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budget essay All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. Essay About Development Of Biological Accessible! These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Effective Budgeting Research Paper. Effective budgeting makes significant contributions towards enhancing the efficiency of execution of Essay Nicu, organizational functions, implying that improper budget can jeopardize the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. In addition, excellent budgeting processes should match the business needs of the organization. The basic implication that can be derived from this is that an effective systematic budgeting process is Essay about for Specialists, influenced by the core concepts of planning and control, which can help in value creation for the organization. In addition, excellent budgeting functions as a framework for Essay Russia organizational planning and control and resource allocation, whereby the organizational goals and objectives are represented quantitatively in financial terms.
The paper aimed at critically evaluating the following assertions: 1) an excellent budget process is the ability to convert objectives and goal into data. 2) Finding the resources to implement the budget calls for extensive use of human resources and involves correct perceptions of individual roles and about Development for Specialists communication plays an important role. The paper also discussed the differences between communication flows when the budgeting process is imposed or participatory. About! It was summed up that an Essay Accessible, excellent budget plays an integral in the achievement of organizational goals and adjectives, which implies that excellent budgeting has the ability of transforming the organizational goals and objectives into american romanticism characteristics, data. It was also established that the effective implementation of the budget requires the extensive deployment of human resources, which is attained through correct perceptions of the individual roles and the role that communication plays in the formation of an excellent budget.
Table of Contents. An excellent budget process is the ability to convert objectives and goal into data 5. Performance objectives and Essay about of Biological Accessible for Specialists budgeting 5. Integration and coordination during the budgeting process 6. Finding the resources to implement the budget calls for extensive use of human resources and involves correct perceptions of individual roles and communication plays an important role 8. The differences between the communication flows when the 1950s tvs budgeting process is imposed or participatory 11. The test of an excellent budget is the ability to Essay about Development Information convert objectives and goals into sentence with civil, data. About Accessible! A budget is defined as the sentence civil quantitative allocation of organizational resources for particular operations and plans for a forthcoming time. They usually serve as the financial blueprint for the company basing on its goals and objectives. The success of the budget is of Biological Accessible for Specialists, evaluated in terms of Essay Nicu, its facilitation of the Essay about of Biological Accessible for Specialists realization of the established goals and objectives during the budgeting process (Brigham #038; Ehrhardt, 2011).
Effective budgeting makes significant contributions towards enhancing the efficiency of execution of organizational functions, implying that improper budget can jeopardize the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. In addition, excellent budgeting processes should match the business needs of the about and Oceania organization. Essay About Of Biological Information Accessible For Specialists! The basic implication that can be derived from this is that an effective systematic budgeting process is influenced by the core concepts of planning and control, which can help in Essay about and Oceania, value creation for the organization. In addition, excellent budgeting functions as a framework for organizational planning and control, whereby the organizational goals and objectives are represented quantitatively in financial terms. The formulated plans are used in the course of the business period, whereby the actual outcomes are compared with the anticipated results outlined in the budget (Deegan #038; Unerman, 2005). As a control mechanism, the management can make use of the performance evaluations to execute appropriate corrective strategies. The role of excellent budgeting is best understood in the context of the five core functions of management including planning, staffing, organizing, controlling and Essay for Specialists directing. Budgeting is needed in the planning and controlling phases of management. In the light of this view, finding the resources required to elie speech implement the budget requires the about Development Information Accessible for Specialists extensive use of human resources and entails correct perceptions of individual roles an american characteristics, communication plays an important role in the budgeting operations, whether it is imposed or participatory. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the above statement and discusses the differences between the communication flaws and when the budgeting process is imposed or participatory (Eddie #038; Peter, 2007). An excellent budget process is the ability to of Biological Accessible convert objectives and goal into data.
Budgeting, just like planning, is future oriented. This means that a plan indicates what the goals and objectives of the organization at some point in the future. Habits! Organizations usually have some variables that it should control, which may include the financial resources, the production methods, human resources and organizational assets. Forecasts and planning are an important aspect of the planning process that takes into consideration the external factors affecting the business operations, which the organization has no control of. Such variables include actions undertaken by the government, the spending habits of the consumers, the about Development of Biological Information for Specialists interest rates and the strategies adopted by 1950s tvs the competitors (Gibson, 2010). Owing to the fact that the about Development for Specialists management of the organization is not in a capacity to influence the external factors, its planning and american romanticism characteristics budgeting should be confined within the controllable variables. This implies that planning entails what the organization is going to do in relation to the variables that it has the capacity to control. The management of an organization can use excellent budgeting to aid the about Information planning process (Gibson, 2010). The establishment of goals is an initial step in 1950s tvs, the planning and budgeting process.
The organizational goals are diverse and can include increasing profitability and returns on Essay about investment, competitive advantage, increasing the market share and so on. There are different levels of goals that an organization can adopt including the general goals, which are considered to 1950s tvs be directional and can include strategies for growth, adopting a low cost strategy and quality leadership. Irrespective of the hierarchical levels of the goals adopted by the various organizational levels, it is important that they harmonize with each other (Higson, 2003). Excellent budgeting should aim at Essay about Development Information ensuring the goals adopted by the organization are attained in the long term; this is due to the fact budgeting facilitates effective resource allocation to Essay about nursing the organizational goals that are of about of Biological Accessible, priority depending on the hierarchy of the goals at the various levels within the organization (Higson, 2003). Performance objectives and budgeting.
Performance objectives are considered as targets adopted by the organization. It is important to note that performance objectives are measurable, action-oriented and specific, implying that they have a time dimension. Excellent budgeting can help the management of an organization to formalize its goals and sentence with civil the performance objectives in financial terms for a given time duration (Horngren, 2003). Excellent budgeting processes require the organizational management to outline its plans within a common denominator. For example, the plans adopted by the marketing department will be incorporated to a sales budget and a budget for the marketing expense, which are established at the same time (Bogsnes, 2008).
Integration and coordination during the budgeting process. It is Essay about Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists, vital to take into consideration the of reading fact that excellent budgeting coordinates all the business operations. Essay About Information Accessible! This implies that effective budgeting serves to a study habits integrate the of Biological Information revenue plans, the expenditure plans, financial and asset requirements. This implies that budgeting serves to integrate all the plans of the various functional units within the organization. Coordination and integration are an important aspect of sentence with civil rights, budgeting that facilitates the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives (Brigham #038; Ehrhardt, 2011). Effective coordination among the various functional units within the organization can help in bring their plans to correspondence with the objectives of the organization. It is for this reason that an Essay about for Specialists, effective budgeting process can be used to convert the romanticism established goals and objectives into real data and outcomes for the organization.
This is attained by harmonizing the goals and objectives of various functional units with the organization with its overall goals (Horngren, 2003). Excellent budgeting process entails a documentation of the assumptions and the specific plans in the budget, which a core requirement during the Essay about Development Accessible budgeting process. About! A significant advantage associated effective and systematic budgeting process is that it results to systematic planning. Lack of proper documentation implies that the management can undertake shortcuts during the planning process (Higson, 2003). Essay About Development Accessible! In addition, documentation serves as a justification of the budget; which is usually done in a manner to reflect the organizational requirements to facilitate the achievement of the elie wiesel indifference speech objectives of the organization. It can therefore be argued that through documentation and justification of budget, the organizational goals and objectives can be transformed into actual outcomes that are measurable (Horngren, 2003). About Accessible For Specialists! Excellent budgeting process also facilitates the control function of organizational management.
Controlling mainly entails monitoring and evaluating the plan implementation, after which corrective action can be adopted. Owing to the fact that budgets are financial representation of the organizational plans, there are directly connected to the control function of organizational management (Jeremy #038; Robin, 2003). The budget can be used as a performance evaluation tool for the actual financial performance of the organization. This is achieved by a comparison of the actual performance with the budget provisions in order to measure the level of romanticism characteristics, deviations, which may be used as an indicator for corrective actions, which can be modified in accordance with the goals and objectives of the organization. This is based on about Development of Biological Accessible the view that excellent budgeting provides the management of the organization with a framework for analysis and interpreting the outcomes in order to adopt reactive strategies (Maher, 2005). It is important to take into a study of reading habits, consideration the fact effective budgeting is not a form of forecasting. Forecasting mainly entails the prediction of the outcomes of the events, which is in contrary to budgeting, which entails planning for the outcome and adopting control strategies in order to Essay of Biological Information for Specialists capitalize on 1950s tvs the chances for the attainment of the about Development of Biological for Specialists desired outcomes. The effectiveness of budgeting processes requires the coordination and involvement of all management levels in order to ensure the realization of the potential benefits associated with coordination and controlling (Maher, 2005). Excellent budgeting also makes significant contributions to the attainment of the about Russia organizational goals by providing a framework for effective strategic planning, which mainly entails planning for the future direction of the firm basing on the present state of affairs. The role of effective budgeting is that it facilitates the establishment of realistic goals for the business in accordance to the business environment (Warren #038; Reeve, 2011).
Strategic management involves the transformation of organizational resources into elements that can enhance the performance of the organization, mostly in their external business environments. Some of the effective approaches to strategic management include the specification of the organizations vision and mission, development of Essay Development Information Accessible for Specialists, well-planned policies and effective allocation of resources in order to Russia and Oceania facilitate the about Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists realization of the stipulated goals and objectives of the firm. Organizations are in dire need of Essay nursing, strategic planning primarily because of the unpredictable trend of the global market place. Effective budgeting enhances the about for Specialists precision of strategy formation. . Wiesel Indifference Speech! If strategy formation and evaluation are effective, the implementation of strategic management will not be a significant challenge to the business enterprise (Solomon, 2010). Strategy formation typically entails option generation, which involves the establishment possible plan of approaches.
Strategic formation is a sequential process, which begins by conducting a situation analysis for the organization, an evaluation of the status for the business enterprise. Having carried an analysis, objectives are set in accordance with the long term and short term business requirements (Sid #038; Eric, 2003). Vision statements are also drafted, financial goals and strategic business objectives are set up. It is important that the proposed objectives put into consideration the results of situational analysis, as a result, facilitate the establishment of strategic plan. The strategic plan should outline the process of the realization of the proposed objectives.
Effective budgeting also facilitates the process of strategic implementation of the plan, which entails the putting of the proposed strategic plan into Development of Biological Information Accessible, action. Strategic planning depends on strategic evaluation, after the choice of effective plan of approach that clearly outlines the goals and objectives of the contemporary strategic management ( Harvard Business School, 2005). Because of the increasing complexity of the Essay and Oceania business environment and increasing decentralization of large organizations, there is need to adopt effective controlling and planning strategies. As a result, excellent budgeting comes in handy because they are based on the guiding principles of responsibility accounting and financial reporting. The organizational budget, together with the details plans serves to document the goals and objectives of the organization. The fundamental argument is that linking the budget to the strategic planning processes serves to enhance the organizational planning effort, which is core towards the attainment of the goals and objectives of the organization. Development Of Biological Accessible! Therefore, it can be summed up that an excellent budget process is the ability to convert objectives and goal into data (Shim #038; Siegel, 2011).
Finding the resources to implement the budget calls for about nursing extensive use of human resources and involves correct perceptions of individual roles and Development of Biological for Specialists communication plays an important role. In order to implement an effective budget, firms need to be selective when allocating the responsibilities of the budgeting processes. Indifference Speech! This implies that the people responsible for the budgeting process should take into account he values, strategies and plans of the organization. In addition, cost efficiency and effectiveness is required and that the knowledge of the resources required to generate the revenue for the strategic plans should be effectively allocated (Gibson, 2010). Essay About Development Information Accessible For Specialists! These pre-requisites are essential when making the extensive use of human resources during the budgeting process during the habits planning, controlling and allocation of the organizational resources. Development Of Biological For Specialists! The implication of this is that organizations should make use budgeting teams that are of an optimal size in order to eliminate the potential discrepancies when forming the budgets. Effective budgeting processes require extensive use of human resources and their respective involvement in the process (Gibson, 2010).
For the budgeting process to be sound, it must meet the needs of the elie wiesel indifference speech organization, maintain a consistency with the Essay about Development of Biological Accessible organizational structure and take into consideration the human resources. In addition, a sound budgeting process needs the Essay about Russia and Oceania integration and cooperation of the various organizational level including the top level management, the operational management and the support of the lower level staff within the organization (Gibson, 2010). Apart from using the human resources during budget formation, it is also important that the budget should aim at exploiting the organizational resources including the financial and human resources. Owing to the fact that the budget establishes the vision for organizational growth, the success of its execution depends on the effectiveness of the personnel in charge of its execution. Furthermore, the budget is considered as a managerial tool for the organization that can be used in Accessible for Specialists, foreseeing its operations and the allocation of personnel and financial resources for the completion of the business operations outlined in the budget (Roman, 2003).
Extensive use of the human resource entails the role of the management in with rights, the explaining the budget. After the approval of the final budget for the organization for every functional department within the organizations and the budget for Essay of Biological Information the entire organization, they are distributed to the departmental managers. This can create resentment in cases whereby a department’s organization was significantly reduced in the final budget. 1950s Tvs! In order to eliminate potential cases of resentment, which can significantly affect the commitment that departmental managers have on the goals and objectives of the organization, the Essay about Development of Biological Information for Specialists top management has the responsibility of explaining the budgetary decisions and their rationalization. An honest disclosure during the budgeting process is needed for it to be sound (Gibson, 2010). American Characteristics! Assigning responsibility is also a vital phase of the budgeting process that requires the extensive use of human resources.
An effective budgeting process requires that every member of the organization has a responsibility in achieving the financial goals outlined in Essay about Development, the budget. This is not usually simple due to the fact that there is sharing of characteristics, responsibility across the various functional units and organizational levels. Such constraints to effective budgeting can be eliminated through ensuring that there is accountability for the outcomes to the levels that makes the execution of the budget effective. Each personnel involved in the execution of the budget must be aware of the manager that he/she is supposed to report to ( Harvard Business School, 2005). Effective implementation of the budget requires the use of responsibility reporting, which facilitates the tracing of all the budgetary expenditures to a particular manager within the organization. This simply means that budgetary expenditures must be authorized by a particular manager within the organization. Responsibility reporting is analogous to the view that performance objectives must be traceable to managers within the firm.
Therefore, budgetary expenses incurred by a manager and the functional unit in his/her control when in pursuit of the performance objective should be recorded. Responsibility accounting fosters responsible spending, which is directly related to the organizational structure of the firm (Deegan #038; Unerman, 2005). A participative bottom-up approach to budget implementation and preparation is recommended for the finding the resources needed to implement the budget. A participative bottom up approach ensures that there is Development Information for Specialists, extensive use of human resources. The bottom up budgeting process starts at the operating level and is determined by the goals and objectives of the functional units. However, the goals adopted by the functional units should make significant contributions towards the attainment of the overall goals and objectives of the larger organization (Sid #038; Eric, 2003). Departmental managers are usually more motivated when their participation is guaranteed in 1950s tvs, the budgetary process. A wider participation ensures that the budget receives support and the underlying goals that are to be accomplished after its implementation. Budgetary decisions have to be explained to the members of the organizations through communication.
In addition, a participative approach enhances the Accessible for Specialists accuracy of the budget estimates, which is a core requirement in the achievements of the goals and objectives of the firm. Managers who have operational responsibility for activities outlined in the budget have a better understanding of the outcomes that can be realized and their respective costs (Shim #038; Siegel, 2011). In addition, this eliminates the of reading habits blames directed at unrealistic goals for not achieved the Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible expectations of the budget when that have participated in the formation of the budget. Irrespective of the involvement of the lower level managers in the implementation of the budget, the top level management must still be involved in sentence civil rights, the budgeting process in order to Essay about Information integrate the goals of the various functional units and ensure that that they are consistent with the goals of the a study of reading larger organization. Participative bottom-up approach is needed in cases the responsibility of the Essay of Biological organizational unit managers require innovation.
This is american romanticism, because the managers of the functional units have comprehensive knowledge of what should be achieved, the opportunities and challenges, the resources to be allocated and the problem areas that must be addressed (Gibson, 2010). Organizational communication plays an important role in finding the resources required for the implementation of the budget. The effectiveness of interdepartmental coordination and cooperation significantly depends on communication. In addition, communication serves to about Information Accessible harmonize the goals and objectives of various departments to ensure that they concur with the goals and objectives of the entire organization. Organizational communication is also needed when fostering coordination among the various management levels within the organization. Of Reading Habits! This plays an important role in eliminating resentments within the organization due to perceived biases in budgetary decisions (Maher, 2005). Essay About Development! As such, the top management has the Essay and Oceania responsibility of outlining the budgetary decisions and the reasons for the choice of such decisions. It is Essay about of Biological for Specialists, arguably evident the effective implementation of the budget requires the extensive deployment of human resources, which is attained through correct perceptions of the individual roles and the role that communication plays in the formation of an excellent budget (Jeremy #038; Robin, 2003). The differences between the communication flows when the budgeting process is imposed or participatory.
There are two different approaches that organizations can deploy during the budgeting process. They include the rights participative bottom up and the authoritative top down approach whereby the budget is Development for Specialists, imposed (Deegan #038; Unerman, 2005). The participative budgeting process entails the involvement of the operational managers while the 1950s tvs authoritative budgeting process is characterized by budgetary imposition on the lower level managers with their participation being restrained. It is important to note that the success of the budget is Development Accessible for Specialists, mainly determined by the manner in which the indifference speech budget was developed. Budget programs that have turned out successful are characterized by the active participation of managers who have the responsibilities of Essay Development Information Accessible, cost control, which is a key element of wiesel indifference, participative budgeting.
There is a probability that the authoritative budgets that are imposed will result to increased cases of Essay Development Accessible, resentments, which are significant barriers towards the attainment of cooperation and commitment that is needed to facilitate the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization ( Harvard Business School, 2005). Communication flows during budgeting are mainly determined by the amount of participation of the 1950s tvs lower level managers in the budgeting process. The flow of budget data in the context of participative budgeting process starts from the lower levels of Essay Development for Specialists, responsibility to the higher levels of management responsibility. Typical scenarios of budget data flow starts from supervisory levels of management, then to the middle management to the top management. Basically, each personnel having cost control responsibilities are supposed to develop their own budgetary estimates, after which they submit their budget estimations to the next higher management levels within the organization (Eddie #038; Peter, 2007). Reviews and consolidation of the budget data takes place as the budget data flows move up the higher levels of management. This usually involves a scrutiny of the budgets with higher management levels. Budget reviews serve to eliminate the american potential occurrences of budget slacks, which will result to inefficiency and waste. In the context of participatory budgets, reviews are undertaken prior to the acceptance of the budgets by the top management. In addition, participative budgets ensure that all levels of the organization corporate when developing the budget. Owing to the fact that the top management is not familiar with the operational aspects of the organization, the budgeting process should rely on the data provided by the subordinates, with the top level management having a role of about Development for Specialists, harmonizing the elie goals of the Essay about Development Accessible for Specialists various functional units within the firm.
Therefore, each of the cost responsibility levels within the organization should make significant contributions that can help in the formulation of an integrated budget ( Harvard Business School, 2005). American Romanticism Characteristics! The top down budgetary approach is usually implemented during long term budget in circumstances whereby the about Development of Biological Information for Specialists organization is characterized by interdependence within the various functional units. A top down approach usually entails an imposed budgeting approach, whereby the budget data flows from the higher levels of management responsibility towards the lower levels of responsibilities. Under this approach, the with civil rights different functional units are given specific performance objectives (Higson, 2003). There is a possibility that the budgets adopted by the functional units cannot ensure the Essay about of Biological Accessible for Specialists achievement of the goals and objectives of the larger organization due to potential inconsistencies relating to the assumptions adopted by the different functional units. Essay About And Oceania! A drawback of this budgeting methodology is Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists, that the lower levels staff may not have the 1950s tvs required to formulate effective budgets that are needed for Essay Development of Biological Information for Specialists every functional unit within the organization (Gibson, 2010). In addition, this approach to communication flows can significantly affect the motivation and commitment of managers due to the fact they are restrained from elie wiesel speech preparing the budget, rather their budgets are shaped by the budgetary requirements imposed by the top level management. This approach restrains creativity. It is vital for Development of Biological Information the budget to take into account the inputs of the affected operational managers, which are supposed to be integrated in the larger organizational budget. This paper has discussed the role of excellent budgeting in transforming organizational goals and objectives into data and the differences between the communication flows in cases of imposed and participative budget. Effective budgeting makes significant contributions towards enhancing the efficiency of execution of organizational functions, implying that improper budget can jeopardize the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization.
In addition, excellent budgeting processes should match the business needs of the organization. The basic implication that can be derived from this is that an effective systematic budgeting process is influenced by the core concepts of planning and control, which can help in value creation for the organization. It is important to note that the american success of the budget is mainly determined by the manner in which the budget was developed. Budget programs that have turned out successful are characterized by the active participation of managers who have the responsibilities of cost control, which is a key element of participative budgeting. Harvard Business School, 2005.
The essentials of finance and budgeting. New York: Harvard Business Press. Bogsnes, B., 2008. Implementing Beyond Budgeting: Unlocking the Performance Potential. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Brigham, E.F. #038; Ehrhardt, E.C., 2011. Financial management: Theory and practice. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Information! Deegan, C. #038; Unerman, J., 2005. The financial reporting environment. In Financial accounting theory.
London: McGraw Hill. pp.31-54. Civil! Eddie, M. #038; Peter, A., 2007. Accounting: An Introduction. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Gibson, C., 2010. Financial Reporting #038; Analysis: Using Financial Accounting Information. Essay Of Biological Accessible! New York: Cengage Learning.
Higson, A., 2003. Corporate financial reporting: theory and practice. London: Sage. Horngren, D., 2003. Cost Accounting A Managerial Emphasis. New York: Prentice Hall. Jeremy, H. #038; Robin, F., 2003. Beyond budgeting: how managers can break free from the annual performance trap. New York: Harvard Business Press.
Maher, L., 2005. Fundamentals of sentence with rights, Cost Accounting. New York: Mc GrawHill. Development Accessible! Roman, H., 2003. Budgeting: Approaches and Shortcomings. New York: GRIN Verlag. Shim, J. #038; Siegel, J., 2011. Budgeting Basics and Beyond. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1950s Tvs! Sid, K. #038; Eric, D., 2003.
Budgeting for managers. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. Solomon, J., 2010. Essay Development Information! Corporate Governance and Accountability. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Warren, C. #038; Reeve, J., 2011.
Financial and Managerial Accounting. New York: Cengage Learning.
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odyssey essay funny In my estimation we have experienced an epoch in photography. Essay About Development Of Biological Information. Here is a free spirit, untrammeled by tradition and theory, who has gone out and found beauty unparalleled in Essay and Oceania photography. . . . Edward Steichen, 1962. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Ernst Haas, acclaimed as one of the most celebrated and influential photographers of Essay about of Biological Information Accessible this century, was born in Austria in 1921. About Nicu. He attended medical school, but his strong artistic bent led him to the camera. Essay Of Biological Information. He was without professional training, twenty six years old, when he shot into 1950s tvs, fame with his first essay, Homecoming Prisoners of War, photographed in his native Vienna. . . Essay About Accessible. . When I saw that first set of pictures, I knew I had stumbled upon about a genius and I felt a chill up and down my spine. . . Essay About Of Biological Information Accessible For Specialists. . its editor remembered decades later. With this essay Haas set a new standard for sentence, delicacy of feeling and empathy in photojournalism. Its publication brought Haas two invitations: one from Robert Capa to join Magnum, the year-old cooperative of Essay Development international photojournalists; the other to join the Essay Nicu nursing staff of LIFE magazine, the of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists most prominent popularizer of photography of the era.
Haas chose Magnum, becoming the first photographer to Essay Russia and Oceania be invited to do so by its founders, Robert Capa, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger, and David Seymour. Within two years, Haas was working in the United States. While photographing in black and white in the New Mexico desert, he experienced a great longing for color. Thus began a life-long odyssey of exploration of the uses and meaning of color in photography. Haas's frustration with the limitations of technology pushed him at every turn to be slightly ahead of his time. Essay About Accessible For Specialists. He was a technological pioneer with the Essay about Nicu eye of about of Biological Accessible a painter and the soul of a poet. It has been written that before Haas there was no color photography, only colored photographs. Haas's first color essay was on New York, the city he would ultimately make his home. When the editors of LIFE magazine saw it, they gave it an unheard-of layout of 24 pages and called it Magic Images of a City. Essays on Paris and Venice followed.
Ten years later, when the Museum of Modern Art held their first color retrospective, it was the work of Haas they chose to feature. Though a Magnum photographer in the heyday of elie speech photojournalism, Haas was not interested in color as reportage. He was interested in the super-reality of dreams. To achieve this he gave commonplace objects and about of Biological Accessible for Specialists, silhouettes new meaning. A reflection brought home the hidden depths underlying a conventional urban storefront; torn posters peeling off buildings shaped themselves into an art gallery. In his quest to produce feelings, he introduced hues and Essay, tones never before seen in printed color.
And at about Information Accessible for Specialists, all times his work was informed and enlightened by a guiding intelligence capable of american romanticism great and quizzical humor. Having changed color photography permanently, Haas turned his attention to the capture of movement. He learned to move with the camera, and first showed motion in an award- winning color essay on bullfighting: through his lens, a brutal art became a graceful dance. Later, investigating sports of all kinds, he captured the exhilaration of speed with a previously unseen clarity. Essay About Development. He explained: To express dynamic motion through a static moment became for me limited and unsatisfactory. The basic idea was to liberate myself from this old concept and arrive at Essay about Russia and Oceania, an image in which the spectator could feel the beauty of a fourth dimension, which lies much more between moments than within a moment. In music one remembers never one tone, but a melody, a theme, a movement. Essay About Development Of Biological Accessible For Specialists. In dance, never a moment, but again the beauty of a movement in time and space. In 1958 an 1950s tvs international panel of 243 eminent critics, teachers, editors, art directors and other photography professionals voted on about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists, the world's 10 Greatest Photographers for Popular Photography magazine. They were: Ansel Adams, Richard Avedon, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Ernst Haas, Philippe Halsman, Yousuf Karsh, Gjon Mili, Irving Penn, and W. Elie Speech. Eugene Smith.
Haas later pushed the boundaries of still and motion photography even further, directing The Creation sequence (based on the book of Genesis) for John Huston's 1964 film, The Bible. His belief that a series of images seen together added up to more than the Essay about Development of Biological Accessible sum of their parts also led him to produce four monumental photographic books. The product of thirteen years of work, The Creation (1971) was the most successful color photography book of its time, selling over 350,000 copies. Commissioned for the bicentennial, Haas regarded his second book, In America (1975), as a love letter to his adopted country, a love affair that had begun when he was a boy in Vienna, his imagination aflame with stories of American Indians. In Germany (1976) represented a return to and investigation of his European roots, and Himalayan Pilgrimage (1978) showed his increasing concern with spiritual matters. In his quest for a more visually attuned world, he created the four part television series The Art of Seeing.
He felt equally strongly about about Nicu nursing, his black and white photography as about his color; each was suitable for Essay about, different modes of expression. In person, Ernst was a delightful man, quick-witted and funny. He had a profound curiosity about people, coupled with graceful old-world manners. 1950s Tvs. Strong, handsome and possessed of great charm, he made strangers instantly comfortable. Essay About Development Accessible. His New York apartment was filled with a cross-cultural collection of handmade artworks and sculptural artifacts. Haas traveled throughout the Russia and Oceania world on assignments for magazines, books, movie coverage, advertising and industry. Everywhere he went, he would seek out Essay about Development of Biological Information for Specialists sacred sites and Essay about Russia and Oceania, rites, from the dances of American Indians, to the Miracle(?) in Greece, to Holy Year in Rome, to the temples of Angkor Wat and Borobudur, the shrines of for Specialists India, Tibet, Bhutan and a study habits, Japan. In his art he often transformed throwaway objects into sacred symbols, as in the photograph with which he identified most: commonly identified as a crucifix, it was a simple pair of underpants lost in the road somewhere in California. Haas said on this subject:
Holy Underwear is the very, very typical double-eight composition. It's an Essay Development Accessible underwear. And this underwear was caught somewhere in the rain, somebody must have lost his pants somewhere, very profane, and then time came and nature came and climate came, and in a certain light, you see it and it becomes a symbol for which people always have a religious feeling. . . Sentence With Civil. . The gentle character of about of Biological Accessible Tibetans fascinated him so much he devoted the last ten years of his life to the study of Mahayana Buddhism, a religion which he felt satisfied all the senses. Whether he was photographing people, recording disappearing cultures, or concentrating on a study of reading habits, the marvels of nature and the seasons, Ernst Haas' photography used spontaneity to mirror reality. In the accidental he saw the gift of Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible life. Essay About Nicu. Beginning in the 1970s he taught workshops all over the world; wildly popular with his students, he encouraged them to express their inner selves. Ernst Haas died in New York of a stroke at age sixty-five. During his life, his work was shown in more than thirty solo exhibitions in the United States, in Europe, in Essay about Information Accessible for Specialists Japan and in South America. Almost every year of his photographic life he was awarded an honor. About the nature of poetry and photography, he wrote:
I see what I think. I see what I feel because I am what I see. If there is nothing to american characteristics see and I still see it, If there is something to see and everybody sees it. —Inge Bondi, Easter, 2000. A Painter in a Hurry: The Photography of Ernst Haas. There is no formula—only man with his conscience speaking, writing and singing in the new hieroglyphic language of light and time. — Ernst Haas. By 1950, as the scholar Jane Livingston has pointed out, a distinct New York School of photography had emerged, its members including Lisette Model, Diane Arbus, Richard Avedon, Alexey Brodovitch, Robert Frank, William Klein, Weegee, Bruce Davidson, and Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists, Helen Levitt. There's a remarkable homogeneity to about the work they produced during that period. Information Accessible For Specialists. Collectively, they built on the models of Lewis Hine, Walker Evans and and Oceania, Henri Cartier-Bresson, with Action Painting, film noir and jazz as parallels in other media; treating the life of the streets as theater, they forged provocative, idiosyncratic ways of describing its dramas.
The late Ernst Haas (1921-1986) was one of of Biological for Specialists their cohorts. Certainly he knew and civil rights, interacted with them all; Vienna-born, then expatriated to Paris, he immigrated to New York in 1950, the heyday of the Essay about for Specialists school's activity, and almost immediately made that city his home and wiesel speech, workplace. I would have become lazy in Vienna, he wrote three decades later, so I went to New York, the city which makes you work and presses everything out of you. . . . New York, a real metropolis, a world within a world, a solution within a solution, growing, decaying. Haas had attended medical school for a year as a young man in Vienna, then studied painting before turning to photography. Essay Development Information For Specialists. In 1943-1944 he pursued a curriculum in photography at the Graphischen Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (he cited Henri Cartier-Bresson and Edward Weston, both of whose images he knew from books and magazines, as his early influences), taking it up as a profession after the liberation of Vienna in 1945. That year he began working for the American Red Cross and the occupation forces. His reportage on that city's post-war traumas and the drama of returning prisoners of war, some of them published in Life magazine, made Haas's reputation in Europe and a study habits, the U.S. About Development Information. (On many of those assignments, Inge Morath, subsequently to become a noted photographer herself, was his researcher and writer.) But he had sickened of his homeland during the war, so he left Austria for France in 1948, relocating himself to Paris. In 1949 he accepted an invitation from Robert Capa to join the sentence prestigious Paris-based picture agency Magnum, a photographers' cooperative founded by Capa, Cartier-Bresson, and other notable photojournalists; the agency's support enabled him to function as a free lance, a status he would maintain throughout his career. In 1951 he crossed the Atlantic to Essay Development Information for Specialists stay.
Of his adopted home, New York City, he also said, I loved its pulse. I loved the indifference directness of its people. I loved all races living together, or at least trying. . . . There is about Development for Specialists very little that is obvious in this city, only elie wiesel indifference, its constant change going on day by Essay about of Biological day, forming, transforming, construction, destruction. No more acute synopsis of this city's magnetic pull on 1950s tvs, photographers has ever been drafted, and Essay about Development Information, many of Haas's images of the city became defining representations of Manhattan at mid-century. At the time Haas arrived in New York, the city's photography community was still small enough that everyone working for the various picture magazines crossed paths constantly. Essay About. (This was the heyday of the printed page, in newspapers and magazines and books, as the primary presentational space for fine photography of all kinds.) Beyond that, however, Haas and the loose coalition of his New York School peers had much in common photographically. The hallmarks of the Essay of Biological Accessible for Specialists group's practice included an attraction to the rapidity and unobtrusiveness of about Nicu small-camera shooting under available light; a conception of the urban milieu as a proscenium; a fluid, spontaneous, gestural responsiveness to the constantly shifting scenario; an embrace of the blurs, graininess and slightly skewed quality that resulted from working under those assumptions; and Essay about Development of Biological, the attentiveness to nuances of behavior and elie wiesel indifference speech, body language in Accessible for Specialists public spaces characteristic of sentence with civil rights what Alfred Kazin called a walker in the city and Walter Benjamin described as the flaneur.
Like his colleagues, Haas took to about Information the streets with his cameras. But he was not confrontational in the manner of Weegee, Klein, Model, or Arbus, nor documentarian and socially critical in the mode that Robert Frank moved through. Instead, more like Saul Leiter, Louis Faurer, David Vestal, and Sid Grossman, Haas was a lyric poet pursuing a photographic equivalent of gestural drawing, utilizing such photographic effects as softness of romanticism focus, selective depth of field, and overexposure to telling effect. Haas at this stage of his work alternated between the twin-lens Rolleiflex with which he had learned to use in Austria (such instruments are held at belly level, and provide 2-1/4-square negatives) and a smaller Leica, the 35-mm. camera of choice at the time. Of Biological. Eventually he would abandon the Rolleiflex for the Leica, which he used exclusively for the rest of his life.
When he arrived in the States, Haas worked strictly in black white, which was still the rule rather than the exception in reportage and Essay about Russia, which the members of this group all favored for about Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists, their non-commercial personal work, monochrome signifying for them (as it has come to for us) authenticity and Nicu nursing, realism. Yet while he shared in many ways his comrades' gritty, collective vision of the archetypal metropolis in the Fifties, Haas, who first experimented with Kodak color film in Essay Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists 1949, would be seduced gradually by the challenge of color, and Essay, would start exploring it seriously in 1952, becoming, along with Eliot Porter and a small handful of others, one of the earliest exponents of the creative potential of color photography. Eventually he would eschew black white almost entirely, establishing himself as a master of small-camera color photography, building therein the substantial, well-known and about Development Information for Specialists, influential body of elie wiesel indifference work on which his reputation principally rests today. Haas once wrote, I never really wanted to be a photographer. It slowly grew out of the compromise of a boy who desired to about of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists combine two goals -- explorer or painter. I wanted to Essay about travel, see and experience. What better profession could there be than the one of a photographer, almost a painter in a hurry, overwhelmed by too many constantly changing impressions? But all my inspirational influences came much more from all the for Specialists arts than from photo magazines.
Due perhaps to his early training in the arts, Haas hewed closely to many of the traditions of small-camera photography of his day, which mandated, among other things, a minimum of post-exposure manipulation of the image. Color materials, in any case, allow the photographer far less latitude for darkroom interpretation that black white. Yet within those parameters he experimented diversely within his medium of choice, becoming one of the first to push color photography into the realm of the poetic. What Haas looked for, and began to find, in his last monochromatic work was what he finally realized most fully in a study of reading color: a photography that was not dominated by what Richard Kirstel has called the tyranny of the subject. Like those members of the Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists New York School with whom he had most in common, and like another figure whose explorations must be factored into this equation, the late Aaron Siskind, Haas had grown tired of sentence civil making pictures of the world and even of Essay about Development of Biological making images about it; instead, he'd become desirous of Essay about Nicu nursing making images that were simply drawn from it. The teacher and theorist Henry Holmes Smith once wrote (in an essay on Siskind), The question: 'What was really there?' becomes as irrelevant as what Monet's lily pond really looked like to Mme. Monet when she rode by on her bicycle.
Haas's mature color images come to Essay about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists that same conclusion. What we see in his work, in short, is the evolution of a sensibility grounded in the specificity of reportage but drawn, even as early as a 1945 image of the american walls of bombed buildings in Vienna, to the abstract. Haas mastered the formal structures and style of photojournalism, and of that extension of about Development it loosely called street photography, only to leave them behind. By the american late 1950s he was eminently capable of making intelligent accounts of Essay about Development of Biological Information Montgomery Clift and Marilyn Monroe on the set of 1950s tvs The Misfits, one of numerous films on which he worked as still photographer. (Others include Little Big Man, Moby Dick, Hello Dolly, and West Side Story, as well as The Bible, for which he also served as a consultant.) And he could easily turn from such subjects to generate well-structured images describing the dances of Bali, or a complexly orchestrated street scene. But his interest lay increasingly in using film, especially color film, as a tool for transforming an object from what it is to what you want it to be. This meant that he was no longer working in the same territory as Cartier-Bresson; instead, he was positioning himself alongside Siskind, Edward Weston and Accessible, Minor White, as an american romanticism characteristics exponent of the metaphorical potential of the photographic image. He continued to about Development of Biological Information Accessible earn his living by crafting substantial picture stories for major periodicals; between 1952 and 1960, in addition to american characteristics his free-lance assignments for Life magazine, Haas also produced notable essays for Esquire, Look, Holiday, and Paris-Match. In 1960 he served as president of the about Development Information Accessible American Society of Magazine Photographers, of which he had been a long-time member. Essay Nicu. His affiliation with Magnum continued through 1962; and, even late into his life, he served as an adviser for such traditional magazines as Stern (Germany) and Geo. But by the early 1960s he had begun to move past the requirements of commissioned reportage and illustrational work, into Information Accessible, a realm of elie wiesel indifference his own devising. I am a composer / I compose pictures, he jotted down once, and after it, I photograph fiction / as you can't find what I found.
Elsewhere he asserted, [P]hotography became a language with which I have learned to write both prose and poetry. In 1962 the Museum of Modern Art mounted a show of the cream of the first full decade of his color work. The show took place in the year that Edward Steichen retired as director of MoMA's Department of Photographs and John Szarkowski replaced him; the Haas exhibition was among the last of Essay about for Specialists Steichen's curatorial acts, and 1950s tvs, also MoMA's first solo exhibition by a photographer working in Essay Information Accessible color. Sentence With Civil. Ironically, almost a decade and Essay of Biological, a half later, in 1976, Szarkowski would shock the elie wiesel indifference speech world of photography by championing the color work of Essay Information Accessible William Eggleston, hailing Eggleston as the inventor of of reading creative color photography. But, in much the same language as he'd subsequently use to describe Eggleston's approach, Szarkowski had previously written of Haas: The color in color photography has often seemed an Essay Accessible irrelevant decorative screen between the viewer and the fact of the 1950s tvs picture.
Ernst Haas has resolved this conflict by making the Essay of Biological for Specialists color sensation itself the subject matter of his world. No photographer has worked more successfully to express the sheer physical joy of seeing. Haas himself proposed that Color is american romanticism characteristics joy, adding, One does not think joy. One is carried by it. He saw his shift from one material to another as a symbolic, internal, psychological progression, a response to the outside world, with the war years, including at least five bitter post-war years, as the black white ones, or even better, the gray years. About Accessible For Specialists. The gray times were over. 1950s Tvs. As at the beginning of Essay of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists a new spring, I wanted to celebrate in color the new times, filled with new hope. Concerning the conceptual leap involved in his own transition to color, he stated, Black white as a subtraction had to be transformed into an abstraction in color.
I still respect both forms . . . But having the possibility to express a world in color through color, I was searching for american romanticism, a composition in which color became much more than just a colored black white picture. As this suggests, an intensified interest in the act of visual perception had begun to infuse Haas's thinking, and of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists, found its outlet in elie wiesel the pictures he made, in notes and short statements, and in interviews. Though not much given to theorizing -- A color philosophy comes much closer to the truth, he suggested -- he familiarized himself with current theories of color and sight. I myself love to read theories without ever using them when working, he announced. And, in the same vein: I don't want to declare there are no highways of fruitful directions. In learning there are. Follow them, use them, and about of Biological, forget them. Essay About And Oceania. Don't park. Eventually, those ideas, insights, and attitudes worked their way into the lectures he began to give in his short courses at the Maine Photographic Workshops in Rockport, the Anderson Ranch Foundation in Essay about Accessible for Specialists Aspen, Colorado, and elsewhere. In that same year, 1962, a four-part film series for National Educational Television that he wrote and hosted, The Art of Seeing, made its debut.
What Haas was after at that point is best represented by what many consider his magnum opus, the color monograph titled The Creation, published in 1971, almost a decade later -- an ambitious attempt to achieve nothing less than a retelling of the Book of Essay about Nicu nursing Genesis's version of the Essay about Development Information for Specialists birth of the world through photographic imagery, made as if imagining himself the first human, opening his eyes to the planet for the first time. The 1970s saw him continuing his investigation of the poetry of light and color, while publishing books that consolidated his achievements in a more informational, subject-dominated mode. He had a chapter to himself in the second volume of Cornell Capa's germinal anthology, The Concerned Photographer (1972), and issued two monographs of his own reportage, In America (1975) and In Germany (1977). In 1979, he published Himalayan Pilgrimage, with a text by Gisela Minke. Late in of reading habits life, Haas said of himself, I want to be open to everything in this world, and I am even willing to unlearn.
That possibility of self-critical unlearning he'd exemplified in his conversion from black white to color and his evolution from journalist to poet. He also wrote, Important is the Essay of Biological for Specialists end result of your work: the american opus. Essay For Specialists. Therefore, I want to be remembered much more by a total vision than a few perfect single pictures. He'd begun moving beyond the single image early on, developing that total vision first in 1950s tvs the extended form of the about Development Accessible traditional photojournalistic picture story, then in his more experimental, impressionistic magazine layouts (such as the unprecedented 24-page Magic Images of New York layout in Life, which appeared in two installments in the issues of September 14 and 21, 1953), and after that in his carefully structured books and exhibitions. In his later years Haas began exploring what was then called audiovisual form, editing his imagery into nursing, long structures of projected slides accompanied by soundtracks.
I love music, he explained, and with my audiovisual presentation I can combine music and photography -- this is what I like to do best. These anticipatory experiments mark him as a pioneer of what we now call multimedia or time-based arts. Though he might never have abandoned his beloved 35-mm. camera and Kodachrome for electronic camera equipment, it seems likely that, had he lived into the era of digital imaging, he'd have taken up the World Wide Web, the CD-ROM, and other such media as vehicles for his work, testing them for their potential usefulness in his quest for that elusive new hieroglyphic language of light and Essay Development of Biological for Specialists, time whose promise lured him on to the american romanticism characteristics end of his days.
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The “Myth” of Unity: A Response to a 2009 Address Given at St Vladimir’s Seminary. This article was originally published on of Biological, OrthodoxyToday.org. ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an expanded version of a paper he delivered the previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in american romanticism, America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Essay of Biological Jurisdictional Pluralism in american romanticism, North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to argue that the story of the Russian Mission and the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Essay Development Information Accessible Orthodox presence in Essay Nicu, America was largely mythical. Rather, the history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and division from which we can draw little or no guidance for Essay Development, our present situation or the future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in civil rights, America is correct? Is it the Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in Essay Development of Biological, engaging American society and culture? The resolution of this question will impact the future of Orthodoxy in America.
Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in the canonical tradition of Essay Nicu nursing mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and political interests? What follows is my response. I. For Specialists! Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of American Orthodoxy. Recently, an 1950s tvs insightful analysis on about Information, the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at St Vladimir’s Seminary in Crestwood, New York. It was presented by a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of elie indifference administrative unity and thus the Essay about of Biological primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to submit to the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the american romanticism present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.
To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of administrative unity and about of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists, continues to remain so today. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the year 1917 is minimized. As is well known, this is the date considered by many to be the 1950s tvs end of Orthodox unity in America. That year the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the subsidies of the Essay Development of Biological Information Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and 1950s tvs, that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and Essay about Development for Specialists, fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from characteristics its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in the United States to about of Biological Information Accessible the Church of Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by a significant majority of the Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in this newer narrative are several questions.
It is the elie wiesel indifference speech intention of this essay to Essay about Information for Specialists ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee’s research is 1950s tvs, diligent; the facts as laid out Essay about Development of Biological for Specialists are impressive. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of american Its Beginnings . 2 It is probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the interpretation of these facts.
More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible primacy of the Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands. Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the evidence that Namee provides in order to attempt an Russia and Oceania answer. At the risk of belaboring the point, we can state categorically that there already was an established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to about of Biological Information for Specialists canonical norms was beyond dispute. It was recognized not only by the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by american romanticism, secular authorities in America as well. About Development Of Biological Information Accessible! As shall be demonstrated in this response, the Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the Essay about Russia world over as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of about of Biological for Specialists that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for priests, monies for properties and the erection of churches and donations of liturgical items. It should be noted at sentence with this point that in stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of support to their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists the New World.
Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK – 1895. The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the official name of this diocese, can be traced to 1794, to Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from elie indifference speech Valaam monastery established the Essay Development of Biological original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and characteristics, Herman. Its purpose was to evangelize the Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists natives and not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of entire native villages, an act which conferred a degree of nursing political protection on them, most especially from the depredations of the Russian colonial government. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and have been added to the roster or glorified saints. More to the point, all of Essay about Information Accessible for Specialists its bishops stand in a direct line of succession from St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of american romanticism characteristics its purview.
It was the local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known. Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in of Biological Information Accessible, certain precincts. Even in light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at 1950s tvs various times and for various reasons. It is noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . About Development Accessible! As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by some of those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Habits! Be that as it may, the number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, by the time of the creation of the first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America.
3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of Essay about Development Accessible particulars, the argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. That schism from the Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the sentence civil questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in 2007 the GOA Metropolitan of Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the Essay about of Biological Information Accessible OCA a ban which is still in force. 4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the Essay Nicu nursing general secretary of the Development Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, in about Nicu, which he castigated two of the about of Biological Accessible primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of Orthodoxy in american, America, parish life in general, and the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. About Development Of Biological Information For Specialists! His The Secretary’s most startling claim however was that the Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner.
Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of disunity and Russia and Oceania, noxious sentiments abound. In an issue of about Development The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Chicanery is also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the creation of a metropolitan for american characteristics, its one, lone parish in Essay about of Biological Accessible for Specialists, Brooklyn. Recently, during an 1950s tvs official visit in the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the Essay about Information Accessible for Specialists origins of Orthodoxy’s beginnings in North America when he completely ignored the Essay Nicu nursing entire Russian missionary experience.
9 Rather, he lauded the New Smyrna plantation as the about Development Information Accessible fons et origo of Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted. In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into the majority population, leaving no traces of sentence rights Hellenism behind. All of the incidents of about Development Information for Specialists intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. None of elie this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in America is “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to form elementary schools, nursing homes, and Essay about of Biological for Specialists, soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the 1950s tvs fact of their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and much-lauded work, principally in about Development of Biological for Specialists, the international arena. However, these are examples of national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in about and Oceania, cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources.
As for domestic charitable work, the recently created Fellowship of Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of Information Accessible his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed “myth” of unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is desirable or even canonical. This argument in toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to begin from the actual inception of Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Romanticism! Unfortunately the first century of American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is Essay about Information, resolutely ignored and/or marginalized.
The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at Essay about Russia and Oceania all. The historic and massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of Essay Information Accessible for Specialists various ethnicities that were founded or supported by the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of 1950s tvs Russian immigrant parishes and diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the Essay of Biological for Specialists majority of 1950s tvs these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese. Others such as the Greek community of Galveston, Texas were founded in schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. One could be forgiven for getting the impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Essay Of Biological Information! Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the Church of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is canonically valid.
Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and a study of reading, equivocates on some important points. Essay About Development Of Biological Accessible For Specialists! The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on doctrine and sacraments,” in light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to with civil marriage, ordination, and the reception of converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is so ghastly that presently only two doctors in America perform it. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in this matter is nothing less than scandalous. Likewise, the question of membership in Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the spectrum of American Orthodoxy. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and of Biological Information for Specialists, have even served on about, parish councils. About Of Biological For Specialists! 13 No doubt there are other examples of variances in moral standards, all of which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to English being the “lingua franca” of Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out of over 2,100 parishes in of reading habits, the United States, only 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically.
The reason is because for many it is a volatile issue, one having to do with an about Accessible individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for a study of reading habits, many is the sine qua non of Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the universe of responses were more in line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about about of Biological Information for Specialists, making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The “Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the 1950s tvs “creation myth” come from? The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the Orthodox Church in America by Essay about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists, Alexander Schmemann. As for 1950s tvs, the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to this narrative), he identifies the usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the ‘myth of unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to this fact based on my own personal experience.
14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to the conclusion that this was never the about Information case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in two diametrically opposed narratives? It is my contention that despite the best of scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of Orthodoxy in America. American Romanticism! As noted, this newer narrative is based on about Development, a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of others. One of the wiesel indifference speech elements of Essay of Biological for Specialists this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by elie wiesel speech, rights supposedly belong to about Development of Biological Accessible the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in indifference, his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at present it is about Information Accessible for Specialists, tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the Essay Russia and Oceania “creation myth” to justify their claims.
One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to be debunked by serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to Development of Biological Information Accessible the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on Essay Nicu, the other hand feels that the matter is Essay about of Biological Information, settled because the Essay about Nicu “myth” of unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to Essay Accessible “nonfactual” research?) is conducted. In other words, Arey and his partisans in the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is about nursing, research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for Essay about Development, the moment the novel claims of 1950s tvs Constantinopolitan supremacy and the sloppy logic of Essay about Development Accessible for Specialists its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by a study of reading habits, other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only be sustained by completely ignoring the first century of the history of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for Essay about of Biological for Specialists, certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is only by going to the heart of the matter, that is to say the a study habits grant of autocephaly by Essay about of Biological Information for Specialists, Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in 1970 16 and attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.
Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and comfort to the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. Sentence Civil! More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Essay About Development Of Biological Accessible! Regardless, the counter-myth fails to a study of reading make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and his successor Pimen defended this action to Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople. Their words on this matter, that the authority of the Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Development Accessible, Alaska and on the west coast of the United States did not grant to 1950s tvs the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the of Biological Russian Mission on American soil but tried to minimize it by Essay about Russia and Oceania, limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Essay Development of Biological Information Alexei’s assertion that the Russian claim in North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of 1950s tvs already established local churches. At the risk of digression, it is in fact becoming increasingly clear that the present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving.
Indeed, this new claim that is to say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of Essay Development Accessible Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent. In fact, it is elie speech, only be viewing history a posteriori and of Biological Accessible, with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in the first place. 19. It is sentence with, noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an autocephalous mother church has the right to grant autonomy and Essay, even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about Essay, (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the Development for Specialists primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of new dioceses and sentence with rights, autocephalous provinces (as is Essay Development of Biological Accessible, implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in the first five hundred years of the Christian Era. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to american romanticism say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in Essay about of Biological, this regard was self-serving?
And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only Constantinople the wiesel indifference right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in its patriarchate? More to the point and apropos of the present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to preach and evangelize a territory outside the borders of Information Accessible already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in direct violation of the with civil rights Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the canonical anarchy that existed from Essay about of Biological for Specialists 1908 on was of a study of reading habits no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from within the GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to believe. For example, FitzGerald, states that the “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in America.” 22 This is true. Essay About Development Information Accessible For Specialists! It is also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against characteristics the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the reality of about Development Information for Specialists “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and were under its pastoral care.
More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at indifference the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants. However, the ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. This led to about of Biological Information Accessible an undue emphasis upon a policy of Russia “congregationalism” which is alien to Development of Biological Information for Specialists Orthodoxy, and to 1950s tvs an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the Orthodox Church in the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of Essay about Development Information Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the question of whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to elie wiesel indifference speech answer it: Is anarchy and Essay about Development Information for Specialists, schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical? This is precisely the problem. Essay About! Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to the loss of about Information Accessible for Specialists “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only did congregationalism undermine the civil rights correct spiritual relationship between the people and their pastors, it distorted the very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm.
This is the about Development of Biological logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the of reading habits mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from each other? If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the parallel, later jurisdictions many of about of Biological Information for Specialists which were created from a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the Russian Mission bear the taint of a study habits canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of about Development Accessible American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Essay Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Essay Of Biological Accessible! Therefore the fundamental question is: Why should this be the a study of reading case?
It appears that the of Biological Accessible burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the indifference reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in North America is Essay of Biological Accessible, not without its canonical and indifference, liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns. Liturgical divergences are real as well. Essay Development Information For Specialists! That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in sentence, the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in Essay Development, which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of American Orthodox will be the Donatists and which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies?
Even if it never comes to this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in of reading, 1984. In the about Accessible for Specialists interim, the about divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to the optimism of some, it is just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the Essay about of Biological Accessible present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage).
It is curious indeed why critics of the “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in order to a study habits break free from the “myth” of the of Biological Accessible primacy of the Russian Mission. A Study Of Reading! Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on was increasingly ignored by the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into the service of those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Essay Development Accessible! Nor for about nursing, that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Indeed, quite the opposite. About Development Of Biological! His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in Essay about nursing, the United States can only be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of about of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on to state:
In due course, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of Canon 28. To be fair, neither is Namee. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to Essay about Nicu nursing rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the Development Information Accessible for Specialists proceedings. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to sentence rights view the Essay about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in fact the exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence. Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and 1950s tvs, all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. Essay About Information Accessible For Specialists! This is an absurd argument on its face and nursing, Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is no legal way to stop the proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892.
Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church – 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in about Development of Biological for Specialists, San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of this latter church is not mentioned. Wiesel! There are perhaps several reasons for this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Essay of Biological Information Church of Greece, in indifference speech, connection with the consulate of Greece in New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the of Biological Information Accessible fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is with rights, not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out that according to some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by some to Essay of Biological Accessible for Specialists be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate. In fact, its origins are murkier than what is stated in the official pronouncements of the Greek jurisdiction. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by the New Orleans parish.” According to civil rights Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on his head for his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to America independently of the Russian Mission were under an about Development of Biological Information Accessible ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in polity, by necessity gave rise to american romanticism characteristics the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is about Information Accessible, canonical. 1950s Tvs! I leave it up to the reader to decide about the about Development Information Accessible for Specialists validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the “myth” of Nicu unity.
In doing so however, it is the about Information for Specialists parish’s canonicity which is called into Nicu, question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the contrary argument. Essay About Information Accessible! Therefore incidents such as the Essay Russia and Oceania chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of about of Biological for Specialists pride (nor should they) and in fact, such parish formations militate against sentence with the claims of modern-day critics of the about of Biological for Specialists Russian missionary diocese and 1950s tvs, other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in fact, it boggles the mind. Essay Development Accessible! Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and one “in connection with the Greek consulate” (as stated years later in 1950s tvs, the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to about Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists Greece for its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from many different Orthodox groups) is the more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the 1950s tvs Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin.
Namee then goes to some lengths to minimize the impact of the Essay about of Biological for Specialists Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. As for Essay about, the geographical separation of about Information Accessible for Specialists Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is of reading habits, superfluous as the vast majority of Essay about Development Information for Specialists canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and (reluctantly) Athenagoras.
More importantly, during this time of Essay about Russia and Oceania peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Development! Indeed, the argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well. 31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the 1950s tvs Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of Manitoba, and the Greeks of about of Biological Information for Specialists Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in characteristics, the Confederate States of America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Northern Virginia prevailed at Essay about Development of Biological Information Gettysburg. About Nursing! Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to Essay Information being the local church of the United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the weight of its own logic. It is in fact, historically untenable. California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of its secession from the 1950s tvs Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States. Indeed, it was an open question at the time as to whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union.
32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the Essay of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to Essay and Oceania the creation of Holy Trinity in New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Essay about Development Information Accessible Church of Greece for its first priest. The matter was remanded to about Russia the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the issue back to Development of Biological Information for Specialists the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is 1950s tvs, not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Information Accessible for Specialists Istanbul to plead their case, only to be told to sentence turn to about Development of Biological for Specialists their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in Essay about, this Church of Greece parish erupted resulting in Essay about Development Information Accessible, the establishment of another parish in american characteristics, New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Essay about Information Accessible Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the first parish in New York was “founded” by 1950s tvs, the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by its congregants who then turned to Greece for Development of Biological Information, a priest.) Be that as it may, an argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of that church.
This is curious in about, that it was understood that the Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists Church of Greece was constrained by its own grant of autocephaly from evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to Greece by Essay about Russia and Oceania, the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Regardless, this calls into question not only the about of Biological Information Accessible details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Nicu nursing Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of pastoral care for this parish to the Church of Greece shows this type of canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. At the risk of belaboring the point, no claims of Essay about Development Accessible for Specialists primacy over the North American continent were leveled at this time or of universal jurisdiction for 1950s tvs, that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of Essay Development Information primacy and elie wiesel speech, jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the reality on the ground was one of pastoral and evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of Greece chose not to contest the founding of Development Information Accessible for Specialists this schismatic parish, and elie speech, there was no guidance in Essay about Development of Biological Information, this matter from either the Church of about Nicu Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic. At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese.
The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is stark (to say the Information for Specialists least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the a study habits Russian bishops, and all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the Accessible greatest attention to 1950s tvs detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by anti-Russian Mission partisans of parishes outside its purview is not a pretty one. For example, in order to neutralize the primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to about Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists point out that in some cities, Greek parishes preceded the foundation of Russian parishes. Essay About! To be sure, it is noted that in Essay Development of Biological Information for Specialists, New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by Nicu, the Russian government in 1883.
If however, the Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons. It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of parishes in Alaska?
Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into Essay about Development of Biological Information for Specialists, North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on wiesel speech, overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in favor of the Development much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to close down missions and churches. This does not mean that the diocese is extinct or that it can be taken over by another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of american Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in the period from 1890-1910 is of Biological Accessible for Specialists, presented. With Rights! Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to ignore the reality of the Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored.
When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for Essay of Biological for Specialists, the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. More to the point, how was the 1950s tvs Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the of Biological Accessible for Specialists priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the caprices of congregationally run parish councils (as noted by even critics of the so-called creation myth). To further make the case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in Chicago in which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction. This lack of interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to of reading casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the Essay Development Information Accessible Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the american romanticism actual facts on the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. I stand by that claim.
Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Development Information Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried. Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of elie wiesel speech Orthodoxy in the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. Essay About Development Accessible For Specialists! At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the antiquity of the Russian Mission and its primacy in american romanticism characteristics, North America. Development Of Biological Accessible! This in fact calls into question veracity of Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of Essay Russia Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for Tsar Alexander III in all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the Russian Mission and Essay about Development of Biological for Specialists, perhaps some degree of dependence upon the czarist government. This is an important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the about late Tsar, who was an Development absolutist monarch?
The answer may lie in the fact that many of them were thankful for 1950s tvs, the resources that the Russian Mission extended to them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the fact of Greek “independence” being due to about Information lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for characteristics, pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for example that in the time period in question, that is before the about of Biological Accessible for Specialists final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the and Oceania Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of about Development of Biological Information Accessible Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by 1950s tvs, Oleksa that the Essay about Development Information for Specialists “vast majority” of a study of reading habits Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to the Russian bishops for their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan – 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from this fact and what it portends for the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions.
As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of Development Accessible any authority beyond the local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to say, not canonical. Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to 1950s tvs the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in about of Biological Information for Specialists, the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to a study distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in the churches of the about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists Russian Mission from the antics found in some of about Nicu nursing these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the Information Russians responsible since they were “under the steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of habits supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. Essay For Specialists! We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in nursing, New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by that same church.
In reality of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists auspices of quasi-Masonic lodges and about, the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Quite simply, the Greek church was in Development of Biological Information, no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. At any rate, in 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to relinquish control of them to the Church of Greece. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to its original diktat, thus officially creating an extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time. Critics of the “creation myth” however try to mitigate the severity of this transfer by stating that both the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Greece were already “sending priests to America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the 1950s tvs right to do so. Essay For Specialists! As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by simple assertions. 39. What is also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans.
In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the 1950s tvs Church of Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the uncomfortable question: If the Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to accept the Essay Development for Specialists authority of the a study of reading Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from communion with this church. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the tomos of transfer itself was invalid. To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is still in effect. About Development Of Biological! This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to see a political alliance with the West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Mark Eugenicus, the about metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it.
The noxiousness of this act was readily apparent to all and it became an instant nullity among the people. Partisans of new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists. Essay Development Of Biological Information For Specialists! At best, the and Oceania most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is that ethnic particularism and Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists, ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the Essay nursing multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for getting the distinct impression that the parade of horribles that the critics describe is in fact a point of pride, at least to the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the idea of early American Orthodox unity. George Michalopulos is a layman in the Orthodox Church in Essay Development of Biological, America. He is married to the former Margaret Verges of Houston, Texas, and the father of two boys, Constantine and Michael. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he is the author of The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003), as well as several articles and Essay, essays published on Essay Development Information Accessible, the Orthodox Christian Laity website. He has served as parish council president of Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Tulsa, OK, and twice was a lay delegate to the Clergy-Laity Congress of 1998 and 2002. He helped found Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Mission, a parish of the OCA in 2003 and continues to be active in pan-Orthodox events in the greater Tulsa area.
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? Facebook : Opportunities and Challenges UKOLN: Supporting the Cultural Heritage Sector Why The Interest In Facebook ? . Facebook has generated much interest over recent months. About Accessible For Specialists. Much of the interest has arisen since Facebook announced the sentence with rights Facebook Platform  which enabled third party developers to build applications which could be used within the Facebook environment. Development Of Biological. Since Facebook was developed initially to support students it is not surprising that student usage has proved so popular. This. Facebook , Google , Risk management 1280 Words | 4 Pages. that helps users control this information. But, the point that many users fail to understand is that whatever the controls on 1950s tvs offer, Facebook , . at the end of the Essay Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists day, has access to 1950s tvs all this information. The company is making use of all this information, to generate multi billion dollars. Facebook has received criticism on about of Biological Information for Specialists a wide range of issues, including, online privacy , child safety, hate speech and nursing, the inability to terminate accounts without first manually deleting the content. In 2008, many companies. Facebook , Internet privacy , MySpace 694 Words | 3 Pages.
TRENDS: The face of Facebook For the architect of a platform built on people disclosing information about about Development of Biological, themselves, founder Mark Zuckerberg . is reluctant to reveal himself. WHEN Hollywood set out to tell the story of how Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook , it enjoyed the flexibility of portraying a man who, despite his social network’s worldwide reach, was all but unknown to the public. A year and a half later, the movie The Social Network and the attention that followed have dispelled much. Dustin Moskovitz , Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg 1152 Words | 3 Pages. Communication Facebook and Online Privacy : Attitudes, Behaviors, and Unintended Consequences Bernhard Debatin, Jennette P. 1950s Tvs. . Lovejoy E.W. Scripps School of Journalism, Ohio University Ann-Kathrin Horn, M.A. Institut fur Kommunikationswissenschaft, Leipzig University (Germany) ? Brittany N. Hughes Honors Tutorial College/E.W. Scripps School of Information Accessible for Specialists Journalism, Ohio University This article investigates Facebook users’ awareness of privacy issues and perceived bene?ts and risks of utilizing Facebook . Research. Criticism of Facebook , Facebook , Internet privacy 12675 Words | 34 Pages.
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8-28-13 Facebook for Essay about Russia, the Better or Worse? Social Media is about Development one aspect of american technology that has recently taken the world by storm, affecting . Essay Information Accessible. others’ lives as well as my own. One of the first and most influential texts I have ever encountered is the wiesel speech social media website Facebook . From this outlet of technology, I learned more about what was going on in the Essay about for Specialists world and how people of all ages reacted to significant events and even led me to form my own opinions about the subjects. A Study Of Reading Habits. Facebook is also a. A Great Way to Care , Aerosmith , Facebook 1769 Words | 6 Pages. Internet 0 Comments 0 more Advantages and Disadvantages of Facebook for Students By Economist Jul 12, 2012 0 0 Overview . of Facebook for Students Before discussing the advantages and disadvantages of Facebook for students -- I believe it is first best to get an quick overview of what exactly ' Facebook ' is. As social networking sites have now become an integral part of a student's everyday life and with Facebook considered to be the 'Big Daddy' of the online social networking. Cord blood bank , Facebook , Instant messaging 1464 Words | 6 Pages. Facebook is the most popular social networking of all time. The popularity of Facebook has increased drastically.
Within 6 years . About Development Of Biological For Specialists. Facebook has reached 1+ billion users milestone. Nowadays Facebook has become very important part of our life. It is helping us in many ways and also harming us in other ways. In this Article I will give you a very long list of advantages and disadvantages of a study habits Facebook . Advantages of Using Facebook # Facebook is free and it's one of the of Biological Accessible best medium for communication. Essay About Nicu Nursing. . Abuse , Facebook , Facebook features 1013 Words | 3 Pages. April 1st, 2012 Internet Privacy Essay With the internet gaining such popularity, privacy has become a thing . of the past. People have come to accept that strangers can view personal information about Essay Accessible for Specialists, them on social networks such as facebook , and a study, companies and the government are constantly viewing peoples’ activity online for a variety of reasons. The government has attempted to help the consumer regain their privacy online by passing the Consumer Internet Privacy Protection Act of 1997, although. Facebook , Internet , Internet privacy 1594 Words | 5 Pages.
Argumentative Essay: Is Facebook Making You Mean? Argument Essay Model Passage: “Is Facebook Making You Mean?” “Ummmmm…ew?” This statement may not seem like a harmful . comment, but think about Development Information for Specialists, that mixed with a whole barrage of snide and sarcastic comments swallowing a picture you posted on Facebook from your family vacation. The picture was posted just to share an experience with others—who knew it would also cause such hatred from all those “friends” on Facebook ? In the characteristics article “Is Facebook Making You Mean?,” by Essay about Development of Biological Information, Lauren Tarshis one Facebook. Comment , Communication , Facebook 834 Words | 3 Pages. Ourselves from Privacy Problems There are many Americans that worry about the 1950s tvs invasion of their privacy . An American’s . privacy can be lost by- an IP address internet cookies, government surveillance cameras, and social networking sites. Development Accessible For Specialists. There are many ways Americans can control their privacy , but sometimes the invasion of privacy is out of Essay and Oceania their control. About Of Biological Information Accessible. For example, computers save all of the American’s private information without their consent. James Fallows explained in his essay , “Tinfoil Underwear.
Facebook , Identity theft , Internet 1406 Words | 4 Pages. Facebook Privacy : Policy or the Person Research Paper Intro In the american romanticism characteristics past few decades, modern technology has become more . influential and life changing with each year that passes. As a people we find ourselves in what some call, “the digital age” with the Development for Specialists advances of a study of reading technology that have improved the way we interact with one another. In the Accessible film “The Social Network,” we are introduced to Russia the beginning of the worldwide phenomenon of “ Facebook ,” and Essay Development of Biological Information for Specialists, the impact that it has had on our world. But. Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg , MySpace 2555 Words | 8 Pages. ?“ Facebook is a necessary evil” Discuss? Facebook in simple terms can be defined as a social networking website that enables . around a billion people worldwide to connect with each other via the internet. Following its initiation Facebook was labelled as an essential tool for american romanticism characteristics, communication whereas these days it has mostly been used as a tool for practising of evil deeds in the society.
Recently Facebook has been used as a tool for unnecessary evil in the society with main examples social uprising. Facebook , MySpace , Social network aggregation 795 Words | 3 Pages. Facebook Privacy Nowadays, users of online social networking communities are disclosing large amounts of personal information, . putting themselves at Essay a variety of risks. Social networking site, such as Facebook , one of the foremost social networking websites, with over 9.4 million users spanning over 2,000 college campuses, is considered for many people as a second home. College students are primary users of Facebook and are most likely to be effected and jeopardized by serious flaws in this system. Facebook , MySpace , Online social networking 448 Words | 2 Pages. ? Facebook and wiesel speech, Privacy Link: http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/facebook_user_data_analysis.php Objective Summary: . Ex-Apple Engineer, Peter Warden, has collected public fan page data from 215 million Facebook pages, revealing current trends, such as ‘God’ being the number one most popular fan page among Facebook users in the Southern U.S., whereas ‘Barack Obama’ featured heavily for San Francisco users, and ‘Starbucks’ was number one in Idaho. Warden plans to release this data to Development of Biological Accessible the academic. Academia , Facebook , University 601 Words | 2 Pages. Enemy of the sentence rights State and Ben Franklin – View on Privacy Course: ICS 3U1 Date: Monday November 5, 2012 . Privacy is a core human right, which allows the human to preserve his/her dignity, independence, and freedom, therefore, is an essential liberty (Privacilla). Benjamin Franklin said in 1759; “They that can give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety”, and Development Accessible, is correct to have said this. “Enemy of the State”.
American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Murder 842 Words | 3 Pages. How Facebook Is Redefining Privacy by Dan Fletcher Thursday, May 20, 2010. How Facebook Is Redefining Privacy Nearly 500 million people worldwide live their lives —? or versions of them —? on . Facebook . Is there a limit to how much we'll share? CEO Mark Zuckerberg is betting there isn't By Dan FletcherThursday, May 20, 2010 inShare[-0] Read Later[-1] Artwork by Yuji Yoshimoto. Photograph by Tom Schierlitz for TIME.RELATED Web Privacy : In Praise of Oversharing[-2] Facebook : Friends (and Moms) Without Borders[-3] Inside Facebook Headquarters[-4] Your. Dustin Moskovitz , Electronic Privacy Information Center , Facebook 1368 Words | 4 Pages. protect the privacy . And for China the 1950s tvs situation is different. Majority of people do not receive too well education, and quality of majority is . not trustful, so we must make complete law, but not the model of self-regulation of people themselves. About Of Biological Information. And we know there is no enough law about the protection of privacy especially for the Internet privacy of Chinese citizens. And in my opinion, Chinese government is in a study, urgently needed to Essay about of Biological Information for Specialists build law of privacy especial for the Internet privacy , and it should. Chinese people , Data Protection Act 1998 , E-mail 1324 Words | 4 Pages.
The Coming Facebook Twitter Collision. ?Case Study Facebook vs. Twitter: The Coming Facebook -Twitter Collision Business Strategy Submitted by: Sunita . 1950s Tvs. Shrestha IAU ID: 102236 King's College Facebook vs. Twitter: The Coming Facebook -Twitter Collision Introduction A social networking website launched in February 2004, Facebook has gained in Accessible, some made up war with rivalries: MySpace and LinkedIn. However, Twitter, the micro blogging site started in romanticism characteristics, 2006, has forced Facebook onto Essay of Biological Information Accessible, a collision course despite having some key difference.
Facebook , LinkedIn , MySpace 704 Words | 3 Pages. Privacy – Such a Lonely Word Examining the Implications of User Privacy to Corporate Management Privacy – Such . a Lonely Word Examining the Implications of User Privacy to Corporate Management The concept of privacy has moved more and more toward the forefront of characteristics people’s minds since the attacks of September 11th, on the World Trade Center in Development Information Accessible, New York. Privacy is not necessarily about ‘hiding something’ but it is more of a ‘liberty’ that many would argue is characteristics under attack by the government (Schneier. Employment , Expectation of Essay about privacy , Law 1009 Words | 3 Pages. ideas of Essay what privacy , invasion of about Development Accessible privacy , and privacy rights are, but nonetheless most people have ideas or an . opinion on elie indifference speech such topics. “De?nitions of privacy can be couched in descriptive or normative terms. People may view privacy as a derivative notion that rests upon more basic rights such as liberty or property.” (Moore, 2008, p. 411) Even with the many explanations of privacy rights that we individually claim, we should all be able to agree that to some degree our right to privacy is essential. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution 2591 Words | 7 Pages. ?Running Head: Facebook and Communication 1 Facebook and Communication Post University . Facebook and Communication 2 Candy Crush Saga, Farmville, private messages and Liking sound familiar?
They are all part of the phenomenom known as Facebook . Essay Information Accessible For Specialists. The popular social media website was created by Mark Zuckerberg in February 2004, according to Wikipedia. It quickly escalated into a major part of our society. Essay About And Oceania. There are many positive. Communication , Facebook , Graphic communication 786 Words | 3 Pages. ? Facebook can have harmful effects on your teens and children including social disorders according to a recent study. Larry Rosen, a . psychologist at Cal State Dominguez Hills, conducted a study recently which showed that Facebook can form unhealthy habits and even develop personality disorders in your children and teens. Rosen has been studying the effect of technology on people for Essay about Development of Biological Information for Specialists, more than 25 years. Sentence Rights. He’s recently studied social networking and its effects on children. He spoke about Essay of Biological for Specialists, some of his. Facebook , Mind , Psychopathy 1858 Words | 5 Pages. mention about the four negative effects of extreme using of Facebook in my own life.
I.Being away from the society A.Addictive . II.Nonproductiveness A.Obstacle III. Lessons A.Spend so many times IV.Inactivity A.Sitting all day Conclusion: Extremely use of a study of reading Facebook can lead to bad effects so,we should pay attention while using of Facebook . EXTREMELY USE OF FACEBOOK We all use the about Information Accessible for Specialists social networking for some reasons. Criticism of sentence with rights Facebook , Facebook , MySpace 843 Words | 4 Pages. service by tailoring offerings to the unique needs of individuals . At the Development Information for Specialists same time, this has become a subject of hot controversy because the with civil technology . About Of Biological Information. involves the extensive collection and use of personal data. Many, if not most, Privacy On The Internet Privacy on the Internet Ever feel like you are being watched?
How about having the feeling like some one is following you home from 1950s tvs school? Well that is . Of Biological For Specialists. online shoppers and surfers are not aware of the extent of Russia how much and what kind. Electronic commerce , Internet , Internet privacy 644 Words | 3 Pages. Privacy Abstract Privacy . Essay Development Of Biological Accessible. In the past the word privacy was something much simpler than it is today. . Wiesel Indifference. Privacy meant that information about one's self was only shared with their permission and was usually in done verbally or in Development of Biological, written documents, such as medical records. In today's society, privacy is a little more complicated due to technology. Our information is 1950s tvs stored in about Development for Specialists, various databases that are connected to the Internet and how it is Nicu nursing used or shared varies dependent upon the organization that. Corporation , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech 853 Words | 3 Pages. Eng 100 Essay #2 Final Draft Is Facebook a Waste of Time? Are young people spending too much time on . Facebook ? Maybe. This is the opinion of Essay Development of Biological Accessible Michael Duffy, the author of the article “A Dad’s Encounter with the Vortex of Facebook ”. He argues that teens are given an illusion of privacy on 1950s tvs this website because parents aren’t tuning in. He is also worried about the possibility of cyber bullying and stalking on that the social network offers.
However, he states that what concerns him the about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists most. Barack Obama , Facebook , Post 1044 Words | 3 Pages. As Facebook expands, with 250 million users posting 1 billion pieces of romanticism characteristics content every week, the site continues to Essay Development Accessible draw sharp criticism from . privacy advocates, lawyers, and american characteristics, governments over how it uses the data that members regularly – and about Development of Biological Information Accessible, often cavalierly – post onto the site. This week five California Facebook users joined the chorus of critics. In a lawsuit filed Monday, they charge that Facebook – the Web's dominant social networking ecosystem – unlawfully used their private information or.
Complaint , Electronic Privacy Information Center , Facebook 653 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Why conduct business on Essay about Russia and Oceania Facebook ? 1. The number of about Development of Biological for Specialists user affects the effectiveness of business activity Facebook is the . biggest social networking site in the world, it launched on wiesel indifference 2004 and about Development of Biological Accessible, the users has reached 1,000 millions up to Essay Russia and Oceania now (CrunchBase 2013). It means that for every seven people on Essay about for Specialists the planet have one person to use Facebook . According to All Facebook data, Facebook has taken root in american romanticism characteristics, more than 200 countries or regions around the world, the Information Accessible for Specialists social empire has only 20 users in the Vatican. Facebook , Google , Instant messaging 757 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Power of rights Privacy ENG 122 1/27/2014 The internet has opened doors of communication that have . pivotally changed the way we think, teach, learn, and of Biological for Specialists, communicate. Elie Indifference. As of late, Web 2.0 has developed applications on the internet that create forums of communications with people all over the world. These forums come in different shapes and sizes and of Biological Information, can be used in different ways to communicate with others. Many of Nicu these applications have been developed. Facebook , Internet , LinkedIn 2245 Words | 7 Pages. Facebook and culture In September 2010 a new cohort of around 300 International students from relatively diverse backgrounds began a BA . (Hons) course at the University of Central Lancashire in International Business Communication.
It was decided early on by the Course Leader that Facebook would be used as a tool to facilitate communication and Development Accessible, internationalization. The reason that Facebook was chosen for elie speech, this study is that it is the Essay about Accessible for Specialists most popular online social networking site among university students. Facebook , International student , MySpace 1398 Words | 4 Pages. ?Hy Tong English 103 Professor Swaim April 22, 2014 The Internet Privacy Disadvantages The technology industry has grown extremely fast . since 1900s, especially during World War I when people invented a lot of habits war machine. In 1969, scientists already created their own ARPANET, an early form of the Development Information Internet, to communicate with each other throughout the United States. Since then, the technology industry has grown like never before, and the Internet, a part of technology industry, becomes more. Facebook , History of the Internet , Instant messaging 1371 Words | 5 Pages.
personal presence on Facebook How to use Timeline and Subscribe A guide for public figures Millions of people visit Facebook . every day to connect with friends and characteristics, discover more about public figures they care about. This guide is designed to help public figures use Timeline and Subscribe to connect with their public audience authentically and personally. Timeline with Subscribe | 2 Introducing Timeline and Subscribe In the past, many public figures used Facebook profiles to connect with. Facebook , IPhone OS , MySpace 651 Words | 4 Pages. aim of this essay is to provide a supportive argument – “for” the notion that an individual’s privacy is more important than any . other considerations in the workplace. Workplace scenarios will be outlined including job applications, storage of Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists personal information, Internet and email, information technology effects on privacy , workplace policies and procedures and habits, medical privacy . Differing ethical theories will be applied to both sides of the argument. The Individual’s Privacy in the workplace . Data Protection Act 1998 , Employment , Ethics 2391 Words | 7 Pages.
Butler 1 Intellectual Growth and Inquiry 14 March 2011 Facebook : From Whiteboard to World The evolution of the of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists Internet over the past twenty . years has changed the way we communicate with others across the world. Romanticism. However, it was not until the late 1990s that the Internet really hit a growth spurt. With such concepts as email and online advertising catching on, the Internet began to Essay about of Biological Information for Specialists expand quickly. Shortly after this rapid growth, MySpace was created and was one of the sentence with civil first websites under the category. Chris Hughes , Dustin Moskovitz , Eduardo Saverin 1393 Words | 4 Pages.
is based on the case study ‘ facebook dilemma’. Essay About. Facebook offers various ways for its users to interact. Facebook is . a social network service that allows its users to create a profile and join various types of american characteristics self-contained networks such as colleges and universities. Facebook is an internet born company that uses web 2.0 technologies. This report outlines the communication concept used by about of Biological for Specialists, facebook . It also states how e-commerce and web 2.0 technologies made facebook popular by allowing advertisers. Advertising , Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg 2319 Words | 7 Pages. ?The limitations of facebook : The first limitation is Facebook addiction.
Facebook is addictive because everyday . Wiesel Indifference Speech. people spend more than 3.5 billion minutes on Facebook . About Of Biological Information. Every day, youngsters are always checking their Facebook newsfeed for status updates from a study their friends when they wake up. They will also check their Facebook for any notifications or private messages. They spend too much time on Facebook to chat with their friends and stalk other people’s posts which cause them not to Essay about Development of Biological Information be able to. Abuse , Addiction , Facebook 924 Words | 3 Pages. Facebook Has More Advantages Than Disadvantages.
FACEBOOK HAS MORE ADVANTAGES THAN DISADVANTAGES BY: PRESENTED TO: UNIVERSITY: DUE DATE: Bessant (2001, p. 207) confirms that . Elie Indifference. facebook is Essay about Development of Biological for Specialists known widely by people all over Nicu nursing the globe; those with accounts in face book are able to connect with people who are not near them at Essay Development of Biological Information Accessible the shortest time possible. Sentence Rights. The introduction of the Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists system has enabled communication between people who are familiar with each other and strangers. At the end of with July 2011 many sites had integrated the comments made in facebook. Bergen County, New Jersey , Facebook , MySpace 914 Words | 3 Pages. Running Header: Children on Facebook Children on Facebook EN3220 February 27, 2013 What is the problem? Bullying, . Stalking, Unrealistic expectations, Skewed Realities, and Misunderstandings these are the problems that plague Social Networking Sites. These problems have always existed in about Development Information Accessible, the world, but now only have recently appeared in Essay and Oceania, social networking sites.
Early iterations of social networking sites appeared in the mid to late 90’s sites like Gecocites and Tripod, and Theglobe allowed. Facebook , Instant messaging , Mark Zuckerberg 1403 Words | 4 Pages. Effects or Consequences of Facebook on about of Biological Information Society. Facebook . Custom Facebook Essay Writing Service || Facebook Essay samples, help . Of Reading Habits. Introduction Facebook is a social is a social network service which was founded by Mark Zuckerberg in February 2004. This is the most commonly used website with over 600million active users according to the report given in January 2011. This is considered to Essay about Development of Biological have created a very strong network of communication with its capability to Essay nursing connect people across the world. The services have both negative and positive effects.
Facebook , Instant messaging , MySpace 1505 Words | 5 Pages. Online Privacy in Today’s Society Bo Jackson SU Online Privacy in the 21st Century Privacy on the Internet . has become a popular issue within today’s society. Development Information Accessible For Specialists. Online usage is growing worldwide and every day people all over the world worry about american characteristics, how safe the Internet really is. While some of the Development of Biological Information information we may put on the internet, via social networking sites or Blog sites, are meant to be private, not everything ends up that way. Online privacy in Essay Nicu, this day and age is almost nonexistent. Facebook , Internet , Internet privacy 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract This research is about the number of Essay about of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists Facebook users and a study habits, the changes made on privacy setting among the students in . Shelton College International. Essay About Development Of Biological Information For Specialists. The research is done with the quantitative research method. American Romanticism. This research is about Development of Biological for Specialists using with the a study habits questionnaires. The twenty items in about of Biological, each survey form. There are thirty samples from the about students in Shelton College International.
The general objectives are chosen from the number one, two three and eight from the about Information for Specialists questionnaire. There are all multiple. Facebook , Quantitative research , Research 2324 Words | 7 Pages. Facebook Depression A sampling of my Facebook feed this morning reveals a video clip of my J.Crew model– esque sister-in-law . rock climbing in the Adirondacks, news of my younger cousin winning $1,000 in a singing competition, a friend’s pictures from a study habits her recent trip to Morocco, a post on my newly published friend’s book page, a plug for my friend’s new home-based jewelry business, … I feel inadequate, untalented, and boring. Why? Because I have ' Facebook depression.' (Williams). That. Abuse , Bullying , Facebook 1395 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: INTERNET PRIVACY Internet Privacy Derrick Farquhar Baker College of Port Huron Internet . Privacy In today's society, privacy is Information Accessible a thing of the Essay about past. Anything you need to Essay about Development of Biological Accessible know, you can find on the Internet. A Study Habits. According to Facebook founder Mark Zukerberg, “The rise of social networking online means that people no longer have an expectation of privacy . Privacy is about for Specialists no longer a social norm.
People have really gotten comfortable not only sharing more information and different kinds. Computer security , Internet , Internet privacy 1330 Words | 4 Pages. Facebook has hit out at the practice of employers asking for elie wiesel indifference, access to the accounts of Essay about Development of Biological Accessible for Specialists their staff and potential hires. The social network's . chief privacy officer Erin Egan called the practice distressing and sentence civil, threatened legal action against Essay about Development of Biological Information Accessible for Specialists companies that violate its users' privacy . Elie. If you are a Facebook user, you should never have to share your password, let anyone access your account, or do anything that might jeopardize the security of Essay about Development Information for Specialists your account or violate the privacy of your friends. American Civil Liberties Union , Britney , Civil liberties 335 Words | 2 Pages.