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benefits coursework Learning from GCSE Coursework: Fostering independent learning, critical thinking and creativity? Susan Martin, Alan Reid, Keith Bishop, Kate Bullock. Department of french and indian Education, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference Cardiff University, September 7-10 2000. Paper arising out of ESRC funded project Learning from GCSE Coursework (Award no: R000222684) This is a draft paper and should not be quoted or cited without the express permission of one of the authors.

This paper arises from tobacco bong a project the principal aim of which was to explore the potential of french and indian GCSE coursework to develop skills associated with critical thinking, creativity and independent learning (CCI). The paper briefly outlines the review film freedom writers background to and overview of the project with the main research questions and foci and then sets out the main findings to french, date in relation to the research question focusing on assessment. A The Research Project. Background to and overview of tobacco bong project. Over the past fifteen years, the original arguments for coursework as a part of the General Certificate of french and indian Secondary Education (GCSE) examination system for 16 year olds in the UK have diminished in influence. Among other things, this trend appears to stem, firstly, from an elie kedourie, increasing emphasis on accountability in the education system, with GCSE results now used as a measure of school, department and teacher performance as well as pupil performance, and and indian secondly, from perceptions of rigour and fairness in fair copyright representing the standards which should be engendered by the national examinations at the end of compulsory schooling. At the inception of the GCSE, coursework was included as a central component of the examination which would raise the validity of the french assessment process and federation enhance the learning of students. A coursework element to the qualification, it was argued, would promote and give value to less tangible transferable skills such as critical thinking, creativity and independent learning.

The advantages of such approaches were thought to and indian war importance, include: providing a useful vehicle for communication skills; giving pupils credit for initiating tasks and assuming responsibility for their own work; increasing the 'reliability' of the writers assessment by providing wider evidence of pupils' achievement; developing an understanding of the part that school subjects play in the everyday world and their relevance to pupils' own lives. The aim of this research study was to examine the potential of GCSE coursework to develop in 16 year old pupils in mainstream schools the skills associated with critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. The research began by exploring the nature of the three attributes, and in addition, it probed the influence of the war importance assessment of coursework on elie kedourie, this type of learning. The study used a qualitative approach to investigate teachers', parents' and students' conceptions of the skills of critical thinking, creativity and and indian war importance independent learning and to explore the values, organisation and practice related to GCSE coursework which might develop such qualities in young people. Within six case study schools, University researchers worked with teacher researchers in English and geography departments to appraise past and current practice in GCSE coursework, to examine its potential to review freedom, contribute to critical thinking, creativity and independent learning and to set out any extending and limiting factors of assessment. French? The six case study schools were identified through the working relationships already established between the University and local schools in the five contiguous counties. The sample represented differences in gender mix, location, socio-economic status and funding. The teacher representatives in each school were drawn equally from geography and English backgrounds and all were keen to be involved in the research. Fair Dealing? Data collecting techniques comprised focussed group meetings, semi-structured interviews and a scrutiny of coursework in English and geography. The first task was to and indian, develop a common understanding of the tobacco bong three constructs, critical thinking, creativity and french independent learning. Initial workshops were arranged for the University and teacher researchers.

These used synopses of current papers in the field, brainstorming techniques and fair priority exercises to explore perceptions and identifiers of the three constructs. From the workshops semi-structured interview schedules were constructed by french and indian the University researchers and returned to full text, the teacher researchers for validation and comment. The schedules were then trialled with appropriate pupils and and indian parents from different schools. In-depth interviews were carried out between June 1999 and June 2000. A systematic sample was obtained with respondents from particular categories identified by the teacher researchers as follows: Table 1 Interviews. Elie Kedourie? 1 The current picture. To what extent are the original qualities attributed to coursework achieved in current practice? It is claimed that coursework offers a set of benefits for the learner (see above). A scrutiny and french analysis of current practice investigated the extent to which coursework: gives students credit for initiating tasks and assuming responsibility for their own work; supports and develops creativity and critical thinking; increases the reliability of the film writers assessment by providing wider evidence of students' achievement.

Ways in french war importance which coursework is introduced, organised and supported at school, departmental and individual teacher level and by parents at home was also captured. Examples of specific strategies for federation fostering skills of independent learning, critical thinking and war importance creativity were also explored as was the value attributed to coursework by the school, teachers, students and parents both in terms of its contribution to assessment and to the learning process. Where coursework is seen to be limited, reasons for this will were explored. 2 Students' learning. To what extent does coursework contribute to the development of skills associated with independent learning, critical thinking and creativity? Recent research into an informal communications is known, perceptions of the GCSE (Bishop et al, 1997a; Winter et al, 1997) indicates that the vast majority of GCSE students find coursework motivating. It is the one form of work in the students' experience which allows them some degree of freedom in their approach to learning.

Students have more control over their learning in coursework and it provides an opportunity for those pupils with different learning styles to demonstrate their understanding; it also can provide teachers with opportunities to use their own favoured approaches (Goulding, 1995). Students' conceptions of how they learn from coursework were explored. Individual approaches to the following aspects of coursework were also be investigated: how topics are selected and how the work is planned; which resources are used and from whom help is sought; how students like to learn and what strategies they use to evaluate their work. Students' understanding of their own organisation and approaches to learning from coursework were probed (Riding and Read, 1996) in order to identify outcomes of the high level skills aspired to by the Pacific Rim countries. Issues of gender, level of attainment and home and cultural background were also considered (Bishop et al, 1997b).

3 Issues of assessment. What is the influence of assessment frameworks upon students' learning? Assessment is a central feature of western educational systems and plays a fundamental role in learning, both at a formative and summative level where the role of assessment is usually to judge performance. Perhaps of greater import is the influence that assessment has on how students learn (Gow and Kember, 1993; Marton S ä ljö, 1976; Entwistle, 1981). And Indian War Importance? Assessment can limit learning by, for example, inducing a type of learning that is superficial and is known as a can encourage students to adopt strategies which do not match their preferred approaches (Riding Read, 1996). If types of learning such as 'deep learning' are to war importance, be encouraged then the communications is known assessment component of the education system must be authentic and, therefore, be broadened, rather than the war importance current situation which constrains this (James and Gipps, 1998). The research investigated how teachers use the assessment framework in tobacco bong their teaching in relation to coursework and how the and indian war importance students perceive the framework and how it influences the way they undertake their coursework.

Issues concerned with learning and fair uk assessment explored included: the use of student feedback; ownership of work and learning; teacher diagnosis of learning difficulties and and indian the suitability of coursework to students' learning styles. The constraints of assessment in respect of what is learned and which strategies students adopt was also be investigated. For example: what are the learning outcomes expected from coursework? to what extent do these models match SEAC 'ideals'? what emphasis is elie kedourie given to coursework in comparison with other forms of teaching and french and indian war importance learning? Findings and Discussion. One of the purposes of incorporating coursework into the GCSE was to promote and give value to an informal network as a, the 'softer' less tangible transferable skills such as critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. French War Importance? It is clear from this research that such skills are valued and recognised by teachers, parents and students and that they think that coursework has an important role in giving students an opportunity to develop and demonstrate them. It is is known as a also evident that these skills have a role in producing good quality coursework. However, evidence from all three groups clearly indicates that such process skills are of war importance secondary importance to the goal of achieving a GCSE grade for coursework. Thus, GCSE coursework is not primarily seen as developing critical thinking, creativity and independent learning skills so much as using them.

It is recognised that assessment has an influence on students' learning. This link or influence was a particular aim of the research and the remainder of the paper focuses on three themes emerging from the interviews in relation to this. Review Film Freedom Writers? These are 'playing the game', 'giving feedback to students' and 'locus of control'. French? Playing the game. Although for students coursework is seen as being valuable it is, nevertheless, primarily about jumping through hoops, fulfilling requirements or being compliant. Typically the students focus on the requirements for coursework with the grade as the ultimate end point towards which they work. Skills such as critical thinking, creativity and independent learning are not a specific focus for tobacco bong them in their coursework and french and indian they have a tendency to 'play safe' rather than go for tobacco bong opportunities to extend their thinking.

For most students, doing coursework is seen to be a way of making a contribution to their final GCSE grade(s). Many of those students interviewed expressed the view that they would not perform as well in their final examinations as they would in coursework. Thus coursework is perceived as a different and cumulative way of gaining marks, i.e. 'getting marks in the bank'. The teachers' view of war importance coursework has similarities. Although teachers, too, are concerned about helping students to get 'play the game', the pressure from accountability through league tables further leads to dealing, the promotion of the war importance importance of maximising students' grades. Increasingly such high stakes factors influence the practice of completing coursework to the extent where the development of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning is of a second order and importance. In other words the teachers' focus is heavily weighted towards the product of coursework rather than the an informal network is known as a process of completing it.

One possible consequence of this is that students' opportunities for taking and encouragement to take risks is french and indian limited. A further dimension here is that teachers don't readily recognise their role in the constraining influence of assessment on their teaching and facilitation of the completion of coursework. Giving feedback to freedom, students. War Importance? Many students assume that they know what the requirements are for completing coursework, i.e. what it is that the tobacco bong teacher wants them to do. Some students realise this and invest their time in enhancing their learning, focusing on developing their skills. Other students do not know that doing coursework is not about getting right (or wrong) answers. In other words, while students may believe they are working towards 'the right answer' the teacher is in and indian fact looking for quality through a well argued stance rather than the review 'right' stance.

This is likely to affect students' understanding not only of how to about their coursework but also in terms of french and indian improving it. Teachers, however, believe they are clear in terms of their expectations for completing coursework and elie kedourie communicating this to and indian war importance, their students. This is based on their own perspective, on materials used (such as assessment criteria), and on lesson observations. This is i stand ironing both in relation to the process of doing coursework and french and indian war importance the desired outcomes. However, there is less certainty about the extent to which students (as a result of teachers telling them) know how to do well in coursework. Some degree of this uncertainty was simply because teachers seemed not to be asking the students. Some students respond appropriately to feedback while others do not set appropriate targets for improving their work (suggesting they do not know how to do well). Thus, teachers are clear what 'better' looks like or means.

Teacher support and feedback is provided in different ways e.g. advice, 'up to them', 1-1 support, modelling. Teachers are aware of tobacco bong typical weaknesses in students' coursework (Geography e.g. using inappropriate research methods, not aware of limitations of their work, not linking results with theory) but feedback tends to focus on advice (e.g. 'putting things in own words', 'analyse what you've found out') rather than these specific problems. Teacher feedback doesn't consistently match the weaknesses identified in students' work. However, students are less clear [about what 'better' means] with a typical perception being that 'better' is synonymous with 'more'. This is particularly so for french and indian war importance lower ability students who aim in the dark thinking that they need to do more of the same, improve spelling etc. This may be an interpretation of actual feedback e.g. 'you need to expand on this', 'more detail needed' or this can come from looking at coursework which has been graded highly and is, inevitably, longer. Additionally, floundering students were seen to be disadvantaged by complex terms with many students having to deconstruct teachers' codes and command words. Students are generally good imitators in the sense of internalising what teachers require of them. A parental concern was that students don't get told about an informal communications is known, what to french and indian war importance, leave out.

Thus, teacher feedback is not appropriately formative. There could be more of a closing of the loop with respect to feedback in that it appears that it would be (more) beneficial to students if they were involved more, for example, in target setting and discussing strategies for i stand here ironing full text improvement. Students would be helped by teachers modelling their expectations: of doing coursework, of french examples of good coursework and poor coursework (i.e. meeting criteria and not meeting criteria) and of involving students in such discussions. Although modelling is not used much for tobacco bong coursework it is seen (by some teachers) as a major tool for effective teaching. You have to model and an effective teacher does model and show. And they're constantly thinking on their feet and giving examples. Telling a student isn't fair for communicating coursework requirements effectively. What you need to do is with students - you show them them examples of A and E grade work, you come to a consensus together about what is a successful piece of coursework, so that that is about ownership.

Some students don't know that doing coursework isn't about getting right (or wrong) answers i.e. while students may be working towards 'the right answer' the teacher does not have this expectation as they are looking for quality e.g. French And Indian? a well argued stance rather than the tobacco bong right stance. This is likely to affect students' understanding not only of how to about their coursework but also in and indian terms of review freedom writers improving it. Some students are disadvantaged by not having full access to teachers' expectations and rationales. Locus of control. The data shows that the war importance locus of control for here full text completing coursework lies largely with teachers with the exception of high ability students: high ability students typically achieve their potential, middle ability students do not achieve their potential and low ability students do not achieve their potential but achieve more than they would without the support they receive. Teachers had developed strategies to support lower ability students attain the highest possible marks in coursework. Teachers used different approaches to support low(er) ability students. For example, some teachers were careful in their choice of which work to select and others saw this choice as less significant than the choice of approach for the task, e.g. writing psychologist's report on french and indian war importance, character, reviewing children's books and, thus, not in here ironing full any structure as such by and indian the teacher in the carrying out of the task. One strategy used by tobacco bong teachers in supporting and french war importance framing coursework was to hold a class discussion so that relevant arguments and theories can be shared.

This could be powerful in a mixed ability group. Fair Dealing Uk? Issues of enabling strategies, frameworks and structuring were important for both geography and English teachers. Good teaching in coursework was seen as providing a supportive structure while allowing the pupils to make their own decisions regarding process and content. However, there was agreement that coursework is a greater challenge for lower ability students but that coursework allowed that particular group to achieve better grades. Teachers thought that a tension did exist between the degree of teacher support that students need to maximise their marks and the flexibility to develop their own ideas more fully and french wondered if students also felt this tension.

Many students are supported by teachers breaking things down for them. Network Is Known? However, in teacher interviews teachers did not say that they told the students what they were doing which raises a question of and indian war importance whether this limits the 'transfer fee', i.e. the extent to which the students learn from fair dealing teacher support. One teacher recognised the importance to their own progress of knowing what expected of them but didn't (appear to) see the war importance parallel with the importance of students knowing: I've certainly found over the years that one of the reasons why my classroom teaching has improved is because I know what's expected. I know what the exam board are looking for and know the way their minds work, . and it's so much easier to be able to guide the students to be able to here ironing full text, do really good pieces of work. Teachers generally think that making choices for and indian war importance students is necessary (for example for purposes of differentiation, using what stock is available). In the case of low(er) ability students there was a consensus that structuring was necessary to maximise marks attained (perhaps more so for geography than for English).

This was particularly so that students would not miss aspects of the assessment criteria. The structuring of low(er) ability students' work may extend their thinking but may (simultaneously) limit their independent learning by channelling them in particular directions which prevent them from exploring other possible avenues. Of Cuban? That is, in some cases the teachers explicitly limit the degree of creativity to maximise the french and indian war importance 'average' opportunity for pupils to do well. However, it was recognised that by federation structuring coursework for low(er) ability students they may be 'debarred' from attaining their potential but that this might not be possible within the confines of (the particular) coursework, and so the actual mark would be greater than that attained without structure. Teachers weren't sure whether this ceiling of attainment was a reality. Pupils were seen as having autonomy in completing coursework with flexibility and options available in the process. There exists a danger of students being too creative in coursework, i.e. with no structure and in french and indian war importance going off on a 'complete wobbler.

Coursework can be structured to support students doing coursework but this doesn't need to militate against independence. There was a consensus that teachers are the best judge of how to structure students' approaches to coursework as they know the assessment criteria and here ironing full (associated) pitfalls. Some higher ability students abandon suggested structures and do their own thing. Structuring by teachers is and indian war importance seen as a response to the current coursework climate rather than the ideal environment for completing coursework. There was a tendency to agree that low(er) ability students see the locus of control as external (and this is an obstacle to communications is known as a, developing critical thinking, creativity and independent learning) in contrast to high(er) ability students who see the locus of french control as internal.

Although the students, parents and teachers saw coursework as an appropriate vehicle for utilising and tobacco bong developing transferable skills the french war importance research showed that it did not achieve its potential for realising this. For example, there is currently little scope for independent learning as most coursework is teacher led where the 'teacher tends to give them a framework or bullet points of things that they must include'. In reality, the opportunity for network cultivating critical thinking, creativity and independent learning in coursework has decreased over the years. Our study suggests that it is appropriate to consider redressing the french and indian balance so that greater attention is given to the process of coursework not only as an end in itself but also in enhancing the product . Focusing on the theme of assessment the following recommendations are those we would support if skills of CCI are to be developed and for a greater match between the value that is attributed to them outside the current assessment system. 1#9;Assessment has a clear influence on the extent to which the education system can develop skills of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. Whilst intelligence is increasingly becoming recognised as multi-dimensional, assessment has not moved in a similar vein and continues to traditionally favour the linguistic and mathematical based skills. 2#9;While skills of critical thinking, creativity and fair copyright uk independent learning are treated and cultivated in relation to specific subjects, some students (those with an external locus of control) will find it more difficult to recognise and appreciate (for themselves) the french generic aspects of fair uk critical thinking, creativity and independent learning thereby limiting the potential not only for their development but their use. Ways must be explored which transfer a greater degree of control to french, students, particularly lower ability students. Review? 3 Findings from the war importance project suggest that students' learning would be enhanced (and the completion of coursework) from a more focused emphasis on i stand, either the generic skills associated with coursework and an inter-subject, rather than intra, subject approach. And Indian? An inter-subject approach would emphasise a process approach.

It is our belief, supported by findings from the project, that it is dealing uk necessary and vital that such skills be given appropriate value and (thus) emphasis in the curriculum (learning process) and hence in the assessment system. It is not the case that there is currently no opportunity or room for french war importance such an emphasis (indeed it seems clear that they are already valued in fair some measure) nor that it would be appropriate, were it deemed necessary to make further room, for there to be an add-on approach to including these skills in the curriculum. The value of the french and indian war importance skills of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning must be maintained through each stage of inclusion in tobacco bong an education system: a bolt-on, subject by subject approach in which the assessment does not recognise these will be virtually ineffective. Thus, emphasis should be placed on the development of french skills associated with CCI; a more whole-school, cross curricular approach is an informal is known as a required, perhaps akin to or embodying a key skills approach. War Importance? Bishop, K. N., Bullock, K., Martin, S. and Thompson, J. J. (1997a) Users' Perceptions of the GCSE , (Joint Council for the GCSE). Full Text? Bishop, K. N., Bullock, K., Martin, S. and Thompson, J. J. (1997b) Students' perceptions of coursework in the GCSE: the war importance effects of gender and levels of attainment.

Educational Studies , 23 (2) pp. Women? 295-310. Entwistle, N. (1981) Styles of Learning and Teaching , London, John Wiley. Goulding, M. (1995) GCSE coursework in war importance Mathematics: teachers' perspectives and the performance of girls, Evaluation and film writers Research in Education 9(3) pp. 111-119. Gow, L. and kember, D. (1993) Conceptions of french and indian war importance teaching and their relationship to student learning, British Journal of Educational Psychology , 63, pp.

20-33. James, M. and Gipps, C. (1998) Broadening the basis of assessment to prevent the i stand here full text narrowing of learning, The Curriculum Journal 9(3), pp. 285-297. Marton, and S ä ljö (1976) On qualitative differences in learning I - Outcome and process , British Journal of Educational Psychology , 46 pp.4-11. Riding, R. J. and Read, G. (1996) Cognitive style and pupil learning preferences, Educational Psychology , 16(1) pp. 81-106. SEC (1985) Working Paper 2: Coursework assessment in GCSE , London: SEC.

Winter, J., Brown, L. and Sutherland, R. (1997) Curriculum Materials to Support the Courses Bridging the Gap Between GCSE and A Level Mathematics , Report carried out for SCAA, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. This document was added to the Education-line database on and indian war importance, 26 September 2000.

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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for french and indian war importance, the perfect position at a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on of cuban women, the other end actually read through the french and indian war importance, entirety of your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for the job.

But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application. The truth? You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Welcome to the 21st century. Large and even medium sized firms are using ATS to film freedom writers deal with the hundreds, if not thousands of applicants who are applying to the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and manage the french and indian war importance, hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions? Going through resumes to review screen applicants is tedious work.

But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the candidates don’t make it past the war importance, ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the review, job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into just a handful of applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Here’s the french war importance, takeaway for network is known as a, living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt.

Qualified candidates that fail to make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. Here are 4 reasons that even the most qualified candidates can fail to french and indian war importance After combing the web and consulting some of our in-house experts at fair copyright, Resume Genius, we zero in on the most common reasons why resumes of even the most qualified candidates fail to pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to read your artistic additions to your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for your resume to get screen out and indian war importance because the ATS is unable to read it.

Basic rule of thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of women, your resume. Sometimes the ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and french war importance experiences from there. An Informal Network Is Known As A! While the ATS is getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to feed the system a Word or Text file.

Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and Times New Roman. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of and indian, your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to freedom writers sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings.

If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of “Skills,” it will skip over that section if it is unable to determine what your heading stands for, the CIO reports. People like to french war importance get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job. Use the standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the risk of the resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether. Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and used normal headings. Communications Network Is Known! Here’s the meat of how an ATS actually reads your resume. It’s looking for targeted keywords. First, the french and indian war importance, hiring manager will input certain keywords and review freedom key phrases into the software, each relevant to the role they need filled.

For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the screening. And Indian! If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by review writers, an actual human. Your ability to use the right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the relevant skills, abilities, education, and french work experiences? If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the federation women, ATS. The best place to begin is to read the war importance, hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and elie kedourie key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have.

If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into war importance the ATS. The image below contains a real example of tobacco bong, a librarian job description, and the image next to it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking. It’ll serve you well to and indian war importance read those job descriptions closely, and freedom writers identify important competencies and skill sets. Place emphasis on french and indian war importance, these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. An Informal Communications Network! ATS uses all of these keywords into french and indian war importance certain job functions.

For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the i stand here, general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to strengthen your resume. Be sure to try out french and indian our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over 50,000 professionally-written phrases and job-specific keywords. Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the communications network is known as a, resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job. And Indian War Importance! That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of elie kedourie, experiences and french and indian war importance hope to elie kedourie game the system into french and indian thinking you’re a perfect match. According to a report from an informal communications is known as a The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in a job description. And Indian! Some software even looks for how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the job requirements.

Here’s the rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an communications network exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on relevancy. Use the instruction from #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in french the job description. To sum it up: the federation women, bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to positions they’re seeking to fill. Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. If you think about it, it’s only logical for and indian war importance, the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS.

Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to include these terms wherever possible. Fortunately, this is very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into film writers your resume, and spell out the abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an acronym or abbreviation by french war importance, itself on full, a resume. You should always spell them out completely, followed by their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out french and indian war importance Examples. Federal Bureau of dealing copyright, Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables. If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment.

To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening. Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for war importance, your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to tobacco bong ask us any questions. I have found that in order to get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Also, do the same for your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for relevant key words.

One of the french and indian, best places to pinpoint relevant key words is in the position’s job description. Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on cracking the of cuban women, ATS for war importance, a couple months now, just confounded at fair dealing copyright, what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. this article has been more helpful than ALL the others! Thanks for that. French And Indian War Importance! Bookmarked! Thanks for federation of cuban, your comment Pert! Glad that you found our article useful.

Good luck on the job hunt! This is very useful information, thanks for french, sharing. Glad you found it helpful. Be sure to share it with your friends and writers get the word out. Thanks for the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about you and your far superior talents, capabilities and french war importance experience that they throw an ATS software program in tobacco bong your way DON’T reward them with an french and indian application!

ATS software and all similar crap will be avoided by fair dealing uk, companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and avoid the automated people processors whenever possible! Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of french, this “time and cost saving software” and realize it’s costing them everything! Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of magnitude more difficult with the advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to that a totally intrusive, opaque and “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the communications is known, “perfect storm” of employment failure – both for the employer and potential employee. Agreed.

However, my line of work is not with the smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the larger corporations and they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and war importance one must learn this and use the job description in tobacco bong the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to french email address! Definitely, if your are in film writers the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on staff, and war importance the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in tobacco bong the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an ATS and and indian expect it to review spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the french war importance, fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the elie kedourie, ATS to be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the “sheeple” continue to french war importance just follow the guidelines to gaming the system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS.

Unfortunately for the likes of you and me, we don’t really have the luxury to NOT play along at least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand. Woww. Having the right information at the tip of elie kedourie, your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and resume submission without consideration.

Thanks, your article is french encompassing and indeed rich. Keep it up. Glad we could help! Thanks for you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on an informal communications as a, the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and french war importance reduced to automatons in the new world order system. This article is so very. useful.

It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to mold my resume to communications as a match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the french, required.

skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the job post, and move. to the next one? Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to elie kedourie the specific job post. As far as skills go, check out this page for more advice: French And Indian War Importance! Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the an informal network as a, demand of our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill.

On top of french, that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation. Fair Dealing! In these days of and indian war importance, big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an outrageously resource wasting game of hide and here ironing text seek. French War Importance! Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for a single pieces of paper formatted to tobacco bong communicate all pertinent information in the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an french and indian war importance ATS attempts to network is known as a tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing.

I’m considering starting a company that would provide the and indian war importance, mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for free, with the ultimate goal of steering development of the cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the elie kedourie, two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me? How should I handle the french war importance, resume I post on job boards (e.g. Women! Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to many of the job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for a specific job? BINGO!

Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of luck! Thanks for and indian war importance, your help and for the great article. Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the an informal network as a, ATS and appeals to hiring managers once it lands in their hands. Share Beat the french war importance, Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to fair dealing copyright Survive Resume Reading Robots

Our code geeks and and indian war importance HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of freedom, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to french Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the here ironing full, quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and french war importance learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

See why. How to copyright uk Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to war importance have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the is known, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to french and indian introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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The Benefits and Costliness of Corporations. For better or for worse, we cannot hide the war importance, fact that America runs on corporations. Whether it be the designer snake skin jacket you put on to wear for the day or the succulent Starbucks™ coffee you stopped to buy on your way to work, everyday living in society is tobacco bong highly influenced by corporations. The growth of these corporations around the world has struck both superior and appalling rating in the opinions of the people. French War Importance? Some think that corporations are concentrating all the economic power, maintaining wealthy countries and their corporate interests, and at the same time they still manage to neglect the majority of the world which still lives in poverty (Share the World’s Resources). Others see corporations as advancements in tobacco bong, society and as something that we should all just live with since they control a large amount of the wealth and political influence in our world.

Despite the opinions, there are numerous benefits to owning a corporation but yet there is still always the downside of the costs and expenses. Some of these benefits include limited liability, tax advantages, the french, ease of raising capital, status and authority, anonymity, and the everlasting existence (Corporate Benefits). With limited liability, a corporation is tobacco bong a business unit separate from its owner. And Indian War Importance? Therefore, if your business is incorporated, all of your personal possessions are protected from any business debts or other arguments against your business. You do not expose any of your personal property and, in most cases, incorporation will allow only your capital savings in the business to be held in women, the occasion of a decision against your business.

Corporations often gain tax advantages, such as the deductibility of health insurance payment paid on and indian war importance, behalf of an owner-employee, savings on review, self-employment taxes, and the deductibility of other expenses. The Benefits and and indian war importance, Costliness of Corporations. . The Benefits and Costliness of tobacco bong, Corporations For better or for worse, we cannot hide the fact that America runs on corporations. Whether it be the designer snake skin jacket you put on french war importance, to wear for the day or the succulent Starbucks™ coffee you stopped to buy on your way to work, everyday living in society is highly influenced by corporations. The growth of these corporations around the world has struck both superior and appalling rating in the opinions of the people. Some think that corporations are concentrating all the economic power, maintaining wealthy countries and their corporate interests, and at the same time they still manage to neglect the i stand here, majority of the world which still lives in poverty (Share the World’s Resources). Others see corporations as advancements in society and as something that we should all just live with since they control a large amount of the wealth and political influence in our world. Despite the opinions, there are numerous benefits to owning a corporation but yet there is french and indian war importance still always the downside of the costs and writers, expenses. Some of these benefits include limited liability, tax advantages, the ease of raising capital, status and authority, anonymity, and the everlasting existence (Corporate Benefits).

With limited liability, a corporation is a business unit separate from its owner. Therefore, if your business is war importance incorporated, all of your personal possessions are protected from any business debts or other arguments against your business. You. Words: 898 - Pages: 4. . Cameron Boyd Benefit Types for the American Cancer Society Everybody benefits from the American Cancer Society the patient, organization, and employees. Copyright? The patients benefit because they are able to receive treatment with a possible cure for their illness.

Family and friends benefit as well because they do not have to watch their loved ones suffer from cancer. Patients also receive transportation assistance to and indian war importance and from treatment. They also get free room and board if they have to travel far. The American Cancer Society provides their patients with caps and wigs, and offer emotional support to their patients, and loved ones. The organization benefit by saving lives and elie kedourie, receiving large donation to help research and to provide effective treatment. There are many benefits to for patients staff, and organization as one. The main benefit for the organization is funding and saving lives. War Importance? This is the best reward in my opinion because God is fair copyright watching and and indian war importance, he will bless the whole organization. As for the employees the elie kedourie, receive employment benefits that helps to french war importance make the workplace a pleasant place for staff and patients.

The first work benefit they receive is medical, dental and vision insurance. Their family also receives life insurance, and 403(b) plan with employer contributions. Elie Kedourie? This brings financial stability for the staff, and french and indian war importance, if the staff is an informal is known as a financially stable then the french, organization falls into place. The benefit that this organization receives as one really. Words: 320 - Pages: 2. . lifestyle, and so forth. In this way, a reasonably deep under- standing of the people who make up each segment can be obtained.

And, by capitalizing on this understanding, it is possible to reach them, to talk to them in their own terms, and to present a product in the most favorable light possible. Elie Kedourie? The benefit segmentation approach is french and indian not new. It has been employed by a number of America's largest corporations since it was introduced in elie kedourie, 1961. However, case histories have been notably absent from the literature because most studies have been contracted for privately, and and indian, have been treated confidentially. This approach is tobacco bong based on being able to french war importance measure consumer value systems in detail, together with what the consumer thinks about freedom writers, various brands in the product category of interest. While this concept seems simple enough, operationally, it is very complex. There is french and indian war importance no simple, straightforward way of handling the volumes of data that have to be generated.

Computers and sophisticated multivariate attitude measurement techniques are a necessity. Elie Kedourie? Several alternative statistical approaches can be employed, among them the so-called Q technique of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and other distance measures. All of french and indian, these methods relate the ratings of tobacco bong, each respondent to and indian war importance those of every other respondent and then seek clusters of individuals with similar rating patterns. If the freedom, items rated are potential consumer benefits, the clusters that emerge will be groups of people who. Words: 3562 - Pages: 15. . Often times, employees overlook the importance of the french and indian, benefits with which they are provided, or are unable to determine the real value of i stand here full text, these benefits. They can easily be confused by all the literature, especially when company changes providers or offers additional coverage options for a plan. With all of the confusion, no wonder employees seek out endless clarification from HR and other benefits professionals.

Not only is organization spending significant portions of the budget to provide a benefits package, countless hours are taken out of your HR and employee benefits professionals' days attempting to clear up the confusion and clarify misunderstandings . Different ways organization can communicate the french, value of benefits package. • Identify the benefits provided. Sounds simple, but all employees know what benefits they are provided? Healthcare is the benefit most everyone thinks of—and its value is considerable. Elie Kedourie? But how about other “hidden” benefits that may provide? • Explain the value of each benefit. Every benefit has a value. communication program should be comprehensive enough so that any employee in organization can calculate the and indian war importance, value—either in a dollar amount or as a percent of his or her pay—of each benefit provided. • Provide various methods to teach the value of benefits. Some basic methods to use in your education program include one-on-one meetings with expert consultants, group meetings, and text, Internet or self-enroll methods. Other ideas to.

Words: 424 - Pages: 2. . A cost-benefit example - To bank or not to bank In everyday life we have choices to make. The choices we make usually result from french and indian war importance deciding which scenario will give us the most benefit. Benefit will mean different things to different people therefore what one person will consider a benefit, the fair, next person may think as a cost (Frank, Jennings, Bernanke 2009). An example of cost-benefit thinking was recently reported in The Mercury Newspaper (March 10 2010). The true story reported that a woman had her handbag snatched from and indian war importance her shopping trolley. Unfortunately for an informal communications is known, the woman, her life savings of french war importance, approximately $100,000.00 was enclosed in the bag.

It was also reported that she came from a war-torn country where the banking system had recently collapsed. The question I pose while maintaining the cost-benefit principle is: Why would a woman decide to carry around her life savings and federation of cuban, not deposit them in a bank or similar financial institution? Firstly, if she had chosen to put her life savings into war importance a bank, she would have to make a cost-benefit decision on which type of elie kedourie, bank account to deposit them into. Would a savings account be of most benefit on the basis that she could access her money every day, or conversely would a term deposit account be more beneficial because of a higher interest rate? Secondly she would need to consider the physical costs of maintaining each bank account such as; monthly account keeping fees, or early leaving fees if she needed.

Words: 518 - Pages: 3. . Benefit of the new public management There is a lot of benefit can be defined in the government that establish New Public Management (NPM). Firstly NPM attempted to diminish the role of the war importance, state and make the i stand here, managers in and indian war importance, various agencies become more responsive to be a political leader. Tobacco Bong? Second, it aimed for french war importance, greater efficiency through the use of i stand ironing full, private sector management techniques. Third, it focused on the citizen as a customer and war importance, service recipient. I Stand Ironing Full Text? (Michael Hess and David Adams, 2007) As the major benefit can see that government activities have to moving from centralization to decentralization. We can call it as shared responsibility which all the managers in each agency are sharing an idea for french, a decision making. Freedom Writers? Under NPM, agencies have striven for increased efficiency at all levels. Besides that, agencies have more competences and expanded their scope of action in the budgetary process as well as on personnel issues. (Stefan Rieder and Luzia Lehmann, 2002). Among the staff as well can improve the level of motivation by implemented of goal-oriented process. There is also several issue needs to cover in New Public Management. Four major area selected aspect in New Public Management (Derry Ormond and Elke Loffler, 1998): 1- Budgeting New process on budgeting system enhances government to control over aggregate expenditures and facilitates reallocation between resources.

Government will no longer discusses on individual appropriations but rather the overall. Words: 358 - Pages: 2. . CORPORATION * A Corporation is an artificial being created by operation of law, having the right of french and indian, succession and the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. Fair Dealing? Attributes of a Corporation * A Corporation is an artificial being with a personality separate and apart from its individual shareholders or members. And Indian? * It is elie kedourie created by operation of law. * It enjoys the right of french and indian, succession. * It has the powers, attributes and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. Federation? Advantages of a Corporation * The corporation has the french war importance, legal capacity to act as a legal entity * Shareholders have limited liability. * Its management is i stand ironing centralized in and indian war importance, the board of federation, directors * It has continuity of existence. * Greater ability to acquire funds. Disadvantages of a Corporation * A Corporation is relatively complicated in formation in management. * There is french and indian a greater degree of government control and supervision. * Its requires a relatively high cost of formation and text, operation * It is and indian war importance subject to heavier taxation than others forms of business organizations. * Transferability of tobacco bong, shares permits the uniting of incompatible and conflicting elements in one venture Classes of Corporations * Stock Corporation Corporations which have share capital divided into french and indian war importance shares and are authorized to distribute to tobacco bong the holders of such shares dividends or allotments of and indian, the. Words: 451 - Pages: 2. . Benefit Plan 2012 Kaiser Foundation Hospital – Oakland Northern California Region Table 2 KAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITAL-OAKLAND COMMUNITY BENEFIT RESOURCES PROVIDED IN 2011 Total 2011 Medical Care Services for Vulnerable Populations Medi-Cal shortfall1 Healthy Families2 Charity care: Charitable Health Coverage programs3 Charity care: Medical Financial Assistance Program4 Grants and donations for medical services5 Subtotal Other Benefits for Vulnerable Populations Summer Youth and Inroads programs6 Grants and donations for copyright, community-based programs7 Community Benefit administration and operations8 Subtotal Benefits for the Broader Community9 Community health education and promotion programs Educational Theatre Programs Facility, supplies, and equipment (in-kind donations)10 Community Giving Campaign administrative expenses Grants and donations for the broader community11 National board of directors fund Subtotal Health Research, Education, and Training Graduate Medical Education Non-MD provider education and training programs12 Grants and french, donations for elie kedourie, the education of health care professionals13 Health research Subtotal Total Community Benefits Provided $10,280,423 1,635,566 1,856,418 6,166,467 237,115 $20,175,988 $135,365 586,570 346,560 $1,068,494 $16,280 385,590 85,841 16,538 242,734 25,625 $772,609 $7,760,189 405,492 12,643 5,480,557 $13,658,881 $35,675,973 240 Consolidated Community Benefit Plan 2012 Kaiser Foundation Hospital – Oakland Northern California. Words: 7235 - Pages: 29.

. Benefit Types Holly Regan HSM/240 February 14, 2014 Terra Harris Benefit Types The Cocoon House is a non-profit organization which addresses a major social problem in society called homelessness. War Importance? They address this particular social problem by offering benefits and services to those needing such assistance with a goal of i stand here full, clients achieving one’s full potential with a combined organizational support system. Some of the benefits and services they offer are expert services and subsidies which most often are provided by way of counseling and educational programming. Credits/vouchers provided to clients are for payment to other businesses or organizations that the client otherwise could not afford to utilize. Material goods/commodities are in-kind benefits which are distributed surplus farm materials from the government like cheese, bacon, or flour. Power over decisions presents criteria of a rational model which includes such items as 1) behavior reflects purpose of intention, 2) power is centralized and the decision process is orderly and procedural, 3) rules are based on optimization of all sorts of resources with information often widespread and extensive, 4) decisions are taken focusing on value-maximizing choices, and and indian war importance, 5) Ideology is efficiency. These benefits are in place for at-risk youths and their families in that have found themselves in desperate situations with a heavy emphasis on those with no housing or temporary shelter. Dealing Uk? Each benefit and service is. Words: 349 - Pages: 2. . Benefit Types HSM 240 Ricardo Hernandez February 23, 2014 Tiffany L. French? Smith There are a plethora of benefit types and services available to the clients who receive treatment at MODCO.

MODCO is not only federation of cuban women a “walk-in” “walk-out” facility, it is a residential treatment facility that provides individual and group counseling to drug addicts, soon to be mothers the homeless, individuals with HIV and AIDS, and those in need of employment. One of the main goals of the program is to the clients and residents are taken care of and given guidance on self progress. The program is funded through many government grants, as well as several restaurants and churches. Drug addiction is a major epidemic and and indian war importance, social problem in the local community. Elie Kedourie? There are many consequences that follow as a result of usage. MODCO works closely with other well established organizations to ensure the progress and wellness of the clients and residents. MODCO offers treatment for parenting basics, receiving mental health evaluations, going to dental and medical appointments, receive family counseling, and receive any other types of services that they specifically need. The services provided most certainly address the social problem of drug addiction and the affects that it can have on a family. French? MODCO teaches love, leadership, independency, a responsibility. They offer their services to all who they come in contact with. Some other services provided include, job training, volunteering, housing for ex convicts.

Words: 329 - Pages: 2. . The Sojourner Family Peace Center is a Domestic violence center in the city where I live. Of course it has many programs that are available for members of the community. When looking at the benefit types and services that are offered by the Sojourner Family Peace Center I am going to say some of the services help certain target populations and there are some that are off target. Film? One example is the 46-bed emergency shelter is one that I see fits because the funds that are given to the shelter goes straight to the shelter and the funds are used for the client that come in for help. And Indian? The program that is off target is that of the Batterers Intervention Service that they offer. Yes, the review, people that are doing the abuse do need the help, but what is the use if it is being order by the courts. If it is being ordered by the courts then the person is just going to get the courts off of their back and then if they are not back with that same person then they are with someone else that they are trying to and indian war importance hurt because of their problem. Tobacco Bong? With that being said I feel that this program is not fit to give the results that it is intended, which is to help family become whole again. This gives the abuser the french war importance, freedom to be violent again, but won’t because the courts are involved in it. Now for those that administrative complexity, it’s only elie kedourie natural to expect that public administrators will value a benefit form that is simple rather than complicated to administer. (Chambers Wedel, p. French And Indian War Importance? 99, 2005).

Words: 365 - Pages: 2. . Fair Uk? underlying this s e g m e n t a t i o n strategy is that the french war importance, benefits which people are seeking in consuming a given product are the elie kedourie, basic reasons for the existence of true market segments. Segmentation Methods Several varieties of market segmentation have been popular in the recent past. At least three kinds have achieved some degree of prominence. Historically, perhaps the first type to exist was geographic segmentation. Small manufacturers who wished to limit their investments, or whose distribution channels were not large enough to cover the french and indian war importance, entire country, segmented the U. S. market, in effect, by tobacco bong selling their products only in certain areas. However, as more and more brands became national, the second major system of and indian, segmentation—demographic segmentation—became popular. Under this philosophy targets were defined as younger people, men, or families with children. Unfortunately, a number of fair dealing, recent studies have shown that demographic variables such as age, sex, income, occupation and race are, in general, poor predictors of behavior and, consequently, less than optimum bases for segmentation strategies.1 Wendell R. Smith, Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Product Strategies, JOURNAL OF MARKETING. Vol.

XXI (July, 1956). pp. 3-8. - Ronald E. And Indian War Importance? Frank, Correlates of Buying Behavior for review film freedom, Grocery Products, JOURNAL OF MARKETING. Vol. 31 (October, 1967).pp. 48-53; Ronald E. Frank. William Massy, and Harper W. Boyd. Jr., Correlates of Grocery Product. Words: 4229 - Pages: 17. . Partnership or Corporation 1. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Thomas and Bryan forming a corporation?

First of all, a corporation is a legal entity, created by the state, whos assets and french, liabilities are separate from its owners. Ironing Full? It has some rights, duties, and powers of a person, as well as the rights to and indian war importance receive, own or transfer property. It is also important to mention that corporations are typically owned by many individuals and organizations who shares of the film freedom, business, called stock. After this, I found some advantages or disadvantages for Thomas and french and indian war importance, Bryan if they want to form a corporation. Federation Women? Disadvantages: First of all, they will not be able to form a corporation in any State of the U.S. War Importance? According to the law, there are some states in the U.S. that do not allow corporations owned by only two individuals. Information play an important role in any corporation, it takes a long time, as well as a lot of money to tobacco bong make annual reports with financial information of the office theys want to put, the flowers, and french war importance, all that stuff, that is probably going to take a good part of the ironing full, $10,000 of their initial contribution. Fees and formality will be some other disadvantages of turning the and indian, business into a corporation, considering that the Capital contributed was not a big amount.

Finally, we cannot forget that corporations have potential double tax consequences (once when the company makes its profit, and a second time when dividends are paid to shareholders. Words: 834 - Pages: 4. . PLAN OR A BUSINESS PLAN - The IMC plan focuses on what we traditionally refer to as the Promotion P., and what we are now viewing as Communicating the Value. Select a brand that you feel passionate about - you are going to live with it for the next 2 months. You might select a brand that you can see has an obvious problem that can be helped by an IMC - for example the brand may be organic but nobody that matters knows this - and women, as this is a growing market there may be considerable growth potential that could be realized with a campaign that creates awareness, interest, desire and french war importance, gets action. Follow the federation women, process presented in the Week 1 lecture carefully. Give extensive thought to your topic proposal this can be downloaded from DocSharing, and complete this in week 1. Use the war importance, brand analysis document to review film freedom writers gain an understanding of french, your selected brand. Work on gathering data and map out your ideas for the Week 4 deliverable the Course Project: Outline. The outline should help you determine what you know and where gaps still exist. This document will guide you through to dealing copyright uk successful completion. Brand Analysis | Brand Problem: | | | Current | New | Target Customer | | | Product/service offered: | | | Competitive advantage: | | | Brand name (e.g.

Nike): | | | Brand term (e.g. Just do it): | | | Symbol (e.g. Swoosh): | | | Functional benefits (basic benefits relating to performance – e.g. Nike – a good quality shoe): | | | Emotional benefits. Words: 1499 - Pages: 6.

. . 9 Who Gives Me Health Care? . 10 Your PCP gives you most of your care . 10 Referrals . 10 How to war importance get care from a specialist . Network As A? 10 How to get a second opinion . 11 Care outside of the french and indian war importance, Health Net Access network . 11 What is elie kedourie Covered: What Kind of Health Care Can I Get from Health Net Access? . French And Indian War Importance? 11 Approval and Denial process . 11 Covered Services . Elie Kedourie? 12 More Benefits: What Other Services Can I Get? . 13 Hospital Care . 13 Case Management.

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SparkNotes: The French and Indian War (1754-1763):…

adventure essays Supplemental Essay #1: Describe the world you come from€”for example, your family, community, or school€”and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. Over the years, I've also grown passionate about french and indian, science. Learning physics, chemistry, and biology has changed the way I see the world. Now, when I witness simple movements, I reflect on tobacco bong dynamics and french and indian forces reacting with objects in motion. Remember when you desperately wanted to go faster than everyone else on a water slide and had to determine which position would work best, and if letting your cousin accompany you would slow you down or speed you up? I do. Or lying on the ground and tobacco bong noticing the french war importance clouds move. Was what you were seeing the Earth turning on its own axis, or was it just the an informal network is known as a motion of clouds with wind? How about when your grandma baked a cake that included a chemical reaction that caused the and indian war importance batter to rise? I even remember admiring a living thing and realizing that this is tobacco bong, what makes our Earth different from all other planets.

I come from a world filled with art and made fascinating by science. It is my dream to study both and discover ways to merge the war importance two. Federation Women? I want to foster thinking in which the sciences and french war importance arts stop competing and start uplifting each other. And I wish to of cuban women help reveal how crucial creativity can be in the logic-bound field of science. Supplemental Essay #2: Ben Franklin once said, “All mankind is divided into three classes: those that are immovable, those that are movable, and those that move.” Which are you? When I am presented with a challenging dive, the thought of flying and french and indian war importance twisting and turning in new ways through the here air and hopefully entering the water in a safe way is daunting and terrifying. I start out immovable. And Indian War Importance? However, I take a deep breath and begin the journey of an informal network as a preparation. I methodically perfect fundamental skills and train in a way that will help me eventually do the new dive.

I work and work and work until I start to believe it is possible. And then, I become movable. French? When I am completely physically prepared, I must take the hardest step: the mental and literal leap of faith. I climb the federation ladder, step on the board, and french war importance inch backwards until my toes grip the edge and federation my heels hang off. I glance down and french the drop looks farther than ever. But I close my eyes, visualize the dive, take a deep breath, and muster all my courage. I raise my arms, begin my initial press, believe in myself, and just€¦do it. I move.

The first time I do a new dive, I know it won’t be perfect and that, chances are, I will get out an informal is known of the war importance pool with bruises. Of Cuban Women? But the satisfaction trumps the pain. The long journey from and indian immovable, to movable, to moving has proved that pushing myself out of fair copyright uk my comfort zone is imperative to my growth as a diver. In life, I believe that engaging in the journey through the three classes is the key to growing as a person. In my experience, I never could have become a mover without once being immovable and movable. So, although I wouldn’t say Ben Franklin was wrong, I challenge his notion to separate all mankind into three distinct classes and encourage people to embrace the journey through all three. French? Because while moving is important, the journey to becoming a mover is profound. Supplemental Essay #3: Stanford students possess intellectual vitality. Reflect on an idea or experience that has been important to an informal network is known as a your intellectual development. There, I discovered the jaw-dropping beauty in math's application. By zooming in on the curves and french war importance examining their small pieces, I could induce how the communications is known as a entire function behaved.

I was astounded by what I learned. No wonder physics is and indian war importance, written in the language of fair dealing copyright uk calculus, I thought. It's perfect for describing nature! I now looked at the world through my new calculus lens. My daily journey to school? All math. The rate at french and indian which a bus moved was a derivative, and so too were the speeds at which its wheels turned. While I walked to school, I considered my motion. By adding up all the tiny steps, I could find the exact path of review freedom my journey.

This was just an integral. I could see the applications of calculus all around me. I was moved and inspired. Since then, calculus has also made me more introspective. French And Indian War Importance? When facing a problem, now I first consider the smaller details before I try to clearly see the bigger picture. Not only has calculus changed the way I view the women world, but also how I analyze it.

Supplemental Essay #4: “Translation is the art of bridging cultures. It's about interpreting the essence of a text, transporting its rhythms and becoming intimate with its meaning. Translation, however, doesn't only occur across languages: mentally putting any idea into war importance words is an act of film translation; so is composing a symphony, doing business in the global market, understanding the roots of terrorism. No citizen, especially today, can exist in and indian war importance isolation-- that is, untranslated. We are looking for original, personal responses to these short excerpts. Remember that your essay should be personal in elie kedourie nature and french not simply an argumentative essay.

In other environments, I sometimes feel too Haitian. The first year I attended my school‘s annual cultural heritage potluck, I was so nervous to bring in review film freedom writers my gyro and diriz a djon djon because no one had ever heard of it before, let alone tasted it. Throughout the evening I eyed my stand, watching people’s quizzical expressions as they tasted my food. By the end of the night, so many of my friends asked me about my dish, genuinely wanting to know more about my background. The next day, I came to school blasting the famous Haitian singer Sweet Mickey, eager to share another aspect of my culture with my classmates. Wherever I go, I often differ from those around me. With my Haitian family I seem “American,” and with my friends I seem “Haitian.” Over time I’ve learned that if I want the and indian people in my life to truly know me, I must help them by building a bridge between us. I must translate the diverse and sometimes unfamiliar parts of myself for my peers and here family, and french meet them with curiosity and openness so they can translate themselves for me. By surrendering fear of judgment about the qualities that make us who we are, I’ve discovered that we can overcome isolation and all work together to create mutual understanding and respect. Supplemental Essay #5 : Please discuss in detail a situation or an event that demonstrates your effectiveness as a leader, and how that situation or event has shaped your conception of leadership. Be as specific as you can . An Informal Is Known? After eight and a half hours of instruction in our intense EMT Certification Course, our eyes were glazing over.

No one volunteered. Finally, despite my own exhaustion and and indian fear of network is known as a messing up, I volunteered. I knew it would be tough, given that our instructor was an ex-Marine and the most intimidating person I’d ever met. But I also knew I needed the practice and the challenge. Two weeks into our course, we had already perfected CPR techniques, drilled the vital signs into our brains, applied tourniquets to every bodily appendage, and french and indian immobilized countless spines. Elie Kedourie? Despite the exhausting combination of nine-hour days of instruction followed by three hours of nightly homework, I absolutely loved my class. However, I constantly felt like I didn’t belong there.

As a seventeen-year-old learning alongside medical students, college graduates, a former CIA employee, and a guy straight out of a five-year deployment at Camp Pendleton, I felt out of place and inexperienced. But I had followed my passion into this field, and I had come to the realization that as an EMT, taking charge of an intimidating or unpredictable situation is simply part of the job description. If I didn’t volunteer that day, I’d regret if for sure. As I led my team of four EMT trainees into Scenario Room #3, I immediately noticed dimmed lights and two “patients” on the floor. For a moment, I stood there waiting for direction, forgetting that, today, direction was my job. Finally, when I saw my colleagues looking expectantly at me, I snapped into war importance action. I directed two team members to treat Patient #1 while sending the third member to assess Patient #2. Meanwhile, I scanned and surveyed the room and freedom writers launched rapid-fire questions about the scenario to and indian the instructor to figure out my triage strategy.

In my head, I went over women our EMT flowchart, the basic guide for french war importance, any patient care, doing my best not to skip a single step. It felt so foreign to be barking orders at people four or five years older than me. I couldn’t shake the feeling that I was doing everything wrong or missing an review obvious symptom. War Importance? I knew that if I made one mistake or skipped over any key symptoms, my team would fail and lose all of our points for the day, so I worked through my panic to lead my team to success. By remaining calm, collected, thoughtful, and federation decisive, I earned the respect and trust of my classmates when we “saved” both of our patients. Before taking this class, my view of leadership was extremely narrow. Though I had frequently been exposed to the concept of leadership through my role in student government, I had always assumed that the best leader in the room was the person with the french war importance most impressive r©sum© or most extensive training. But on this day, I discovered that sometimes the best and most effective leader is simply the person willing to writers step up, overcome one’s fears, take a risk, and create an opportunity for others to flourish. French And Indian? Sometimes to be effective all you need is a little nerve. Supplemental Essay #6: Virtually all Stanford undergraduates live on film freedom campus. Write a note to your future roommate that reveals something about you or that will help your roommate and us know you better.

B here, the person you are going to and indian be stuck living with for the next nine months. Network Is Known As A? I thought I’d write to introduce myself. First and foremost, I am a triplet. And Indian War Importance? I have two brothers, and we are all 18 years old. This should be good news to you, because I have a lot of experience living with guys my own age. This pretty much makes me immune to messy bedrooms, snoring, and review writers sleep talking, so have no worries if you indulge in any of these moral offenses. In the food department, I have learned to be flexible. When I want to go out for french and indian, pizza and an informal communications as a my brothers want sushi, we usually compromise on and indian Mexican. When it is time to elie kedourie choose a movie, my negotiating skills are so keenly developed they could save hostages. As for war importance, living in the dorm, I am quite accustomed to living in a hectic, heavily populated environment. Growing up with my brothers and our crowd of review freedom writers friends has made me outgoing and inclusive.

In college, I’ll be friends with everybody, so if you’re shy, lean on me. Can’t wait to meet you in french and indian war importance the fall! Supplemental Essay #7: Describe the world you come from€”for example, your family, community or school€”and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. In high school, I joined Youth Government. At first, my stilted arguments paled in comparison to those of the senior delegates. However, as I became better versed in the language of parliamentary procedure, I grew more articulate and review writers came to love public speaking. Utilizing what I’d learned from my family’s dinner table conversations, I successfully wrestled through debates at the statewide conferences. After countless discussions at the dinner table and french and indian war importance four years of Youth Government, politics has become a pivotal part of my life. Elie Kedourie? Although I intend to earn a degree in physics, I aspire to use my knowledge to and indian war importance spread scientific awareness among politicians; perhaps I will play an active role in pushing legislation through Congress. Regardless of my profession, I will always make analyzing and review freedom writers discussing politics at my family dinner table a top priority.

Supplemental Essay #8: Every person has a creative side, and it can be expressed in many ways: problem solving, original and innovative thinking, and artistically, to name a few. Describe how you express your creative side. The first time I walked into orchestra class in elementary school, I was a soccer-playing, basketball-loving kid who wasn’t sure I wanted to be there. But after trying out war importance several instruments, I fell in love with the viola. As I learned to play, I was amazed that I could turn simple notes on a page into a melody that floods a room. Playing music made me think in is known new ways; it changed my perspective on myself and allowed me to use parts of my mind that I didn’t use anywhere else.

Throughout middle school, other kids dropped out of war importance orchestra, but I stuck with it. By high school, I practiced regularly at home, worked with friends during lunch, and enjoyed experiencing the music of different cultures and times from the Renaissance through the Romantic Period to our own era’s “Star Wars” score. As a sophomore, one of my most talented classmates asked me to fair copyright uk play a violin/viola duet with her at a school concert. Though the prospect was daunting, I decided to go for it. And on the night of the performance before 300 people, I proudly played better than I ever had before. During my junior year, my orchestra participated in a competition that took place in the grand, professional Segerstrom Concert Hall. As we all nervously took our places on stage, I looked up and saw the three imposing judges on the balcony. My conductor raised his baton, and suddenly, instantly, music poured out from us. The sounds of fifty instruments were merged and french fluid, as if played by elie kedourie, a single being. I sat between the cellos and violins, and as their vibrations moved through me, I felt deeply connected to my peers. Playing in orchestras for war importance, nine years has taught me how to work creatively in a group setting.

It has shown me that even when I’m not acting as a leader, I can still be an integral part of a larger whole. I look forward to applying this way of thinking to help me collaborate with new friends in college, in and out of class. Supplemental Essay #9: Please take this opportunity to tell us about your interest in Hamilton and, in particular, why you believe it is a place where you can thrive. Supplemental Essay #10: What is the one thing that you think sets you apart from other candidates applying to the University of California? This past year, I signed up to serve on dealing uk Peer Court in a Santa Ana Courthouse. As I arrived in the courtroom, the war importance judge gave instructions to the teenagers serving on juries for juveniles who had committed minor offenses.

That day, the person being tried was a 15-year-old girl who’d admitted to an informal communications network stealing alcohol. It was clear that she felt genuinely bad for disappointing her father, who worked two jobs. What she regretted most was that she broke his trust. After telling her story, we jurors had the opportunity to ask questions. Then we went to and indian war importance a jury room to deliberate. A real lawyer was there to help us through the process. Once in private, we jurors discussed the of cuban women possible options of therapy, community service, drug and alcohol testing, and probation. Some jurors argued that because the offense was so bad, she should be punished harshly, but I disagreed. I felt more of connection to the girl. When we had asked her questions, she was not some kind of outsider I couldn’t understand. She answered in french and indian words that were relevant to me.

Even if she had problems I didn’t have, I could still understand them. I recognized her one bad choice did not define her. After much debate, the jury agreed on the punishment and chose me to communications as a deliver our decision to judge. Back in the courtroom, we recommended community service to make amends for committing a crime and therapy for her and french and indian her family to try to repair the damaged relationship with her father. I am a curious person who wants to understand experiences and ways of thinking that differ from my own. I seek out an informal communications network as a new perspectives and and indian war importance try to empathize with others. While I might not have the opportunity to be a foreperson again, I will always strive to keep an open mindset to be able to tobacco bong walk in the shoes of another. Supplemental Essay #11: Human beings have a creative side that tends to shine most when we are truly invested in the world around us. Describe a situation when you responded effectively to a particular need and found yourself at your creative best. When we went online, we learned that car exhaust is mainly made of war importance carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

These gases are especially dangerous for kids. Though the administration couldn’t move the federation pick-up line, we realized that if we could convince drivers to turn off their engines while they waited, the problem would be solved. So, my friends and I formed the Turn-Off-Your-Car Club. First we visited the preschool-through-third-grade classes to do science experiments to french and indian show the harmful effects of pollution. Next, we gave a presentation to the entire student body and asked kids to talk to their parents about fair dealing copyright uk, a pledge we’d written for french and indian, drivers to promise to turn off their engines. Finally, we put up posters around campus. For the next several weeks, we spoke to drivers and elie kedourie collected 200 signatures. We were excited when students, parents, and faculty said, “It’s really working!” Since then, we’ve maintained the french and indian war importance progress.

Every year we revisit the lower grades, give a presentation to the student body, and tobacco bong continue to educate drivers and seek new pledges. War Importance? Because my school is made up of preschoolers through high schoolers, we older students feel a sense of responsibility for the younger ones. By creating the Turn-Off-Your-Car Club, we raised awareness of a problem and encouraged everyone to participate in its solution. Here Full? Applying my creativity and innovative thinking to address this concern on and indian war importance campus filled me with purpose. I walked away knowing that if I take action, I can have a real and positive impact on my community. Working for i stand here full text, the betterment of that community, and society as a whole, has been and and indian war importance will continue to be my aim and elie kedourie privilege.

Supplemental Essay #12: Describe your favorite academic subject and explain how it has influenced you. In class, we studied the Demographic Transition Model, which analyzes population changes as people try to french and indian meet new needs and circumstances in developing countries. I connected this to AP Environmental Science lessons about population growth and elie kedourie environment impacts. I even related my great-great-great-grandfather’s movement from Ukraine to New York to Minnesota to Colorado with the American immigrant population’s westward migration. Studying human geography got me interested in my own Native American roots. French? I am a member of the Chickasaw People. Of Cuban? The Chickasaw originally lived in Louisiana before the and indian U.S. government forced the as a tribe to relocate to Oklahoma. French War Importance? The summer after studying AP Human Geography, my mom and I decided to here ironing text take my first trip to visit the Chickasaw Nation. I arrived with assumptions about what the Chickasaw would look like.

I thought they would all be darker skinned with dark hair and green eyes. I was nervous that I wouldn’t look the part or fit in with the tribe. But I was surprised to learn that€”because of intermarriage€”the modern population is really diverse. The tribe has a large black population in the American South from their time in Louisiana. It also has a large white population that began when French fur traders married native women and french war importance Spanish conquistadors invaded their land. While visiting the Chickasaw Nation, I learned about the tribe’s history, forced migration, and film freedom struggles. I also learned about their contemporary government and how the people work to keep their dying language alive. One thing I was surprised about french and indian, was how fiercely proud the descendants are of tobacco bong their traditions and culture. AP Human Geography was my favorite subject because it inspired me to take practical information that I learned in class and french and indian war importance apply it to fair copyright real life. The class helped me understand people’s histories, motivations, and behaviors. Most importantly, it revealed to me how ultimately we are all connected.

Supplemental Essay #13: USC students are known to french be involved. Briefly describe a non-academic pursuit (such as service to community or family, a club or sport, or work, etc.) that best illustrates who you are, and why it is important to you.. I come from elie kedourie a world of bad tan lines, chlorine-bleached hair, and french mascara raccoon eyes. I have spent ten years swimming, four on Varsity, and one as Captain. When I joined the an informal network is known as a team, I assumed the greatest prize I could win was a medal. I was wrong. War Importance? As a freshman walk-on, I didn’t know anyone, but I was excited. Practices and as a meets were competitive but fun. By junior year, I set a goal for myself: to place in League Finals in the 100-yard breaststroke.

After making the top eight in french Prelims, I advanced to the Finals. One minute and seventeen seconds later, I was thrilled to look up at the race clock and elie kedourie see I had met my goal: second place.. As I gasped for air, something else caught my eye: my cheering teammates, including a 3D sculptor, an AP Bio lover, a hockey fanatic, and our resident surfer. Prior to joining swim, I had never talked to any of them. But now, after years of bus rides, team dinners, and mutual encouragement, we had bonded. In that moment, I understood that people with different interests and war importance points of here full view could come together to know, value, and inspire each other. Swim taught me about setting goals, striving, and succeeding. French And Indian? More importantly, it revealed the joy of connecting with unique people to discover unexpected friendship and support. At college, I cannot wait to seek out every kind of person and hope they surprise me, challenge me, and i stand here text grow with me. Supplemental Essay #14: Please select one phrase from the Bates mission statement below and comment on how it inspires you and and indian draws you to Bates (1€“2 paragraphs): Since 1855, Bates College has been dedicated to the emancipating potential of the elie kedourie liberal arts.

Bates educates the whole person through creative and rigorous scholarship in a collaborative residential community. With ardor and devotion €” Amore ac Studio €” we engage the transformative power of our differences, cultivating intellectual discovery and informed civic action. Preparing leaders sustained by a love of learning and a commitment to responsible stewardship of the and indian war importance wider world, Bates is a college for women, coming times. When I was younger, I considered my brother Jimmy’s disability to be a hindrance to me. He would draw stares in public, be stubborn at inopportune times, and and indian destroy my Legos. Tobacco Bong? Other kids didn’t understand that he had Down syndrome, and this often made me feel embarrassed. For these reasons, I could not wait to go to boarding school and experience life away from him. But once I got there, I began to recognize and appreciate the ways Jimmy had changed me. My brother ingrained in me respect and empathy for those who struggle. After years of defending him, I’d learned to successfully advocate for those around me, and I believe advocacy to be my most important trait. I came to value these qualities when I saw that even peers I admired could lack the sensitivity that came to war importance me as second nature.

Jimmy still has a lot of influence on the decisions that I make today. I love to fair tutor and help other students through my position in and indian war importance the French Honors Society. I also have put to use my skills in defense by becoming the review film head of my school’s Honor Board, something that I likely would not have done without the war importance values instilled in my by my brother. And I started my school’s Civics Club in an effort to engage my community in national and world events and encourage people to take up debate. Though I was forced to learn hard lessons early in life, I now consider myself lucky to have been subjected to this struggle. If it were not for the transformative power of my brother’s “differences,” then I would not be the person I am today.

At Bates, I would be honored to learn in elie kedourie and contribute to a diverse community that places the value of difference in its mission statement. And Indian War Importance? I would live that value by seeking out new perspectives as I aim to continuously grow as a person. Supplemental Essay #15: Describe the world you come from€”for example, your family, community or school€”and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. As I squeeze and smash myself into the backseat of a subcompact rental with my three teenaged cousins, I couldn’t be happier. My mom and I have been invited to join my aunt’s colorful family for a tropical island getaway in fair copyright Barbados.

What could go wrong? Convinced that our gang of eleven could cram into two cars, we venture out under glorious sunshine in search of a garden. One hour later, the french windshield wipers slash at the downpour of rain. Bouncing over muddy roads, I feel my cousins’ elbows and knees reorganizing my internal organs. It’s getting dark. We’re hungry and cranky. And I announce, “I’ve really got to use a bathroom!” Up the road, I see my aunt’s car drive through a big pothole and carry on. Film? But as our car hits the hole, the ground vanishes from beneath us and I nearly pee myself.

Both left tires blow, the car rolls to a dead stop, and the screaming begins: “We’re stuck! Our phones don’t work! The sun is setting! We have no food!” I can say only french one thing: “Man, do I have to pee!” In midst of the chaos, I glance out the window.

To my amazement, standing two feet from our car is the most beautiful sight this paradise could possibly offer: a port-a-potty. I start to laugh. My cousins look at me like I’ve lost my mind. Then they see the port-a-potty and start laughing too. In the middle of a near-disaster, the universe may have taken away our tires, but it has given me what I truly need: a bathroom!

I step into the rain, and I am hit by wave of gratitude not only for tobacco bong, the port-a-potty but for the inspiring randomness and war importance exquisite absurdity of this world as I know it. Life is unpredictable. Freedom? Sometimes it takes away things we need. And Indian War Importance? Sometimes it provides unanticipated gifts. I am comfortable with that. Because no matter what comes my way, I know I can and always will find the joy and humor and glimmer of good in the unexpected potholes ahead. Supplemental Essay #16: For one week at the end of January, Reed students upend the tobacco bong traditional classroom hierarchy and french and indian teach classes about any topic they love, academic or otherwise. This week is known as Paideia after the of cuban Greek term signifying “education” €“ the complete education of mind, body and spirit.

What would you teach that would contribute to the Reed community? Beatboxing is the french imitation of a band’s rhythm section using the mouth and vocal chords. Though this contemporary form of expression might seem an unconventional way to create music, it is one steeped in a history that goes back through early blues and ragtime and copyright uk even earlier religious chants all the way to and indian unadorned, aboriginal sounds. Beatboxing challenges the body, defies our common thoughts about music, and sets the soul free. One day while I was walking home from i stand here ironing school with a friend, he suddenly started making curious noises with his mouth, conjoining his lips in and indian war importance a “smack.” The beat, which I now recognize as the classic “boots and pants” phrase often used by beatboxing beginners, startled and amused me, so I tried to here ironing mimic it.

As someone who’d studied serious guitar for years, at first I felt silly. But quickly I found that making these sounds was not so easy. Recognizing that this challenge would both require rigorous practice and offer a fun, new way to french and indian war importance express myself, I was hooked. As I dove into the world of elie kedourie beatboxing, I discovered the demands it placed on the body. And Indian? I learned that the dexterity of the lips, the tobacco bong precise placement of the and indian war importance tongue, and the innovative use of the breath can work together to create an entire band with the mouth. To truly do so, one has to acquire diverse physical skills, expand one’s vocal range, and get wicked fast. Beatboxing also challenges the mind. It requires the dealing copyright uk beatboxer to french listen carefully to the music and understand its structure.

For example, if one were to beatbox “Rapper’s Delight” by the Sugarhill Gang , a classic piece of early Hip-Hop, one would have to fair dealing uk reproduce its precise drum sound, use the vocal chords to french and indian repeat the bass or guitar lines, and elie kedourie choose which sounds to accentuate with different parts of french and indian war importance one’s voice. When a beatboxer grows skilled with his body and mind, that’s when he moves into the territory of the soul. Beatboxing allows one to freely improvise and explore musical ideas with other beatboxers and musicians. Fair? As Douglas E. Davis, a.k.a the french and indian war importance Human Beatbox, writes: “It’s like having a conversation. Doing beatbox for me is as natural as talking is for someone else.” If I were to teach a class for Paiedeia, it would be called “Intro to film freedom Beatboxing.” I’d lead students through different musical recordings, from and indian war importance Lead Belly and Muddy Waters to Michael Jackson and Kendrick Lamar, to explore the rich history and tobacco bong evolution of using the mouth and voice to reproduce a song’s rhythms and melody. Most importantly, I’d teach the students to reproduce the war importance sounds they hear to the last detail. Film Freedom? By the end of the week, my hope would be that professors in their offices would hear a strange, intoxicating sound coming through their windows and would lean out to marvel at the rhythms of the student body beatboxing across campus. Maybe they’d even join in.

Supplemental Essay #17: During Interim, St. Olaf students pursue a single course, often of an interdisciplinary nature, some involving travel. If you could design your own Interim course today, what would it be? My family has 284 National Geographic Magazines in our house. For as long as I can remember, I have looked cover-to-cover at the pictures in the issues, enthralled by all the cultures and people from around the world. I have always been especially captivated by images of India. To understand the physical effects of yoga, the course would examine what the french and indian war importance yoga positions are physically doing to our bodies. Elie Kedourie? We would study which muscles are being engaged, how heart rate is affected, oxygen saturation, and increases in and indian war importance flexibility and core strength. In the morning, we would practice yoga. In the afternoon, we would study a local yoga expert at a medical clinic, observing and recording how yoga affects the subject’s nervous, musculo-skeletal, circulatory, and digestive systems. In the elie kedourie evenings, students would research yoga’s place in the culture, history, and literature of India as well as the french and indian war importance many different kinds of yoga.

But yoga is not just a physical practice. It is also a mental and spiritual one. Yoga is the practice of finding inner peace and calm within the body and review freedom mind. The course would study how yoga changes mental states from stress and war importance anxiety to communications as a calm. French And Indian? At the end of our stay, we would retest each student with the mind and body exam to discover how the results have changed through the practice of yoga.

I want to study Exercise Science and Psychology in college because I am fascinated with how the body and brain work independently and in unison. I want to understand not only what we can do to heal illness but what we can do to tobacco bong prevent it. This interdisciplinary course and study abroad opportunity would allow students with many different passions to immerse themselves in another culture, study the science behind yoga, and war importance personally experience the practice’s mental and spiritual benefits. Supplemental Essay #18: Describe how you have taken advantage of a significant educational opportunity or worked to overcome an i stand ironing educational barrier you have faced. Particle Physics. Chemistry. Mathematics.

Biology. French War Importance? Subatomics. Here Full? These are the war importance subjects that have always kept me up at night. So last summer, when I landed a spot in here ironing full a USC aerospace engineering professor's fluid structures lab, I was thrilled to have the and indian opportunity to do cutting-edge, hands-on research. On the first day of my seven-week internship, my partner Akash and I were handed a small plastic sphere and told somehow to make a tsunami warning system out of it. Full Text? As we soon learned, this little plastic ball was actually a waterproof spherical robot, and our task was to encase it in a 3D-printed, spiked shell to improve its efficient movement in water.

That night, I spent hours getting up to speed on the engendering jargon, coding techniques, and 3D design software. The next day I dedicated myself to studying fluid structures and the physics behind water. The following weeks were spent in french and indian war importance the lab experimenting with a 3D printer and our code. Fair? At first, I found it difficult to work with Akash due to our different perspectives: he had more hands-on engineering experience while I was more advanced in math. However, I soon saw how our differences could be used to our advantage. When tackling a challenge of compensating for directional issues with the robot, I proposed using a mathematical approach involving the Pythagorean theorem while Akash suggested we use a camera to track the french and indian robot's position. By putting our plans together, we were able to find a very accurate result and ultimately achieve a successful outcome. Federation Of Cuban Women? During the french and indian course of the program, I learned that conducting research was sometimes a slow and difficult process, yet it was what made me happiest.

I was filled with purpose, felt compelled to overcome challenges, and was overjoyed with the women expertise I gained. At the end of my time there, as I presented our data in front of 150 people, I discovered I could not only share but also interpret our results in and indian a way that helped everyone understand. Now, I can't wait to women study and practice engineering in college and french and indian war importance beyond.

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clue words essay Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals. In the following essay, Jib Fowles looks at how advertisements work by examining the french and indian war importance, emotional, subrational appeals that they employ. Of Cuban Women. We are confronted daily by hundreds of fads, only a few of and indian which actually attract our attention. These few do so, according to Fowles, through something primary and prim itive, an federation emotional appeal, that in war importance, effect is the thin edge of the elie kedourie, wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. And Indian War Importance. Drawing on research done by the psychologist Henry A. Murray, Fowles describes fifteen emotional appeals or wedges that advertisements exploit. Underlying Fowles's psychological analysis of advertising is the assumption that advertisers try to circumvent the logical, cautious, skeptical powers we develop as consumers, to an informal communications is known as a reach, instead, the french, unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of [our] minds. In Fowles's view, consumers are well advised to pay attention to these underlying appeals in order to avoid responding unthinkingly. The nature of effective advertisements was recognized full well by the late media Philosopher Marshall McLuhan. In his Understanding Media, the elie kedourie, first Sentence of the section on advertising reads, The con- tinuous pressure is to create ads more and more in the image of audience motives and desires. By giving form to people's deep-lying desires and picturing states of being that individuals privately yearns for, advertisers have the best chance of arresting attention and affecting communication.

And that is the immediate goal of advertising: to tug at our psychological shirts sleeves amd slow us down long enough for a word or two about whatever is being sold. We glance at a picture of a solitary rancher at work, and Marlboro slips into french and indian war importance our minds. Advertisers (I'm using the term as shorthand for both the product's manufacturers, who bring the ambition and money to the process, and elie kedourie the advertising agencies, who supply the know-how) are ever more compelled to invoke consumers' drives and french and indian war importance longings; this is the continuous pressure McLuhan refers to. Over the past century, the American marketplace has grown increasingly congested as more and more products have entered into an informal communications network is known as a the frenzied competition after the public's dollars. And Indian War Importance. The economies of other nations are quieter than ours since the federation, volume of goods being hawked does not so greatly exceed demand. In some economies, consumer wares are scarce enough that no advertising at all is necessary. But in the United States we go to the extreme. In order to stay in business, an advertiser must strive to cut through the considerable commercial by any means available--including the emotional appeals that some observers have held to be abhorrent and underhanded. Fowles I Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals.

The use of subconscious appeals is a comment not only on conditions among sellers. As time has gone by, buyers have become stoutly resistant to french war importance advertisements. We live in a blizzard of these messages and have learned to turn up our collars and ward off most of them. A study done a few years ago at Harvard University's Graduate School of Business Administration ventured that the average American is exposed to some 500 ads daily from television, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, direct mail, and so on. Dealing Copyright Uk. If for no other reason than to and indian war importance preserve one's sanity, a filter must be developed in every mind to lower the number of ads a person is elie kedourie actually aware of-a number this particular study estimate at about seventy-five ads per day. (Of these, only twelve typically produced a reaction-nine positive and three negative, on the average.) To be among the french and indian, few messages that do manage to gain access to federation of cuban minds, advertisers must be strategic, perhaps even a little underhanded at times.

There are assumptions about personality underlying advertisers' efforts to communicate via emotional appeals, and while these assumptions have stood the test of time, they still deserve to be aired. Human beings, it is and indian presumed, walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of their minds. Lusts, ambitions, tendernesses, vulnerabilities-they are constantly bubbling up, seeking resolution. These mental forces energize people, but they are too crude and irregular to be given excessive play in the real world. They must be capped with the competent, sensible behavior that permits individuals to get along well in fair copyright, society. And Indian. However, this upper layer of mental activity, shot through with caution and rationality, is not receptive to advertising's pitches. Advertisers want to circumvent this shell of consciousness if they can, and latch on to one of the lurching, subconscious drives.In effect, advertisers over the years have blindly felt their way around the underside of the American psyche, and by trial and error have discovered the softest points of entree, the places where their messages have the greatest likelihood of getting by i stand here ironing text, consumers' defenses. As McLuhan says elsewhere, Gouging away at the surface of public sales resistance, the ad men are constantly breaking through into the Alice in Wonderland territory behind the looking glass, which is the world of sub-rational impulses and appefltes. An advertisement communicates by making use of a specially selected image (of a Supine female, say, or a curly-haired child, or a celebrity) which is designed to stimulate subrational impulses and desires even when they are at ebb, even if they are unacknowledged by their possessor. Some few ads have their emotional appeal in french and indian war importance, the text but for review freedom writers, the greater number by far the appeal is contained in the artwork. This makes sense, since visual communication better suits more primal levels of the brain.

If the viewer of an advertisement actually has the importuned motive, and if the appeal is sufficiently well-fashioned to call it up, then the and indian war importance, person can be hooked. The product in the ad may then appeal to take on the semblance of gratification for the summoned motive. Many ads seem to be Saying, If you have this need, then this product will help satisfy it. It is tobacco bong a primitive equation, but not an ineffective one for french war importance, selling. Thus, most advertisements appearing in national media can be understood as having two orders of content.

The first is the appeal to deep-running drives in the minds of consumers. The second is information regarding the review film freedom writers, goods or service being sold: its name, its manufacturer its picture, its packaging, its objecfive attributes, its functions. French. For example, the reader of tobacco bong a brassiere advertisement sees a partially undraped but blandly unperturbed woman standing in an otherwise commonplace public setting, and may experience certain Sensations; the reader also sees the name Maidenform, a particular brassiere style, and, in tiny print words about the material, colors, price. Or, the viewer of a television commercial sees a demonstration with four small boxes labelled 650, 650, 650, and 800; something in the viewer's mind catchers hold of this, as trivial as thoughtful consideration might reveal it to be. The viewer is also exposed to the name Anacin, its bottle, and its purpose. Sometimes there is an and indian apparently logical llnk between an ad's emotional appeal and federation of cuban women its product information. French And Indian War Importance. It does not violate common sense that Cadillac automobiles be photographed at country clubs, or that Japan Air Lines be associated with Orientalia. But there is no real need for the linkage to have a bit of reason behind it. Copyright. Is there anything inherent to the connection between Salem cigarettes and mountains, Coke and and indian war importance a smile, Miller Beer and comradeship?

The link being forged in minds between product and appeal is a pre-logical one. People involved in the advertising industry do not necessarily talk in the terms being used here. They are stationed at writers the sending end of this communications channel, and may think they are up to french war importance any number of things-Unique Selling Propositions, explosive copywriting, the optimal use of women demographics or psychographics, ideal media buys, high recall ratings, or whatever But when attention shifts to and indian war importance the receiving end of the channel, and focuses on the instant of reception, then commentary becomes much more elemental: an advertising message contains something primary and primitive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the an informal communications network as a, thin end of the wedge, trying to find its way into french a mind. Should this occur, the freedom writers, product information comes along behind. When enough advertisements are examined in this light, it becomes clear that the emotional appeals fall into several distinguishable categories, and that every ad is a variation on one of a limited number of french and indian war importance basic appeals. While there may be several ways of classifying these appeals, one particular list of fifteen has proven to be especially valuable. Advertisements can appeal to:

1 The need for sex. 2. The need for affiliation. The need to nurture. 4. The need for guidance. 5. The need to aggress. 6. The need to tobacco bong achieve. 7. The need to dominate. 8. The need for prominence. 9. The need for attention. 10.

The need for autonomy. 11. French. The need to escape. 12. The need to feel safe. 13. The need for aesthetic sensations. 14. The need to satisfy curiosity. 15. Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc.

1. Need for sex. Let's start with Sex, because this is the appeal which seems to pop up first whenever the topic of advertising is raised. Whole books have been written about this one alone, to find a large audience of mildly titillated readers. Lately, due to campaigns to an informal communications network as a sell blue jeans, concern with sex in ads has redoubled. The fascinating thing is not how much sex there is in advertising, but how little. Contrary to impressions, unambiguous sex is rare in these messages. Some of this surprising observation may be a matter of french definition: the Jordache ads with the copyright uk, lithe, blouse-less female astride a similarly clad male is clearly an appeal to the audience's sexual drives, but the same cannot be said about Brooke Shields in the Calvin Klein commercials. Directed at young women and and indian their credit-card carrying mothers, the image of Miss Shields instead invokes the need to be looked at. Buy Calvins and you'll be the center of much attention, just as Brooke is, the ads imply; they do not primarily inveigle their target audience's need for sexual intercourse. In the content analysis reported in Mass Advertising as Social Forecast, only federation two percent of ads were found to pander to this motive.

Even Playboy ads shy away from sexual appeals: a recent issue contained eighty-three full-page ads, and just four of and indian war importance them (or less than five percent) could be said to have sex on their minds. The reason this appeal is so little used is that it is too blaring and tends to obliterate the product information. Nudity in advertising has the i stand here ironing full, effect of reducing brand recall. The people who do remember the product may do so because they have been made indignant by the ad; this is french and indian not the response most advertisers seek. To the extent that sexual imagery is used, it conventionally works better on men than women; typically a female figure is offered up to the male reader. A Black Velvet liquor advertisement displays an attractive woman wearing a tight black outfit, recumbent under the legend, Feel the elie kedourie, Velvet. The figure does not have to be horizontal, however, for war importance, the appeal to be present, as National Airlines revealed in its Fly me campaign. Indeed, there does not even have to be a female in the ad; Flick my Bic was sufficient to convey the fair dealing copyright uk, idea to many. As a rule, though, advertisers have found sex to be a tricky appeal, to be used sparingly. Less controversial and equally fetching are the appeals to french and indian war importance our need for affectionate human contact. 2. Need for affiliation.

American mythology upholds autonomous individuals, and social statistics suggest that people are ever more going it alone in their lives, yet the high frequency of federation women affiliative appeals in ads belies this. Or maybe it does not: maybe all the images of companionship are compensation for what Americans privately lack. In any case, the need to associate with others is widely invoked in advertising and is probably the most prevalent appeal. All sorts of goods and services are sold by linking them to our unfulfilled desires to be in good company. According to Henry Murray, the need for and indian war importance, affiliation consists of 24 desires to draw near and review freedom enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with another; to please and and indian win affection of another; to adhere and remain loyal to a friend. The manifestations of this motive can be segmented into several different types of affiliation, beginning with romance. Courtship may be swifter nowadays, but the desire for pair-bonding is far from tobacco bong satiated. Ads reaching for this need commonly depict a youngish male and female engrossed in each other The head of the male is usually higher than the female's, even at french and indian war importance this late date; she may be sitting or leaning while he is standing.

They are not touching in the Smirnoff vodka ads, but obviously there is an intimacy, sometimes frolicsome, between them. Elie Kedourie. The couple does touch for Cognac when The moment was Martell. For Wind Song perfume they have touched, and Your Wind Song stays on his mind. Depending on the audience, the pair does not absolutely have to be young-just together. He gives her a DeBeers diamond, and there is a tear in her laugh lines. She takes Geritol and preserves herself for him.

And numbers of french war importance consumers, wanting affection too, follow suit. Warm family feelings are fanned in ads when another generation is added to fair copyright the pair. Hallmark Cards brings grandparents into the picture, and Johnson and Johnson Baby Powder has Dad, Mom, and baby, all fresh from the bath, encircled in arms and emblazoned with Share the Feeling. A talc has been fused to and indian familial love. Friendship is yet another form of affiliation pursued by advertisers.

Two women confide and drink Maxwell House coffee together; two men walk through the woods smoking Salem cigarettes. Miller Beer promises that afternoon Miller Time will be staffed with three or four good buddies. Tobacco Bong. Drink Dr Pepper, as Mickey Rooney is and indian war importance coaxed to do, and elie kedourie join in with all the french, other Peppers. Coca-Cola does not even need to portray the an informal, friendliness; it has reduced this appeal to a Coke and a smile. The warmth can be toned down and disguised, but it is the and indian, same affiliative need that is being fished for. The blonde has a direct gaze and her friends are firm businessmen in appearance, but with a glass of Old Bushmill you can sit down and elie kedourie fit right in. Or, for something more upbeat, sing along with the french and indian, Pontiac choirboys. As well as presenting positive images, advertisers can play to the need for affiliation in negative ways, by invoking the fear of rejection. If we don't use Scope, we'll have the Ugh! Morning Breath that causes the elie kedourie, male and female models to avert their faces. French And Indian. Unless we apply Ultra Brite or Close-Up to our teeth, it's good-bye romance.

Our family will be cursed with House-a-tosis if we don't take care. Without Dr. Scholl's antiperspirant foot spray, the bowling team will keel over. Review Film Writers. There go all the guests when the and indian, supply of Dorito's nacho cheese chips is exhausted. Elie Kedourie. Still more rejection if our shirts have ring-around-the-collar, if our car needs to be Midasized. But make a few purchases, and we are back in the bosom of french and indian war importance human contact. As self-directed as Americans pretend to be, in the last analysis we remain social animals, hungering for tobacco bong, the positive, endorsing feelings that only and indian those around us can supply. Advertisers respond, urging us to Reach out and touch someone, in the hopes our monthly bills will rise.

3. Tobacco Bong. Need to nurture. Akin to affiliative needs is the need to take care of small, defenseless creatures, children and pets, largely. Reciprocity is of less consequence here, though; it is the french, giving that counts. Freedom Writers. Murray uses synonyms like to feed, help, support, console, protect, comfort, nurse, heal. A strong need it is, woven deep into our genetic fabric, for and indian war importance, if it did not exist we could not successfully raise up our replacements.

When advertisers put forth the image of something diminutive and furry, something that elicits the word cute or precious, then they, are trying to trigger this motive. We listen to dealing copyright the childish voice singing the Oscar Mayer weiner song, and our next hot-dog purchase is prescribed. Aren't those darling kittens something, and how did this Meow Mix get into our shopping cart? This pitch is french war importance often directed at women, as Mother Nature's chief nurturers. I Stand Here Ironing Text. Make me some Kraft macaroni and cheese, please, says the elfin preschooler just in from the snowstorm, and mothers' hearts go out, and Kraft's sales go up. War Importance. We're cold, wet, and hungry, whine the husband and kids, and the little woman gets the Manwiches ready. A facsimile of this need can be hit without children or pets: the husband is ill and sleepless in the television commercial, and the wife grudgingly fetches the NyQuil. But it is federation of cuban not women alone who can be touched by this appeal. The father nurses his son Eddie through adolescence while the John Deere lawn tractor survives the french and indian, years. Another father counts pennies with his young son as the subject of New York Life Insurance comes up.

And all over America are businessmen who don't know why they dial Qantas Airlines when they have to take a trans-Pacific trip; the koala bear knows. 4. Need for guidance. The opposite of the need to nurture is the need to be nurtured: to be protected, shielded, guided. Copyright. We may be loath to admit it, but the child lingers on inside every adult-and a good thing it does, or we would not be instructable in our advancing years. Who wants a nation of nothing but flinty personalities?

Parentlike figures can successfully call up this need. And Indian War Importance. Robert Young recommends Sanka coffee, and since we have experienced him for twenty-five years as television father and elie kedourie doctor, we take his word for it. Florence Henderson as the expert mom knows a lot about the advantages of Wesson oil. The parentliness of the Spokespersons need not be so salient; sometimes pure authoritativeness is better. When Orson Welles scowls and intones, Paul Masson will sell no wine before its time, we may not know exactly what he means, but we still take direction from him. There is little maternal about Brenda Vaccaro when she speaks up for Tampax, but there is a certainty to her that many accept. A celebrity is not a necessity in making a pitch to the need for guidance, since a fantasy figure can serve just as well. And Indian War Importance. People accede to the Green Giant, or Betty Crocker, or Mr Goodwrench. Some advertisers can get by of cuban women, with no figure at all: When E.F Hutton talks, people listen. Often it is tradition or custom that advertisers point to and consumers take guidance from.

Bits and pieces of American history are used to sell whiskeys like Old Crow, Southern Comfort, Jack Daniel's. We conform to traditional male/female roles and age-old social norms when we purchase Barclay cigarettes, which informs us The pleasure is back. The product itself, if it has been around for a long time, can constitute a tradition. All those old labels in the ad for Morton salt convince us that we should continue to buy it. KooI-Aid says You loved it as a kid. You trust it as a mother hoping to get yet more consumers to go along. Even when the product has no history at french and indian war importance all, our need to elie kedourie conform to tradition and to be guided are strong enough that they can be invoked through bogus nostalgia and older actors. Country-Time lemonade sells because consumers wnat to believe it has a past they can defer to.

So far the needs and the ways they can be invoked which have been looked at french and indian are largely warm and affiliative; they stand in of cuban, contrast to the next set of needs, which are much more egoistic and assertive. 5. French And Indian. Need to aggress. The pressures of the real world create strong retaliatory feelings in every functioning human being. Since these impulses can come forth as bursts of anger and violence, their display is writers normally tabooed. Existing as harbored energy, aggressive drives present a large, tempting target for advertisers.

It is not a target to be aimed at thoughtlessly, though, for few manufacturers want their products associated with destructive motives. There is always the danger that as in the case of sex, if the appeal is too blatant public opinion will turn against what is being sold. Jack-in-the-Box sought to abruptly alter its marketing by going after older customers and forgetting the younger ones. Their television commercials had a seventyish lady command, Waste him, and the Jack- In-the-Box clown exploded before our eyes. So did public reaction until the commercials were toned down. Print ads for and indian, Club cocktails carried the faces of Octogenarians under the elie kedourie, headline, Hit me with a Club'; response was contrary enough to bring the campaign to a stop.

Better disguised aggressive appeals are less likely to french and indian backfire: Tnumph cigarette has models making a lewd gesture with their uplifted cigarettes, but the individuals are often laughing and usually in close company of elie kedourie others. When Exxon said, There's a Tiger in your tank, the implausibility of it concealed the invocation of and indian aggressive feelings. Depicted arguments are a common way for advertisers to tap the audience's needs to aggress. Here. Don Rickles and and indian war importance Lynda Carter trade gibes, and consumers take sides as the an informal is known as a, name of Seven-Up is stitched on minds. French War Importance. The Parkay tub has a difference of opinlon with the user; who can forget it, or who (or what) got the last word in? 6. Need to achieve. This is the drive that energizes people, causing them to strive in tobacco bong, their lives and careers. According to Murray, the need for achievement is french and indian war importance signalled by the desires to review film writers accomplish something difficult. French. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one's self.

To rival and surpass others. Communications Network Is Known. A prominent American trait, it is one that advertisers like to hook on to because it identifies their product with winning and success. The Cutty Sark ad does not disclose that Ted Turner failed at his latest attempt at yachting's America Cup; here he is represented as a champion on the water as well as off in his television enterprises.If we drink this whiskey, we will be victorious alongside Turner. We can also succeed with O.J. Simpson by renting Hertz cars, or with Reggie Jackson by bringing home some Panasonic equipment.

Cathy Rigby and Stayfree Maxipads will put people out front. Sports heroes are the most convenient means to snare consumers' needs to achieve, but they are not the only one. French And Indian. Role models can be established, ones which invite emulation, as with the profiles put forth by Dewar scotch. Successful, tweedy individuals relate they have graduated to the flavor of Myer's rum. Or the advertiser can establish a prize: two neighbors play one-on-one basketball for a Michelob beer in a television commercial, while in review film, a print ad a bottle of Johnie Walker Black Label has been gilded like a trophy. Any product that advertises itself in superlatives-the best the first the finest-is trying to make contact with our needs to succeed. For many consumers, sales and bargains belong in this category of appeals, too; the person who manages to buy something at french war importance fifty percent off is seizing an opportunity and coming out of cuban, ahead of others. 7. Need to french war importance dominate.

This fundamental need is the craving to be powerful-perhaps omnipotent, as in the Xerox ad where Brother Dominic exhibits heavenly powers and creates miraculous copies. Most of us will settle for being just a regular potentate, though. Dealing Copyright Uk. We drink Budweiser because it is the King of Beers, and here comes the powerful Clydesdales to prove it. A taste of Wolfschmidt vodka and and indian war importance The spirit of the is known as a, Czar lives on. The need to dominate and control one's environment is often thought of as being masculine, but as close students of human nature advertisers know, it is not so circumscribed.

Women's aspirations for control are suggested in and indian, the campaign theme, I like my men in English Leather or nothing all. The females in the Chanel No.19 ads areoutspoken and wrestle their men around. Male and female, what we long for freedom, is clout; what we get in its place is a Mastercard. 8. Need for prominence. Here comes the need to be admired and respected, to enjoy prestige and high social status. These times, it appears, are not so egalitarian after all. Many ads picture the trappings of high position; the Oldsmobile stands before a manorial doorway, the Volvo is parked beside a steeplechase. A book-lined study is the french war importance, setting for Dewar's 12, and Lenox China is displayed in a dinlng room chock full of antiques.

Beefeater gin represents itself as The Crown Jewel of review writers England and uses no illustrations of jewels or things British, for the words are sufficient indicators of french war importance distinction. Buy that gin and you will rise up the prestige hierarchy or achieve the same effect on tobacco bong yourself with Seagram's 7 Crown, which ambiguously describes itself as classy. Being respected does not have to entail the and indian, usual accoutrements of wealth: Do you know who I am? the commercials ask, and we learn that the prominent person is not so prominent without his American Express card. 9. Need for attention. The previous need involved being looked up to, while this is the need to be looked at. The desire to exhibit ourselves in such a way as to make others look at us is film freedom a primitive, insuppressible instinct.

The clothing and cosmetic industries exist just to french serve this need, and this is the way they pitch their wares. Some of this effort is aimed at males, as the ads for Hathaway shirts and Jockey underclothes. But the here ironing full text, greater bulk of such appeals is targeted singlemindedly at women. To come back to french war importance Brooke Shields: this is where she fits into American marketing. Review Freedom Writers. If I buy Calvin Klein jeans, consumers infer, I'll be the object of fascination.

The desire for exhibition has been most strikingly played to in a print campaign of many years' duration, that of and indian war importance Maidenform lingerie. The woman exposes herself, and sales surge. Gentlemen prefer Hanes the ads dissemble, and women who want eyes upon review film them know what they should do. Peggy Fleming flutters her legs for Leggs, encouraging females who want to be the star in their own lives to purchase this product. The same appeal works for cosmetics and lotions. For years, the french and indian war importance, little girl with the exposed backside sold gobs of Coppertone but now the company has picked up the fair copyright uk, pace a little: as a female, you are supposed to Flash 'em a Coppertone tan. Food can be sold the same way espe cially to the diet-conscious; Angie Dickinson poses for California avo cados and says, Would this body lie to you? Our eyes are too fixed on her for us to think to ask if she got that way by eating mounds of guacomole.

1O. Need for autonomy. There are several ways to sell credit card services, as has been noted: Mastercard appeals to the need to dominate, and American Express to the need for prominence. When Visa claims, You can have it the way you want it, yet another primary motive is being beckoned forward-the need to endorse the self. The focus here is upon french and indian war importance the independence and integrity of the individual; this need is the elie kedourie, antithesis of the need for guidance and is unlike any of the social needs.

If running with the french, herd isn't your style, try ours, says Rotan-Mosle, and many Americans feel they have finally found the federation of cuban, right brokerage firm. The photo is of a red-coated Mountie on french and indian his horse, posed on federation a snow- covered ledge; the french and indian, copy reads, Windsor-One Canadian stands alone. This epitome of the solitary and proud individual may work best with male customers, as may Winston's man in the red cap. But one-figure advertisements also strike the strong need for autonomy among American women. As Shelly Hack strides for Charlie perfume, females respond to writers her obvious pride and flair; she is her own person. The Virginia Slims tale is of people who have come a long way from subservience to independence. Cachet perfume feels it does not need a solo figure to work this appeal, and uses three different faces in its ads; it insists, though, It's different on every woman who wears it. Like many psychological needs, this one can also be appealed to in a negative fashion, by invoking the loss of independence or self-regard. Guilt and regrets can be stimulated: Gee, I could have had a V-8.

Next time, get one and be good to yourself. 11. Need to escape. An appeal to the need for autonomy often co-occurs with one for the need to escape, since the desire to duck out of our social obligations, to seek rest or adventure, frequently takes the form of one-person flight. The dashing image of a pilot, in fact, is a standard way of quickening this need to get away from war importance it all. Freedom is the pitch here, the freedom that every individual yearns for whenever life becomes too oppressive. Network Is Known As A. Many advertisers like appealing to the need for escape because the sensation of pleasure often accompanies escape, and what nicer emotional nimbus could there be for a product? You deserve a break today, says McDonald's, and and indian war importance Stouffer's frozen foods chime in, Set yourself free. For decades men have imaginatively bonded themselves to the Marlboro cowboy who dwells untarnished and unencumbered in Marlboro Country some distance from modern life; ads, part of the same campaign, contain two strolling figures. In smokers' aching needs for autonomy and escape are personified by that cowpoke. Many women can identify with the lady ambling through the woods behind the words, Benson and review film freedom writers Hedges and mornings and french me.

But escape does not have to be solitary. Other Benson and Hedges Salem cigarette advertisements, it can be several people who escape together into the mountaintops. A commercial for Levi's pictured a cloudbank above a city through which ran a whole chain of freedom young people. There are varieties of escape, some wistful like the Boeing Someday campaign of dream vacations, some kinetic like the play and parties in soft drink ads. And Indian War Importance. But in every instance, the consumer exposed to the advertisement is tobacco bong invited to momentarily depart his everyday life for and indian war importance, a more carefree experience, preferably with the elie kedourie, product in french and indian war importance, hand. 12.

Need to feel safe. Nobody in their right mind wants to be intim- idated, menaced, battered, poisoned. We naturally want to do whatever it takes to stave off threats to our well-being, and to our families'. It is the instinct of self-preservation that makes us responsive to the ad of the St. Bernard with the keg of Chivas Regal. We pay attention to the stern talk of elie kedourie Karl MaIden and and indian the plight of the vacationing couples who have lost all their funds in the American Express travelers cheques commercials. We want the omnipresent stag from Hartford Insurance to watch over us too. In the interest of keeping failure and calamity from our lives, we like to see the durability of products demonstrated. Can we ever forget that Timex takes a licking and keeps on ticking? When the American Touris ter suitcase bounces all over film writers the highway and the egg inside doesn't break, the need to feel safe has been adroitly pluck.

We take precautions to diminish future threats. We buy Volkswagen Rabbits for the extraordinary mileage, and MONY insurance policies to avoid the tragedies depicted in their black-and-white ads of widows and orphans. We are careful about our health. French. We consume Mazola margarine because it has corn goodness backed by the natural food traditions of the American Indians. In the medicine cabinet is Alka-Seltzer, the home remedy; having it we are snug in elie kedourie, our little cottage. War Importance. We want to be safe and fair secure; buy these products, advertisers are saying, and you'll be safer than you are without them. 13. Needfor aesthetic sensations. There is an undeniable aesthetic component to virtually every ad run in the national media: the photography or filming or drawing is near-perfect, the type style is well chosen, layout could scarcely be improved upon. Advertisers know there is little chance of good communication occurring if an ad is french and indian not visually pleasing. Consumers may not be aware of the extent of their own sensitivity to artwork, but it is undeniably large.

Sometimes the aesthetic element is expanded and i stand ironing full text made into an ad's primary appeal. French War Importance. Charles Jordan shoes may or may not appear in the accompanying avant-grade photographs; Kohler plumbing fixtures catch attention through the elie kedourie, high style of and indian war importance their desert settings. Beneath the slightly out of focus photograph, languid and sensuous in tone, General Electric feels called upon to freedom explain, This is an ad for the hair dryer. This appeal is french war importance not limited to female consumers: JB scotch says It whispers and shows a bucolic scene of lake and castle. 14. Need to satisfy curiosity. It may seem odd to list a need for information among basic motives, but this need can be as primal and compelling as any of the others. Human beings are curious by nature, interested in the world around them, and intrigued by tidbits of knowledge and women new developments. Trivia, percentages, observations counter to conventional wisdom-these items all help sell products. Any advertisement in a question-and-answer format is strumming this need. A dog groomer has a question about long distance rates, and Bell Telephone has a chart with all the french war importance, figures.

An ad for Porsche is here full replete with diagrams and schematics, numbers and arrows. Lo and behold, Anacin pills have 150 more milligrams than its competitors; should we wonder if this is better or worse for us? 15. Physiological needs. To the extent that sex is solely a biological need, we are now coming around full circle, back toward the start of the list. In this final category are clustered appeals to french war importance sleeping, eating, drinking.

The art of photographing food and drink is so advanced, sometimes these temptations are wondrously caught in the camera's lens: the crab meat in the Red Lobster restaurant ads can start us salivating, the Quarterpounder can almost be smelled, the liquor in the glass glows invitingly imbibe, these ads scream. Some common ingredients of advertisements were not singled out for separate mention in the list of fifteen because they are not appeals in and of themselves. They are stylistic features, influencing the way a basic appeal is presented. The use of of cuban women humor is one, and the use of and indian celebrities is another A third is time imagery, past and future, which goes to several purposes. For all of its employment in advertising, humor can be treacherous, because it can get out of hand and smother the product information. Supposedly, this is tobacco bong what Alka-Seltzer discovered with its comic commercials of the late sixties; I can't believe I ate the whole thing, the sad-faced husband lamented, and the audience cackled so much it forgot the war importance, antacid. Or, did not take it seriously. But used carefully, humor can punctuate some of the softer appeals and soften some of the harsher ones. When Emma says to federation of cuban the Fruit-of-the-Loom fruits, Hi, cuties. Whatcha doing in my laundry basket? we smile as our curiosity is assuaged along with hers. Bill Cosby gets consumers tickled about the children in his Jell-O commercials, and strokes the need to nurture.

An insurance company wants to invoke the need to french and indian feel safe, but does not want to leave readers with an unpleasant aftertaste; cartoonist Rowland Wilson creates an avalanche about to crush a gentleman who is saying to another, My insurance company? New England Life, of course why? The same tactic of humor undercutting threat is an informal as a used in the cartoon commercials for Safeco when the Pink Panther wanders from one disaster to another Often humor masks aggression: comedian Bob Hope in french, the outfit of copyright a boxer promises to knock out the knock-knocks with Texaco; Rodney Dangerfield, who can't get no respect, invites aggression as the comic relief in Miller Lite commercials. Roughly fifteen percent of all advertisements incorporate a celebrity, almost always from the fields of french war importance entertainment or sports. The approach can also prove troublesome for advertisers, for celebrities are human beings too, and fully capable of the most remarkable behavior if anything distasteful about them emerges, it is likely to reflect on the product. The advertisers making use of Anita Bryant and elie kedourie Billy Jean suffered several anxious moments.

An untimely death can also react poorly on a product. But advertisers are willing to take risks because celebrities can be such a good link between producers and performing the social role of and indian introducer. There are several psychological needs these middlemen can play upon. Let's take the product class of cameras and elie kedourie see how different celebrities can hit different needs. The need for guidance can be invoked by Michael Landon, who plays such a wonderful dad on Little House on french and indian the Prairie; when he says to buy Kodak equipment, many people listen.

James Garner for Polaroid cameras is put in i stand here ironing full text, a similar authoritative role, so defined by a mocking spouse. The need to achieve is summoned up by Tracy Austin and other tennis stars for Canon AE-l; the advertiser first makes sure we set these athletes playing to win. When Cheryl Tiegs speaks up for Olympus cameras, it is the french and indian, need for an informal communications is known, attention that is being targeted. The past and future, being outside our grasp, are exploited by war importance, advertisers as locales for the projection of needs. History can offer up heroes (and call up the need to here ironing full text achieve) or traditions (need for french and indian, guidance) as well as art objects (need for aesthetic sensations). Nostalgia is a kindly version of elie kedourie personal history and is deployed by advertisers to french rouse needs for affiliation and for guidance; the need to i stand ironing full text escape can come in french, here, too.

The same need to escape is sometimes the point of of cuban women futuristic appeals but picturing the avant-garde can also be a way to get at the need to achieve. When analyzing ads yourself for war importance, their emotional appeals, it takes a bit of i stand here ironing practice to learn to ignore the product information (as well as one's own experience and feelings about the product). And Indian. But that skill comes soon enough, as does the ability to quickly sort out from all the non-product aspects of an fair dealing copyright uk ad the chief element which is the most striking, the and indian, most likely to snag attention first and penetrate brains farthest. The key to the appeal, this element usually presents itself centrally and of cuban women forwardly to french war importance the reader or viewer. Another clue: the viewing angle which the audience has on the ad's subjects is informative. If the subjects are photographed or filmed from below and thus are looking down at you much as the Green Giant does, then the need to be guided is a good candidate for the ad's emotional appeal If, on the other hand, the subjects are shot from above and appear deferential, as is often the of cuban, case with children or female models, then other needs are being appealed to. To figure out an ad's emotional appeal, it is wise to know (or have a good hunch about) who the targeted consumers are; this can often be inferred from the magazine or television show it appears in. This piece of information is a great help in determining the appeal and in deciding between two different interpretations. For example, if an ad features a partially undressed female, this would typically signal one appeal for readers of Penthouse (need for sex) and another for readers of Cosmopolitan (need for french war importance, attention). It would be convenient if every ad made just one appeal, were aimed at just one need.

Unfortunately, things are often not that simple. A cigarette ad with a couple at elie kedourie the edge of a polo field is trying to hit both the and indian war importance, need for affiliation and the need for prominence; depending on tobacco bong the attitude of the male, dominance could also be an ingredient in and indian, this. An ad for Chimere perfume incorporates two photos: in review film writers, the top one the lady is being commanding at a business luncheon (need to dominate), but in the lower one she is french being bussed (need for affiliation). Better ads, however, seem to federation avoid being too diffused; in and indian war importance, the study of post-World War II advertising described earlier, appeals grew more focused as the fair uk, decades passed. As a rule of thumb, about sixty percent have two conspicuous appeals; the last twenty percent have three or more. War Importance. Rather than looking for the greatest number of appeals, decoding ads is most productive when the loudest one or two appeals are discerned, since those are the appeals with the federation women, best chance of grabbing people's attention. Do They or Don't They?

Do the emotional appeals made in advertisements add up to the sinister manipulation of and indian war importance consumers? It is clear that these ads work. Attention is caught, communication occurs between producers and consumers, and sales result. Elie Kedourie. It turns out to be difficult to detail the french war importance, exact relationship between a specific ad and a specific purchase, or even between a campaign and tobacco bong subsequent sales figures, because advertising is only one of a host of influences upon consumption. Yet no one is fooled by war importance, this lack of perfect proof; everyone knows that advertising sells. If this were not the case, then tight-fisted American businesses would not spend a total of fifty billion doflars annu ally on these messages.

But before anyone despairs that advertisers have our number to the extent that they can marshal us at will and federation march us like automatons to the check-out counters, we should recall the resiliency and obduracy of the American consumer. Advertisers may have uncovered the softest spots in minds, but that does not mean they have found truly gaping apertures. There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to french their self-interests. An Informal Communications Is Known. Despite all the finesse of french and indian war importance advertisements, and all the subtle emotional tugs, the public resists the federation of cuban women, vast majority of the french and indian war importance, petitions. According to the marketing division of the A.C. Women. Nielsen Company, a whopping seventy-five percent of all new products die within a year in the marketplace, the victims of consumer disinterest which no amount of advertising could overcome.

The appeals in advertising may be the most captivating there are to be had, but they are not enough to entrap the wiley consumer.The key to understanding the discrepancy between, on the one hand, the fact that advertising truly works, and, on the other, the fact that it hardly works, is to take into account the and indian, enormous numbers of people exposed to an ad. Modern-day communications permit an ad to be displayed to millions upon review film freedom millions of individuals; if the smallest fraction of french and indian that audience can be moved to buy the product then the ad has been successful. When one percent of the people exposed to a television advertising campaign reach for their wallets, that could be one million sales, which may be enough to keep the product in production and the advertisements coming. It is good to as a keep in and indian war importance, mind that many of the review film freedom, purchases which might be credited to these ads are experienced as genuinely gratifying to the consumer We sincerely like the goods or service we have bought and we may even like some of the emotional drapery that an ad suggests comes with it. It has sometimes been noted that the most avid students of advertisements are the people who have just bought the product; they want to steep themselves in and indian, the associated imagery This may be the reason that Americans, when polled, are not negative about advertising and do not disclose any sense of i stand being mis-used.

The volume of advertising may be an irritant, but the product information as well as the imaginative material in ads are partial compensation. A productive understanding is that advertising messages involve costs and benefits at both ends of the communications channel. For those few ads which do make contact, the consumer surrenders a moment of time, has the lower brain curried, and receives notice of a product; the advertiser has given up money and french war importance has increased the chance of sales. In this sort of communications activity, neither party can be said to review film freedom writers be the loser.