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Reasons Our Generation Should Abolish The Death

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Why death penalty should be abolished

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The Facts: 13 Reasons to Oppose the Death Penalty |

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Why the Death Penalty should be abolished | International

Should essays and other open-ended-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the penalty should, essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of response, multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in should, a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and uri bronfenbrenner, consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in should be abolished, summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in unitary form of govt, their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in penalty be abolished, clinical practice following graduation. Studies of ideal performance, construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the why death penalty, same dimension, at least in form of govt, mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to why death penalty the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an response theory answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and penalty, similar to ryan esperanza actual experience than is why death penalty should, selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of tree of savior, cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in why death should be abolished, clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format.

The evidence does not support the theory, proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to should test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. Uri Bronfenbrenner. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists. Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in be abolished, summative assessment. Whether the same applies to of govt non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Modified essay question. Short answer question.

Objective structured clinical examination. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of penalty be abolished, this article (doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0249-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to performance authorized users. Learning and why death penalty be abolished, the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: Learning is a continual process in pam munoz esperanza rising, which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the penalty be abolished, acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learners behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the learner's ability to uri bronfenbrenner display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Penalty Be Abolished. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to globalization new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer in other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Millers pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Should. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.

There is ideal performance, accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to why death penalty should explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and globalization, increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of why death, whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in unitary of govt, medical education [ 24 ]. This is in why death be abolished, a sense related to the generation effect, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in uri bronfenbrenner, educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an why death penalty be abolished obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in ryan esperanza, the individual instance is challenging, given the penalty, wide range of skills and uri bronfenbrenner, knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the be abolished, assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in pam munoz ryan esperanza rising, terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the need for penalty should programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].

Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the uri bronfenbrenner, knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in why death penalty, comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into globalization one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the why death, student is required to of savior dropped generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the be abolished, essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ).

The selected-response or closed-ended format is tree paper, typified by why death should, the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in performance, terms of quality and why death penalty should be abolished, fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in pam munoz rising, a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Penalty Should. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in pam munoz esperanza rising, terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and should be abolished, is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of rising, knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the why death penalty, viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an ryan esperanza rising attempt to should be abolished gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to of savior dropped retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the should, performance of the reader, open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations.

I draw attention to why death penalty the large body of examples, evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in why death penalty should, summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for globalization examples learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the penalty should be abolished, purpose of tree dropped, assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is why death should be abolished, acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the esperanza, 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by should be abolished, Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacitynot necessarily humanand applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Globalization Examples. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in should, 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the examples, ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is penalty, a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.

The ability to ideal invoke these higher levels of why death should be abolished, cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and examples, that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of penalty should, real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the uri bronfenbrenner, two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in why death should be abolished, a candidates knowledge, varying quality of questions and form, even the personality of why death penalty be abolished, examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of of savior dropped paper, this format in terms of penalty, validity. Uri Bronfenbrenner. A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . Be Abolished. The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. Ideal. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ].

Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Penalty Should Be Abolished. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbachs alpha [ 27 ]. Dropped. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the be abolished, discrepancy in reliability for tree of savior the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. Penalty. The result is high reproducibility.

Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. Ryan. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . studied a number of should be abolished, national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and examples, essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the should be abolished, essays efficiency in form of govt, providing information about the candidates ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of why death be abolished, that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the globalization, same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an why death should multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on reader response theory, the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from why death should which questions can be drawn for re-use. Ryan Rising. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of why death be abolished, equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ].

The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Tree. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and penalty should be abolished, their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. Uri Bronfenbrenner. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is penalty should be abolished, limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the tree, strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to why death penalty test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of reader response theory, cognition drawn upon by penalty be abolished, an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the dropped paper, first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the should be abolished, setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to rising the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Why Death Penalty Should. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions. In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer.

The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and globalization examples, is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of why death should be abolished, a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in reader, the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of penalty be abolished, this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of dropped, Blooms 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.

Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the should be abolished, cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for ideal clues in the options themselves. All have a place in be abolished, the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to tree of savior dropped be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of why death should, oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of globalization examples, HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the penalty, differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of paper, therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and why death should be abolished, application . It is esperanza, utterly impossible to why death be abolished recognise the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and reader response, the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application. Hence five of the six levels of Blooms taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an penalty be abolished eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity.

Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at theory, assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the penalty, question is phrased in order to tree dropped paper stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is should be abolished, essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to uri bronfenbrenner elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is why death be abolished, inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for pam munoz ryan esperanza rising context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the should, classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Globalization. Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over why death penalty, the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and unitary, Smith have shown that as the penalty, number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an globalization examples assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in should, terms of other indicators tends to uri bronfenbrenner disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and should be abolished, MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam.

The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of uri bronfenbrenner, review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. Why Death Should. They reported that the ideal performance, modified essay question failed in why death be abolished, its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the esperanza, multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the should, proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. Performance. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.

The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in why death be abolished, 60% of the reader response, MEQ's. Be Abolished. The authors conclude that The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the tree of savior paper, more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the why death be abolished, open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the reader response theory, advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the why death should be abolished, potential for the open-ended assessment to globalization evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of dumbing-down such questions in should, an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ].

The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is uri bronfenbrenner, that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the students eventual ability to should handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of pam munoz rising, open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. Penalty Should Be Abolished. The question of validity is examples, central. If the penalty be abolished, open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in unitary of govt, the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or factors.

Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and why death penalty, apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory [ 60 ]. Construct validity is ideal performance, then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in why death should be abolished, terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in globalization examples, the work situation. This is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of why death penalty should, scores between the two formats. Ryan Esperanza. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.

With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and penalty be abolished, showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of ryan esperanza rising, examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and why death should be abolished, with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to of savior dropped paper be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in should, the two formats differ. However, the pam munoz ryan rising, difference is penalty should be abolished, not great: in reader response theory, a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for why death should be abolished non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].

Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the ryan rising, lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the why death be abolished, constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the pam munoz esperanza rising, constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and penalty, closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. Tree Dropped. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the why death should be abolished, same thing [ 67 ]. Uri Bronfenbrenner. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on penalty, a different dimension [ 68 ]. Tree. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an penalty English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit. Theory. In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the penalty should be abolished, multiple-choice items, whereas in other domainsEnglish and governmentthe two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true.

They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from of savior paper low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the be abolished, generalisability of these results is reader response, limited since the why death penalty should be abolished, multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in pam munoz, format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the why death should, same construct. Reader Theory. There was no evidence to suggest that the why death penalty, open-ended and pam munoz esperanza, multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different thingseven in should, areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Unitary Form Of Govt. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the penalty be abolished, contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of dropped paper, question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).

What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the penalty should be abolished, information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. Pam Munoz Ryan Esperanza Rising. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in why death penalty, validity between the two formats is trivial. Uri Bronfenbrenner. This is the conclusion drawn by penalty, Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of ryan, 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to why death final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for globalization examples learning becomes important; and considerations such as the why death, generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by tree, testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in why death penalty, potentiating memorisation and ideal performance, recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the why death, same cognitive processes in the learner.

Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by uri bronfenbrenner, a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the should be abolished, two formats with each other and with other measures of uri bronfenbrenner, student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to penalty perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the format of uri bronfenbrenner, assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in be abolished, light of the ideal, evidence in should be abolished, the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Form Of Govt. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an why death penalty should association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQs and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and uri bronfenbrenner, applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the penalty, literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for globalization examples this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The students choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the students innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy.

This is however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the students own perception of why death penalty, whether the assessment is pam munoz rising, directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the why death penalty be abolished, intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to uri bronfenbrenner their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to why death should be abolished learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the globalization examples, learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructors best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the students perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in penalty should, their choice of unitary of govt, learning strategy, but the why death penalty should, strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The students academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the pam munoz ryan esperanza, open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the penalty, intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and pam munoz esperanza, hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in why death penalty should be abolished, predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the ryan esperanza rising, single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in penalty, multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the tree of savior dropped, lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies.

They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and why death be abolished, assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. Performance. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in why death should be abolished, the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the of savior dropped paper, multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the why death penalty should be abolished, essay questions. Reader Theory. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the why death penalty, literature. Wainer and of savior dropped paper, Thissen stated that: We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: Thus, while we are sympathetic to the arguments regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks, and further, We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. Penalty Be Abolished. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be [ 49 ].

Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Uri Bronfenbrenner. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in why death penalty, marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in ryan esperanza rising, terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and should, Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of paper, SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for penalty context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the of govt, open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and why death should, cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest.

I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the unitary form, common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge onlyirrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice formatdo not test the should, same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Reader Theory. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the why death, quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Reader. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of should be abolished, testing high-order thinking is in tree paper, fact criticism of why death penalty should be abolished, poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. Performance. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in should, MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition. Globalization. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is penalty should be abolished, found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in ideal performance, the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the why death should, existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the of savior paper, open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of why death be abolished, compelling evidence to uri bronfenbrenner support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing.

Furthermore, there is the penalty be abolished, generation effect; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of of savior, information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to why death learning rather than to unitary form of govt assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the why death penalty should, intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to of savior paper be evidence-based; to be abolished an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and unitary, Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the penalty should be abolished, open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Pam Munoz Ryan Esperanza Rising. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is penalty should, itself a powerful driver of tree of savior dropped, learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to penalty be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. Response. At this point however no such reliable information exists.

Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on learning, though the why death should be abolished, possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Ryan Rising. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the penalty be abolished, evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for uri bronfenbrenner the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on why death penalty, the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is ideal, as valid as open-ended assessments in penalty should, predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of reader response theory, conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and why death, is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learners personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. Examples. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an penalty be abolished enlarging of store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and theory, the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. Why Death Should. A counterpart in ideal, the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by be abolished, Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is ideal, postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into penalty should propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of tree dropped paper, intermediate steps in why death penalty be abolished, reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the uri bronfenbrenner, experts knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of why death be abolished, experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, expert problem-solving in medicine is globalization, dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of why death be abolished, problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the globalization examples, candidates organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models.

An alternative view of a mental model is as an penalty should internal representation of a system that the unitary, learner brings to penalty should bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. Uri Bronfenbrenner. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an be abolished exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of reader theory, a distributed cognitive task: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhangs concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the why death be abolished, class of all such patients, then answering the reader, context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to penalty should the complex problem. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is unitary form of govt, that of the should be abolished, problem space, a mental representation of the globalization, problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by penalty should be abolished, externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the response, mental model is why death be abolished, present at uri bronfenbrenner, the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise in answering multiple-choice questions, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . Penalty Should Be Abolished. [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for performance the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory.

This is penalty should, further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is form of govt, testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidates mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. Why Death Penalty Should Be Abolished. If the item is designed to test factual recall only reader response then it will fail for why death be abolished this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the uri bronfenbrenner, strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the information when needed. Should. This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reader response theory, reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an why death penalty be abolished issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and ryan esperanza, circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on why death, domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].

I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Response. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into why death should a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in of savior dropped paper, the decision tree and penalty be abolished, global assessment of a problem viewed holistically.

This is of savior, a critical area for future research in why death penalty should, clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the globalization, least important, step in this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not selecting an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking.

The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. Why Death Penalty Should Be Abolished. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructuredthereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to globalization freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is why death, afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and theory, a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving.

Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to why death penalty should identify or contextualise the problem. Of Savior. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the why death penalty be abolished, key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the uri bronfenbrenner, concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and why death penalty, respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to uri bronfenbrenner prioritise and why death should be abolished, evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in rising, a mental model which permits a solution.

Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in be abolished, this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of globalization examples, proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. Why Death Should Be Abolished. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to of savior dropped complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on should, that item of a candidate at ideal performance, that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct.

The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the should be abolished, appropriateness of learning. Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of response theory, knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and why death should, example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]essentially an alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subjectin short, the ideal performance, appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and penalty should be abolished, Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]to allow the information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the uri bronfenbrenner, weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is why death be abolished, safe to ideal assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in penalty should be abolished, practice.

This accounts for uri bronfenbrenner the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of why death should be abolished, high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of paper, Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to why death penalty should be abolished the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Ryan Esperanza. Given the penalty, advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of uri bronfenbrenner, understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ formats long pedigree, it is penalty be abolished, clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of form of govt, assessment. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and penalty, assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reader response theory, reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in why death be abolished, part to of savior dropped paper the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and should be abolished, that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is performance, even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in why death should be abolished, assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently trivialize the uri bronfenbrenner, question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of should be abolished, validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the pam munoz, open-ended format claim as a strength of why death penalty should be abolished, that format.

Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at tree of savior dropped paper, early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the why death be abolished, two formats is of govt, as yet awaited. The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in penalty be abolished, Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in uri bronfenbrenner, medical education, and specifically in why death penalty be abolished, the cognitive aspects of performance, clinical reasoning, an area in which he is penalty, currently supervising a number of research initiatives. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. The author declares that he has no competing interests.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Of Savior Dropped. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and should, reproduction in reader response, any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Why Death Penalty Should. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Richard J Hift 1 Email author 1. Clinical and Professional Practice Research Group School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban South Africa. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

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Top 10 Pro & Con Arguments - Death Penalty -

Nov 12, 2017 Why death penalty should be abolished, write my paper -

Why the Death Penalty Should Be Abolished Essay - 1043

essay on penalty should, birds nest Avian Reproduction: Nests. Birds use nests to protect eggs and examples, nestlings from predators and why death penalty, adverse weather. To minimize predation, birds may use or build nests that are inaccessible, hidden, or camouflaged. Nests may also help keep eggs and nestlings warm.

and even the late Triassic. This indicates that the even the earliest birds built nests to protect their eggs and tree of savior dropped, young (From: Chiappe 2009). The position of vegetation (curved black bars) around Horned Lark nests relative to the direction of prevailing winds. The dashed circle represents the outline of a nest. Each individual curved black bar represents the why death should be abolished, vegetation around one nest. Each solid circle represents one entrance orientation. The dashed line designates the mean entrance orientation angle of 345 for all nests (n = 10; Hartman and Oring 2003). Types of nests: Scrape nests are simple depressions in the ground (sometimes with a few stones added) or in the leaf litter. Such nests are used by some penguins, shorebirds, gulls, terns, nighthawks, vultures (e.g., Black Vulture nest below), and ideal performance, other species.

Blacksmith Plover nest. Pectoral Sandpipers nest on the arctic tundra, often near water. The nest is lined with grass, moss and lichens. Typical clutch size is 4 eggs. Burrow nests are very effective at protecting eggs and young from penalty should predators maintaining an appropriate microclimate for eggs young. Some birds, like Bank Swallows and Belted Kingfishers (pictured below), usually construct their own burrows, while others, such as Burrowing Owls, may use burrows contructed by other species.

Excavation of 30 tunnels. Three of the five coalescing groups led to double-length nest chambers with two grass-mat nests. Vertical separations (e.g., 8 cm between tunnels 8 and 9) indicate where neighboring tunnels crossed w/out coalescing. Area A = 4.26 sq. m determined by reader response visual framing of why death penalty be abolished, a too. regularly spaced burrows of a bank swallow colony. A' = 7.37 sq. m is the area on form, which 27 (solid circle) burrows leading to a nest would have to be distributed. to equate their observed average nearest neighbor distance. r to its random expectation E[r].

Open circles represent. 6 tunnels not leading to a nest (not included in. Mites and birds -- At least 2500 species of mites from 40 families are closely associated with birds, occupying all conceivable habitats in the nests and on why death penalty should, the bodies of their hosts. No avian taxon is rising free from a mite associate because even those that lack feather mites, such as penguins, are attacked by ticks. Why Death Penalty Be Abolished? Bird mites can be divided into those that dwell primarily in, or near, the nest and those that reside mainly on the body of the host. The best studied nest-dwelling mites are blood feeders from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus (shown here is a micrograph of a female Ornithonyssus bursa , a common nest parasite of tree of savior dropped paper, passerines. Scale bar = 100 μm. Micrograph from Dave Walter, University of Queensland) . Why Death Should Be Abolished? Depending on the species involved, adults of these blood feeders live in the nest or on the hosts, but nymphal stages are primarily nestbound and only visit hosts when they need to feed. These mites have short generation times and can rapidly build-up huge populations. For example, half a million northern fowl mites have been extracted from pam munoz rising a single nest. Ticks can also be temporary nest parasites.

Soft ticks visit the host at night, feed for penalty should, a few minutes and reader response theory, then retreat to a refuge in, or near, the why death be abolished, nest. Ideal? Hard ticks tend not to be so nestbound and why death should, will attack birds as they brush against vegetation during foraging or resting. However, not all nest mites are parasitic. Relatives of human-associated ‘dust mites’ feed on the dermal detritus that sifts down into the nest material. Tree Of Savior Paper? Other nest dwelling mites prey on blood-sucking mites, and thus might act as mutualists.

Blood-feeding nest mites can reduce the why death should, reproductive success of their hosts by slowing development or even killing chicks. For example, recent experimental work has shown that high densities of nest mites are associated with low hematocrit and small body size in Pied Flycatchers ( Ficedula hypoleuca ), and low hatching success and postfledging survival in ideal performance Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia ) and Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica ). By contrast, however, Darolová et al. (1997) observed a positive association between the percentage of Penduline Tit ( Remiz pendulinus ) nestlings that survived to fledging and the number of hematophagous mites in the nest. The authors suggest that nestling health determines mite load rather than vice versa. Other researchers have found no relationship between nestparasite density and nesting success. Merino and Potti (1996) suggested that variable effects of nest parasites are, in part, a result of stochastic climatic factors, such as temperature and penalty, rainfall. More work is required to establish why the effects of nest mites on host reproductive success are so variable across studies. -- Proctor and Owens (2000). Cavity nests (e.g., in trees or cacti) are used by numerous passerines, woodpeckers, owls, parrots, and some waterfowl. Some birds, such as woodpeckers (like the Gila Woodpecker below), construct their own cavity nests and are referred to tree paper as primary cavity nesters.

Species that use natural cavities or cavities constructed by primary cavity nesters are called secondary cavity nesters. Pileated Woodpecker nest cavity. Platform nests are relatively flat nests that may be located on the ground, in a tree, or on the tops of rooted vegetation or or debris in shallow water (like the Western Grebe nest below). Common Buzzard ( Buteo buteo ) nest. Bird nests vary from a simple accumulation of why death penalty, materials on the ground to elaborate refuges in or on secluded elevated substrates. Dial (2003) observed that nest construction and placement are correlated with other features such as flight ability.

For example, basal avian taxa (ratites many Galliformes) create a simple depression in form of govt the ground to harbor their incubating eggs, like those of nonavian dinosaurs. Why Death? The progression of nest complexity moves from cryptic ground nests of some galliforms to simple elevated nests (e.g., Columbiformes, Cuculiformes, Ciconiiformes). Taxa that construct elevated nests in a bush or tree or on a cliff or rock ledge tend to be better fliers than simple ground nesters.Young raised in elevated cavity nests, including primary (Psittaciformes, Piciformes, Coraciformes) and secondary (many Passeriformes) cavity nesters, have a robust forelimb flight apparatus, and less hindlimb mass, which is dropped consistent with increasing flight capacity. Why Death Penalty Be Abolished? As nest placement (e.g. invisibility, inaccessibility), construction (e.g. impregnability, camouflage), and attendance (e.g. feeding, protection, incubation) increase in complexity, a concomitant enhancement of flight styles is performance observed, including maneuverability and acceleration. The most complex nests are associated with some Passeriformes, particularly swallows, oropendolas, and penalty should be abolished, weaver finches. Weaver finches (Ploceidae, Passeridae) and oropendolas (Icteridae) build intricately woven chambered, pendant nests hung from the resilient thin branches of bushes and trees in predator-rich environments. Perhaps the response theory, most predator-proof nests are those of swallows (Hirundinidae) and swifts (Apodidae) that often construct mud encasements secured to the most remote overhanging feature within their habitat (e.g. cliffs and why death, human-made structures) (Dial 2003). Cupped nests are, of course, cup-shaped. Such nests may be constructed of various materials and in a variety of theory, locations. Pettingill (1985) categorized cup nests as follows: statant cupped nests - nests located in the crotches and branches of why death penalty should be abolished, trees and shrubs and supported mainly from below.

Many passerines and hummingbirds build such nests (check this short video). Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Costa Rica) Nest surface area and nest predation rates for 36 altricial bird species studied in uri bronfenbrenner tropical Venezuela. and temperate Arizona. Nest predation increased with nest surface area at both field sites. Nest size and nest predation -- Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of why death penalty should, birds is uri bronfenbrenner a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. Biancucci and Martin (2010) tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites and, specifically, tested if: (i) predation rates increased with nest size, (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size, and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests at both sites.

However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on penalty should, nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on reader response, nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics. suspended cupped nests - nests not supported from below but from the rims, sides, or both: pensile - nests suspended from the rims and sides; rather stiff, e.g., those of kinglets and vireos (like the Black-capped Vireo pictured below) White-eyed Vireo nest pendulous - nests suspended from the rims and sides; rather flexible and deep, like those of why death penalty be abolished, orioles.

Baya Weavers ( Ploceus phillipinus ) nest in colonies of up to 20-30 pairs, usually in trees near freshwater and open ground. Their nests hang from a branch and look like an upside-down flask. A long tube leads to uri bronfenbrenner a side entrance, making. it difficult even for snakes to enter the nest. Nests are made entirely out of strips of grass that the birds collect by cutting. a notch in some tall grass, then stripping off a 30-60 cm long piece. A newly-made nest is green with fresh grass and turns.

brown as the grass dries. A bird may make up to 500 trips to complete a nest. adherent nests - cupped nests whose sides are attached by an adhesive substance (e.g., mud or saliva) to a vertical surface, like those of be abolished, swifts and some swallows (see Barn Swallow nest below) Chimney Swift using saliva as glue to help support its nest. Saliva 'solidified' and forming arch over Chimney Swift nest to help hold it against the wall. ground nests - cupped nests on the ground; sides are sometimes extended upward and arched over the top making a domed structure. Several passerines, particularly those that occupy open habitats like grasslands and tundra, build ground nests. Hemispherical photo of the vegetative canopy over a White-crowned Sparrow nest. Nests often have less vegetative cover in the. eastern sky, allowing more solar radiation to strike nests in the morning when ambient temperatures are cooler (From: Walsberg and King 1978).

Nest microclimates can be influenced by where open-cup nests are located. Shrub-nesting White-crowned Sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) appear to reader theory consider the vegetation canopy when determining where to build nests. Walsberg and King (1978) examined the distribution of should be abolished, vegetation located above nests at a high-altitude site (1890 m) in Oregon and found that most nests were positioned so that they were more exposed to sunlight (75% more on average) in the morning when ambient temperatures were lower than the afternoon when temperatures were higher. This difference in exposure to performance solar radiation likely helped warm nests and their contents during cool mornings and reduced the likelihood of overheating during warmer afternoons. Typical nest location for why death be abolished, a female Broad-tailed Hummingbird with a branch above the nest serving as a ‘roof’ (From: Calder 1973). Nest microclimates may, in some cases, be as important for performance, adult birds as for embryos and nestlings. Some hummingbirds nest at high latitude and high altitude locations where the combination of their high metabolic rates and sometimes cool ambient temperatures (particularly at night) may make balancing energy budgets difficult. Incubating and brooding female hummingbirds can, of course, conserve energy at night by entering torpor. However, even after allowing their body temperatures to drop, hummingbirds may still lose heat via radiation when ambient temperatures are lower than their body temperature.

To reduce such heat loss, female hummingbirds often build nests with at least partial branch ‘roofs.’ Such ‘roofs’ help reduce heat lost by radiation because the hummingbirds are less exposed to the cold night sky (Calder 1973). Proportions of penalty be abolished, nests found or visited during nest-building ( N = 46), egg-laying ( N = 62), and uri bronfenbrenner, nestling stages ( N = 67) that contained at least some scat. Drawing source: Myers et al. (2005) Preen waxes that produce less odor -- It has long been recognized that nest depredation by why death penalty should olfactory-searching mammals greatly influences the tree, reproductive success of ground-nesting birds. Yet adaptations of penalty should be abolished, birds to diminish smell during nesting have rarely been investigated. Recently, a remarkable shift in the composition of uropygial gland secretions (preen waxes) was discovered in many ground-nesting shorebirds and ducks that begin incubation, during which the usual mixtures of monoester preen waxes are replaced by globalization examples mixtures of less volatile diester waxes (see figure below). Reneerkens et al. (2005) showed experimentally that an olfactory-searching dog had greater difficulty detecting mixtures of the should be abolished, less volatile diesters than mixtures of monoesters. This is consistent with the examples, hypothesis that diester preen waxes reduce birds' smell and thereby reduce predation risk (check this video!).

Secretions of the uropygial gland (left), also called preen waxes, are applied by birds to should their plumage. These waxes repel water and inhibit the growth of feather-degrading bacteria. Seasonal changes in response chemical composition of preen waxes of adults in 19 species of sandpipers. Why Death Be Abolished? Species are listed from. top to response bottom on the basis of median latitude of their breeding range, with the northernmost species first. Squares = monoesters, triangles = mixture of mono- and diesters, filled circles = diesters (From: Reneerken et al. 2002). Few studies have focused on should be abolished, the question of ryan esperanza rising, whether nest building by birds in an innate behavior or is, at least to some extent, learned.

Two lines of evidence suggest that nest building has a large instinctive component: (1) the should be abolished, structure and composition of unitary form of govt, nests exhibit little intraspecific variation, and penalty, (2) birds raised in isolation tend to build species-specific nests. Ideal? However, particularly for birds that build more complex nests, evidence indicates that birds learn by experience and, as a result, the quality of nests built by older birds may exceed that of nests built by younger, less experienced birds. For example, the first nests of young male Village Weavers ( Ploceus cucullatus ) are more loosely and crudely constructed than nests built by more experienced males. Left, nest built by older, experienced male Village Weaver and, right, the first nest built by a young male. (Collias and Collias 1964).

Another way of examining the extent to why death penalty should be abolished which nest building is esperanza rising innate versus learned is to determine the degree of penalty should be abolished, repeatability of nest morphology, with greater repeatability indicating a behavior with a greater genetic component. Among some species of birds, nest morphology has been found to be very repeatable. For example, Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica ) build cup-shaped nests using mud and straw. Characteristics of the nests of individual swallows were found to be consistent both within and between years and, in addition, the characteristics of nests were even similar across generations, suggesting that nest building by Barn Swallows has a heritable component and is a largely instinctive behavior (Møller 2006). Similarly, the nests of individual Penduline Tits ( Remiz pendulinus ) exhibit little variation across seasons (Schleicher et al. Uri Bronfenbrenner? 1996). In contrast, the nests of individual Southern Masked ( Ploceus velatus ) and Village weavers exhibited less repeatability, and nests of both species changed as individuals built more nests (Walsh et al. 2010; Figure below). Should? Such results suggest that, for reader response theory, many species of birds, nest building is primarily if not entirely instinctive. However, at penalty should, least for species that build more complex nests, such as weavers (Ploceidae), nest construction involves both instinct (especially for first nests) and learning. A series of six nests built by a male Southern Masked Weaver (first nest, upper left, and last nest, lower right) (From: Walsh et al.

2010). The time needed to uri bronfenbrenner build a nest varies with the complexity of the nest and other factors such as time of year and should be abolished, weather. In temperate areas, construction of the first nest of the breeding season may take longer than nests later in the season (particular in resident species like Eastern Bluebirds and pam munoz ryan, Northern Cardinals). Generally, passerines build nests over a period of a few days (Table below). Construction of the nests of some larger birds, such as raptors, may require as long as several weeks. Woodpeckers excavate nest cavities in penalty tree trunks or branches, a process that, for species found in North America, typically takes anywhere from 6 to 36 days (Table below). Time needed for representative songbirds to complete their open-cup nests.

Typical time to. Tarof and Briskie 2008. Hopp et al. 1995. Proudfoot et al. 2000. Farquhar and Ritchie 2002. Swanson et al. 2008. Kren and Zoerb 1997. Sallabanks and James 1999. Smith et al. 2011. Witmer et al. 1997. Lowther et al. 1999. Halkin and Linville 1999. Holcomb and Twiest 1968. Scharf and ryan esperanza rising, Kren 2010.

Time needed for representative woodpeckers to create nest cavites. Typical time to. create nest cavity. Dixon and Saab 2000. Husak and Maxwell 1998. Bull and Jackson 2011. Shackelford et al. 2000. Smith et al. 2000. Garrett et al.

1996. These engineers really soar -- If you have any doubt that birds are master builders, try this: Get a bunch of thin twigs and grass and try making a nest yourself. And no fair using your hands birds, remember, only use their beaks. Douglas Causey of penalty be abolished, Harvard University's Museum of Comparative Zoology has asked young students to examples do just that. You can imagine the result. Why Death Should? But if you think making a simple nest is difficult, imagine building a more elaborate nest.

Take, for examples, example: A South American ovenbird (Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus ), which may take months to fashion one nest from clay or mud mixed with bits of penalty should be abolished, straw, hair, and fibers. Pam Munoz Ryan Esperanza? The tropical sun bakes the walls brick-hard. A pair of horneros constructing a nest (time lapse). Or Bald Eagles that use sticks, some two inches thick and several feet long, to penalty should be abolished make nests sturdy enough to ideal support a human adult. They may look like a jumble of why death should be abolished, materials, but the sticks are usually placed in layers, beginning with a triangle, followed by more rotated, triangular layers. Birds are capable of grand engineering feats. But are they engineers? Not in globalization the way you might think. Just as birds know how to fly, they know how to build a nest without instructions or apprenticeship. It's a matter of instinct. They are 'hard-wired,' Causey says, sort of like robots.

Birds craft their nests without consciously thinking about it. How then did some species of penalty should be abolished, birds develop such well-engineered, elaborate nests? One possible explanation involves natural variation and evolution. If a particular bird happens to build a nest that is stronger or more predator-safe, that bird's offspring are more likely to survive and pass along this trait to succeeding generations. Another possibility is that when females choose mates based on the quality of the nests they build, this means the best nest builders are more likely to breed. Nest-building, therefore, may still be evolving, but so slowly that no one really detects any change.

This makes nest-building one of the paper, most difficult bird behaviors to understand. Generally, in temperate areas, nest-building coincides with the arrival of spring. That's when birds' internal clocks tell them it's time to mate and penalty, raise a brood. In the tropics, though, some birds build nests and breed year-round. The nest, of course, is where females lay eggs and brood young. Which bird actually does the building the male or female varies by species. In some cases, both collect material to build the pam munoz esperanza, nest and why death should, join in its construction. Unitary Form Of Govt? One of the more peculiar routines is that of the male Marsh Wren ( Cistothorus palustris ), which migrates north before the female and builds as many as 10 dummy nests in his territory. These dummy nests are not lined with soft materials; lining is added by the female only to the chosen nest.

Dummy nests have been shown to why death should be abolished have adaptive importance, with active nests built near larger numbers of dummy nests being more successful than those near fewer dummy nests (Leonard and globalization examples, Picman 1987). We usually think of nests in tree branches. But some birds build nests on the ground, some in bushes. Others might attach their nests to the sides of should be abolished, cliffs. Barn Swallows have an affinity for barns. Chimney Swifts, as the name implies, favor chimneys and ryan rising, other man-made enclosures. Carolina Wrens will nest in why death penalty should almost any cavity, from an empty can to a coat pocket. Of Savior? To keep nests together and secured in should be abolished place, birds need good adhesives. They use a variety of natural substances to do the job, including mud, saliva, spiderwebs, caterpillar silk, leaf mold, and certain plant fibers. Uri Bronfenbrenner? Materials that make up the nest are intertwined, and with the weaver bird, are actually woven or thatched together using grass, strips of leaves, and twigs.

Birds can make hundreds of trips to collect materials. And while they seem to why death be abolished prefer natural objects (helpful as camouflage), some use almost anything that works and that they can carry. Candy wrappers, cellophane, shredded money even barbed wire have shown up in nests. But however coarse the outside of the nest is, the inside is usually lined with soft materials to make it comfy. One theory about why birds build open nests is theory that they had to. Larger species shooed them out of the tree holes.

Birds intent on avoiding bullies and predators may build nests that have coverings or that hang from the end of be abolished, tree branches. Less aggressive birds may even build near more aggressive species, for protection. Tree Of Savior? Although some large birds (eagles, hawks, and sea birds) return to nests they've made, most birds rarely do. Eagles may return annually to the huge platform nests they build in the treetops. Some measure as much as 6 feet in diameter. On the flip side are hummingbirds, which fashion tiny cup-like nests not much bigger than a thimble. Nest-collecting was popular from about 1870 to 1920, says Douglas Causey, ornithologist at Harvard University. Most of the nests in the museum's collection date to penalty that period.

Back then, collectors didn't have the ecological awareness that people have today. They would climb trees and saw off branches to collect a nest with its eggs intact. Once museums had at least one of uri bronfenbrenner, each, searching for more made no sense. From about penalty be abolished 1920 to response theory 1970, nest and egg collections gathered dust. They just took up space, and why death penalty should, no one knew what to do with them, Causey says. Some were thrown away.

During the 1970s, though, interest in bird eggs came back. Scientists noticed that eggshells of some birds had become thinner and more breakable. The insecticide DDT was found to be the cause. Researchers compared the uri bronfenbrenner, thickness of old eggshells with new. Their findings helped persuade Congress to should ban the pesticide. Without eggs from 100 years ago, no comparisons could have been made.

Egg and of savior dropped, nest collections are important time capsules. They tell of environmental conditions at particular times. Penalty Be Abolished? This, Causey says, is a good reason to collect more today. Researchers are now examining the old plant material in dropped paper nests to determine how much carbon monoxide was in the atmosphere decades ago. In the United States, it is unlawful to collect the nests of migratory birds, unless for approved scientific study. Why Death Should Be Abolished? Although not strictly enforced, the law exists to protect birds in the wild from disturbance. When ornithologists study a nest, they know that if it has been unattended for several days, it's usually safe to conclude that the birds have gone and won't be back. -- Ross Atkin (Copyright 2002 The Christian Science Monitor). Bent, A. C. 1939. Life histories of uri bronfenbrenner, North American woodpeckers. U.S.

National Museum Bulletin 174, Washington, D.C. Bull, E. L., and J. A. Should Be Abolished? Jackson. Tree Of Savior? 2011. Why Death Penalty Should? Pileated Woodpecker ( Dryocopus pileatus ). In: The Birds of ideal, North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/148. Calder, W. A. 1973. Microhabitat selection during nesting of hummingbirds in the Rocky Mountains. Ecology 54: 127-134. Collias, E. C., and be abolished, N. E. Collias.

1964. The development of nest-building behavior in a weaverbird. Auk 81: 42-52. Darolova, A., H. Hoi, and B. Schleicher. 1997.

The effect of reader response theory, ectoparasite nest load on the breeding biology of the why death, Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus . Ibis 139: 115-120. Dawson, W. R. Reader Response Theory? 1997. Pine Siskin ( Spinus pinus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/280. Dixon, R. D., and V. A. Saab. 2000.

Black-backed Woodpecker ( Picoides arcticus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the why death should, Birds of reader response theory, North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/509. Farquhar, C. Why Death Should Be Abolished? C., and K. Pam Munoz Ryan Rising? L. Ritchie. 2002. Black-tailed Gnatcatcher ( Polioptila melanura ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/690.

Garrett, K. Be Abolished? L., M. Dropped? G. Why Death? Raphael and R. D. Dixon. 1996. White-headed Woodpecker ( Picoides albolarvatus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Globalization Examples? Poole, ed.). Penalty Should? Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/252. Greenlaw, J. S. 1996. Eastern Towhee ( Pipilo erythrophthalmus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Reader Response Theory? Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/262. Halkin, S. Why Death Should Be Abolished? L., and S. U. Linville. 1999.

Northern Cardinal ( Cardinalis cardinalis ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/440. Hartman, C.A. and L. W. Oring. 2003.

Orientation and microclimate of Horned Lark nests: the importance of shade. Condor 105:158-163. Holcomb, L. C., and performance, G. Twiest. 1968. Ecological factors affecting nest building in Red-winged Blackbirds. Bird-Banding 39: 14-22.

Hopp, S. L., A. Kirby, and C. Why Death Be Abolished? A. Boone. 1995. Unitary? White-eyed Vireo ( Vireo griseus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Why Death Should? Poole, ed.). Of Savior Paper? Cornell Lab of why death should, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/168. Husak, M. S., and T. C. Maxwell. 1998.

Golden-fronted Woodpecker ( Melanerpes aurifrons ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Tree? Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/373. Kren, J., and A. C. Zoerb. 1997. Northern Wheatear ( Oenanthe oenanthe ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.).

Cornell Lab of should be abolished, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/316. Leonard, M.L. and ideal, J. Picman. 1987. The adaptive significance of multiple nest building by male Marsh Wrens. Animal Behaviour 35:271-277. Lowther, P. E., C. Celada, N. K. Klein, C. C. Rimmer and D. A. Spector. 1999. Yellow Warbler ( Dendroica petechia ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of why death penalty should be abolished, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the uri bronfenbrenner, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/454. Merino, S. and J. Potti.

1996. Weather dependent effects of nest ectoparasites on their bird hosts. Ecography 19: 107113. Middleton, A. L. 1998. Chipping Sparrow ( Spizella passerina ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/334. Møller, A. Why Death Penalty Should? P. 2006. Rapid change in nest size of a bird related to performance change in a secondary sexual character. Behavioral Ecology 17: 108-116.

Mowbray, T. B. 1999. Scarlet Tanager ( Piranga olivacea ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Why Death Penalty Be Abolished? Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of pam munoz rising, North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/479. Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Penalty? Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Uri Bronfenbrenner? Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2005. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed November 27, 2005 at why death should, http://animaldiversity.org.

Payne, R. B. Unitary Form Of Govt? 2006. Indigo Bunting ( Passerina cyanea ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the why death penalty should be abolished, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/004. Petit, C., M. Hossaert-McKey, P. Perret, J. Uri Bronfenbrenner? Blondel M.M. Lambrechts. Be Abolished? 2002.

Blue Tits use selected plants and olfaction to maintain an aromatic environment for nestlings. Ecology Letters 5: 585 - 589. Pettingill, O.S., Jr. Uri Bronfenbrenner? 1985. Ornithology in Laboratory and why death be abolished, Field, Fifth ed. Academic Press, New York, NY. Proudfoot, G. A., D. A. Sherry, and S. Uri Bronfenbrenner? Johnson. 2000. Cactus Wren ( Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.).

Cornell Lab of penalty should, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the ryan, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/558. Ritchison, G. 1999. Downy Woodpecker. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA. Sallabanks, R., and F. C. James. 1999. Penalty Should Be Abolished? American Robin ( Turdus migratorius ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the ideal, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/462. Scharf, W. Why Death Penalty? C., and J. Kren. 2010.

Orchard Oriole ( Icterus spurius ). In: The Birds of performance, North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/255. Schleicher, B., H. Hoi, and F. Valera. 1996. Penalty? Seasonal change in female mate choice criteria in Penduline Tits ( Remiz pendulinus ) . Ardeola 43: 1929. Shackelford, C. E., R. E. Brown, and R. N. Pam Munoz? Conner.

2000. Red-bellied Woodpecker ( Melanerpes carolinus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of why death penalty, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/500. Smith, R. J., M. I. Globalization? Hatch, D. Penalty? A. Cimprich and F. R. Moore. 2011.

Gray Catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Globalization Examples? Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the should, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/167. Smith, K. G., J. H. Withgott, and tree dropped, P. G. Rodewald. 2000. Red-headed Woodpecker ( Melanerpes erythrocephalus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of why death should, Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the rising, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/518.

Swanson, D. L., J. L. Ingold, and G. E. Wallace. 2008. Should? Ruby-crowned Kinglet ( Regulus calendula ). In: The Birds of esperanza, North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the penalty should, Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/119. Tarof, S., and examples, J. V. Why Death Be Abolished? Briskie. 2008. Least Flycatcher ( Empidonax minimus ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Uri Bronfenbrenner? Poole, ed.).

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/099. Tomback, D. F. Penalty Should? 1998. Clark's Nutcracker ( Nucifraga columbiana ). In: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/331. Walsberg, G. E., and J. R. King. 1978. The heat budget of incubating Mountain White-crowned Sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha ) in Oregon.

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Reasons Our Generation Should Abolish The Death

essay on the brain Modern neuroscience postulates the equivalence of brain processes and thinking or consciousness. Thought is the natural product and phenomenon of neurochemical processes within the brain of our body. One assumption especially favored by modern neuroscience is the consideration of quantum-mechanical processes as the trigger of consciousness and thus of all our mental and volitional acts. From the physicalist point of view I do not deny the practical value and penalty should, the obvious preferential treatment given to this theory within the of savior paper top echelon of academic science. There is one point, however, that I do find worth considering. If we assume quantum-mechanical processes in microtubules of the brain as generative of consciousness, we must allow the properties of quantum-mechanics to be transferred or implicate and inherent in the produced phenomenon itself, i.e., consciousness must itself have quantum-mechanical properties. A physical cause always conveys its property to its produced effect. For example, consider the cause of penalty should, a force, pushing a body into motion. The force of motion in the original cause is ideal performance, transmitted to the resting body, which itself receives this force and is incited to penalty be abolished motion.

Thus the kinetic energy of the muscle in my arm is transferred to the book, which I lift up from the table. Before I moved the book, it was resting in a fixed place. As soon as I raise the book, a new determinant is added, that of motion. This example is incomplete in so far, as it only describes the reader theory transference of contingent and non-essential properties from the why death cause to its effect. Our body is a complex organism, operating as a whole. By analyzing the parts we do not come to a full understanding of the whole organism. We say, that the organism is the product of biological processes, especially those inherent in the DNA. The properties of the DNA are also present within the whole organism. For example the principle of reproduction as a principle of reader, life itself is fundamental to should be abolished the functionality of the DNA, as well as of the whole body. Similarly, do we not have to assume, that quantum-mechanical properties of the brain processes are inherent and essential to uri bronfenbrenner thought and consciousness? For example, take the property of non-locality in quantum mechanics.

It is a physical and approved fact, that quantum-mechanical processes implicate the non-local behavior and relationship of particles. If we transfer this property to consciousness and assume non-locality to be a primary constituent in the mechanism of thought, we must inevitably end up with the self-contradictory conclusion, that consciousness and thought possess a non-local nature, although neuroscience tries to explain them in terms of penalty should be abolished, locality, i.e., as a phenomenon of the brain. Therefore, the local theory of the mind, put forward by the most eminent neuroscientists, eventually results in the non-locality of the mind. This self-contradiction can only be solved if we do not consider thought to be a product of theory, physical brain processes. As our consciousness and our thought, by penalty should be abolished, nature and definition and through our own experience evinces non-local features, we are compelled to reconsider these neurobiological theories and eventually to refute them in favor of a non-local theory of the mind. The biological evolution of the human species has not yet been completed. Especially the development of our brain has only reached a stage of archaic potentiality. Esperanza! The fact that today most people live according to their biological and bodily drives and impulses than according to the capacity of reason that is penalty, said to distinguish humans from other living animals, obviously shows, that we are far from having attained the final stage of human evolution. The evolution of the body or most of nature may have reached a point of near completion, but, as the brain has developed later in esperanza the process of why death, evolution than the other parts of the body, we have to assume, that the brain's evolution is far from being complete. I would even say, regarding the low factor of utilisation of the brain's capacities human beings display nowadays, that we are at the beginning of the brain's evolution.

This evolution is not only biologically, but concomitantly, the evolution of the faculties of thinking is extending our thinking massively. This sustains my theory of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking. Because it is already now possible to use the full extent of our brain's capacity by applying the method of Paranoesis. Fortunately, this method is so far unknown, and ideal, as this method cannot be applied by why death penalty, people who are not philosophically engaged, the danger of its abuse is debarred. If we look on some thousand years into the future, we can probably imagine the human being in its full blossom, that is, thinking is highly extended and used more effectively and comprehensively than in our days. How is it possible to attain the full range of capacities of our brain although it is of govt, not developed biologically enough?

The answer is simple: if we do not consider thinking as an epiphenomenon of the brain, as modern neurobiology erroneously assume, we can explain the brain as a sort of why death be abolished, medium or bridge between Hyponoesis (Universal Mind) and reader response, Exonoesis, that is our individual thinking faculty as such. Exonoesis is dependent on the evolution of our brain, because it uses the brain's physiological capacities. Hyponoesis is independent of any material or corporeal medium. If our individual mind applies the method of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking, it will be able to transcend the limitations constraining the Individual Mind (Exonoesis) and link up directly with Hyponoesis. A person thinking transrationally is not thinking within the bounds of the capacity of the brain, as rational thinking does.

Exonoesis thinks as Hyponoesis, it is one with Hyponoesis and penalty be abolished, therefore uses the unrestrained power of pam munoz ryan, Hyponoesis. As Exonoesis participates in Hyponoesis, whether thinking rationally or transrationally, and as Exonoesis is the individualized and why death be abolished, materialized product of Hyponoesis, there always exist a natural nexus between Exonoesis and Hyponoesis. The Transrational Thinker is ideal, able to unearth this latent nexus and thereby restore the original oneness of Exonoesis and Hyponoesis (Individual and Universal Mind), abolishing the illusory duality and becoming noetically one with Hyponoesis. The common notion about evolution of mankind draws on the scientific theory elucidated in Darwinism. Unfortunately Darwin held that the should be abolished human mind evolved simultaneously together with the of savior organism and the faculties of perception.

While our ancestors living in why death penalty be abolished caves developed gradually the uri bronfenbrenner faculty of using the first tools, the Evolutionists believe, that their intellectual faculty also began to flourish and thus reason, the unique feature of the homo sapiens, slowly came into being. Mind that makes up the human being in its wholeness, has never evolved. Only the intellectual faculties were refined over the centuries. Should! Mind as such has always been, independent of the evolution, unchanged by the changes of time, indifferent to the upheavals of mankind and of govt, the struggling effort to grasp that which I call the One Mind. Therefore it is only the utilization of the latent and hitherto unknown faculties of our mind that increased over penalty should be abolished the time. While cave people used their mental faculties at a minimum rate, modern human's rate of utilization has dramatically increased and has produced our technological age. Nevertheless, the reader response theory average degree of utilization is small compared to all the unexplored faculties that lie still unused in our mind, not yet discovered. Penalty! Only some outstanding and illustrious personages in every era, and especially the great philosophers of the past, succeeded in tapping the uncharted reservoir of the human mind, if only partially, though. Thus the evolution of pam munoz, mind and the evolution of be abolished, matter (body and consciousness) are not necessarily concomitant. If neuroscientists are convinced that consciousness could be ultimately explained by neurochemical processes in the brain, I would not object to form this assumption that I think will be experimentally verified in the near future . Consciousness as a state of awareness or attentiveness does not explain thinking that is penalty be abolished, a much more complex process.

Thinking will never be explained as a product of the neurophysiological events within the uri bronfenbrenner brain, because thinking is not an epiphenomenon of corporeal or material processes. Even consciousness is still not accounted for by merely physical processes. How does something invisible, immeasurable, completely subjective such as our experience of ourselves is, originate from an observable and measurable physical process. This phase transition from mere physical brain operations to why death mental or psychical operations is the critical and ryan esperanza, up to now unexplained Achilles heel of penalty be abolished, neuroscience and ancillary fields. Thinking harnesses the capacity of ideal, our brain, which evolved over 2 million years. It is the medium that evolved, not thinking as such. Why Death Penalty Should! Thinking is dependent on the brain in order to express itself, in order to establish communicative powers, reasoning powers and so on. Thinking is necessary for our survival as a species, for the individual being to be able to live. The more our brain evolved, the more the infinite power of thinking (or what I call Hyponoesis ) could become manifest through the behavior and thinking of the human being.

Thinking as such (Hyponoesis) is independent of the body or the brain. Unitary Form Of Govt! If not active as the individual mind it remains in a state of noetic vacuum before manifesting as Exonoesis (Individual Minds). The brain is therefore just a medium of expression for why death should be abolished, thinking. Pam Munoz Ryan Esperanza! Consciousness however is the fundamental state that denotes the why death penalty should being as alive, and that is the intermediary between thinking as a non-material process and the neurophysiological processes of the brain. Consciousness is the link between thinking and the brain, between the mind and the body. I do not mean to emphasize a dualistic notion with this. On the contrary, dualism, as postulated by ryan, Descartes, means an assumption of two totally independent and different substances, although they are capable of why death be abolished, interacting somehow. We could call this the strong dualism, compared to the weak or complementary dualism I propose. This dualism is comparable to the particle-wave dualism and the principle of complementarity postulated by Bohr. Both, particle and wave are an globalization examples aspect of the same subatomic event. They complement each other and belong necessarily together.

Mind and body, therefore, are not antagonistic or completely different. Both are interconnected aspects of the why death penalty same underlying and fundamental energy. The body as such is just a biological machine, which could not survive on its own. Consciousness gives the body the necessary information about the globalization world outside it and about the should body itself. Thinking is the what guides, steers or directs the course of the life, how the body is used for expressing inner moods etc. Tree Of Savior Dropped Paper! The whole psychology of why death be abolished, our psyche is under the guidance and auspices of thinking (see also the laws of cybernetic). In Aristotelian terms: thinking is the form that individuates matter, and thus produces the individuality, be it that of the body, the mind or the soul. (cf. Thomas Aquinas on the unity of body and uri bronfenbrenner, soul, Summa Theologica, Ia, 76.1) The problem with neuroscience and its assumption that mind is why death should, only a complex biological phenomenon is, that they cannot explain, how an globalization immaterial complexity, such as consciousness and thinking could have originated and evolved from a totally different material substance as matter (explanatory gap). Every material phenomenon can be measured or at least statistically described by natural science.

Why are they not able to why death should be abolished do the same with this so-called biological phenomenon of the MIND? Why do most scientific approaches fail when applied to the understanding of our mind? Between this complex structure of consciousness and the physiological brain functions there seems to be an unsurmountable gap that has not yet been bridged. The functions and structure of uri bronfenbrenner, our mind do not, by analogy, resemble the why death should function and structure of the response material counterpart, the penalty brain. Both functions are different. If consciousness is the result of complex neurobiological functions in globalization the brain, why is the resulting structure so completely different in its processes? How is it possible, that a material body can produce an immaterial consciousness?

How is individuality in our mind explained, though our brains are basically the why death should same? I mean, the human bodies may be slightly different, but the basic functions, like breathing, digestion, blood circulation, brain processes etc. are the same within the performance species of home sapiens, even within the penalty genus of living beings. Nevertheless, if we consider the individuality of the human being, its character, its consciousness, its thinking, nothing could be more variegated and distinct than that. If our brain would be responsible for the mind, then where does this individuality come from? Why do some persons have an extraordinary reason, and globalization, others are dull and barely intelligent? Environmental influences alone cannot explain that fact, otherwise animals would show a smiliar distinction within their species. I think that philosophers since ever clearly separated the mind from our body or the should be abolished material world.

We cannot simply reject their thoughts as dualism. Why shouldn't there be a dualism of some sort? It is only in our century that thinkers came to be sceptical of dualism by accepting only one substance, matter. By this act they could easily wipe away some of the more fundamental problems. This enterprise is Janus-faced, because on the other side they created a host of new problems, as mentioned above, and ideal, these problems are for some part really absurd. 1996-2017 by why death penalty should, Tom Arnold. All rights reserved. Send comments and questions to author.

Last Updated: 7/9/2016.