blood in mortal veins are hinted at during the course of a romance which cannot help being interesting despite the persistent incubus of moral allegory, anti-Popery propaganda, and a Puritan prudery which has caused the late D. H. Lawrence to bolam principle, express a longing to treat the author in a highly undignified manner. Meteorology Final Essay? Septimius Felton, a posthumous novel whose idea was to have been elaborated and incorporated into the unfinished Dolliver Romance, touches on the Elixir of Life in a more or less capable fashion; whilst the notes for a never-written tale to be called “The Ancestral Footstep” shew what Hawthorne would have done with an intensive treatment of an old English superstitionthat of an conditions, ancient and accursed line whose members left footprints of blood as they walkedwhich appears incidentally in both Septimius Felton and Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret. Many of Hawthorne’s shorter tales exhibit weirdness, either of atmosphere or of Meteorology Final incident, to a remarkable degree. “Edward Randolph’s Portrait”, in anasarca define, Legends of the Province House, has its diabolic moments. “The Minister’s Black Veil” (founded on an actual incident) and Final Exam Essay, “The Ambitious Guest” imply much more than they state, whilst “Ethan Brand”a fragment of a longer work never completedrises to genuine heights of Commandments Book cosmic fear with its vignette of the wild hill country and the blazing, desolate lime-kilns, and Meteorology Exam Essay, its delineation of the Byronic “unpardonable sinner”, whose troubled life ends with a peal of fearful laughter in anasarca define, the night as he seeks rest amidst the flames of the furnace. Some of Hawthorne’s notes tell of weird tales he would have written had he lived longeran especially vivid plot being that concerning a baffling stranger who appeared now and then in public assemblies, and who was at last followed and found to come and go from a very ancient grave.
But foremost as a finished, artistic unit among all our author’s weird material is the famous and exquisitely wrought novel, The House of the Essay Seven Gables, in which the anasarca define relentless working out of an ancestral curse is developed with astonishing power against Meteorology Essay, the sinister background of a very ancient Salem houseone of those peaked Gothic affairs which formed the anasarca define first regular building-up of our New England coast towns, but which gave way after the seventeenth century to Final, the more familiar gambrel-roofed or classic Georgian types now known as “Colonial”. Of these old gabled Gothic houses scarcely a dozen are to age working conditions, be seen today in Meteorology Final Exam, their original condition throughout the United States, but one well known to Hawthorne still stands in Turner Street, Salem, and book, is pointed out with doubtful authority as the scene and inspiration of the romance. Such an edifice, with its spectral peaks, its clustered chimneys, its overhanging second story, its grotesque corner-brackets, and its diamond-paned lattice windows, is indeed an object well calculated to evoke sombre reflections; typifying as it does the dark Puritan age of concealed horror and Final, witch-whispers which preceded the Commandments vs The of Exodus beauty, rationality, and spaciousness of the eighteenth century. Hawthorne saw many in his youth, and knew the black tales connected with some of Final Exam Essay them. Tower Towers? He heard, too, many rumours of a curse upon his own line as the result of his great-grandfather’s severity as a witchcraft judge in 1692. From this setting came the immortal taleNew England’s greatest contribution to Meteorology Final Exam, weird literatureand we can feel in an instant the othello modern english authenticity of the atmosphere presented to us. Meteorology Final Exam? Stealthy horror and disease lurk within the weather-blackened, moss-crusted, and anasarca define, elm-shadowed walls of the archaic dwelling so vividly displayed, and we grasp the Meteorology Final Essay brooding malignity of the place when we read that its builderold Colonel Pyncheonsnatched the land with peculiar ruthlessness from its original settler, Matthew Maule, whom he condemned to the gallows as a wizard in Movie of Exodus Essay, the year of the panic. Maule died cursing old Pyncheon“God will give him blood to drink”and the waters of the old well on Final the seized land turned bitter. Maule’s carpenter son consented to gilded conditions, build the great gabled house for his father’s triumphant enemy, but the old Colonel died strangely on the day of its dedication. Then followed generations of odd vicissitudes, with queer whispers about the dark powers of the Maules, and peculiar and sometimes terrible ends befalling the Meteorology Essay Pyncheons. The overshadowing malevolence of the ancient housealmost as alive as Poe’s House of othello modern english Usher, though in Meteorology Final Exam, a subtler waypervades the tale as a recurrent motif pervades an operatic tragedy; and when the main story is reached, we behold the modern Pyncheons in a pitiable state of decay.
Poor old Hepzibah, the eccentric reduced gentlewoman; child-like, unfortunate Clifford, just released from undeserved imprisonment; sly and treacherous Judge Pyncheon, who is the old Colonel all over againall these figures are tremendous symbols, and are well matched by the stunted vegetation and anaemic fowls in the garden. It was almost a pity to supply a fairly happy ending, with a union of sprightly Phoebe, cousin and last scion of the Pyncheons, to the prepossessing young man who turns out to be the last of the Maules. This union, presumably, ends the curse. Hawthorne avoids all violence of diction or movement, and keeps his implications of terror well in the background; but occasional glimpses amply serve to sustain the mood and redeem the work from pure allegorical aridity. Incidents like the bewitching of Alice Pyncheon in freedom tower towers, the early eighteenth century, and the spectral music of Meteorology Exam Essay her harpsichord which precedes a death in the familythe latter a variant of an immemorial type of Aryan mythlink the action directly with the supernatural; whilst the dead nocturnal vigil of old Judge Pyncheon in the ancient parlour, with his frightfully ticking watch, is stark horror of the most poignant and genuine sort. The way in which the Judge’s death is first adumbrated by the motions and othello english, sniffing of a strange cat outside the window, long before the fact is suspected either by the reader or by any of the Exam characters, is gilded a stroke of Meteorology genius which Poe could not have surpassed. Later the strange cat watches intently outside that same window in the night and on the next day, forsomething.
It is clearly the psychopomp of primeval myth, fitted and adapted with infinite deftness to its latter-day setting. But Hawthorne left no well-defined literary posterity. His mood and attitude belonged to the age which closed with him, and it is the spirit of Commandments of Exodus Essay Poewho so clearly and realistically understood the Exam Essay natural basis of the horror-appeal and the correct mechanics of its achievementwhich survived and blossomed. Among the earliest of anasarca define Poe’s disciples may be reckoned the brilliant young Irishman Fitz-James O’Brien (18281862), who became naturalised as an American and perished honourably in the Civil War. It is he who gave us “What Was It?”, the first well-shaped short story of a tangible but invisible being, and the prototype of Final Exam Essay de Maupassant’s “Horla”; he also who created the inimitable “Diamond Lens”, in which a young microscopist falls in love with a maiden of an infinitesimal world which he has discovered in a drop of water. O’Brien’s early death undoubtedly deprived us of some masterful tales of freedom tower towers strangeness and terror, though his genius was not, properly speaking, of the same titan quality which characterised Poe and Hawthorne. Closer to real greatness was the eccentric and saturnine journalist Ambrose Bierce, born in 1842; who likewise entered the Civil War, but survived to write some immortal tales and to disappear in 1913 in as great a cloud of mystery as any he ever evoked from his nightmare fancy. Bierce was a satirist and pamphleteer of note, but the bulk of his artistic reputation must rest upon his grim and savage short stories; a large number of which deal with the Civil War and form the most vivid and realistic expression which that conflict has yet received in fiction. Virtually all of Bierce’s tales are tales of Meteorology Final Essay horror; and whilst many of them treat only of the physical and psychological horrors within Nature, a substantial proportion admit the malignly supernatural and form a leading element in cry freedom, America’s fund of weird literature. Mr.
Samuel Loveman, a living poet and critic who was personally acquainted with Bierce, thus sums up the genius of the great shadow-maker in the preface to some of his letters: “In ‘The Death of Halpin Frayser’, flowers, verdure, and the boughs and leaves of trees are magnificently placed as an opposing foil to unnatural malignity. Not the accustomed golden world, but a world pervaded with the mystery of blue and Final Exam, the breathless recalcitrance of dreams, is Bierce’s. Yet, curiously, inhumanity is not altogether absent.” The “inhumanity” mentioned by Mr. Loveman finds vent in a rare strain of sardonic comedy and graveyard humour, and a kind of delight in images of cruelty and tantalising disappointment. The former quality is well illustrated by some of the subtitles in the darker narratives; such as “One does not always eat what is on the table”, describing a body laid out for a coroner’s inquest, and bolam principle, “A man though naked may be in rags”, referring to a frightfully mangled corpse. Bierce’s work is in Meteorology Essay, general somewhat uneven. Many of the stories are obviously mechanical, and marred by a jaunty and commonplacely artificial style derived from journalistic models; but the grim malevolence stalking through all of them is modern unmistakable, and Meteorology Final, several stand out as permanent mountain-peaks of American weird writing. Gilded? “The Death of Halpin Frayser”, called by Frederic Taber Cooper the most fiendishly ghastly tale in the literature of the Anglo-Saxon race, tells of a body skulking by night without a soul in Exam Essay, a weird and anasarca define, horribly ensanguined wood, and of a man beset by ancestral memories who met death at the claws of that which had been his fervently loved mother. “The Damned Thing”, frequently copied in popular anthologies, chronicles the Meteorology Final hideous devastations of an invisible entity that waddles and flounders on the hills and in the wheatfields by night and day. “The Suitable Surroundings” evokes with singular subtlety yet apparent simplicity a piercing sense of the terror which may reside in the written word. In the freedom tower story the weird author Colston says to his friend Marsh, “You are brave enough to Essay, read me in a street-car, butin a deserted housealonein the forestat night!
Bah! I have a manuscript in my pocket that would kill you!” Marsh reads the manuscript in “the suitable surroundings”and it does kill him. “The Middle Toe of the gilded age working Right Foot” is clumsily developed, but has a powerful climax. A man named Manton has horribly killed his two children and his wife, the latter of Exam whom lacked the middle toe of the right foot. Ten years later he returns much altered to the neighbourhood; and, being secretly recognised, is provoked into conditions a bowie-knife duel in the dark, to Meteorology Final, be held in the now abandoned house where his crime was committed. When the moment of the duel arrives a trick is played upon him; and he is bolam principle left without an Final Essay, antagonist, shut in anasarca define, a night-black ground floor room of the reputedly haunted edifice, with the thick dust of a decade on every hand. Meteorology Final Essay? No knife is drawn against him, for only a thorough scare is age working conditions intended; but on the next day he is found crouched in a corner with distorted face, dead of sheer fright at something he has seen. The only clue visible to the discoverers is one having terrible implications: “In the dust of years that lay thick upon the floorleading from the door by which they had entered, straight across the room to Exam Essay, within a yard of Manton’s crouching corpsewere three parallel lines of footprintslight but definite impressions of bare feet, the outer ones those of small children, the inner a woman’s. From the point at freedom vs twin which they ended they did not return; they pointed all one way.” And, of Essay course, the woman’s prints shewed a lack of the english middle toe of the right foot. “The Spook House”, told with a severely homely air of journalistic verisimilitude, conveys terrible hints of shocking mystery. In 1858 an entire family of seven persons disappears suddenly and unaccountably from Essay a plantation house in eastern Kentucky, leaving all its possessions untouchedfurniture, clothing, food supplies, horses, cattle, and slaves. Gilded Age Working? About a year later two men of high standing are forced by a storm to take shelter in the deserted dwelling, and in so doing stumble into Final Exam a strange subterranean room lit by an unaccountable greenish light and having an iron door which cannot be opened from within.
In this room lie the decayed corpses of modern english all the missing family; and as one of the discoverers rushes forward to embrace a body he seems to recognise, the other is so overpowered by a strange foetor that he accidentally shuts his companion in the vault and loses consciousness. Recovering his senses six weeks later, the survivor is unable to find the hidden room; and the house is Meteorology Exam burned during the Civil War. The imprisoned discoverer is vs twin never seen or heard of again. Bierce seldom realises the atmospheric possibilities of his themes as vividly as Poe; and much of his work contains a certain touch of naiveté, prosaic angularity, or early-American provincialism which contrasts somewhat with the Final efforts of gilded later horror-masters. Meteorology Final Exam Essay? Nevertheless the genuineness and artistry of his dark intimations are always unmistakable, so that his greatness is in no danger of eclipse. As arranged in his definitively collected works, Bierce’s weird tales occur mainly in two volumes, Can Such Things Be? and In the Midst of Life. Bolam Principle? The former, indeed, is almost wholly given over to the supernatural. Much of the best in American horror-literature has come from pens not mainly devoted to that medium.
Oliver Wendell Holmes’s historic Elsie Venner suggests with admirable restraint an Final Exam, unnatural ophidian element in a young woman pre-natally influenced, and sustains the atmosphere with finely discriminating landscape touches. In The Turn of the Screw Henry James triumphs over his inevitable pomposity and prolixity sufficiently well to create a truly potent air of sinister menace; depicting the hideous influence of two dead and evil servants, Peter Quint and the governess Miss Jessel, over a small boy and girl who had been under their care. James is perhaps too diffuse, too unctuously urbane, and too much addicted to subtleties of Movie vs The Book of Exodus Essay speech to realise fully all the wild and devastating horror in his situations; but for all that there is a rare and mounting tide of fright, culminating in the death of the little boy, which gives the novelette a permanent place in its special class. F. Marion Crawford produced several weird tales of varying quality, now collected in Meteorology Final Exam Essay, a volume entitled Wandering Ghosts. “For the Blood Is the Life” touches powerfully on a case of moon-cursed vampirism near an freedom towers, ancient tower on the rocks of the lonely South Italian sea-coast. Final Exam Essay? “The Dead Smile” treats of family horrors in an old house and an ancestral vault in tower vs twin towers, Ireland, and introduces the banshee with considerable force. “The Upper Berth”, however, is Crawford’s weird masterpiece; and is one of the most tremendous horror-stories in all literature. In this tale of a suicide-haunted stateroom such things as the spectral salt-water dampness, the strangely open porthole, and the nightmare struggle with the Exam Essay nameless object are handled with incomparable dexterity. Very genuine, though not without the typical mannered extravagance of the eighteen-nineties, is the strain of horror in the early work of Robert W. Chambers, since renowned for products of a very different quality. Vs The Book Essay? The King in Meteorology, Yellow, a series of vaguely connected short stories having as a background a monstrous and suppressed book whose perusal brings fright, madness, and anasarca define, spectral tragedy, really achieves notable heights of Exam cosmic fear in anasarca define, spite of uneven interest and a somewhat trivial and Final Exam, affected cultivation of the Gallic studio atmosphere made popular by Du Maurier’s Trilby. The most powerful of its tales, perhaps, is “The Yellow Sign”, in anasarca define, which is introduced a silent and terrible churchyard watchman with a face like a puffy grave-worm’s. A boy, describing a tussle he has had with this creature, shivers and sickens as he relates a certain detail. “Well, sir, it’s Gawd’s truth that when I ’it ’im ’e grabbed me wrists, sir, and when I twisted ’is soft, mushy fist one of ’is fingers come off in me ’and.” An artist, who after seeing him has shared with another a strange dream of a nocturnal hearse, is shocked by the voice with which the watchman accosts him. The fellow emits a muttering sound that fills the head like thick oily smoke from Meteorology Exam Essay a fat-rendering vat or an freedom, odour of noisome decay.
What he mumbles is merely this: “Have you found the Yellow Sign?” A weirdly hieroglyphed onyx talisman, picked up in the street by the sharer of his dream, is shortly given the artist; and after stumbling queerly upon the hellish and forbidden book of horrors the two learn, among other hideous things which no sane mortal should know, that this talisman is indeed the nameless Yellow Sign handed down from the accursed cult of Final Hasturfrom primordial Carcosa, whereof the volume treats, and some nightmare memory of which seems to lurk latent and ominous at the back of all men’s minds. Soon they hear the rumbling of the black-plumed hearse driven by the flabby and corpse-faced watchman. He enters the othello english night-shrouded house in quest of the Yellow Sign, all bolts and bars rotting at his touch. And when the people rush in, drawn by a scream that no human throat could utter, they find three forms on Meteorology Exam Essay the floortwo dead and othello english, one dying. One of the dead shapes is far gone in decay. Meteorology? It is the churchyard watchman, and the doctor exclaims, “That man must have been dead for months.” It is worth observing that the author derives most of the names and bolam principle, allusions connected with his eldritch land of Meteorology Exam primal memory from the tales of Ambrose Bierce. The Ten Movie Book Of Exodus Essay? Other early works of Mr. Chambers displaying the Meteorology Essay outré and macabre element are The Maker of Moons and In Search of the Unknown. One cannot help regretting that he did not further develop a vein in which he could so easily have become a recognised master.
Horror material of authentic force may be found in the work of the anasarca define New England realist Mary E. Wilkins; whose volume of short tales, The Wind in the Rose-Bush, contains a number of noteworthy achievements. In “The Shadows on the Wall” we are shewn with consummate skill the response of a staid New England household to uncanny tragedy; and the sourceless shadow of the poisoned brother well prepares us for the climactic moment when the shadow of the secret murderer, who has killed himself in a neighbouring city, suddenly appears beside it. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in Meteorology Final Exam, “The Yellow Wall Paper”, rises to The Ten vs The of Exodus Essay, a classic level in Exam, subtly delineating the madness which crawls over a woman dwelling in the hideously papered room where a madwoman was once confined. In “The Dead Valley” the eminent architect and mediaevalist Ralph Adams Cram achieves a memorably potent degree of vague regional horror through subtleties of atmosphere and description. Still further carrying on our spectral tradition is the gifted and anasarca define, versatile humourist Irvin S. Cobb, whose work both early and recent contains some finely weird specimens. Meteorology Exam? “Fishhead”, an The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Book Essay, early achievement, is banefully effective in its portrayal of Meteorology unnatural affinities between a hybrid idiot and the strange fish of an isolated lake, which at the last avenge their biped kinsman’s murder. Later work of Mr. Cobb introduces an element of possible science, as in the tale of hereditary memory where a modern man with a negroid strain utters words in African jungle speech when run down by a train under visual and aural circumstances recalling the maiming of his black ancestor by Commandments Movie vs The Book Essay a rhinoceros a century before. Extremely high in Meteorology Exam Essay, artistic stature is the novel The Dark Chamber (1927), by anasarca define the late Leonard Cline.
This is the Exam tale of a man whowith the characteristic ambition of the The Ten Commandments vs The Gothic or Byronic hero-villainseeks to defy Nature and recapture every moment of his past life through the abnormal stimulation of Meteorology Final Exam Essay memory. To this end he employs endless notes, records, mnemonic objects, and picturesand finally odours, music, and exotic drugs. At last his ambition goes beyond his personal life and reaches toward the black abysses of hereditary memoryeven back to pre-human days amidst the steaming swamps of the The Ten Commandments vs The Book of Exodus Essay Carboniferous age, and to Meteorology Final, still more unimaginable deeps of primal time and entity. He calls for madder music and takes stronger drugs, and finally his great dog grows oddly afraid of him. Bolam Principle? A noxious animal stench encompasses him, and he grows vacant-faced and Meteorology Exam Essay, sub-human. In the end he takes to the woods, howling at night beneath windows. He is finally found in a thicket, mangled to death. Beside him is the mangled corpse of his dog.
They have killed each other. The atmosphere of this novel is malevolently potent, much attention being paid to Movie vs The Essay, the central figure’s sinister home and household. A less subtle and Meteorology Exam, well-balanced but nevertheless highly effective creation is Herbert S. Gorman’s novel, The Place Called Dagon, which relates the dark history of a western Massachusetts backwater where the descendants of refugees from the Salem witchcraft still keep alive the conditions morbid and Meteorology Final Exam, degenerate horrors of the Black Sabbat. Sinister House, by Leland Hall, has touches of magnificent atmosphere but is marred by anasarca define a somewhat mediocre romanticism. Very notable in their way are some of the Exam Essay weird conceptions of the novelist and anasarca define, short-story writer Edward Lucas White, most of whose themes arise from actual dreams. “The Song of the Sirens” has a very pervasive strangeness, while such things as “Lukundoo” and “The Snout” rouse darker apprehensions. Mr. White imparts a very peculiar quality to his talesan oblique sort of glamour which has its own distinctive type of convincingness. Of younger Americans, none strikes the Meteorology Final note of cosmic terror so well as the California poet, artist, and fictionist Clark Ashton Smith, whose bizarre writings, drawings, paintings, and stories are the delight of a sensitive few.
Mr. Smith has for his background a universe of remote and paralysing frightjungles of poisonous and iridescent blossoms on the moons of Saturn, evil and grotesque temples in Atlantis, Lemuria, and forgotten elder worlds, and othello modern, dank morasses of Final Exam spotted death-fungi in spectral countries beyond earth’s rim. His longest and most ambitious poem, The Hashish-Eater, is in bolam principle, pentameter blank verse; and opens up chaotic and incredible vistas of kaleidoscopic nightmare in the spaces between the stars. In sheer daemonic strangeness and fertility of conception, Mr. Exam? Smith is bolam principle perhaps unexcelled by any other writer dead or living. Who else has seen such gorgeous, luxuriant, and feverishly distorted visions of infinite spheres and Meteorology Exam Essay, multiple dimensions and lived to tell the tale? His short stories deal powerfully with other galaxies, worlds, and dimensions, as well as with strange regions and aeons on the earth. He tells of primal Hyperborea and its black amorphous god Tsathoggua; of the lost continent Zothique, and of the fabulous, vampire-curst land of Averoigne in mediaeval France. Some of Mr. Smith’s best work can be found in the brochure entitled The Double Shadow and Other Fantasies (1933). Recent British literature, besides including the three or four greatest fantaisistes of the present age, has been gratifyingly fertile in The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Book Essay, the element of the weird.
Rudyard Kipling has often approached it; and has, despite the omnipresent mannerisms, handled it with indubitable mastery in such tales as “The Phantom ’Rickshaw”, “ ‘The Finest Story in the World’ ”, “The Recrudescence of Imray”, and “The Mark of the Beast”. This latter is of particular poignancy; the pictures of the naked leper-priest who mewed like an otter, of the spots which appeared on Meteorology Final the chest of the bolam principle man that priest cursed, of the growing carnivorousness of the victim and of the fear which horses began to display toward him, and of the eventually half-accomplished transformation of Meteorology Final Exam Essay that victim into a leopard, being things which no reader is ever likely to forget. The final defeat of the malignant sorcery does not impair the force of the towers tale or the validity of its mystery. Lafcadio Hearn, strange, wandering, and exotic, departs still farther from the Meteorology Final Exam Essay realm of the real; and with the supreme artistry of othello english a sensitive poet weaves phantasies impossible to an author of the solid roast-beef type. His Fantastics, written in Meteorology Final Exam, America, contains some of the most impressive ghoulishness in all literature; whilst his Kwaidan, written in Japan, crystallises with matchless skill and delicacy the eerie lore and whispered legends of that richly colourful nation. Still more of Hearn’s weird wizardry of language is book shewn in some of his translations from the French, especially from Gautier and Meteorology Exam, Flaubert. His version of the latter’s Temptation of St. Anthony is modern a classic of Final fevered and riotous imagery clad in the magic of singing words.
Oscar Wilde may likewise be given a place amongst weird writers, both for certain of his exquisite fairy tales, and for age working conditions, his vivid Picture of Dorian Gray, in which a marvellous portrait for years assumes the duty of ageing and coarsening instead of Final its original, who meanwhile plunges into every excess of vice and crime without the outward loss of youth, beauty, and anasarca define, freshness. There is a sudden and potent climax when Dorian Gray, at last become a murderer, seeks to destroy the painting whose changes testify to Meteorology Final, his moral degeneracy. He stabs it with a knife, and book, a hideous cry and Meteorology, crash are heard; but when the servants enter they find it in all its pristine loveliness. “Lying on the floor was a dead man, in evening dress, with a knife in his heart. He was withered, wrinkled, and loathsome of visage. It was not till they had examined the rings that they recognised who it was.” Matthew Phipps Shiel, author of many weird, grotesque, and adventurous novels and tales, occasionally attains a high level of horrific magic. “Xélucha” is a noxiously hideous fragment, but is excelled by Mr. Bolam Principle? Shiel’s undoubted masterpiece, “The House of Sounds”, floridly written in the “yellow ’nineties”, and re-cast with more artistic restraint in the early twentieth century. This story, in final form, deserves a place among the foremost things of Meteorology Final its kind. It tells of a creeping horror and menace trickling down the centuries on a sub-arctic island off the coast of Norway; where, amidst the sweep of daemon winds and the ceaseless din of hellish waves and cataracts, a vengeful dead man built a brazen tower of bolam principle terror.
It is vaguely like, yet infinitely unlike, Poe’s “Fall of the House of Usher”. Meteorology Final? In the novel The Purple Cloud Mr. Shiel describes with tremendous power a curse which came out of the arctic to destroy mankind, and which for a time appears to have left but a single inhabitant on our planet. The sensations of this lone survivor as he realises his position, and roams through the corpse-littered and treasure-strown cities of the bolam principle world as their absolute master, are delivered with a skill and artistry falling little short of actual majesty. Unfortunately the second half of the book, with its conventionally romantic element, involves a distinct “letdown”.
Better known than Shiel is the ingenious Bram Stoker, who created many starkly horrific conceptions in a series of novels whose poor technique sadly impairs their net effect. The Lair of the White Worm, dealing with a gigantic primitive entity that lurks in a vault beneath an ancient castle, utterly ruins a magnificent idea by a development almost infantile. The Jewel of Seven Stars, touching on a strange Egyptian resurrection, is less crudely written. But best of all is the famous Dracula, which has become almost the standard modern exploitation of the frightful vampire myth. Count Dracula, a vampire, dwells in Final Essay, a horrible castle in othello modern, the Carpathians; but finally migrates to England with the design of populating the country with fellow vampires.
How an Englishman fares within Dracula’s stronghold of terrors, and how the dead fiend’s plot for domination is at last defeated, are elements which unite to Meteorology Final Exam, form a tale now justly assigned a permanent place in English letters. Dracula evoked many similar novels of bolam principle supernatural horror, among which the best are perhaps The Beetle, by Richard Marsh, Brood of the Witch-Queen, by “Sax Rohmer” (Arthur Sarsfield Ward), and The Door of the Unreal, by Meteorology Exam Essay Gerald Biss. Book? The latter handles quite dexterously the standard werewolf superstition. Much subtler and more artistic, and told with singular skill through the juxtaposed narratives of the several characters, is the novel Cold Harbour, by Francis Brett Young, in which an ancient house of strange malignancy is powerfully delineated. The mocking and well-nigh omnipotent fiend Humphrey Furnival holds echoes of the Manfred- Montoni type of early Gothic “villain”, but is redeemed from triteness by many clever individualities. Only the slight diffuseness of explanation at the close, and the somewhat too free use of divination as a plot factor, keep this tale from approaching absolute perfection. In the novel Witch Wood John Buchan depicts with tremendous force a survival of the evil Sabbat in a lonely district of Exam Essay Scotland.
The description of the black forest with the evil stone, and of the terrible cosmic adumbrations when the horror is freedom tower vs twin towers finally extirpated, will repay one for wading through the Meteorology Final very gradual action and The Ten Commandments vs The, plethora of Scottish dialect. Some of Mr. Buchan’s short stories are also extremely vivid in their spectral intimations; “The Green Wildebeest”, a tale of African witchcraft, “The Wind in the Portico”, with its awakening of Meteorology Essay dead Britanno-Roman horrors, and “Skule Skerry”, with its touches of sub-arctic fright, being especially remarkable. Clemence Housman, in anasarca define, the brief novelette “The Were-wolf”, attains a high degree of gruesome tension and achieves to some extent the atmosphere of authentic folklore. In The Elixir of Life Arthur Ransome attains some darkly excellent effects despite a general naiveté of plot, while H. B. Drake’s The Shadowy Thing summons up strange and terrible vistas. George Macdonald’s Lilith has a compelling bizarrerie all its own; the first and Meteorology Essay, simpler of the two versions being perhaps the more effective.
Deserving of anasarca define distinguished notice as a forceful craftsman to whom an unseen mystic world is Final Exam ever a close and vital reality is the poet Walter de la Mare, whose haunting verse and exquisite prose alike bear consistent traces of a strange vision reaching deeply into veiled spheres of beauty and terrible and age working conditions, forbidden dimensions of being. In the novel The Return we see the Essay soul of a dead man reach out of its grave of Commandments Movie of Exodus Essay two centuries and fasten itself upon the flesh of the living, so that even the face of the victim becomes that which had long ago returned to dust. Of the Essay shorter tales, of which several volumes exist, many are unforgettable for their command of fear’s and sorcery’s darkest ramifications; notably “Seaton’s Aunt”, in gilded, which there lowers a noxious background of malignant vampirism; “The Tree”, which tells of a frightful vegetable growth in the yard of a starving artist; “Out of the Meteorology Deep”, wherein we are given leave to imagine what thing answered the tower summons of a dying wastrel in a dark lonely house when he pulled a long-feared bell-cord in the attic chamber of Meteorology Final Exam Essay his dread-haunted boyhood; “A Recluse”, which hints at what sent a chance guest flying from a house in the night; “Mr. Anasarca Define? Kempe”, which shews us a mad clerical hermit in quest of the human soul, dwelling in Meteorology Exam Essay, a frightful sea-cliff region beside an archaic abandoned chapel; and “All-Hallows”, a glimpse of daemoniac forces besieging a lonely mediaeval church and miraculously restoring the rotting masonry. De la Mare does not make fear the sole or even the bolam principle dominant element of most of his tales, being apparently more interested in Final Exam, the subtleties of character involved.
Occasionally he sinks to sheer whimsical phantasy of the Barrie order. Still, he is among the very few to whom unreality is anasarca define a vivid, living presence; and as such he is able to put into his occasional fear-studies a keen potency which only a rare master can achieve. His poem “The Listeners” restores the Meteorology Gothic shudder to modern verse. The weird short story has fared well of late, an important contributor being the versatile E. F. Benson, whose “The Man Who Went Too Far” breathes whisperingly of a house at the edge of cry freedom a dark wood, and of Pan’s hoof-mark on the breast of Final a dead man. Mr. The Ten Commandments Movie Of Exodus Essay? Benson’s volume, Visible and Essay, Invisible, contains several stories of singular power; notably “Negotium Perambulans”, whose unfolding reveals an abnormal monster from an ancient ecclesiastical panel which performs an act of miraculous vengeance in a lonely village on bolam principle the Cornish coast, and “The Horror-Horn”, through which lopes a terrible half-human survival dwelling on unvisited Alpine peaks. “The Face”, in another collection, is lethally potent in its relentless aura of doom. H. R. Wakefield, in his collections They Return at Evening and Others Who Return, manages now and then to achieve great heights of horror despite a vitiating air of Exam sophistication. The most notable stories are “The Red Lodge” with its slimy aqueous evil, “‘He Cometh and He Passeth By’”, “‘And He Shall Sing . . Towers? .’”, “The Cairn”, “‘Look Up There!’”, “Blind Man’s Buff”, and that bit of lurking millennial horror, “The Seventeenth Hole at Duncaster”. Mention has been made of the weird work of Meteorology Final Exam Essay H. G. Wells and A. Conan Doyle.
The former, in Commandments vs The Essay, “The Ghost of Fear”, reaches a very high level; while all the items in Thirty Strange Stories have strong fantastic implications. Doyle now and then struck a powerfully spectral note, as in “The Captain of the ‘Pole-Star’ ”, a tale of arctic ghostliness, and “Lot No. 249”, wherein the reanimated mummy theme is used with more than ordinary skill. Hugh Walpole, of the same family as the founder of Gothic fiction, has sometimes approached the bizarre with much success; his short story “Mrs. Lunt” carrying a very poignant shudder. John Metcalfe, in the collection published as The Smoking Leg, attains now and then a rare pitch of potency; the tale entitled “The Bad Lands” containing graduations of horror that strongly savour of genius. Exam Essay? More whimsical and inclined toward the amiable and Commandments Movie Book of Exodus Essay, innocuous phantasy of Sir J. M. Final Essay? Barrie are the short tales of english E. M. Meteorology Final Exam? Forster, grouped under the title of The Celestial Omnibus. Of these only anasarca define, one, dealing with a glimpse of Pan and Exam Essay, his aura of fright, may be said to hold the true element of cosmic horror. Mrs. H. English? D. Everett, though adhering to very old and conventional models, occasionally reaches singular heights of spiritual terror in her collection of Essay short stories.
L. P. Age Working Conditions? Hartley is notable for his incisive and extremely ghastly tale, “A Visitor from Meteorology Final Essay Down Under”. May Sinclair’s Uncanny Stories contain more of traditional occultism than of that creative treatment of bolam principle fear which marks mastery in this field, and are inclined to lay more stress on Meteorology Exam human emotions and psychological delving than upon the stark phenomena of a cosmos utterly unreal. It may be well to remark here that occult believers are probably less effective than materialists in othello modern english, delineating the spectral and the fantastic, since to them the phantom world is so commonplace a reality that they tend to refer to it with less awe, remoteness, and impressiveness than do those who see in it an Final, absolute and stupendous violation of the natural order. Of rather uneven stylistic quality, but vast occasional power in its suggestion of lurking worlds and book, beings behind the ordinary surface of life, is the work of Final Essay William Hope Hodgson, known today far less than it deserves to be. Movie Essay? Despite a tendency toward conventionally sentimental conceptions of the universe, and of man’s relation to it and to his fellows, Mr. Hodgson is perhaps second only to Algernon Blackwood in Meteorology Final Exam, his serious treatment of unreality. Few can equal him in adumbrating the nearness of bolam principle nameless forces and monstrous besieging entities through casual hints and insignificant details, or in conveying feelings of the spectral and the abnormal in connexion with regions or buildings. In The Boats of the “Glen Carrig” (1907) we are shewn a variety of malign marvels and accursed unknown lands as encountered by the survivors of a sunken ship. The brooding menace in the earlier parts of the book is impossible to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, surpass, though a letdown in the direction of ordinary romance and adventure occurs toward the end.
An inaccurate and pseudo-romantic attempt to reproduce eighteenth-century prose detracts from the general effect, but the really profound nautical erudition everywhere displayed is a compensating factor. The House on the Borderland (1908)perhaps the greatest of tower all Mr. Hodgson’s workstells of a lonely and evilly regarded house in Ireland which forms a focus for hideous other-world forces and sustains a siege by blasphemous hybrid anomalies from a hidden abyss below. The wanderings of the narrator’s spirit through limitless light-years of cosmic space and kalpas of eternity, and its witnessing of the solar system’s final destruction, constitute something almost unique in standard literature. Exam? And everywhere there is manifest the author’s power to suggest vague, ambushed horrors in natural scenery. But for a few touches of commonplace sentimentality this book would be a classic of the first water. The Ghost Pirates (1909), regarded by Mr. Hodgson as rounding out a trilogy with the two previously mentioned works, is a powerful account of a doomed and haunted ship on its last voyage, and othello, of the terrible sea-devils (of quasi-human aspect, and perhaps the spirits of Final Exam bygone buccaneers) that besiege it and finally drag it down to gilded age working conditions, an unknown fate. With its command of maritime knowledge, and its clever selection of hints and incidents suggestive of latent horrors in Nature, this book at times reaches enviable peaks of power. The Night Land (1912) is Meteorology Final Exam Essay a long-extended (583 pp.) tale of the earth’s infinitely remote futurebillions of billions of years ahead, after the death of the sun.
It is told in a rather clumsy fashion, as the dreams of a man in the seventeenth century, whose mind merges with its own future incarnation; and is seriously marred by painful verboseness, repetitiousness, artificial and nauseously sticky romantic sentimentality, and an attempt at modern english archaic language even more grotesque and absurd than that in “Glen Carrig”. Allowing for all its faults, it is yet one of the most potent pieces of macabre imagination ever written. Meteorology Final Essay? The picture of a night-black, dead planet, with the remains of the human race concentrated in a stupendously vast metal pyramid and besieged by monstrous, hybrid, and altogether unknown forces of the anasarca define darkness, is something that no reader can ever forget. Shapes and entities of an altogether non-human and inconceivable sortthe prowlers of the black, man-forsaken, and unexplored world outside the pyramidare suggested and partly described with ineffable potency; while the night-bound landscape with its chasms and slopes and dying volcanism takes on an almost sentient terror beneath the Meteorology Final author’s touch. Midway in the book the central figure ventures outside the pyramid on a quest through death-haunted realms untrod by man for millions of yearsand in his slow, minutely described, day-by-day progress over unthinkable leagues of immemorial blackness there is a sense of cosmic alienage, breathless mystery, and terrified expectancy unrivalled in the whole range of literature. The last quarter of the book drags woefully, but fails to spoil the tremendous power of the whole. Mr. Hodgson’s later volume, Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder, consists of several longish short stories published many years before in modern, magazines.
In quality it falls conspicuously below the level of the Meteorology Exam other books. Freedom Vs Twin? We here find a more or less conventional stock figure of the Final Exam “infallible detective” typethe progeny of gilded M. Dupin and Sherlock Holmes, and the close kin of Algernon Blackwood’s John Silencemoving through scenes and events badly marred by an atmosphere of professional “occultism”. A few of the episodes, however, are of undeniable power; and Meteorology Final Exam Essay, afford glimpses of the peculiar genius characteristic of the freedom tower towers author. Naturally it is impossible in a brief sketch to trace out Meteorology all the freedom tower classic modern uses of the terror element. The ingredient must of Final necessity enter into all work both prose and verse treating broadly of life; and we are therefore not surprised to find a share in such writers as the poet Browning, whose “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came ” is instinct with hideous menace, or the novelist Joseph Conrad, who often wrote of the dark secrets within the sea, and The Ten vs The of Exodus Essay, of the daemoniac driving power of Fate as influencing the lives of Exam lonely and maniacally resolute men.
Its trail is one of infinite ramifications; but we must here confine ourselves to its appearance in a relatively unmixed state, where it determines and dominates the work of art containing it. Somewhat separate from the main British stream is that current of gilded conditions weirdness in Irish literature which came to the fore in the Celtic Renaissance of the later nineteenth and Exam Essay, early twentieth centuries. Ghost and fairy lore have always been of great prominence in Ireland, and for over an hundred years have been recorded by a line of such faithful transcribers and translators as William Carleton, T. Crofton Croker, Lady Wildemother of Oscar WildeDouglas Hyde, and W. B. Yeats. Brought to notice by the modern movement, this body of myth has been carefully collected and studied; and its salient features reproduced in the work of later figures like Yeats, J. M. Synge, “A. E.”, Lady Gregory, Padraic Colum, James Stephens, and their colleagues. Whilst on the whole more whimsically fantastic than terrible, such folklore and its consciously artistic counterparts contain much that falls truly within the domain of cosmic horror. Tales of burials in gilded, sunken churches beneath haunted lakes, accounts of death-heralding banshees and Meteorology Essay, sinister changelings, ballads of spectres and anasarca define, “the unholy creatures of the raths”all these have their poignant and definite shivers, and mark a strong and distinctive element in weird literature. Meteorology Final Exam? Despite homely grotesqueness and absolute naiveté, there is genuine nightmare in age working conditions, the class of narrative represented by the yarn of Teig O’Kane, who in punishment for his wild life was ridden all night by a hideous corpse that demanded burial and drove him from Meteorology Exam Essay churchyard to churchyard as the dead rose up loathsomely in each one and refused to accommodate the newcomer with a berth. Yeats, undoubtedly the greatest figure of the Irish revival if not the greatest of all living poets, has accomplished notable things both in cry freedom book, original work and in the codification of old legends.
The best horror-tales of today, profiting by the long evolution of the type, possess a naturalness, convincingness, artistic smoothness, and skilful intensity of appeal quite beyond comparison with anything in the Gothic work of a century or more ago. Meteorology Final Essay? Technique, craftsmanship, experience, and psychological knowledge have advanced tremendously with the passing years, so that much of the older work seems naive and artificial; redeemed, when redeemed at all, only by a genius which conquers heavy limitations. The tone of jaunty and inflated romance, full of false motivation and investing every conceivable event with a counterfeit significance and cry freedom, carelessly inclusive glamour, is now confined to lighter and more whimsical phases of supernatural writing. Serious weird stories are either made realistically intense by Final Exam Essay close consistency and othello modern english, perfect fidelity to Nature except in the one supernatural direction which the author allows himself, or else cast altogether in the realm of phantasy, with atmosphere cunningly adapted to the visualisation of a delicately exotic world of unreality beyond space and time, in Meteorology Exam Essay, which almost anything may happen if it but happen in true accord with certain types of imagination and illusion normal to the sensitive human brain. This, at least, is the dominant tendency; though of course many great contemporary writers slip occasionally into some of the flashy postures of bolam principle immature romanticism, or into bits of the equally empty and absurd jargon of pseudo-scientific “occultism”, now at one of its periodic high tides. Mr. Machen, with an Final Essay, impressionable Celtic heritage linked to keen youthful memories of the bolam principle wild domed hills, archaic forests, and cryptical Roman ruins of the Gwent countryside, has developed an imaginative life of rare beauty, intensity, and historic background. He has absorbed the mediaeval mystery of dark woods and ancient customs, and is a champion of the Middle Ages in all thingsincluding the Catholic faith. He has yielded, likewise, to the spell of the Britanno-Roman life which once surged over his native region; and finds strange magic in the fortified camps, tessellated pavements, fragments of Essay statues, and kindred things which tell of the day when classicism reigned and Latin was the language of the country. A young American poet, Frank Belknap Long, Jun., has well summarised this dreamer’s rich endowments and wizardry of expression in the sonnet “On Reading Arthur Machen”: “There is freedom tower vs twin towers a glory in the autumn wood;
The ancient lanes of England wind and Exam, climb. Past wizard oaks and gorse and tangled thyme. To where a fort of towers mighty empire stood: There is a glamour in the autumn sky; The reddened clouds are writhing in the glow. Of some great fire, and there are glints below. Of tawny yellow where the embers die.
High-rais’d in splendour, sharp against the North, The Roman eagles, and thro’ mists of gold. The marching legions as they issue forth: I wait, for I would share with him again. The ancient wisdom, and the ancient pain.” Of Mr. Machen’s horror-tales the Meteorology Final Exam Essay most famous is anasarca define perhaps “The Great God Pan” (1894), which tells of a singular and terrible experiment and its consequences. A young woman, through surgery of the brain-cells, is made to see the vast and monstrous deity of Nature, and becomes an idiot in consequence, dying less than a year later. Meteorology? Years afterward a strange, ominous, and foreign-looking child named Helen Vaughan is bolam principle placed to board with a family in rural Wales, and haunts the woods in unaccountable fashion. Meteorology Exam? A little boy is thrown out of his mind at sight of someone or something he spies with her, and a young girl comes to towers, a terrible end in similar fashion.
All this mystery is strangely interwoven with the Roman rural deities of the place, as sculptured in antique fragments. After another lapse of years, a woman of strangely exotic beauty appears in society, drives her husband to Exam, horror and death, causes an artist to paint unthinkable paintings of Witches’ Sabbaths, creates an epidemic of suicide among the men of her acquaintance, and anasarca define, is finally discovered to be a frequenter of the lowest dens of Meteorology Final vice in London, where even the most callous degenerates are shocked at her enormities. Through the clever comparing of notes on the part of those who have had word of her at various stages of her career, this woman is discovered to be the girl Helen Vaughan; who is the conditions childby no mortal fatherof the young woman on whom the brain experiment was made. She is a daughter of Meteorology Final hideous Pan himself, and at the last is put to death amidst horrible transmutations of form involving changes of sex and a descent to the most primal manifestations of the life-principle. But the charm of the tale is in the telling. No one could begin to describe the cumulative suspense and ultimate horror with which every paragraph abounds without following fully the precise order in which Mr. Machen unfolds his gradual hints and revelations. Melodrama is undeniably present, and coincidence is stretched to a length which appears absurd upon age working, analysis; but in the malign witchery of the tale as a whole these trifles are forgotten, and the sensitive reader reaches the end with only an appreciative shudder and a tendency to repeat the words of one of the characters: “It is too incredible, too monstrous; such things can never be in this quiet world. . . . Why, man, if such a case were possible, our earth would be a nightmare.” Less famous and less complex in plot than “The Great God Pan”, but definitely finer in atmosphere and general artistic value, is the curious and dimly disquieting chronicle called “The White People”, whose central portion purports to be the diary or notes of a little girl whose nurse has introduced her to some of the forbidden magic and soul-blasting traditions of the Meteorology Exam Essay noxious witch-cultthe cult whose whispered lore was handed down long lines of peasantry throughout Western Europe, and whose members sometimes stole forth at anasarca define night, one by one, to meet in black woods and Meteorology Exam Essay, lonely places for the revolting orgies of the Witches’ Sabbath. Mr. Machen’s narrative, a triumph of skilful selectiveness and restraint, accumulates enormous power as it flows on in a stream of innocent childish prattle; introducing allusions to strange “nymphs”, “Dôls”, “voolas”, “White, Green, and Scarlet Ceremonies”, “Aklo letters”, “Chian language”, “Mao games”, and the like.
The rites learned by the nurse from her witch grandmother are taught to the child by the time she is three years old, and her artless accounts of the dangerous secret revelations possess a lurking terror generously mixed with pathos. Evil charms well known to anthropologists are described with juvenile naiveté, and finally there comes a winter afternoon journey into the old Welsh hills, performed under an imaginative spell which lends to the wild scenery an cry freedom, added weirdness, strangeness, and suggestion of grotesque sentience. The details of this journey are given with marvellous vividness, and form to the keen critic a masterpiece of fantastic writing, with almost unlimited power in the intimation of potent hideousness and cosmic aberration. At length the childwhose age is then thirteencomes upon a cryptic and banefully beautiful thing in the midst of a dark and inaccessible wood. Final Essay? She flees in awe, but is permanently altered and repeatedly revisits the wood. In the end horror overtakes her in a manner deftly prefigured by an anecdote in the prologue, but she poisons herself in The Ten Movie Book, time. Like the mother of Final Helen Vaughan in The Great God Pan, she has seen that frightful deity.
She is discovered dead in the dark wood beside the anasarca define cryptic thing she found; and Final Exam, that thinga whitely luminous statue of Roman workmanship about gilded which dire mediaeval rumours had clusteredis affrightedly hammered into dust by the searchers. In the episodic novel of The Three Impostors, a work whose merit as a whole is somewhat marred by an imitation of the jaunty Stevenson manner, occur certain tales which perhaps represent the high-water mark of Machen’s skill as a terror-weaver. Here we find in its most artistic form a favourite weird conception of the author’s; the notion that beneath the mounds and rocks of the wild Welsh hills dwell subterraneously that squat primitive race whose vestiges gave rise to our common folk legends of fairies, elves, and the “little people”, and Final Essay, whose acts are even now responsible for othello english, certain unexplained disappearances, and Meteorology Exam, occasional substitutions of strange dark “changelings” for normal infants. This theme receives its finest treatment in the episode entitled “The Novel of the cry freedom Black Seal”; where a professor, having discovered a singular identity between certain characters scrawled on Exam Essay Welsh limestone rocks and those existing in a prehistoric black seal from Babylon, sets out on vs twin a course of discovery which leads him to unknown and terrible things. A queer passage in the ancient geographer Solinus, a series of mysterious disappearances in the lonely reaches of Wales, a strange idiot son born to a rural mother after a fright in which her inmost faculties were shaken; all these things suggest to Meteorology Exam, the professor a hideous connexion and a condition revolting to any friend and respecter of the cry freedom human race. He hires the idiot boy, who jabbers strangely at times in Final Exam, a repulsive hissing voice, and is subject to odd epileptic seizures. Once, after such a seizure in the professor’s study by night, disquieting odours and evidences of unnatural presences are found; and soon after that the professor leaves a bulky document and goes into anasarca define the weird hills with feverish expectancy and strange terror in his heart. He never returns, but beside a fantastic stone in the wild country are found his watch, money, and Meteorology, ring, done up with catgut in a parchment bearing the same terrible characters as those on the black Babylonish seal and the rock in the Welsh mountains. The bulky document explains enough to bring up the most hideous vistas.
Professor Gregg, from the massed evidence presented by the Welsh disappearances, the rock inscription, the accounts of ancient geographers, and the black seal, has decided that a frightful race of anasarca define dark primal beings of immemorial antiquity and wide former diffusion still dwells beneath the hills of unfrequented Wales. Further research has unriddled the message of the black seal, and proved that the idiot boy, a son of some father more terrible than mankind, is the heir of monstrous memories and possibilities. That strange night in the study the professor invoked ‘the awful transmutation of the hills’ by the aid of the black seal, and Final Exam, aroused in the hybrid idiot the horrors of his shocking paternity. He “saw his body swell and become distended as a bladder, while the freedom vs twin face blackened. . . .” And then the supreme effects of the invocation appeared, and Professor Gregg knew the Final Exam Essay stark frenzy of cosmic panic in its darkest form. Othello? He knew the abysmal gulfs of abnormality that he had opened, and went forth into the wild hills prepared and resigned. He would meet the unthinkable ‘Little People’and his document ends with a rational observation: “If I unhappily do not return from my journey, there is no need to conjure up here a picture of the Exam awfulness of my fate.”
Also in The Three Impostors is the “Novel of the White Powder”, which approaches the absolute culmination of The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Book Essay loathsome fright. Francis Leicester, a young law student nervously worn out by seclusion and overwork, has a prescription filled by an old apothecary none too careful about the state of his drugs. The substance, it later turns out, is an unusual salt which time and varying temperature have accidentally changed to something very strange and terrible; nothing less, in short, than the mediaeval Vinum Sabbati, whose consumption at the horrible orgies of the Witches’ Sabbath gave rise to shocking transformations andif injudiciously usedto unutterable consequences. Innocently enough, the Exam Essay youth regularly imbibes the powder in a glass of water after meals; and at first seems substantially benefited. Gradually, however, his improved spirits take the freedom tower vs twin form of dissipation; he is absent from home a great deal, and Meteorology Exam Essay, appears to have undergone a repellent psychological change. One day an odd livid spot appears on his right hand, and he afterward returns to The Ten Commandments Book of Exodus, his seclusion; finally keeping himself shut within his room and admitting none of the household. The doctor calls for an interview, and departs in a palsy of horror, saying that he can do no more in that house. Two weeks later the patient’s sister, walking outside, sees a monstrous thing at the sickroom window; and servants report that food left at the locked door is no longer touched.
Summons at the door bring only Meteorology Exam Essay, a sound of shuffling and a demand in a thick gurgling voice to be let alone. At last an awful happening is reported by a shuddering housemaid. The ceiling of the room below Leicester’s is stained with a hideous black fluid, and a pool of viscid abomination has dripped to the bed beneath. Dr. Haberden, now persuaded to return to the house, breaks down the young man’s door and strikes again and modern english, again with an Meteorology Final Exam, iron bar at the blasphemous semi-living thing he finds there. It is “a dark and putrid mass, seething with corruption and english, hideous rottenness, neither liquid nor solid, but melting and changing”. Burning points like eyes shine out of its midst, and before it is despatched it tries to lift what might have been an arm. Soon afterward the physician, unable to endure the memory of what he has beheld, dies at sea while bound for a new life in America. Mr.
Machen returns to Final Exam Essay, the daemoniac “Little People” in “The Red Hand” and “The Shining Pyramid”; and in The Terror, a wartime story, he treats with very potent mystery the effect of man’s modern repudiation of spirituality on the beasts of the world, which are thus led to question his supremacy and to unite for his extermination. Of utmost delicacy, and passing from mere horror into true mysticism, is othello modern english The Great Return, a story of the Graal, also a product of the war period. Too well known to need description here is the tale of “The Bowmen”; which, taken for authentic narration, gave rise to the widespread legend of the “Angels of Mons”ghosts of the old English archers of Crécy and Agincourt who fought in 1914 beside the Final hard-pressed ranks of England’s glorious “Old Contemptibles”. Mr. Blackwood’s lesser work is marred by several defects such as ethical didacticism, occasional insipid whimsicality, the Commandments Movie flatness of Meteorology benignant supernaturalism, and a too free use of the modern trade jargon of modern “occultism”. A fault of his more serious efforts is that diffuseness and long-windedness which results from an excessively elaborate attempt, under the handicap of a somewhat bald and journalistic style devoid of intrinsic magic, colour, and vitality, to visualise precise sensations and nuances of uncanny suggestion. But in Meteorology Exam, spite of all this, the major products of Mr. Blackwood attain a genuinely classic level, and anasarca define, evoke as does nothing else in literature an awed and convinced sense of the Meteorology immanence of strange spiritual spheres or entities. The well-nigh endless array of Mr.
Blackwood’s fiction includes both novels and shorter tales, the latter sometimes independent and sometimes arrayed in series. Foremost of all must be reckoned “The Willows”, in book, which the nameless presences on a desolate Danube island are horribly felt and recognised by a pair of idle voyagers. Here art and Meteorology Exam Essay, restraint in tower vs twin, narrative reach their very highest development, and an impression of lasting poignancy is produced without a single strained passage or a single false note. Another amazingly potent though less artistically finished tale is “The Wendigo”, where we are confronted by horrible evidences of a vast forest daemon about Meteorology Exam which North Woods lumbermen whisper at evening. The manner in freedom tower vs twin, which certain footprints tell certain unbelievable things is really a marked triumph in craftsmanship. Final Exam Essay? In “An Episode in a Lodging House” we behold frightful presences summoned out of black space by a sorcerer, and “The Listener” tells of the awful psychic residuum creeping about an old house where a leper died. In the volume titled Incredible Adventures occur some of the finest tales which the author has yet produced, leading the fancy to The Ten Commandments Movie vs The Book of Exodus, wild rites on nocturnal hills, to secret and terrible aspects lurking behind stolid scenes, and to unimaginable vaults of mystery below the sands and pyramids of Egypt; all with a serious finesse and delicacy that convince where a cruder or lighter treatment would merely amuse.
Some of these accounts are hardly stories at all, but rather studies in elusive impressions and half-remembered snatches of dream. Plot is everywhere negligible, and atmosphere reigns untrammelled. John SilencePhysician Extraordinary is Meteorology Final Exam Essay a book of five related tales, through which a single character runs his triumphant course. Marred only by bolam principle traces of the popular and Meteorology Final Exam Essay, conventional detective-story atmospherefor Dr. Silence is one of modern those benevolent geniuses who employ their remarkable powers to aid worthy fellow-men in difficultythese narratives contain some of the author’s best work, and produce an illusion at once emphatic and lasting. The opening tale, “A Psychical Invasion”, relates what befell a sensitive author in a house once the scene of dark deeds, and how a legion of fiends was exorcised. “Ancient Sorceries”, perhaps the finest tale in the book, gives an almost hypnotically vivid account of an old French town where once the unholy Sabbath was kept by all the people in the form of Meteorology Exam cats. In “The Nemesis of Fire” a hideous elemental is evoked by new-spilt blood, whilst “Secret Worship” tells of a German school where Satanism held sway, and where long afterward an evil aura remained. “The Camp of the Dog” is a werewolf tale, but is weakened by moralisation and professional “occultism”. Too subtle, perhaps, for definite classification as horror-tales, yet possibly more truly artistic in Commandments Book of Exodus Essay, an absolute sense, are such delicate phantasies as Jimbo or The Centaur. Mr.
Blackwood achieves in these novels a close and palpitant approach to the inmost substance of Final dream, and works enormous havock with the conventional barriers between reality and imagination. Beauty rather than terror is the keynote of Dunsany’s work. He loves the vivid green of jade and of copper domes, and the delicate flush of sunset on the ivory minarets of impossible dream-cities. Humour and irony, too, are often present to impart a gentle cynicism and modify what might otherwise possess a naive intensity. Nevertheless, as is book inevitable in a master of triumphant unreality, there are occasional touches of cosmic fright which come well within the authentic tradition. Dunsany loves to Meteorology Final Exam Essay, hint slyly and adroitly of monstrous things and incredible dooms, as one hints in cry freedom book, a fairy tale. In The Book of Meteorology Essay Wonder we read of Hlo-hlo, the gigantic spider-idol which does not always stay at home; of bolam principle what the Sphinx feared in Final, the forest; of Slith, the thief who jumps over the edge of the world after seeing a certain light lit and knowing who lit it; of the gilded conditions anthropophagous Gibbelins, who inhabit an Final Exam, evil tower and guard a treasure; of the Gnoles, who live in the forest and bolam principle, from whom it is Meteorology Final Exam Essay not well to steal; of the City of Never, and the eyes that watch in the Under Pits; and of kindred things of darkness. A Dreamer’s Tales tells of the mystery that sent forth all men from Bethmoora in the desert; of the vast gate of Perdóndaris, that was carved from a single piece of ivory; and of the voyage of poor old Bill, whose captain cursed the crew and paid calls on nasty-looking isles new-risen from the sea, with low thatched cottages having evil, obscure windows. Many of Dunsany’s short plays are replete with spectral fear. Othello Modern? In The Gods of the Mountain seven beggars impersonate the seven green idols on a distant hill, and enjoy ease and honour in a city of worshippers until they hear that the real idols are missing from their wonted seats. A very ungainly sight in the dusk is reported to them“rock should not walk in the evening”and at last, as they sit awaiting the arrival of a troop of dancers, they note that the Essay approaching footsteps are heavier than those of good dancers ought to be.
Then things ensue, and in gilded age working, the end the presumptuous blasphemers are turned to green jade statues by the very walking statues whose sanctity they outraged. But mere plot is the very least merit of this marvellously effective play. The incidents and Final Exam, developments are those of a supreme master, so that the whole forms one of the most important contributions of the present age not only to drama, but to literature in general. A Night at an Inn tells of four thieves who have stolen the Movie vs The Book of Exodus emerald eye of Klesh, a monstrous Hindoo god. They lure to their room and succeed in slaying the three priestly avengers who are on their track, but in the night Klesh comes gropingly for his eye; and having gained it and departed, calls each of the despoilers out into the darkness for an unnamed punishment. Exam Essay? In The Laughter of the othello modern english Gods there is a doomed city at the jungle’s edge, and a ghostly lutanist heard only by those about to die (cf. Meteorology? Alice’s spectral harpsichord in Hawthorne’s House of the Seven Gables ); whilst The Queen’s Enemies retells the anecdote of Herodotus in which a vengeful princess invites her foes to a subterranean banquet and lets in the Nile to drown them. But no amount of Commandments Movie vs The of Exodus mere description can convey more than a fraction of Lord Dunsany’s pervasive charm. His prismatic cities and unheard-of rites are touched with a sureness which only mastery can engender, and we thrill with a sense of actual participation in his secret mysteries.
To the truly imaginative he is a talisman and a key unlocking rich storehouses of Exam Essay dream and cry freedom book, fragmentary memory; so that we may think of Meteorology Exam him not only as a poet, but as one who makes each reader a poet as well. The art of Dr. James is by no means haphazard, and in the preface to one of his collections he has formulated three very sound rules for macabre composition. A ghost story, he believes, should have a familiar setting in age working, the modern period, in order to approach closely the Meteorology Exam reader’s sphere of experience. Its spectral phenomena, moreover, should be malevolent rather than beneficent; since fear is the gilded conditions emotion primarily to be excited. Meteorology Exam Essay? And finally, the technical patois of “occultism” or pseudo-science ought carefully to anasarca define, be avoided; lest the charm of casual verisimilitude be smothered in unconvincing pedantry. Dr.
James, practicing what he preaches, approaches his themes in a light and often conversational way. Meteorology Final Exam? Creating the illusion of every-day events, he introduces his abnormal phenomena cautiously and gradually; relieved at The Ten Commandments Movie Book of Exodus Essay every turn by touches of homely and prosaic detail, and sometimes spiced with a snatch or two of antiquarian scholarship. Conscious of the close relation between present weirdness and accumulated tradition, he generally provides remote historical antecedents for his incidents; thus being able to Final Essay, utilise very aptly his exhaustive knowledge of the past, and his ready and convincing command of archaic diction and colouring. A favourite scene for a James tale is some centuried cathedral, which the author can describe with all the familiar minuteness of a specialist in that field. Sly humorous vignettes and The Ten Commandments Movie, bits of life-like genre portraiture and characterisation are often to be found in Dr.
James’s narratives, and serve in his skilled hands to augment the general effect rather than to spoil it, as the same qualities would tend to do with a lesser craftsman. Meteorology Final Exam Essay? In inventing a new type of ghost, he has departed considerably from the The Ten Movie vs The Book of Exodus Essay conventional Gothic tradition; for where the Meteorology Essay older stock ghosts were pale and stately, and apprehended chiefly through the sense of othello sight, the average James ghost is lean, dwarfish, and hairya sluggish, hellish night-abomination midway betwixt beast and manand usually touched before it is seen. Sometimes the spectre is of still more eccentric composition; a roll of Essay flannel with spidery eyes, or an invisible entity which moulds itself in bedding and shews a face of crumpled linen. Dr. James has, it is clear, an intelligent and scientific knowledge of human nerves and feelings; and knows just how to apportion statement, imagery, and subtle suggestions in order to secure the best results with his readers.
He is an anasarca define, artist in incident and arrangement rather than in Essay, atmosphere, and reaches the emotions more often through the cry freedom intellect than directly. This method, of course, with its occasional absences of sharp climax, has its drawbacks as well as its advantages; and many will miss the thorough atmospheric tension which writers like Machen are careful to build up with words and scenes. But only Final Exam, a few of the tales are open to the charge of tameness. Generally the laconic unfolding of abnormal events in adroit order is amply sufficient to produce the desired effect of cumulative horror. The short stories of Dr. James are contained in four small collections, entitled respectively Ghost-Stories of an Antiquary, More Ghost Stories of an Commandments Movie of Exodus Essay, Antiquary, A Thin Ghost and Others, and A Warning to Exam, the Curious. There is also a delightful juvenile phantasy, The Five Jars, which has its spectral adumbrations. Amidst this wealth of material it is hard to select a favourite or especially typical tale, though each reader will no doubt have such preferences as his temperament may determine. “Count Magnus” is assuredly one of the best, forming as it does a veritable Golconda of suspense and suggestion. Mr.
Wraxall is an English traveller of the middle nineteenth century, sojourning in Sweden to secure material for a book. Becoming interested in the ancient family of De la Gardie, near the cry freedom village of Final Råbäck, he studies its records; and anasarca define, finds particular fascination in the builder of the existing manor-house, one Count Magnus, of whom strange and terrible things are whispered. The Count, who flourished early in Final Exam, the seventeenth century, was a stern landlord, and famous for his severity toward poachers and delinquent tenants. Book? His cruel punishments were bywords, and there were dark rumours of Essay influences which even survived his interment in the great mausoleum he built near the churchas in bolam principle, the case of the two peasants who hunted on his preserves one night a century after his death. There were hideous screams in the woods, and near the tomb of Count Magnus an unnatural laugh and Meteorology Final, the clang of a great door.
Next morning the priest found the two men; one a maniac, and bolam principle, the other dead, with the Meteorology Final Exam flesh of his face sucked from the bones. Mr. Wraxall hears all these tales, and gilded age working, stumbles on more guarded references to a Black Pilgrimage once taken by the Count; a pilgrimage to Chorazin in Palestine, one of the cities denounced by Our Lord in the Scriptures, and in which old priests say that Antichrist is to Meteorology Final Exam, be born. No one dares to conditions, hint just what that Black Pilgrimage was, or what strange being or thing the Count brought back as a companion. Meanwhile Mr. Wraxall is increasingly anxious to explore the mausoleum of Count Magnus, and finally secures permission to Meteorology Exam Essay, do so, in the company of a deacon. He finds several monuments and three copper sarcophagi, one of which is the Count’s. Round the book edge of this latter are several bands of engraved scenes, including a singular and hideous delineation of a pursuitthe pursuit of a frantic man through a forest by a squat muffled figure with a devil-fish’s tentacle, directed by Exam a tall cloaked man on a neighbouring hillock.
The sarcophagus has three massive steel padlocks, one of which is othello lying open on the floor, reminding the traveller of a metallic clash he heard the Meteorology Essay day before when passing the mausoleum and wishing idly that he might see Count Magnus. His fascination augmented, and the key being accessible, Mr. Wraxall pays the age working conditions mausoleum a second and solitary visit and Meteorology, finds another padlock unfastened. The next day, his last in Råbäck, he again goes alone to bid the gilded age working conditions long-dead Count farewell. Once more queerly impelled to utter a whimsical wish for a meeting with the buried nobleman, he now sees to his disquiet that only one of the padlocks remains on the great sarcophagus. Even as he looks, that last lock drops noisily to the floor, and there comes a sound as of creaking hinges.
Then the monstrous lid appears very slowly to rise, and Final Exam Essay, Mr. Wraxall flees in panic fear without refastening the door of the mausoleum. During his return to England the traveller feels a curious uneasiness about his fellow-passengers on the canal-boat which he employs for the earlier stages. Cloaked figures make him nervous, and he has a sense of anasarca define being watched and followed. Of twenty-eight persons whom he counts, only Meteorology Essay, twenty-six appear at meals; and the missing two are always a tall cloaked man and a shorter muffled figure. Completing his water travel at Harwich, Mr. Anasarca Define? Wraxall takes frankly to flight in a closed carriage, but sees two cloaked figures at a crossroad. Essay? Finally he lodges at a small house in a village and spends the time making frantic notes. On the second morning he is bolam principle found dead, and during the inquest seven jurors faint at sight of the Final Exam body. The house where he stayed is never again inhabited, and upon its demolition half a century later his manuscript is discovered in a forgotten cupboard. In “The Treasure of Abbot Thomas” a British antiquary unriddles a cipher on some Renaissance painted windows, and thereby discovers a centuried hoard of gold in a niche half way down a well in the courtyard of a German abbey.
But the crafty depositor had set a guardian over othello modern english, that treasure, and something in the black well twines its arms around the searcher’s neck in such a manner that the Final Essay quest is abandoned, and a clergyman sent for. Each night after that the discoverer feels a stealthy presence and detects a horrible odour of cry freedom book mould outside the door of his hotel room, till finally the clergyman makes a daylight replacement of the stone at the mouth of the treasure-vault in Meteorology, the wellout of which something had come in the dark to avenge the disturbing of old Abbot Thomas’s gold. As he completes his work the cleric observes a curious toad-like carving on the ancient well-head, with the Latin motto “Depositum custodi keep that which is committed to thee.” Other notable James tales are “The Stalls of Barchester Cathedral”, in othello modern english, which a grotesque carving comes curiously to life to avenge the secret and subtle murder of an old Dean by his ambitious successor; “‘Oh, Whistle, and Meteorology Final Exam, I’ll Come to You, My Lad’”, which tells of the bolam principle horror summoned by a strange metal whistle found in a mediaeval church ruin; and “An Episode of Final Essay Cathedral History”, where the dismantling of a pulpit uncovers an archaic tomb whose lurking daemon spreads panic and pestilence. Dr.
James, for all his light touch, evokes fright and hideousness in their most shocking forms; and will certainly stand as one of the few really creative masters in his darksome province. Startling mutations, however, are not to towers, be looked for in either direction. Meteorology Final Essay? In any case an approximate balance of tendencies will continue to exist; and while we may justly expect a further subtilisation of technique, we have no reason to think that the general position of the spectral in literature will be altered. It is a narrow though essential branch of human expression, and will chiefly appeal as always to a limited audience with keen special sensibilities. Cry Freedom Book? Whatever universal masterpiece of tomorrow may be wrought from phantasm or terror will owe its acceptance rather to a supreme workmanship than to a sympathetic theme. Yet who shall declare the dark theme a positive handicap?
Radiant with beauty, the Cup of the Ptolemies was carven of onyx.
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