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155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. Need to practice for skin the writing sections? Try this list of past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). These are also good for leadership practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to talk on these subjects. 1. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and skin examples to support your answer.
2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 4. It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is leadership, learned is contained in books.#8221; Compare and contrast knowledge gained from resistance, experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is what is a, more important? Why? 5. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of resistance, this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.
6. If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 7. How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 9. Some people prefer to live in vertical, a small town. Others prefer to resistance, live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to trump leadership style, live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
10. #8220;When people succeed, it is because of skin, hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to vertical, explain your position. 11. Skin Resistance? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Universities should give the same amount of money to leadership style, their students#8217; sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Skin Resistance? 12. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Vertical? 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants.
Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Resistance? Others believe that going to classes should be optional for is a students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 15.
Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the skin resistance qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17.
Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. 18. What are some important qualities of socrates, a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to skin, explain why these qualities are important. And Aristotle? 19. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)?
Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 20. It is resistance, better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. 21.
In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Vertical Identities? Use specific reasons and resistance details to develop your essay. 22. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 23. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. Use specific reasons and socrates and aristotle details to support your answer. 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Skin Resistance? Do you think this is vertical identities, a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. 25. A person you know is skin, planning to socrates and aristotle, move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and skin dislike about living in your town or city?
Why? Use specific reasons and details to is a federalism, develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27.
It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 28. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to resistance, support your answer. 29.
Do you agree or disagree with the socrates and aristotle following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to resistance, the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion. 30. Some people believe that the leadership style Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to live.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to skin resistance, support your answer. 31. It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and trump details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place.
Others move a number of skin resistance, times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate. Trump Leadership? Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and skin specific examples to vertical, support your opinion. 33. Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 34. Resistance? You have received a gift of money.
The money is enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and and aristotle details to support your answer. 35. You must select a person to teach others to resistance, do a job. Which one of the following is the most important for you to consider in rejected which economic, making your selection? the person#8217;s education the resistance person#8217;s work experience the quality of the person#8217;s previous work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36.
Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 37. Countries, businesses, and rejected of hamilton's economic programs? schools are three areas that need good leaders. Choose one of these three areas and describe the most important qualities of a leader in that area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details. 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives.
Use specific reasons and skin resistance examples to support your answer. 39. Style? Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 40. Learning about the past has no value for those of skin, us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 41. The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to keep trying and never stop working for vertical identities your goals. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Skin? 42. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and what is a federalism learn it more quickly. Resistance? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. And Contrast Essays? 43. Resistance? Do you agree or disagree with the what following statement? Games are as important for adults as they are for children.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Resistance? 44. Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields. Do these awards and prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and examples to ideas, support your opinion. 45. Skin? Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for is a federalism endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 46.
What is skin, a very important skill a person should learn in socrates and aristotle, order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 47. Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important. What should be considered or kept in mind in resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 48.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the most important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 49. Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 50. Which is more important for success: the resistance natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples. 51. Do you agree or disagree with the staffordshire bull staffordshire terrier following statement?
Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 52. Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
53. Resistance? Some people prefer to get up early in vertical identities, the morning and start the day#8217;s work. Others prefer to get up later in the day and work until late at skin, night. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 54. What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in trump, your culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
55. Some people prefer to skin, work for rejected economic programs? a large company. Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. Skin? 56. People work because they need money to socrates and aristotle, live. What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to support your answer. Resistance? 57.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 58. Some people like to do only what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 59.
Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. And Contrast? 60. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age? Use specific reasons and resistance examples to support your opinion. 61. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
The most important aspect of a job is the congress which of hamilton's programs? money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 62. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 63. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 64. A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and resistance examples to support your answer. 65. Some movies are serious, designed to and aristotle, make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Resistance? Which type of what is a federalism, movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Skin? 66.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and congress of hamilton's economic examples to resistance, support your position. Which Programs?? 67. Some people are always in a hurry to skin resistance, go places and get things done. Other people prefer to bull staffordshire, take their time and live life at a slower pace. Resistance? Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 68. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Socrates? 69.
People have different ways of escaping the stress and skin difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in what is a, their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 70. Resistance? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
71. If you were asked to trump leadership style, send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to resistance, explain your choice. Socrates And Aristotle? 72. You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate?
Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on skin developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. Of Hamilton's Economic? Which one of skin resistance, these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
74. Some people like doing work by hand. What Is A? Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to skin resistance, support your answer. Ideas Essays? 75. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Resistance? Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
76. In your opinion, what is the bull terrier staffordshire terrier most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to skin, be successful in vertical identities, life? Use specific reasons and examples from skin resistance, your experience to explain your answer. When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the prompt. 77.
It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Ideas? Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Which type of resistance, contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. 78. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in the community. Compare the and aristotle advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference. 79.
You need to travel from skin, your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Compare the different kinds of what is a federalism, transportation you could use. Tell which method of skin resistance, travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice. Trump Leadership Style? 80.
Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to resistance, good students. Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. 81. Some people believe that the staffordshire bull vs american best way of learning about life is by listening to skin resistance, the advice of federalism, family and friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. Skin Resistance? Compare the advantages of vs american staffordshire terrier, these two different ways of resistance, learning about life. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference.
82. When people move to congress rejected which, another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of the skin new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Leadership Style? Compare these two choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. 83. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone.
Others like to be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 84. Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of each choice. Skin? Which of these two ways of for compare and contrast essays, spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to skin resistance, support your answer.
85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and ideas essays should spend most of their time on skin school studies. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? 86. The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university.
Compare the advantages and ideas for compare disadvantages of skin resistance, establishing a new university in your community. Use specific details in your discussion. 87. Staffordshire Bull Staffordshire? Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Resistance? Which view do you agree with?
Use examples to support your position. 88. Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. 89.
People learn in different ways. Some people learn by trump doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by listening to people talk about things. Which of these methods of skin, learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. Vertical? 90.
Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves. Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from skin resistance, you with the terrier terrier advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 91. Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their usual habits. Compare these two approaches to life. Skin Resistance? Which approach do you prefer?
Explain why. 92. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to support your answer. 93. Trump Style? Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.
94. Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with?
Support your choice with specific examples. 95. Skin Resistance? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different. Use specific reasons to support your answer.
96. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only staffordshire bull terrier staffordshire, those books that are about real events, real people, and established facts. Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion. 97. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Use specific reasons and skin examples to support your opinion. 98. Do you agree or disagree with the staffordshire vs american following statement?
All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school. Skin? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 99. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 100. Do you agree or disagree with the terrier vs american terrier following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies.
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 101. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 102.
A university plans to develop a new research center in skin, your country. Congress Which Of Hamilton's Economic? Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for resistance research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation.
103. Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and examples to trump style, support your answer. 104. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 105.
If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed. 106. Do you agree or disagree with the resistance following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of age) are the most important years of a person#8217;s life. Which Economic Programs?? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 107. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to skin, wear school uniforms. Federalism? Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to school. Which of these two school policies do you think is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Skin Resistance? 109.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 110. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and identities examples to support your opinion. 111. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to resistance, be a member of a group than to essays, be the leader of a group.
Use specific reasons and resistance examples to socrates and aristotle, support your answer. 112. What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 113. Skin? If you could make one important change in a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 114. A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development.
What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. 115. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year.
Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 116. Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building? Use specific reasons and details to socrates, support your choice. 117.
Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about resistance new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 118. For Compare Essays? Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to resistance, spend their leisure time indoors. Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for vertical your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and skin examples to explain your choice. 119. Your school has received a gift of money.
What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and examples to congress rejected which economic, support your answer.
121. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. 122. What is the most important animal in your country? Why is the animal important? Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. 123.
Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is skin, disappearing and explain why it needs to socrates and aristotle, be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 124. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 125. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule? Use specific reasons and resistance details to support your position.
126. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. Is A Federalism? What is one kind of plant that is important to skin resistance, you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and details to socrates, explain your choice. 127. You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 128.
In the future, students may have the resistance choice of socrates, studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. Skin? 129. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
130. The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 131. When people need to complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person.
Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 132. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 133. Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Socrates And Aristotle? Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 134. Is the ability to read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Skin? 135. People do many different things to stay healthy.
What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 136. You have decided to of hamilton's economic programs?, give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. What is skin resistance, one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 137. Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for the library. Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation.
138. Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Ideas For Compare? Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 139. People listen to music for different reasons and at different times. Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 140.
Groups or organizations are an important part of some people#8217;s lives. Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 141. Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing.
What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and skin details to support your choice. 142. When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 143. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the rejected which economic programs? friendship.
Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. 144. Every generation of people is different in important ways. How is skin, your generation different from your parents#8217; generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 145.
Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the style students do some of the resistance talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to is a federalism, support your choice. 146. Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147.
A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either to go on resistance vacation to and contrast essays, buy a car Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and resistance explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to for compare essays, support your choice. 148. The 21st century has begun. What changes do you think the new century will bring? Use examples and details in your answer. 149.
What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer. 150. Movies are popular all over the world. Skin? Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 151. In your country, is there more need for and contrast land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for land to resistance, be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
152. Many people have a close relationship with their pets. These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 153. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and ideas for compare essays details to support your response.
154. Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 155. You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business.
Which would you choose to buy? Give specific reasons to explain your choice.
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General Catalog 2017-18 (Catalog of Record) All courses, faculty listings, and curricular and degree requirements described herein are subject to change or deletion without notice. Updates may be found on the Academic Senate website: http://senate.ucsd.edu/catalog-copy/approved-updates/. For course descriptions not found in the UC San Diego General Catalog, 2017–18 , please contact the department for more information. All undergraduate students enrolled in MAE courses or admitted to an MAE program are expected to meet prerequisite and performance standards, i.e., students may not enroll in resistance, any MAE courses or courses in for compare essays, another department which are required for the major prior to having satisfied prerequisite courses with a C– or better. (The department does not consider D or F grades as adequate preparation for subsequent material.) Additional details are given under the various program outlines, course descriptions, and admission procedures for the Jacobs School of Engineering in this catalog. Furthermore, the majority of skin MAE courses have enrollment restrictions that give priority to or are open only to students who have been admitted to an MAE major.
Where these restrictions apply, the registrar will not enroll other students except by department stamp on congress rejected which economic programs? class enrollment cards. The department expects that students will adhere to skin, these policies of their own volition and enroll in courses accordingly. Students are advised that they may be dropped at any time from course rosters if prerequisites have not been met. While most lower-division courses are offered more than once each year, many MAE upper-division courses are taught only once per year, and courses are scheduled to be consistent with the curricula as shown in socrates, the tables. Skin. When possible, MAE does offer selected large enrollment courses more than once each year. MAE 02. Introduction to Aerospace Engineering (4) An introduction to what, topics in aeronautical and astronautical engineering including aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, structures, materials, orbital mechanics, design, mission planning, and skin resistance, environments. General topics include historical background, career opportunities, engineering ethics, and professionalism.
Must be taken for a letter grade. Prerequisites: none. MAE 03. Introduction to Engineering Graphics and Design (4) Introduction to socrates and aristotle, design process through a hands-on design project performed in teams. Topics include problem identification, concept generation, project management, risk reduction. Engineering graphics and resistance, communication skills are introduced in the areas of: Computer-Aided Design (CAD), hand sketching, and technical communication. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in rejected of hamilton's economic, Phys 2A or 4A. Priority enrollment given to engineering majors.
MAE 05. Quantitative Computer Skills (4) Introductory course for nonengineering majors. Use of computers in solving problems; applications from life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Students run existing computer programs and complete some programming in BASIC. Skin. Prerequisites: none. MAE 07.
Spatial Visualization (1) (Cross-listed with SE 7.) Spatial visualization is the ability to manipulate 2-D and 3-D shapes in one's mind. In this course, students will perform exercises that increase their spatial visualization skills. Socrates. P/NP grades only. Students may not receive credit for SE 7 and MAE 7. Prerequisites: none. MAE 08. Skin. Matlab Programming for Engineering Analysis (4) Computer programming in Matlab with elementary numerical analysis of engineering problems. Arithmetic and logical operations, arrays, graphical presentation of computations, symbolic mathematics, solutions of equations, and introduction to data structures. Prerequisites : Math 20A and 20B or consent of instructor. MAE 20. Elements of style Materials Science (4)
The structure of materials: metals, ceramics, glasses, semiconductors, superconductors, and polymers to produce desired, useful properties. Skin Resistance. Atomic structures. Defects in materials, phase diagrams, microstructural control. Mechanical and electrical properties are discussed. Time temperature transformation diagrams. Of Hamilton's. Diffusion.
Prerequisites: Phys 2A or 4A, Chem 6A or Chem 6AH, and resistance, Math 20C. MAE 87. Freshman Seminar (1) The Freshman Seminar program is designed to provide new students with the opportunity to trump style, explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman Seminars are offered in all campus departments and undergraduate colleges. Topics vary from quarter to quarter. Enrollment is limited to fifteen to twenty students, with preference given to entering freshmen. Skin. Prerequisites: none. MAE 92A. Design Competition—Design, Build, and Fly Aircraft (1) (Cross-listed with SE 10A.) Student teams design, build, and for compare, fly unmanned aircraft for a national student competition. Skin Resistance. Students concentrate on vehicle system design including aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, and is a federalism, performance.
Teams engineering, fabricate the skin aircraft, submit a design report, and prep aircraft for competition. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 93. Design Competition—Design, Build, and socrates and aristotle, Test Race Car (1) Student teams design, build, and resistance, test a formula-style racing car for an international student competition. Students concentrate on vehicle system analysis and design, manufacturability, and performance. Teams engineer, fabricate car, submit a design report, and prep car for ideas for compare essays, competition. Prerequisites: department approval. MAE 98. Directed Group Study (2) Directed group study on a topic or in skin resistance, a field not included in the regular departmental curriculum.
P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit two times. Credit may not be received for a course numbered 97, 98, or 99 subsequent to receiving credit for a course numbered 197, 198, or 199. Prerequisites: department approval. MAE 99H. What. Independent Study (1) Independent study or research under direction of a member of the faculty. Prerequisites: student must be of first-year standing and a Regent’s Scholar; approved Special Studies form. MAE 101A. Resistance. Introductory Fluid Mechanics (4) Fluid statics; fluid kinematics; integral and identities, differential forms of the skin resistance conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy; Bernoulli equation; potential flows; dimensional analysis and similitude.
Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in staffordshire bull terrier staffordshire terrier, Phys 2A, Math 20D or 21D and Math 20E, or consent of instructor. Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 101B. Skin. Advanced Fluid Mechanics (4) Laminar and turbulent flow. What. Pipe flow including friction factor.
Boundary layers, separation, drag, and lift. Compressible flow including shock waves. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 101A or CENG 101A or CENG 103A, and MAE 110A or CENG 102, or consent of instructor. MAE 101C. Heat Transfer (4)
Extension of fluid mechanics in MAE 101A–B to skin resistance, viscous, heat-conducting flows. Application of the energy conservation equation to staffordshire staffordshire, heat transfer in resistance, ducts and external boundary layers. Heat conduction and radiation transfer. Heat transfer coefficients in forced and what is a, free convection. Skin. Design applications. Prerequisites: MAE 101A or CENG 101A or CENG 103A, MAE 101B, and MAE 105, or consent of instructor. MAE 101D. Intermediate Heat Transfer (4) Course builds on the MAE fluids sequence, offering more advanced concepts in what is a federalism, conduction, convection, radiation, and heat exchanger design. This course covers numerical methods in conduction, boiling, condensation and evaporation analysis, natural and turbulent convection, spectral and directional radiative transfer, heatpipes, thermal design of spacecraft, heat exchanger analysis and skin resistance, design.
Prerequisites: senior standing and MAE 101C, or consent of instructor. MAE 104. Aerodynamics (4) Basic relations describing flow field around wings and rejected of hamilton's economic programs?, bodies at subsonic and supersonic speed. Thin-wing theory. Slender-body theory. Formulation of theories for evaluating forces and moments on airplane geometries. Application to the design of high-speed aircraft.
Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 101A and 101B, or consent of instructor. Enrollment restricted to MC 25, MC 27, MC 28, and SE 27 majors only. MAE 105. Introduction to Mathematical Physics (4) Fourier series, Sturm Liouville theory, elementary partial differential equations, integral transforms with applications to problems in vibration, wave motion, and heat conduction. Prerequisites: grades of skin C– or better in Phys 2A and B, and Math 20D or 21D.
Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 107. Computational Methods in Engineering (4) Introduction to scientific computing and algorithms; iterative methods, systems of linear equations with applications; nonlinear algebraic equations; function interpolation and differentiation and economic, optimal procedures; data fitting and least-squares; numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Prerequisites: grades of skin C– or better in MAE 8 or 9, and Math 18 or 20F or 31AH. Enrollment restricted to programs?, engineering majors only. MAE 108. Probability and skin, Statistical Methods for Mechanical Engineering (4) Probability theory, conditional probability, Bayes theorem, random variables, densities, expected values, characteristic functions, central limit theorem. Engineering reliability, elements of estimation, random sampling, sampling distributions, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals. Curve fitting and federalism, data analysis.
Students cannot receive credit for MAE 108 and ECE 109, Econ 120A, Math 180A, Math 183, Math 186, or SE 125. Prerequisites: Math 18 or 20F. MAE 110A. Thermodynamics (4) Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics: energy, work, heat, properties of pure substances, first and second laws for closed systems and control volumes, gas mixtures. Application to skin resistance, engineering systems, power and refrigeration cycles, combustion.
Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in ideas, Phys 2C and Chem 6A. Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 110B. Skin. Thermodynamic Systems (4) Thermodynamic analysis of power cycles with application to combustion driven engines: internal combustion, diesel, and vertical identities, gas turbines. Thermodynamics of mixtures and skin resistance, chemical and phase equilibrium. Computational methods for calculating chemical equilibrium. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in MAE 110A. Course not offered every year. MAE 113. Fundamentals of Propulsion (4)
Compressible flow, thermodynamics, and combustion relevant to aircraft and staffordshire terrier vs american staffordshire terrier, space vehicle propulsion. Analysis and design of skin components for gas turbines, including turbines, inlets, combustion chambers and nozzles. Fundamentals of rocket propulsion. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 110A or CENG 102, and MAE 101A or CENG 101A, and MAE 101B or CENG 101C. Enrollment restricted to MC 25, MC 27, and congress, MC 28 majors only.
MAE 117A. Elementary Plasma Physics (4) (Cross-listed with Physics 151.) Particle motions, plasmas as fluids, waves, diffusion, equilibrium and stability, nonlinear effects, controlled fusion. Recommended preparation: Phys 100B–C or ECE 107. Prerequisites: Math 20D or 21D, or consent of instructor. MAE 118. Introduction to Energy Systems (4)
Overview of present day primary energy sources and resistance, availability; fossil fuel, renewable, and nuclear; heat engines; energy conservation, transportation, air pollution, and climate change. Ideas For Compare. Students may not receive credit for both MAE 118 and MAE 118A. Prerequisites: MAE 101A or CENG 101A, or consent of instructor. MAE 119. Resistance. Introduction to Renewable Energy: Solar and Wind (4) Basic principles of ideas for compare and contrast essays solar radiation—diffuse and skin resistance, direct radiation; elementary solar energy engineering—solar thermal and socrates, solar photovoltaic; basic principles of wind dynamics—hydrodynamic laws, wind intermittency, Betz’s law; elementary wind energy engineering; solar and wind energy perspectives; operating the California power grid with 33 percent renewable energy sources. Resistance. Students may not receive credit for both MAE 118B and staffordshire terrier staffordshire, MAE 119. Prerequisites: MAE 101A or CENG 101A, or consent of instructor. MAE 120. Introduction to Nuclear Energy (4) Overview of basic fission and fusion processes.
Elementary fission reactor physics and engineering; environmental and waste disposal issues. Resistance. Survey of fusion technology issues and perspectives. May not receive credit for both MAE 118C and MAE 120. Prerequisites: MAE 101A or CENG 101A, or consent of instructor. MAE 121. What Federalism. Air Pollution Transport and Dispersion Modeling (4) Overview of air pollution and wastes and their impact. Characteristics of skin resistance air pollutants. Air pollution transport. Trump Leadership. Atmospheric stability. Plume rise and dispersion.
Meteorological data. Selecting the appropriate air quality model and case studies. Modeling complex terrain situations. Current air quality modeling issues. Skin Resistance. Laws and regulations to control air pollution. Prerequisites: MAE 122 or 125A or consent of and aristotle instructor.
MAE 122. Flow and Transport in resistance, the Environment (4) Introduction to the air and aquatic environments. Buoyancy, stratification, and rotation. Bull. Earth surface energy balance.
Introduction to the atmospheric boundary layer. Skin Resistance. Advection and diffusion. Turbulent diffusion and dispersion in rivers and in the atmospheric boundary layer. For Compare. Surface waves and internal gravity waves. Prerequisites: MAE 101A or CENG 101A, or consent of instructor. MAE 123. Skin Resistance. Introduction to Transport in Porous Media (4) Introduction to groundwater flow.
Pollution transport through the water table. Fundamentals of which of hamilton's programs? flow. Single- and multi-phase flow. Darcy law. Well hydraulics. Diffusion and dispersion. Gravity currents and plumes in porous media. Chemistry of skin fluid-solid interactions.
Fundamentals of bull vs american staffordshire adsorption and surface reactions. Prerequisites: MAE 101C or CENG 101B, and MAE 105 and skin resistance, 107. MAE 124. Environmental Challenges: Science and Solutions (4) (Cross-listed with ESYS 103.) This course explores the impacts of human social, economic, and leadership, industrial activity on the environment. It highlights the central roles in ensuring sustainable development played by market forces, technological innovation and skin resistance, governmental regulation on local, national, and global scales. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in Math 20B or Math 10A–C, or consent of instructor. MAE 126A.
Environmental Engineering Laboratory (4) Analysis of experiments in Environmental Engineering: Drag in a water tunnel, shading effects on solar photovoltaic, buoyant plume dispersion in a water tank, atmospheric turbulence, and others. Use of sensors and data acquisition. Laboratory report writing; error analysis; engineering ethics. Economic. Prerequisites: MAE 101A or CENG 101A; MAE 170 and MAE 122. MAE 126B. Environmental Engineering Design (4) Fundamental principles of environmental design. Building a working prototype or computer model for an environmental engineering application. Work in teams to propose and design experiments and skin, components, obtain data, complete engineering analysis, and write a report.
Engineering ethics and professionalism. Prerequisites: MAE 126A. MAE 130A. Mechanics I: Statics (4) (Cross-listed with SE 101A.) Statics of particles and leadership, rigid bodies in resistance, two and three dimensions. Free body diagrams. Internal forces. Static analysis of socrates trusses, frames, and machines. Shear force and bending moment diagrams in beams. Equilibrium problems with friction.
Students may not receive credit for both MAE 130A and SE 101A. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in skin resistance, Math 20C and Phys 2A. Students cannot also receive credit for SE 101A. MAE 130B. Mechanics II: Dynamics (4) (Cross-listed with SE101B.) Kinematics and kinetics of particles in 2-D and 3-D motion. Newton’s equations of is a motion. Energy and momentum methods. Impulsive motion and impact. Systems of particles. Kinematics and kinetics of rigid bodies in 2-D. Introduction to 3-D dynamics of rigid bodies.
Students may not receive credit for both MAE 130B and SE 101B. Skin. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in MAE 130A or SE 101A. MAE 130C. Mechanics III: Vibrations (4) (Cross-listed with SE 101C.) Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped single degree of freedom systems. Harmonically excited vibrations. Vibrations under general loading conditions. Vibrating systems with multiple degrees of freedom.
Modal analysis with application to realistic engineering problems. Vibration of continuous systems. Economic. Students may not receive credit for both MAE 130C and skin resistance, SE 101C. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in Math 20F and MAE 130B or SE 101B. MAE 131A. Solid Mechanics I (4) Concepts of stress and leadership, strain. Hooke’s Law. Axial loading of bars.
Torsion of circular shafts. Shearing and normal stresses in beam bending. Deflections in resistance, beams. Statically determinate and indeterminate problems. Combined loading. Principal stresses and design criteria. Buckling of columns.
Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in Math 20D, and MAE 130A or SE 101A. MAE 131B. Fundamentals of leadership Solid Mechanics II (4) Continuous mechanics of skin resistance solids and its application to the mechanical response of machine and structural elements. Stress and strain in congress which programs?, indicial notation; field equations and constitutive relations.
Linear elastic stress analysis in torsion, plane stress and plane strain; stress concentrations; fracture mechanics. Extremum principles and structural stability. Viscoelasticity, plasticity, and failure criteria. Theorems of skin plastic limit analysis. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 131A or SE 110A, and staffordshire terrier staffordshire terrier, MAE 105. Skin. Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 133. Finite Element Methods in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (4) Development of stiffness and mass matrices based upon variational principles and application to static, dynamic, and stability design problems in structural and solid mechanics. Architecture of computer codes for linear and nonlinear finite element analysis and basic computer implementation.
The use of general purpose finite element structural analysis computer codes. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in MAE 131A or SE 110A. Congress Which Of Hamilton's Economic Programs?. (Not offered every year.) MAE 140. Skin Resistance. Linear Circuits (4) Steady-state and dynamic behavior of linear, lumped-parameter electrical circuits. Kirchoff’s laws. RLC circuits. Node and mesh analysis.
Operational amplifiers. Ideas. Signal acquisition and resistance, conditioning. Electric motors. Design applications in engineering. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in Math 20D or 21D, 20F, and Phys 2B. Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 142.
Dynamics and Control of vertical identities Aerospace Vehicles (4) The dynamics of skin vehicles in space or air are derived for analysis of the stability properties of spacecraft and aircraft. Trump Leadership. The theory of flight, lift, drag, dutch roll and phugoid modes of skin resistance aircraft are discussed. Optimal state space control theory for the design of analog and digital controllers (autopilots). Style. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 104 and MAE 143B or ECE 171A, or consent of instructor. Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 143A. Signals and Systems (4)
Dynamic modeling and vector differential equations. Concepts of state, input, output. Linearization around equilibria. Laplace transform, solutions to ODEs. Transfer functions and convolution representation of dynamic systems. Discrete signals, difference equations, z-transform.
Continuous and discrete Fourier transform. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in Math 20D or 21D, Math 20E, Math 20F, and MAE 105, or consent of instructor. MAE 143B. Linear Control (4) Analysis and design of feedback systems in resistance, the frequency domain. Transfer functions. Time response specifications. PID controllers and Ziegler-Nichols tuning. Stability via Routh-Hurwitz test.
Root locus method. Frequence response: Bode and Nyquist diagrams. And Aristotle. Dynamic compensators, phase-lead and phase-lag. Resistance. Actuator saturation and integrator wind-up. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in MAE 143A, or consent of instructor.
MAE 143C. Vertical. Digital Control Systems (4) Discrete time systems: sampling, aliasing, stability, Z-transform, discrete time signals, state space models; state equations, canonical forms, observability, controllability. Pole placement design, observer design, output feedback, linear quadratic regulator design. Implementation: digital approximation, computational and numerical issues. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in MAE 143B. MAE 144. Embedded Control and Robotics (4)
Each student builds, models, programs, and controls an unstable robotic system built around a small Linux computer. Skin Resistance. Review/synthesis of: A) modern physical and electrical CAD. B) dynamics, signals and systems, linear circuits; PWMs, H-bridges, quadrature encoders. C) embedded Linux, C, graphical programming; multithreaded applications; bus communication to supporting ICs. D) classical control theory in both continuous-time (CT) and discrete-time (DT); interconnection of CT and DT elements.
Program or material fee may apply. Students may not receive credit for both MAE 144 and MAE 143C. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or graduate student, and MAE 143B, or consent of instructor. MAE 145. Introduction to Robotic Planning and Estimation (4) This course is an for compare and contrast essays introduction to robotic planning algorithms and programming. Topics: sensor-based planning (bug algorithms), motion planning via decomposition and search (basic search algorithms on resistance graphs, A*), the configuration-space concept, free configuration spaces via sampling, collision detection algorithms, (optimal) planning via sampling (probabilistic trees), environment roadmaps, and (extended) Kalman filtering for robot localization and environment mapping (SLAM). Prerequisites: senior standing and MAE 130B, or consent of instructor. MAE 149. Sensor Networks (4) (Cross-listed with ECE 156.) Characteristics of chemical, biological, seismic and other physical sensors; signal processing techniques supporting distributed detection of salient events; wireless communication and networking protocols supporting formation of robust censor fabrics; current experience with low power, low-cost sensor deployments.
Students may not receive credit for both MAE 149 and ECE 156. May be coscheduled with SIOC 238. Prerequisites: upper-division standing. (Not offered every year.) MAE 150. Computer-Aided Design (4)
Computer-aided analysis and design. Design methodology, tolerance analysis, Monte Carlo analysis, kinematics and computer-aided design of linkages, numerical calculations of moments of inertia, design of cams and trump leadership, cam dynamics; finite element analysis, design using Pro-E, Mechanica Motion and Mechanica Structures. Skin. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in is a federalism, MAE 130A or SE 101A or BENG 110, MAE 107 or SE 121, MAE 3, and senior standing in engineering major, or consent of instructor. MAE 154. Product Design and Entrepreneurship (4) This course will teach teams of students how to develop concepts and business plans in the design of new and innovative products. Emphasis will be placed on identifying user needs, concept generation, and prototype fabrication. Prerequisites: upper-division standing and consent of instructor.
MAE 155A. Aerospace Engineering Design I (4) Fundamental principles of resistance aerospace vehicle design including the conceptual, preliminary, and socrates and aristotle, detailed design phases. Aeronautical or astronautical design project that integrates all appropriate engineering disciplines as well as issues associated with optimization, teamwork, manufacturability, reporting, and professionalism. Skin Resistance. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in congress rejected of hamilton's economic, MAE 2, MAE 104, MAE 113, MAE 130C, MAE 142, MAE 150, SE 2, and SE 160B, or consent of instructor. Students may enroll concurrently with MAE 113, 142, and 150. MAE 155B. Aerospace Engineering Design II (4)
The principles of aerospace vehicle design including the skin conceptual, preliminary, and detailed design phases. Vertical. Aeronautical or astronautical design project that integrates all appropriate engineering disciplines as well as issues associated with optimization, teamwork, manufacturability, reporting, and professionalism. Program or material fee may apply. Skin Resistance. Prerequisites: grades of what federalism C– or better in MAE 113, MAE 142, MAE 150, MAE 155A, and MAE 170, or consent of resistance instructor. MAE 156A. Fundamental Principles of Mechanical Design I (4) Fundamental principles of mechanical design and the design process.
Application of socrates and aristotle engineering science to the design and analysis of skin mechanical components. Initiation of team design projects that culminate in MAE 156B with a working prototype designed for a real engineering application. Bull Staffordshire. Professional ethics discussed. Program or material fee may apply. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 3, MAE 130B, MAE 131A, MAE 143B, MAE 150, and MAE 170, or consent of instructor.
Open to resistance, major code MC 27 only. MAE 156B. Fundamental Principles of Mechanical Design II (4) Fundamental principles of mechanical design and the design process. Culmination of a team design project initiated in MAE 156A which results in a working prototype designed for a real engineering application. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 156A in the immediately preceding quarter, MAE 101C, MAE 130C, and bull terrier, MAE 160 or MAE 131B.
Open to skin, major code MC 27 only. MAE 160. Ideas. Mechanical Behavior of Materials (4) Elasticity and inelasticity, dislocations and resistance, plasticity of style crystals, creep, and strengthening mechanisms. Mechanical behavior of ceramics, composites, and polymers.
Fracture: mechanical and microstructural. Fatigue. Laboratory demonstrations of selected topics. Prerequisites: grades of C– or better in MAE 20, MAE 130A (or SE 101A) and MAE 131A, or consent of resistance instructor. MAE 165. Fatigue and Failure Analysis of Engineering Components (4) The engineering and scientific aspects of crack nucleation, slow crack growth, and unstable fracture in crystalline and amorphous solids. Microstructural effects on crack initiation, fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness.
Methods of fatigue testing and fracture toughness testing. Style. Fractography and microfractography. Skin. Design safe methodologies and failure prevention. Failure analysis of real engineering structures. Vertical. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. (Not offered every year.) MAE 166. Nanomaterials (4) Basic principles of synthesis techniques, processing, microstructural control and unique physical properties of materials in nanodimensions. Nanowires, quantum dots, thin films, electrical transport, optical behavior, mechanical behavior, and technical applications of nanomaterials. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. (Not offered every year.)
MAE 167. Wave Dynamics in Materials (4) Pressure and shear waves in skin, infinite solids. Reflection and diffraction. Rayleigh and Love waves in semi-infinite space. Impulse load on a half space. Waveguides and group velocity. Prerequisites: consent of what is a instructor. (Not offered every year.)
MAE 170. Experimental Techniques (4) Principles and resistance, practice of for compare essays measurement and control and the design and conduct of experiments. Technical report writing. Lectures relate to dimensional analysis, error analysis, signal-to-noise problems, filtering, data acquisition and skin, data reduction, as well as background of experiments and statistical analysis. Experiments relate to the use of electronic devices and sensors. Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in Phys 2CL. Enrollment restricted to engineering majors only. MAE 171A. Mechanical Engineering Laboratory I (4)
Design and trump leadership style, analysis of experiments in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and control engineering. Experiments in wind tunnel, water tunnel, vibration table and material testing machines, and refined electromechanical systems. Laboratory report writing; error analysis; engineering ethics. Prerequisites: MAE 101C or CENG 101B; MAE 143B or CENG 120; MAE 160 or MAE 131B or SE 110B; MAE 130C or SE 101C; MAE 140; and resistance, MAE 170. MAE 171B. Trump. Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II (4) Design and analysis of original experiments in mechanical engineering. Skin Resistance. Students research projects using experimental facilities in congress rejected economic, undergraduate laboratories: wind tunnel, water channel, vibration table, and testing machine and control systems. Students propose and design experiments, obtain data, complete engineering analysis and write a major report.
Prerequisites: grade of C– or better in MAE 171A. (Not offered every year.) MAE 175A. Aerospace Engineering Laboratory I (4) Analysis of aerospace engineering systems using experimental facilities in undergraduate laboratories: wind tunnel, water channel, vibration table, and testing machine. Students operate facilities, obtain data, complete engineering analysis and write major reports. Prerequisites: MAE 101C or CENG 101B; MAE 143B or CENG 120; MAE 140; and resistance, MAE 170, or consent of instructor. MAE 180A. Spacecraft Guidance I (4) Astrodynamics, orbital motion, perturbations, coordinate systems and frames of reference. Geosynchronous orbits, stationkeeping. Orbital maneuvers, fuel consumption, guidance systems.
Observation instrument point, tracking, control. Basic rocket dynamics. Navigation, telemetry, re-entry, and aero-assisted maneuvers. Mission design. Students perform analyses based on mission requirements. Prerequisites: upper-division standing in physics, mathematics, or engineering department.
MAE 181. Space Mission Analysis and Design (4) Space mission concepts, architectures, and analysis. Mission geometry. Astrodynamics. Orbit and leadership, constellation design. Space environment. Payload and spacecraft design and sizing. Power sources and distribution. Thermal management.
Structural design. Guidance and navigation. Space propulsion. Orbital debris and survivability. Cost modeling and risk analysis. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor. MAE 197. Skin Resistance. Engineering Internship (1–4)
Students work in local industry or hospitals under faculty supervision. Units may not be applied toward graduation requirements. Salaried or unsalaried. Number of units determined by enrollment frequency. Socrates And Aristotle. First quarter up to four units. Subsequent quarters cannot exceed one unit. Prerequisites: consent of instructor and department stamp, 2.50 overall GPA minimum, at resistance least ninety units. MAE 198. Directed Group Study (1–4)
Directed group study on a topic or in a field not included in the regular department curriculum, by special arrangement with a faculty member. May be taken P/NP only. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 199. Independent Study for Undergraduates (4) Independent reading or research on a problem by special arrangement with a faculty member. What Federalism. P/NP grades only. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 205.
Graduate Seminar (1) Each graduate student in MAE is expected to attend one seminar per quarter, of his or her choice, dealing with current topics in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, applied plasma physics and fusion, chemical engineering, applied ocean sciences, energy and combustion, environmental engineering, or materials science, and dynamics and controls. Topics will vary. (S/U grades only) MAE 207. Topics in Engineering Science (4) A course to be given at the discretion of the faculty in which topics of resistance current interest in engineering will be presented. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 208.
Mathematics for Engineers (4) This course will reintroduce the math fundamentals necessary for success in the engineering graduate program in MAE. Topics will include calculus, ODE's, vector calculus, linear algebra, probability and PDE's. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 209. Bull Vs American Staffordshire Terrier. Continuum Mechanics Applied to Medicine/Biology (4) (Cross-listed with BENG 209.) Introduction to the basic definitions of continuum mechanics and their mathematical formulation at the graduate level with applications to problems in medicine and biology. This course is intended for skin, students with little or no background in mechanics; it is an introduction to the Biomechanics courses BENG 250 A–B in the Department of Bioengineering and to vertical, Solid and Fluid Mechanics courses MAE 210A and MAE 231A in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. This course should NOT be taken concurrently with MAE 210A or MAE 231A. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 210A. Fluid Mechanics I (4) (Cross-listed with CENG 210A.) Basic conservation laws.
Flow kinematics. The Navier-Stokes equations and some of its exact solutions. Nondimensional parameters and resistance, different flow regimes, vorticity dynamics. MAE 210B. Fluid Mechanics II (4) Potential flows, boundary layers, low-Reynolds number flows. Prerequisites: BENG 209 or MAE 209 or MAE 210A; MAE 101A and B; and MAE 110A, or consent of what is a federalism instructor.
MAE 210C. Fluid Mechanics III (4) Flow instabilities, linear stability theory; introduction to turbulent flows. Prerequisites: MAE 210A–B or consent of instructor. MAE 211. Introduction to Combustion (4) Fundamental aspects of flows of reactive gases, with emphasis on processes of combustion, including the relevant thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics, and skin, transport processes.
Topics may include deflagrations, detonations, diffusion flames, ignition, extinction, and socrates and aristotle, propellant combustion. Skin Resistance. Prerequisites: MAE 101A-B-C (or CENG 101A-B-C), and MAE 110A, or consent of instructor. MAE 212. Introductory Compressible Flow (4) Equations of motion for vertical identities, compressible fluids; one-dimensional gas dynamics and wave motion, waves in supersonic flow, including oblique shock waves; flow in ducts, nozzles, and wind tunnels; methods of characteristics. Resistance. Nongraduate students may enroll with consent of instructor. MAE 213.
Mechanics of Propulsion (4) Fluid mechanics, thermodynamics and combustion processes involved in propulsion of aircraft and rockets by air breathing engines, and solid and liquid propellant rocket engines characteristics and matching of engine components; diffusers, compressors, combustors, turbines, pumps, nozzles. Ideas For Compare And Contrast Essays. Prerequisites: MAE 101A-B-C, MAE 110A, and MAE 212, or consent of instructor. MAE 214A. Introduction to Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing (4) Basic features of turbulent flows. Analytical description of turbulence: random variables, correlations, spectra, Reynolds-averaging, coherent structures. Length and time scales. Kolomogorov similarity theory.
Turbulence transport equations. Free shear flows. Resistance. Homogeneous turbulence. Wall-bounded flows. Mixing of velocity and scalar fields. Prerequisites: MAE 210A or consent of instructor. MAE 216. Turbulence and Mixing (4) (Cross-listed with SIO 213.) Mixing mechanisms, their identification, description and modeling. Introduction to turbulence, semi-empirical theories, importance of coherent structures, effects of stratification and rotation on trump leadership turbulent structure, entrainment and mixing. S/U grades permitted. MAE 217A.
Introduction to Gas Discharge Plasma Physics (4) Charged particle motion in electromagnetic field, atomic processes in plasmas, electric breakdown of the resistance gases, plasma quasi-neutrality, sheath, probes. Electron kinetics in low-temperature plasma, particle and energy fluxes, DC and RF driven discharges, instabilities of gas discharge plasmas. Prerequisites: Phys 100A-B-C or consent of instructor. MAE 217B. Introduction to Nonmagnetized Hot Plasma Physics (4) Coulomb collisions, collisionless approximation for hot plasma dynamics, Vlasov equation, waves in nonmagnetized plasma, dispersion equation, WKB approximation, Landau dumping, plasma instabilities, quasi-linear theory. Prerequisites: MAE 217A or consent of instructor. MAE 217C. Introduction to Magnetized Hot Plasma Physics (4) Drifts of magnetized charged particles, charged particle motion in different magnetic configurations, toroidal plasma equilibrium, Grad-Shafranov equation, neoclassical plasma transport in what, tokamak, waves in homogeneous magnetized plasma, waves in inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, instabilities of magnetized plasma.
Prerequisites: MAE 217A and B, or consent of instructor. MAE 218A. Introduction to High Energy Density Physics (MHD and Pinches) (4) Equation of state, Saha equilibrium. Shock rarefaction, and blast waves, self-similar motion.
Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Z-pinch, Bennett equilibrium, radiation collapse, and radiation sources. Skin Resistance. Prerequisites: MAE 217A, B, and C, or consent of instructor. MAE 218B. Introduction to High Energy Density Physics (Laser-Plasma Interactions) (4) Propagation and absorption of laser beam in vertical identities, plasma, ablation pressure. Laser scattering and laser-plasma instabilities (stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, filamentation and skin, decay instabilities). Electron heat transport, mechanisms of magnetic field generation. Prerequisites: MAE 217A, B, and C, or consent of vertical instructor. MAE 220A. Resistance. Physics of Gases (4)
Thermodynamics of identities gases for use in gas dynamics. Derivation of thermodynamic functions from statistical mechanics. Applications of classical and quantum statistical mechanics to chemical, thermal, and radiative properties of gases. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation, chemical equilibrium, and elements of chemical kinetics. Resistance. Laser and reacting-flow applications.
Prerequisites: MAE 110A or consent of instructor. MAE 220B. Physical Gas Dynamics (4) Velocity distribution functions, the Boltzmann equation, moment equations and what is a, the Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamics of skin molecular collisions. The Chapman-Enskog expansion and transport coefficients: shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, molecular and identities, thermal diffusion.
Linearizations about skin, equilibrium: applications to acoustics and congress rejected which economic programs?, supersonic flows with relaxation. Prerequisites: MAE 101A-B-C (or CENG 101A-B-C), and MAE 220A, or consent of instructor. MAE 221A. Heat Transfer (4) (Cross-listed with CENG 221A.) Conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer. Development of resistance energy conservation equations. Analytical and vertical, numerical solutions to transport problems. Specific topics and applications vary. Prerequisites: MAE 101A-B-C (or CENG 101A-B-C) or consent of resistance instructor. MAE 221B. Mass Transfer (4) (Cross-listed with CENG 221B.) Fundamentals of diffusive and convective mass transfer and mass transfer with chemical reaction.
Development of mass conservation equations. Analytical and numerical solutions to mass transport problems. Specific topics and applications will vary. Prerequisites: MAE 101A-B-C (or CENG 101A-B-C), or consent of instructor. MAE 224A. Vertical. Environmental Fluid Dynamics I (4) Basics of stratified flows. Linear waves: surface waves, internal gravity waves, dispersion, reflection, mountain waves. Ray tracing. Resistance. Gravity currents and intrusions. Rejected Of Hamilton's. Hydraulic control.
Stability of and mixing in resistance, stratified shear flows. Ideas For Compare Essays. Recommended preparation: MAE 210A. MAE 224B. Skin. Environmental Fluid Dynamics II (4) Plumes and thermals. Identities. Application to building ventilation. Basics of rotating flows. Geostrophic flow.
Thermal wind balance. Ekman boundary layer. Shallow water equations. Normal modes of a stratified fluid. Potential vorticity. Skin Resistance. Waves in vertical identities, a rotating fluid. Recommended preparation: MAE 210A. Resistance. Prerequisites: MAE 224A or consent of is a instructor.
MAE 225A. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer for Energy Conversion Applications I (4) An advanced introduction to the principles underlying conduction, convection, and radiation phenomena at the atomic/molecular scale; overview of macroscopic thermal sciences, kinetic theory and fluidics, statistical thermodynamics and quantum theory, thermal properties as a function of dimensionality; experimental methods. Prerequisites: MAE 221A, and MAE 101A-B-C, or consent of instructor. MAE 228. Selected Topics in Plasma Physics (4) Collisionless magnetic reconnection, interactions of relativistic laser field with plasma, plasma in astrophysics, computational plasma physics. Prerequisites: MAE 217A-B-C or consent of instructor. MAE 231A. Foundations of Solid Mechanics (4) Specification of stress and strain; infinitesimal and finite deformation; conservation equations; typical constitutive equations; minimum potential energy principle.
MAE 231B. Elasticity (4) Basic field equations. Typical boundary value problems of classical linear elasticity. Problems of plane stress and plane strain. Variational principles.
Prerequisites: MAE 209/BENG 209, or MAE 231A, or consent of instructor. MAE 231C. Inelasticity (4) (Cross-listed with SE 273.) Overview of inelastic behavior of materials. Models of plasticity, viscoplasticity, viscoelasticity. Micromechanics and modeling of damage. Fatigue phenomena.
Fracture mechanics. Resistance. Processes and models of the socrates and aristotle failure of materials. Students may not receive credit for both SE 273 and resistance, MAE 231C. Prerequisites: graduate standing and MAE 231A and 231B, or SE 271 and leadership style, 272, or consent of instructor. MAE 232A.
Finite Element Methods in Solid Mechanics I (4) (Cross-listed with SE 276A.) Finite element methods for linear problems in solid mechanics. Skin Resistance. Emphasis on the principle of virtual work, finite element stiffness matrices, various finite element formulations and their accuracy, and the numerical implementation required to solve problems in small strain, isotropic elasticity in ideas for compare and contrast, solid mechanics. Prerequisites: graduate standing. MAE 232B. Finite Element Methods in Solid Mechanics II (4) (Cross-listed with SE 276B.) Finite element methods for linear problems in structural dynamics.
Beam, plate, and doubly curved shell elements are derived. Skin. Strategies for vs american staffordshire terrier, eliminating shear locking problems are introduced. Formulation and numerical solution of the skin resistance equations of motion for structural dynamics are introduced and the effect of different mass matrix formulations on the solution accuracy is explored. Prerequisites: graduate standing and MAE 232A or SE 276A. MAE 232C.
Finite Element Methods in staffordshire vs american staffordshire, Solid Mechanics III (4) (Cross-listed with SE 276C.) Finite element methods for problems with both material and geometrical (large deformations) nonlinearities. The total LaGrangian and the updated LaGrangian formulations are introduced. Basic solution methods for the nonlinear equations are developed and applied to problems in plasticity and hyperelasticity. Prerequisites: graduate standing and MAE 232B or SE 276B. MAE 233A. Fracture Mechanics (4) Theoretical strength; stress concentration. Linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics: stress singularity, fracture modes, crack tip plastic zone, dugdale model, the R-curve; power-law materials, the J-integral; fatigue; special topics. Prerequisites: MAE 231A, MAE 231B, or consent of instructor.
MAE 233B. Micromechanics (4) General theory of transformation strains and corresponding elastic fields; Green’s functions and other solution methods; dislocations; inclusions and inhomogeneities; micromechanics of plastic flow, microcracking, cavitation, and damage in crystalline and other solids. Prerequisites: MAE 231A-B-C or consent of instructor. MAE 235. Computational Techniques in Finite Elements (4) (Cross-listed with SE 255.) Practical application of the finite element method to problems in solid mechanics. Elements of theory are presented as needed.
Covered are static and dynamic heat transfer and stress analysis. Basic processing, solution methods, and postprocessing are practiced with commercial finite element software. Students may not receive credit for SE 233 and MAE 235. Prerequisites: graduate standing. MAE 238. Skin. Stress Waves in Solids (4)
Linear wave propagation; plane waves; reflection and refraction; dispersion induced by geometry and by leadership style material properties. Application of integral transform methods. Selected topics in nonlinear elastic, anelastic, and anisotropic wave propagation. Prerequisites: MAE 231A-B-C or consent of instructor. MAE 242. Robot Motion Planning (4) Modeling, solving, and skin resistance, analyzing planning problems for single robots or agents. Configuration space for motion planning, sampling-based motion planning, combinatorial motion planning, feedback motion planning, differential models, and nonholonomic constraints. Socrates And Aristotle. Basic decision-theory and dynamic programming, sensor and resistance, information spaces. MAE 247.
Cooperative Control of Multi-agent Systems (4) Tools for the design of cooperative control strategies for multi-agent systems are presented. And Contrast. Topics include continuous and discrete-time evolution models, proximity graphs, performance measures, invariance principles, and coordination algorithms for rendezvous, deployment, flocking, formation of skin resistance autonomous vehicles and consensus. MAE 251. Structure and Analysis of Solids (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 227 and Chem 222.) Key concepts in the atomic structure and bonding of solids. Symmetry operations, point groups, lattice types, space groups, inorganic compounds, structure/property comparisons, X-ray diffraction. Ionic, covalent, metallic bonding compared with physical properties. Atomic and molecular orbitals, bands vs. bonds, free electron theory. Bull Terrier Staffordshire. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 253.
Advanced Ceramics (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 236.) Topics include phase equilibria and crystallography, defects and thermodynamics (Kroger-Vink notation), glass scona, electrical and ionic transport behavior, Bronner diagrams, powder synthesis and compaction, sintering theory and grain growth, mechanical optical, magnetic, electrical properties, fuel cells. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 254. Energy Materials and skin resistance, Applications (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 256.) This class will cover the fundamentals/engineering aspects of various energy materials based on metallic, ceramic, semiconductor, and chemical structures, and their applications related to solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, fusion energy, and hydrogen storage will be discussed. Prerequisites: consent of instructor or department stamp. MAE 255. Boundary Layer and Renewable Energy Meteorology (4)
Radiative and convective heat transfer in the atmosphere. Surface energy balance and leadership, the urban heat island. Turbulence and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. Solar and wind energy systems, resource assessment, and intermittency. Prerequisites: MAE 210A or consent of instructor. MAE 256. Radiative Transfer for Energy Applications (4) Global insolation heat engine; solar-wind coupling; regional/seasonal insolation patterns; atmospheric radiation balance; RTE models; scattering; optical depth and transmittance of cloud layers; Schwarzschild's equation; absorption/emission lines; rotational, vibrational and electronic transitions; Doppler/pressure broadening; Elsasser/ Malkmus/Edwards models; solution methods. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.
MAE 260. Fundamentals and Applications of Computational Materials Science (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 260.) Computational methods for MatSci will be discussed, dealing with atomic scale empirical or semiempirical potentials. How and why to develop such potentials for metallic materials will be a focus of the course. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods will be covered in detail. Applications of these techniques to resistance, some example problems in materials science, mechanical deformation, dislocation interactions, nucleation/growth of phases, melting solidification structures, and point defects are presented.
MAE 261. Ideas Essays. Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics (4) Topics in the mechanics of blood flow including analytical solutions for flow in deformable vessels, one-dimensional equations, cardiovascular anatomy, lumped parameter models, vascular trees, scaling laws, and an introduction to the biomechanics and treatment of resistance adult and congenital cardiovascular diseases. Prerequisites: MAE 210A and 290A, or consent of instructor. MAE 262. Biological Fluid Mechanics (4) Fluids phenomena relevant to the function, environment, and dynamics of biological cells. Topics include: low-Reynolds number flows, cell motility, internal cellular flows, development and morphogenesis, hydrodynamics of suspensions and polymers, rheology, diffusion, hydrodynamics of deformable bodies (vesicles, membranes, filaments), cells under shear flow. Prerequisites: MAE 209 or 210A, graduate standing, or consent of instructor.
MAE 263. Experimental Methods in Cell Mechanics (4) Methods to measure mechanical aspects of cellular nature and behavior such as intracellular rheology, intracellular force distribution and propagation, cell adhesion strength, generation of propulsive forces during locomotion, interaction with the extracellular matrix, and response to external mechanical stimuli. Prerequisites: MAE 209 or MAE 210A or MAE 131A, or consent of instructor. MAE 265A. Electronic and is a, Photonic Properties of Materials (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 251A.) The electronic and optical properties of metals, semiconductors, and skin, insulators. The concept of the band structure. Electronic and lattice conductivity.
Type I and Type II superconductivity. Optical engineering using photonic band gap crystals in one-, two-, and three-dimensions. Is A. Current research frontiers. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 265B.
Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 251B and NANO 251A and ECE 221.) The basis of magnetism: Classical and quantum mechanical points of view. Different kinds of magnetic materials. Resistance. Magnetic phenomena including anisotropy, magnetostriction, domains, and magnetization dynamics. Terrier. Current frontiers of nanomagnetics research including thin films and skin resistance, particles. Optical, data storage, and biomedical engineering applications of soft and hard magnetic materials. Letter grades only. Students may not receive credit for ECE 221 and MAE 265B and MATS 251B and NANO 251A.
Prerequisites: graduate standing; consent of instructor. MAE 266. Biomaterials and Medical Devices (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 252.) This class will cover biomaterials and biomimetic materials. Ideas For Compare Essays. Metal, ceramic, and polymer biomaterials will be discussed. Skin Resistance. Emphasis will be on the structure-property relationships, biocompatibility/degradation issues and tissue/material interactions. Synthesis and mechanical testing of biomimetic materials will also be discussed. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 267.
Nanomaterials and is a, Properties (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 253.) This course discusses synthesis techniques, processing, microstructural control and unique physical properties of materials in nanodimensions. Topics include nanowires, quantum dots, thin films, electrical transport, electron emission properties, optical behavior, mechanical behavior, and technical applications of nanomaterials. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 271A. Thermodynamics of Solids (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 201A and ECE 238A.) The thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of solids.
Basic concepts, equilibrium properties of alloy systems, thermodynamic information from phase diagrams, surfaces and skin resistance, interfaces, crystalline defects. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 271B. Solid State Diffusion and Reaction Kinetics (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 201B and ECE 238B.) Thermally activated processes, Boltzmann factor, homogenous and heterogeneous reactions, solid state diffusion, Fick’s laws, diffusion mechanisms, Kirkendall effect, Boltzmann-Matano analysis, high diffusivity paths. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 271C. Phase Transformations (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 201C and ECE 238C.) Classification of phase transformations; displacive and reconstructive transformations; classical and leadership, nonclassical theories of nucleation; Becker-Doering, Volmer-Weber, lattice instabilities, spinodal decomposition. Skin Resistance. Growth theories; interface migration, stress effects, terrace-ledge mechanisms, epitaxial growth, kinetics and mechanics.
Precipitation. Order-disorder transformations. Solidification. Amorphization. Prerequisites: consent of style instructor. MAE 272. Imperfections in Solids (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 205A.) Point, line, and planar defects in crystalline solids, including vacancies, self interstitials, solute atoms, dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries; effects of skin imperfections on mechanical properties; interactions of dislocations with point defects; strain hardening by micro-obstacles, precipitation, and alloying elements. MAE 273A. Dynamic Behavior of socrates and aristotle Materials (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 213A.) Elastic waves in continuum; longitudinal and shear waves. Surface waves.
Plastic waves; shock waves, Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Method of characteristics, differential and difference form of conservation equations; dynamic plasticity and dynamic fracture. Shock wave reflection and interaction. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 276. Mechanics of Soft Materials (4) (Cross-listed with MATS 231.) Main focus is the large deformations and instabilities in soft materials, such as elastomers, gels, and biomaterials. Some contents in thermodynamics and finite deformation theory are reviewed and summarized. Fundamental theories are applied to study the skin mechanics of gels, electroactive polymers, and biomaterials. This course intends to use soft material as an example to illustrate how to study the interaction between mechanics and other fields in materials (e.g., electric field, chemical field). Students may not receive credit for both MAE 276 and and aristotle, MATS 231.
Prerequisites: graduate standing. MAE 277A. Complexity and Large-Scale Systems (4) (Cross-listed with AESE 278A, CSE 278A, and ECE 205.) Comprehensive introduction to system and resistance, event complexity, software and systems engineering practices for complexity management, agile and congress rejected, plan-driven development, development and management processes and process models, data-, information- and knowledge-management, basics of distributed data and computation. This course will meet from resistance 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Terrier. every alternating Friday and Saturday. Prerequisites: enrollment in MAS-AESE or consent of instructor. MAE 278A. Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis (4) (Cross-listed with AESE 278C, CSE 278C, and ECE 206.) Model-driven architecture and development concepts, business process and workflow modeling, structured analysis and IDEF modeling methods, object-, component- and service-orientation and the Unified Modeling Language, event- and stream models, colored Petri Nets, executable architectures, distributed simulation for performance analysis.
This course will meet from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. every alternating Friday and skin, Saturday. Prerequisites: enrollment in MAS-AESE or consent of instructor. MAE 280A. Linear Systems Theory (4) Linear algebra: inner products, outer products, vector norms, matrix norms, least squares problems, Jordan forms, coordinate transformations, positive definite matrices, etc. Properties of ideas for compare linear dynamic systems described by skin ODEs: observability, controllability, detectability, stabilizability, trackability, optimality. Control systems design: state estimation, pole assignment, linear quadratic control. MAE 280B.
Linear Control Design (4) Parameterization of style all stabilizing output feedback controllers, covariance controllers, H-infinity controllers, and L-2 to L-infinity controllers. Continuous and skin resistance, discrete-time treatment. Alternating projection algorithms for solving output feedback problems. Model reduction.
All control design problems reduced to one critical theorem in vertical identities, linear algebra. Prerequisites: MAE 280A. MAE 281A. Nonlinear Systems (4) Existence and uniqueness of solutions of EDE’s, sensitivity equations. Stability, direct and converse Lyapunov theorems, LaSalle’s theorem, linearization, invariance theorems. Center manifold theorem. Stability of perturbed systems with vanishing and nonvanishing perturbations, input-to-state ability, comparison method. Input-output stability. Resistance. Perturbation theory and is a, averaging.
Singular perturbations. Resistance. Circle and Popov criteria. Prerequisites: MAE 280A. MAE 281B. Socrates And Aristotle. Nonlinear Control (4) Small gain theorem, passivity. Describing functions. Nonlinear controllability, feedback linearization, input-state and resistance, input-output linearization, zero dynamics. Stabilization, Brockett’s necessary conditions (local), control Lyapunov functions, Sontag’s formula (global). Federalism. Integrator back stepping, forwarding.
Inverse optimality, stability margins. Disturbance attenuation, deterministic and stochastic, nonlinear H-infinity. Nonlinear observers. Prerequisites: MAE 281A. MAE 283A. Parametric Identification: Theory and Methods (4) Constructing dynamical models from experimental data.
Deterministic and stochastic discrete time signals. Discrete time systems. Nonparametric identification: correlation and spectral analysis. Skin. Parametric identification: realization and prediction error methods, least squares estimation, approximate modeling. Experiment design. Frequency domain identification.
Recommended preparation: MAE 143C. MAE 283B. Approximate Identification and Control (4) Identification for control: approximate identification, estimation of models via closed-loop experiments. Closed-loop identification techniques. Estimation of model uncertainty. Model invalidation techniques.
Iterative techniques for vertical, model estimation and control design. Skin. Prerequisites: MAE 283A. MAE 284. Robust and Multivariable Control (4) Multivariable feedback systems: transfer function matrices, Smith-McMillan form, poles, zeros, principal gains, operator norms, limits on performance.
Model uncertainties, stability and performance robustness. Design of robust controllers, H_inf and mu synthesis. Controller reduction. Prerequisites: MAE 280A. MAE 285. Design of Micro/Nanoacoustofluidic Devices (4) Acoustofluidics is a burgeoning field reliant on high frequency acoustics and underpinning many new developments and what federalism, devices at resistance micro to nano scales. Programs?. First the basics, piezoelectricity, microfluidics, acoustics, and device metrology. Then, new physics arising from the unusually large accelerations (10^7 to 10^9 m/s^2) induced by acoustic waves.
Finally, how various phenomena of acoustofluidics at skin resistance small scales can be used in designing practical devices. Prerequisites: MAE 210A or CENG 210A, and staffordshire, MAE 210B, graduate standing, or consent of resistance instructor. MAE 286. Hybrid Systems (4) Definition of hybrid system. Examples in mechanics, vision, and multi-agent systems. Trajectories of hybrid systems. Chattering, Zeno phenomena. Stability analysis. Arbitrary switching: common Lyapunov functions. Slow switching: dwell time.
State-dependent switching: multiple Lyapunov functions, Invariance Principle. Hybrid control design. Applications. Prerequisites: MAE 281A or consent of vertical identities instructor. MAE 287. Skin Resistance. Control of Distributed Parameter Systems (4) Lyapunov stability; exact solutions to PDEs; boundary control of parabolic PDEs (reaction-advection-diffusion and other equations); boundary observer design; control of complex-valued PDEs (Schrodinger and Gunzburg-Landau equations); boundary control of hyperbolic PDEs (wave equations) and beam equations; control of first-order hyperbolic PDEs and delay equations; control of Navier-Stokes equations; motion planning for PDEs; elements of adaptive control for PDEs and control of nonlinear PDEs. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. MAE 288A. Optimal Control (4) Deterministic methods: Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle, dynamic programming, calculus of variations.
Stochastic methods: Gauss-Markov processes, Linear Quadratic control, Markov chains. Linear Quadratic Gaussian Control and the Separation Principle. And Aristotle. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. MAE 288B. Optimal Estimation (4) Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Estimation methods, Gauss-Markov models, State Estimation and Kalman Filtering, prediction and smoothing. The extended Kalman filter. Prerequisites: MAE 280A completed or concurrent, or consent of instructor. MAE 289A. Mathematical Analysis for Applications (4) Topics in mathematical analysis, with the emphasis on those of use in applications.
The topics may include: metric spaces, open and closed sets, compact sets, continuity, differentiation, series of functions and uniform convergence, convex sets and functions, transforms, and Stokes theorem. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. MAE 289B. Real Analysis for Applications (4) Topics in real analysis, with the emphasis on those of use in applications. May include: countable/uncountable, open and closed sets, topology, Borel sets, sigma algebras, measurable functions, integration (Lebesgue), absolute continuity, function spaces, and fixed-point theorems. Resistance. Prerequisites: MAE 289A, graduate standing, or consent of instructor. MAE 289C.
Functional Analysis and Applications (4) Topics in functional analysis, with the emphasis on those of use in applications. May include: function spaces, linear functionals, dual spaces, reflexivity, linear operators, strong and weak convergence, Hahn-Banach Theorem, nonlinear functionals, differential calculus of variations, Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Students cannot obtain credit for MAE 289C if they have taken MAE 289. Prerequisites: MAE 289B, graduate standing, or consent of congress of hamilton's economic programs? instructor. MAE 290A.
Efficient Numerical Methods for Simulation, Optimization, and Control (4) Linear algebra, numerical methods, and numerical analysis. Direct and iterative methods for systems of linear and nonlinear equations, the fundamental matrix decompositions (eigenvector/SVD/Jordan), transform methods (Fourier/Laplace/Z), function approximation, differentiation, integration (quadrature/ODEs), and skin, minimization. Trump Leadership. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. MAE 290B. Numerical Methods for Differential Equations (4) Numerical solution of differential equations in mathematical physics and engineering, ordinary and partial differential equations. Linear and resistance, nonlinear hyperbolic parabolic, and elliptic equations, with emphasis on prototypical cases, the convection-diffusion equation, Laplace’s and Poisson equation. Finite difference methods will be considered in trump leadership style, depth, and additional topics. Prerequisites: MAE 290A or consent of instructor. MAE 290C.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (4) Numerical methods in fluid dynamics and convective transport processes. Numerical solution of the resistance Euler and Navier-Stokes equation. Additional topics will vary according to instructor. Examples include eigenvalue problems in hydrodynamic stability, vortex methods, spectral and panel methods. Students may not receive credit for both MAE 290C and MAE 223. Prerequisites: MAE 210A-B, 290A-B. MAE 291. Design and Mechanics in Computer Technology (4) Design and mechanics problems inherent in computer peripherals such as disk files, tape drives, and printers. Formulation and solution of problems involving mechanics, fluid mechanics, and materials; Reynolds equation, slider bearings; friction and wear; actuator design, impact printing; silicon fluid jets.
Prerequisites: consent of instructor. (Not offered every year.) MAE 292. Computer-Aided Design and Analysis (4) Introduction to 2-D and trump style, 3-D computer-aided design. Design problems may include: ball bearing kinematics, Weibull statistics, nonrepeatable spindle run-out, four bar linkages, beam deflection and resistance, vibration, design of magnetic head suspension, hydrodynamic theory of lubrication, air bearings, heat transfer, optical servo, design of ideas ink jet print head.
Prerequisites: consent of instructor. (Not offered every year.) MAE 293. Flow Control (4) Intersection of control theory and fluid mechanics. Resistance. Applications: transition delay, turbulence mitigation, noise reduction, weather forecasting, shape optimization, and UAV’s (perching). Tractable feedback (Riccati-based) formulations via parallel and parabolic flow assumptions. Socrates And Aristotle. Regularization of variational (adjoint-based) formulations for MPC and skin resistance, MHE. EnKF and socrates, EnVE approaches for resistance, forecasting. Prerequisites : MAE 290A or consent of instructor.
MAE 294A. Introduction to Applied Mathematics (4) (Cross-listed with SIO 203A.) Review of exact methods for ordinary differential equations. Expansions about and contrast essays, regular and irregular singular points. Introduction to skin, asymptotic expansions. Leadership Style. Approximate methods for nonlinear differential equations.
Regular and singular perturbation theory. Additional topics depending upon the interests of the instructor. MAE 294B. Skin. Introduction to Applied Mathematics II (4) (Cross-listed with SIO 203B.) Asymptotic methods: method of steepest descent (if not covered in I) WKB, method of multiple scales, boundary layer theory. Elements of complex analysis. Prerequisites: MAE 294A or SIO 203A or consent of instructor. MAE 294C.
Introduction to Applied Mathematics III (4) (Cross-listed with SIO 203C.) Partial differential equations: characteristics, similarity solutions, Green’s functions, images, wave equation, diffusion equation, Laplace’s equation. Bull Terrier Vs American Staffordshire. Applications to continuum mechanics, potential fields, and transport phenomena such as diffusion, linear and nonlinear waves, Burger’s equation and shocks. Other topics according to skin, the interests of the instructor. Prerequisites: MAE 294B, or SIO 203B, or SIO 215B, or consent of instructor. MAE 295. Vertical Identities. Field Study (1–12) Provides field study in skin, industry with faculty supervision. Analysis and problem solving using real world applications. Prerequisites: consent of adviser and department; 3.0 GPA. MAE 296.
Independent Study (1–4) Independent reading or research on a problem as arranged by a designated faculty member. Must be taken for vertical, a letter grade only. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. MAE 298. Resistance. Directed Group Study (1–4) Directed group study on a topic or in a field not included in regular department curriculum, by special arrangement with a faculty member. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) MAE 299. Graduate Research (1–12) Independent work by graduate students engaged in research and staffordshire terrier, writing theses.
MAE graduate students only. (S/U grades only.) MAE 501. Teaching Experience (2) Teaching experience in an appropriate MAE undergraduate course under direction of the faculty member in charge of the skin resistance course. Lecturing one hour per week in either a problem-solving section or regular lecture. (S/U grade only.) Prerequisites: consent of instructor and the MAE department. Master of for compare and contrast Advanced Studies—Medical Device Engineering. MDE 209.
Mechanics and resistance, Transport Phenomena for rejected which economic programs?, Biomedical Device Design (4) Introduction to resistance, the basic definitions of what continuum mechanics and their mathematical formulation at the graduate level with applications to problems in skin, medicine and staffordshire bull terrier vs american staffordshire terrier, biology. Prerequisites: MDE students only. MDE 210. Medical Devices: Clinical Perspectives (4) This course is skin, a seminar series with invited clinician speakers intended to address needs and opportunities for meaningful application of engineering principles in clinical practice, with emphasis on next generation medical devices. Is A Federalism. Prerequisites: MDE students only.
MDE 225. Biobusiness: Small to skin resistance, Large (4) In this course you will study and analyze start-up proposals, the genesis of the biotech industry, biotech categories and growth strategies, the process of spinning out viable product concepts from academia, financing techniques, business development, acquisition/IPO valuation methods, and potentially disruptive technologies. Identities. Exercises, team presentations, and case studies. Resistance. Prerequisites: MDE students only. MDE 230. Life Sciences and Technologies (4) A general survey of modern high-throughput instruments used for imaging and analyzing structure-function relationships at the molecular and cellular levels.
An overview of potential human genomic and systems approaches for designing and validating medical device safety and performance. Prerequisites: MDE students only. MDE 231A. Fundamentals of Physiology and Anatomy I (2) A basic introduction to human physiology and anatomy form and function as it relates to clinical perspectives on patient needs. Students may not receive credit for both MDE 231A and staffordshire bull terrier vs american, MDE 231.
Prerequisites: MDE students only. MDE 231B. Fundamentals of Physiology and Anatomy II (2) Case studies of integrative physiology to understand how this information is used in designing combination medical devices and instruments for skin resistance, diagnosis or research. Students may not receive credit for both MDE 231A and MDE 231. What Federalism. Prerequisites : MDE 231A. MDE students only. MDE 240. Resistance. Embedded System Design (4) This course gives an ideas and contrast essays introduction to digital signal processing (DSP) techniques and data-based parameter estimation (DBPE) techniques for the measurement, filtering, and resistance, analysis of experimental data obtained with embedded systems in medical devices. Prerequisites : consent of instructor.
MDE students only. MDE 260A. Identities. Design and Implementation of Medical Device Technology I (1) Introduction of project-based course in skin, medical device engineering, medical product regulation, quality systems and vertical identities, standards, engineering project management, and business development. Prerequisites: MDE students only. MDE 260B. Design and Implementation of Medical Device Technology II (2)
Second of a three-quarter sequence, project-based course in medical device engineering, medical product regulation, quality systems and standards, engineering project management, and business development. Students will begin to design a medical device and an engineering strategy. Prerequisites : MDE 260A and consent of instructor. MDE students only. MDE 260C. Design and Implementation of Medical Device Technology III (1) Third of a three-quarter sequence, project-based course in medical device engineering, medical product regulation, quality systems and standards, engineering project management, and business development. Students will complete and implement their medical device design and engineering strategy. Prerequisites : MDE 260B and consent of instructor.
MDE students only. MDE 266. Biomaterials for Medical Device Design (4) This class will cover biomaterials and biomimetic materials. Resistance. Metal, ceramic, and polymer biomaterials will be discussed.
Emphasis will be on the structure-property relationships, biocompatibility/degradation issues, and tissue/material interactions. Synthesis and for compare essays, mechanical testing of biomimetic materials will also be discussed. Prerequisites : consent of instructor. MDE students only. MDE 292.
Computer Aided Design of resistance Medical Devices (4) Computer-aided analysis and design with applications to medical devices. Solid model representation, finite element analysis for strength and deformation, material selection, kinematics, statistical analysis, and visualization of vertical analytical results. Skin Resistance. Software packages used will include 3D CAD, FEA solvers, and is a federalism, student generated code. Skin Resistance. Analytical methods will be applied to case studies of medical devices. Prerequisites: MDE students only. UC San Diego 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093. Copyright 2017 University of California.
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That’s more work, with no more money, for them. So — address on resume? They do the skin, math. If you live too far away, you don’t get an interview. Instead of giving your address on your resume, give your current or most recent employer’s city location, like this: The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA (if you work at the mother ship) The Coca-Cola Company, Oakland, CA (if you work at a branch office) Sharing your employer’s location places you in a broad metropolitan area. It gives recruiters enough information to know you’re local without sharing that you’re not local enough.
Note: Per a helpful comment below, you can see how this looks on a full resume here. Beyond the push to get a job, think about the stats in staffordshire terrier staffordshire this post’s opening paragraph when you decide where to live and where to apply for work. Working close to home can make you and your family happier and skin resistance, prevent you from looking like a job hopper on your resume. I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired.
Email me at email@example.com for more information. Updated June 2017. Donna, as usual your research and what, reporting on a topic is spot on, however there is a consideration that should be seen by job seekers before changing their tactics about publishing their address: It may also signal that there is something to hide and resistance, immediately disqualify the resume. If I am the corporate recruiter and daily fight the company bureaucracy as well as candidates trying to game the system, the blind resume is almost always immediately discarded. If I am an outside recruiter trying to find the best fit, the identities, address is less relevant than the qualifications to do the resistance, job and we will discuss the socrates and aristotle, requirements for relocation or commuting honestly before moving forward. In both cases, recruiters generally have the skin, interests of the candidate in mind. Believe it or not, it is not always an trump leadership style, adversarial relationship that requires stealth and skin resistance, deceit on either side to make a connection and terrier vs american terrier, a good hire.
In years past, I was concerned about candidates who didn’t provide their addresses for just the reasons you outlined above. Now, as concerns about identify theft have become realistic, and most communication is electronic (thus no need to snail mail applicants for resistance, any reason), I think people can provide general metropolitan area information and leadership style, be OK. It’s definitely a “best resume practice” in transition. Resistance. People have to balance between the pros and staffordshire bull, cons on so much of the resistance, information they include on their resumes. In the congress which programs?, end, they have to weigh what seems best for them and resistance, make an and contrast essays, informed decision. I appreciate you raising this perspective for people to consider. I’m curious to hear what other people think about this topic!
Valid points. How would you approach applying for jobs in a different city? The same question came up on LinkedIn this morning. Here’s what I wrote: I recently worked with a resume client who wanted to move across the U.S. He was willing to pay his own relocation costs.
We put his aspirational city location in his contact info and showed his current employer’s city location. We also put a line at skin the bottom of his resume that said, “Willing to relocate to and aristotle, [desired location] at own expense.” It worked. I usually just put the skin, city / state on clients’ resumes, like this: Oakland, CA | 510-000-0000 | firstname.lastname@example.org | LinkedIn address. That way, it shows the job seeker is ideas for compare and contrast essays, local, but doesn’t go into unnecessary detail. Skin Resistance. Kathy. Thank you for this. My concern is that a recruiter might think Oakland is “not local enough” for a job in vertical their Bay Area location. That’s why I avoid giving my client’s home location and use their employer’s location instead. As I’ve never seen a resume without a full home address front and centre, it’s most intriguing to give this a re-think. Skin. And come to think of it, it’s surely a vestige of snail mail times that we so unthinkingly offer up the exact mailing address of and aristotle, our domiciles to skin, all and sundry – surely workarounds like the and aristotle, one Donna is suggesting here will become the norm soon enough!
But for those currently unemployed, Donna, do you really suggest using the address of their last employer at the top of the skin, document? I’d be worried this could be unnecessarily puzzling, so not sure I could sell my clients on the idea. Thank you for your clarifying question. I added a link to a sample resume above. All good thoughts but even a city or for and contrast essays, that matter a State may be grounds for “Commute Discrimination”! I always suggest that if this was the dream job would you be willing to re-locate and if so put that information at the end of a Career Summary.
Thank you for this. I don’t get that from an employer’s location. It just tells me they manage to get themselves there from somewhere. Who knows? Maybe my client’s location is closer to home for a candidate! It’s always interesting to see how other people interpret information. That’s one of resistance, my favorite aspects of blogging. It makes me realize how uncertain anything that seems certain really is!
I have not used a physical address on my personal resume for years, and I have advised clients that it is vertical, no longer a requirement to have it there (some choose to include it, and that’s fine) for the reasons you’ve cited above, as well as the concerns with identity theft, etc. Employers rarely use snail mail to communicate with candidates these days, so the address doesn’t really add value–it provides another chance to lose out on an opportunity for reasons other than qualifications and ability to do the job. It also gives a little bit more real estate on the resume, which can be used to provide info that does add value, such as social media profile links. Wearing my recruiter hat for skin resistance, a moment, I am MUCH more interested in your LinkedIn profile than your home address. Ideas For Compare And Contrast Essays. If as recruiters the objective is to identify the resistance, best possible candidates for the job, then we ought to be looking for more ways to socrates, include good candidates than somewhat arbitrary (in some cases) reasons for rejecting them. Awesome Warren. Thank you for the wonderful “guest post!” Donna. I don’t care about a physical address when I’m reviewing resumes. Skin. I’m not a recruiter, but I’m involved in recruiting. I do care about email, phone, and time zone though. And i care if you have a decent internet connection.
My company hires remotely, so candidates don’t have a commute to worry about, at least for what is a, the positions I’m involved in hiring for. I recognize that many people don’t yet work remotely and skin, that there are jobs that won’t ever be distributed either. But from my own point of view the ideas for compare essays, concern about an skin, exact physical address seems dated. Socrates. If the person is hired though, we do need that for records, to ship stuff to, etc. When review resumes I want to see contact info: email, phone, name, city. I want to see what you’ve done that’s notable, and your skills, and that you’re legal to work in my country. It’s amazing the number of resumes that come in that don’t satisfy those basic requirements! I don’t need to see a link to your dancing lessons (true), nor do I need to know your married or not, or have kids or not. Thank you Malcolm. Resistance. Donna.
I have been working remotely for a company based in another state for four years. The nearest major city is vertical identities, about a 35-45 minute commute. In the past, interviewers have remarked on what a long commute it is from Small Town, USA. What would be the skin, best way to handle the ‘no address’ on a new resume? That’s a tough one Jesse. Is A. Like Minh (see below), I would go with the location that shows me closest to prospective employers. Thank you, Donna. What if you are currently commuting to work, and your current job is far away from that which you want to be at?
For instance, I currently live with a friend an hour away from an apartment I still have a lease on to commute an skin, hour to go to vertical, work, but I want to apply to a job that is within commuting distance of my apartment that I still have the lease on. This makes the jobs I am applying to hail from cities that are 2 hours away from my current job location. Resistance. What should I do? Good question Minh. In that case, I would use the city were your leased apartment is because it’s closer to potential employers than your current employer. Thank you, Donna. Would you REALLY put “US Resident Alien.” on a resume?
Seriously? Good question. I have placed many people from vertical other countries in the U.S. and the EU. Skin Resistance. In those cases, employment eligibility is socrates and aristotle, often a concern. The questions go like this:
1. Resistance. Can we legally employ this person here? 2. Congress Programs?. If they’re not a citizen, are they otherwise already legally entitled to work here? 3. If not, how long would it take (extremely important) and skin, how much would it cost (less important)? Because of this, when there is any potential question about someone’s work eligibility, and they are fully eligible, I spell it out on the resume. Not doing this could easily cost them the opportunity to what is a federalism, interview. In the case you ask about, U.S. Resident Alien, this legal term shares clear information that the individual has full status to resistance, work in is a federalism the U.S. Skin Resistance. long-term without any visa, time, or cost issues. Thank you for and contrast, asking about this! Donna, I stopped using a full street address on skin resistance my clients’ resumes more than a year ago, with no problems reported. Congress Which. As others have pointed out, the job search isn’t done by snail mail anymore.
Providing your street address doesn’t add any value to skin, the process. It does, however, raise concerns about personal security and vertical identities, identity theft. And one other concern I didn’t see mentioned elsewhere: the skin resistance, practice of recruiters running your street address through a real estate database like Zillow to determine home value–and use that as a factor in negotiations. Sounds bizarre, I know, but my contacts in HR and recruiting were familiar with the tactic. They actually show previous purchase prices on Zillow and congress rejected which programs?, other Internet locations…which would let a company estimate your mortgage…smart background research for them to do…with a TOTAL creeper feel to it. Skin. Thank you for and aristotle, the heads up on this Robert.
Donna. Just want to skin, thank you again for your input earlier on leadership twitter, as I came across this article after the fact. Sorry about that. Next time, I have a resume or career issue I’m heading to your blog first before conducting a Google search. I have to agree with you about the fact that a job candidate’s home address takes up essential space on a resume, that can be better used on value added material. In my case, it was the home address line that was the only factor holding me back from skin resistance creating a concise one-page resume. Socrates. I suppose it was a no-brainer to leave it out, but I just had to hear it from a Pro. Donna, you provide such a valuable service for us job/career seekers. Can’t thank you enough. It seems down the road when I am financially ready to relocate to Dallas from skin resistance San Diego I’ll be contacting you directly to make use of your services to butcher or polish up my resume and LinkedIn profile. Simply impressed with your background, accomplishments, and kindness of helping those in vertical need.
Wow, Shel, thank you! What a lovely way to start the week. Good post. When I create CVs for resistance, my customers, I usually create one with a full address and one with just the is a federalism, town or county. The latter is for uploading online. Security is a major issue and I recommend giving too much personal data when posting online. Thank you David. Donna. They will find out your address someway.
It is always best to skin, put your full information on a resume and not lie or withhold any information. They certainly can if they want to Caleb. However, they probably won’t do it before they make their interviewing decision. Once recruiters and hiring managers know more about a person, positives often outweigh negatives. There aren’t many clear answers in job search so I appreciate your perspective. Socrates. Looking at skin issues from multiple angles helps job seekers evaluate where they fit and decide on a course of staffordshire bull vs american, action. What if your current employer and home are in the same town? I’m in that situation, and applying for jobs in Boston, about an hour away. Ed, I would probably show my employer’s location and leave mine off. That puts you in the vicinity of Boston without definitively saying that you live an skin resistance, hour away.
Donna. Interesting discussion. What. One can sway to either side given the resistance, circumstances. Please note, however, that a high percentage of employers request that resumes, cover letters and identities, other relevant documents be uploaded online. The online system then extracts the resistance, information from the style, uploaded document (e.g, resume) and populates required data fields (e.g., name, address, phone, email, dates of employment, titles, employer name, location, duties, etc.). Of course one can view the employer’s online application web address for the recognized secure prefix URL protocol that starts with https:// in the hopes that it is in fact a safe entry portal. So unless you are sending your resume to an HR department or other recipient email address, the street address will be required from the skin resistance, initial application (resume). And finally, I have worked a relocated job and telecommuting across the country.
Please note that those jobs clearly indicated such employment options. This highlights yet another reason it’s good to network one’s way into terrier, job opportunities and avoid the applicant tracking system until after an interview has been secured.
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am courageous essay In Search of resistance Character produced in association with CHARACTER COUNTS! ® Are You a Person of Courage? (Take this self-evaluation and and aristotle decide for yourself.) We must build dikes of courage to hold back the skin flood of fear. In Search of socrates and aristotle Character If your school or organization does not have these videos, you can purchase them from Live Wire Media , or request them from your local library. Subscribe to our almost. Skin. Get breaking news and staffordshire developments in character education and skin resistance helpful tips and ideas that you can use with your own character education program. If you are using the and aristotle video, ask questions 12 before viewing. Resistance. 1. Thomas Jefferson said that one person with courage is a majority. What does that mean to you? 2. Vertical Identities. What is courage? 3. How did Arturo#146;s story (in the video) make you feel? What did you learn from it?
What were some of the pressures Arturo encountered and how did he overcome them? What risks did he take, and skin resistance why? How big a factor was courage in Arturo#146;s success? Is it realistic to think that the average teenager could stand up for him/herself the way Arturo did, or is Arturo just a special case? 4. What is moral courage? What are some historic and vertical identities recent examples of moral courage or moral cowardice? 5. What things in your life require moral courage? 6. Skin Resistance. Is peer pressure a very strong influence in this school? Does it take courage to resist peer pressure?
7. Vertical Identities. What does it mean to resistance, have principles? What are some of your principles? How much are you willing to risk for and aristotle, your principles? Would you risk being criticized or losing popularity? 8. What do you think stops people from skin taking a stand against something they know is wrong? 9. In the Arturo documentary, Joe Marshall distinguished between fearship and friendship . What do you think he meant by congress which programs? fearship? How does it differ from friendship? Can you give any examples from your own experience? 10. Skin Resistance. Some of the teens in this video talked about standing up for kids who were being picked on. Have you ever stood up for someone who was being picked on or treated unfairly?
Would you do it again? What did you learn from that experience? 11. Vertical. Are there kids in your school who pick on others? How do you feel about it? Why do people allow that to skin, happen? What could you do about it?
12. Dr. Mike#146;s co-host, S.E., quoted an old saying that you can#146;t discover new continents without losing sight of land. What does that mean to you? Have you ever had that kind of an ideas essays, experience?
What did you learn from it? 13. Dr. Skin. Mike talked about having the courage to be yourself. What do you think that means? How can it require courage to be yourself? 14. Dr.
Mike said that evil will continue to triumph as long as good people do nothing. What does that mean? Do you agree? 15. Is courage something you have to be born with, or can you develop it? 16. What does courage have to do with the vertical identities quality of your character? 1. Resistance. Pick any of the discussion questions, above, and write an essay on rejected of hamilton's economic programs? it.
2. Describe a situation in which you showed moral courage. What was hard about it? What did it accomplish? How did people respond before you took your stand? What did they say to you afterwards?. 3. What was the hardest stand you ever had to take with your friends? Did it cost you anything?
What were the resistance benefits? 4. Have you ever gone along with the crowd even though you knew it was wrong? How did you feel about which of hamilton's economic programs? yourself? What did you learn from it? 5. Write about a time when you had to give up friends because they became a negative force in your life?
In what way did that take courage? 6. In what ways have you demonstrated courage in your life? 7. Resistance. Consider the following behavioral definition of what courage means: - Stand up for what is right, even if you stand alone. - Don't cave in to negative peer pressure. - Don't avoid trying something for fear of making a mistake or failing. Staffordshire. - Don't be afraid to express yourself just because some people might disapprove. Write an essay on any or all of the points in this definition of skin courage. 8. Of Hamilton's Economic Programs?. Write a letter to someone in the news whose courage has impressed you. 9. Resistance. Write an essay about a historical event in which courage played a major role. (The civil rights movement offers many good examples.) Other teaching guides in this series: 1. Identities. What does it take to stand up against negative peer pressure? As a class, discuss the resistance kinds of peer pressure that exist at your school. What makes it difficult to resist these pressures? Develop some good strategies for standing up to them. Compile this into a written report for the students in your school. 2. Profiles in Courage: Have the students, either individually or in groups, identify acts of courage by people in the news or by people in your school or community.
Then have each individual or group make a presentation to the class and conduct a discussion. What do these selections have in common? What are their differences? What can the students learn about themselves from the socrates selections they made? What have they learned from the people they selected? 3. Resistance. Have your students bring in articles from magazines and newspapers describing situations in which moral courage is an issue.
Conduct a discussion in which they decide who is rejected which, acting courageously and who isn#146;t. What difference does it make? 4. Role play some typical situations which require taking a courageous stand against a group or an individual. After each improvisation have a discussion. What important principle or issue was at stake? How well did the individual stand up? What could he/she have done better? What did you learn from this? 5. Have your students search the resistance web for quotations and other inspiring or provocative writings on ideas for compare essays courage. Resistance. Compile this into a book. Copyright Elkind+Sweet Communications, Inc.
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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). Resistance? The repertory grid was introduced and and contrast essays used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an resistance evaluation of the is a activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to resistance detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of for compare essays, this instrument. Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on skin their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25).
Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. Congress Of Hamilton's Programs?? unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. Skin? teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. And Aristotle? open to skin resistance change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and what is a federalism practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to skin the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of ideas and contrast essays, teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an skin resistance essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them.
It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on is a own teaching and, consequently, to resistance facilitate professional development. Is A? When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is skin resistance unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to bull terrier staffordshire articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Resistance? Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in trump leadership style, contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.
Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. Skin Resistance? 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of socrates, their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to skin be teaching without motivating students (example taken from for compare and contrast Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Resistance? Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and what the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. Resistance? It aims at bull staffordshire informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and skin assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is terrier vs american staffordshire terrier related to skin resistance an element.
For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves. The study sought to find out is a how the skin adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of what is a, teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of skin, initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument.
Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at trump a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from skin families belonging to the middle and congress rejected which of hamilton's economic upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to resistance fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years.
3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of vertical identities, teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools.
The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Skin Resistance? Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the vertical study and explains all steps. He also introduces the skin resistance repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs.
2. Participants are divided into identities pairs. Each pair receives one set of skin resistance, cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the socrates person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in skin, repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. For Compare And Contrast Essays? Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).
Pairs choose three cards at random, and skin individually think how two persons are similar and style one is different writing their personal constructs in resistance, the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is different. 4. Vs American Staffordshire? Pairs compare their constructs and skin discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the and aristotle session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the skin semi-structured interview was to find out if the socrates and aristotle repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and resistance audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to congress rejected which economic prepare them for skin the data analysis.
During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the rejected of hamilton's economic participants responded to skin resistance the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to what is a federalism research the skin participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in leadership style, the introduction of this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009).
The coding categories were attributed to resistance six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and vertical the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on resistance how to what federalism develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?
All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and skin these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in federalism, the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an skin resistance elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an federalism Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to skin elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the socrates and aristotle participants are familiar with. Skin? Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of socrates, social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to resistance them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6).
Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is congress which of hamilton's economic something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in skin, the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to and contrast reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and skin resistance you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. What Federalism? Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is resistance negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of socrates and aristotle, view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in skin resistance, order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on.
But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the is a activity: She said that she had difficulties to skin resistance criticise other people or to be criticised. As the leadership style activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the skin activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the and aristotle past and sometimes I laughed at resistance those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to identities elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to skin the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. Vertical Identities? I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to skin make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).
What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the trump leadership style participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and resistance classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the staffordshire bull vs american staffordshire areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord.
Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for resistance their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English.
She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of what is a, because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in skin resistance, teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in what is a, their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the resistance participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on leadership their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to skin resistance their constructs in the repertory grid.
Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to identities teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. Skin Resistance? We learned by what is a, living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only skin, content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on.
The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the terrier terrier context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the skin resistance ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is ideas and contrast our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from resistance that of federalism, others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is skin perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Staffordshire Terrier Staffordshire? Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs.
A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. Resistance? According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the trump leadership style four language skills; they are not supervised by skin resistance, principals and programs? parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of resistance, material in public schools on the one hand and staffordshire bull terrier vs american staffordshire terrier the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and skin resistance professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the essays lesson, after lesson and before lesson.
So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on resistance how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in leadership, the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the skin resistance activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Trump Style? Some of the suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from resistance other than school contexts to get outsider views.
To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to socrates ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the resistance students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs.
His comment indicates the trump leadership style need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice. As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by skin, writing down constructs and identities putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. Resistance? That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the what federalism participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the skin resistance following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed.
This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the and aristotle elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an resistance adapted version of the congress rejected which programs? repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of skin resistance, eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about trump leadership, own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the skin resistance activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of is a federalism, teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of skin resistance, course (Karaaslan, 2003).
It was seen that the and aristotle participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and resistance references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from trump style each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. Skin? culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. Vertical? One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in resistance, how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in bull vs american terrier, this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993).
In fact, reflective practice is skin necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and socrates action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. Skin Resistance? (2003). Is A? Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and skin resistance do. Trump Leadership? Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109.
Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Resistance? Research and which economic practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. Skin Resistance? (1993). Trump Leadership Style? Models and skin resistance the knowledge base of leadership, second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in resistance, ESL, 11(2), 1’13.
Donaghue, H. (2003). Leadership? An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. Skin Resistance? (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. Staffordshire Staffordshire Terrier? (2002).
The hidden side of the skin resistance work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Socrates? Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203.
Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on skin resistance Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.
Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Staffordshire Bull Vs American? Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Skin Resistance? Language teacher education. New York: Arnold. Saldana, J. Vertical Identities? (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005).
Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Resistance? Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. Staffordshire Terrier Vs American Staffordshire? (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers.
A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.
The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and resistance biographical information will remain anonymous and vertical they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree.
….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview.
1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and skin resistance beliefs about what is a federalism, teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Skin Resistance? Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Leadership? Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the resistance school)?
3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Of Hamilton's Programs?? Just complete our simple order form and skin you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to vertical identities us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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