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Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats Essay. Pets bring happiness to a persons life. Snell! They create a special bond with their owners. This bond can help an owner and his pet live in harmony. The Complexity Of The Copper Examples! People usually get pets to have a companion in their homes. Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of a pet is similar in taking care of a child. Pets usually are fish, birds, mammals, and sometimes reptiles, but insects like spiders and ants are still owned by some people that consider them as pets. Dogs and law experiment report, cats are one of the be Illegal Untied States Essay most popular pets to have.

Dogs and cats make a big percentage in the worlds populations of pets, according to the Humane Society of the United States (2011) there are 78.2 million owned dog and 86.4 million owned cats. Dogs show that they are loyal to an owner and that are easily trained, cats on snell law experiment report the other hand can take care of themselves better than dogs and Untied, can remove rat infestations from the law experiment house of the owner. Both dogs and cats have their pros and of the spanish armada, cons, but dogs are better pets than cats because they show more qualities of snell law experiment report, a better pet than a cat. Dogs provide an active lifestyle for an owner. Dogs are very energetic which requires constant walks.

This makes the owner and the Public Have Unrealistic Expectations for the Essay, a dog have a healthier lifestyle than having a cat. Have you ever seen a person walk their cat? If someone would ever see a person walk their cat, that would be their first time seeing that sight. Cats are known as to stay at their home and wait for time to pass by. The energy of a dog can also excite their owner making them play together for snell report, a certain time. Dogs also learn a variety of tricks and can learn them easier than cats.

The capability of a dog in learning tricks can simply amaze a person, training a cat to sit, rollover, or play fetch can be weird sight to see. Should In The! I personally have not seen a cat do the snell law experiment report tricks a dog can do. If I ever see one, I do not know what would my reaction would be. While training a dog, the time spent in training can help in vandalism example, establishing a good relationship with their owner. A dog can also provide protection to a home. Dogs can be trained to alert owners when seeing a stranger in law experiment report, their yard or attack on command when the anasarca define owner says so. Certain breeds like German Sheperd and Labrador Retriever can be trained to law experiment, be police dogs. These dogs help in anasarca define, assisting police with their work, providing them help in searching for missing people or objects or in detecting firearms or illegal substances on people.

Dogs were also used for hunting purposes; their keen sense of snell law experiment, smell has helped humans hunt their prey easily. Dogs can also be trained to guide blind people to destinations. Cats can help out in rat infestations at home but they cannot help in be Illegal Untied States, sniffing out people with firearms or guiding people to destinations. Another reason dogs are better than cats is that dogs can understand humans better than cats. Training a dog requires hand gestures, these hand gestures when repeated over and over can be easily understood by snell law experiment report a dog that will trigger the action that the owner wanted. Many people think that dogs show more affection than cats. According to the journal Animal Cognition, University of London, researchers have found that dogs are more likely to vandalism essay example, approach a crying person than someone who was humming or talking, and that they normally respond to weeping with submissive behaviors. Snell Report! Cats are known to sleep essays, have an attachment with their owners because cats know that their owners bring them food every day. Law Experiment! Lastly, dogs provide better companionship with their owners. Every time an owner spends time with his/her dog, it develops their relationship to vandalism essay example, something better. Dogs are called a mans best friend because they are always at your side, wanting to report, play with you, or trying to cheer you up.

The bond between a dog and their owner is similar to a parent and a child. A child knows when their parent is around or not. The child becomes happy when they see their parents while sad and distressed when they see that they are gone. The Public Have Unrealistic For The Presidency?! Cats can have a bond with their owners too, but they are more adept at being independent on their own. Dogs are better pets than cats but that does not mean that cats are not bad pets.

Cats also have their positive sides like, independency. As mentioned earlier, cats are independent; they can feed off food that they find from the home of their owners, an snell law experiment report example would be rats and example, mice. Cats also can bathe on their own, so they do not need their owners to snell law experiment report, give them a bathe regularly. The dependency of a dog can sometimes frustrate an owner, the feeding it needs regularly, the cleaning of the dogs dirt, and the bath it needs to keep clean are the factors that can frustrate an sleep essays owner. Cats are more silent than dogs.

The barking of law experiment, a dog can irritate an sleep essays owner and the neighbours. Snell Law Experiment! A cats meow cannot be loud enough to wake people up at midnight. Causes Spanish Armada! According to snell law experiment, Douglas (2004), dogs can vocalize their moods, meaning the loudness of their bark depends on what emotion they have at the moment. Does Unrealistic For The Presidency? Essay! Cats on the other hand do not, if they are happy, sad, or excited they will meow at the same level but evidence from snell law experiment, (McComb et al., 2009) suggests that cats are capable of purring with a frequency that has a subliminal effect similar to that of Should in the Untied States Essay, a human baby#8217;s cry. This purr, known as the #8220;solicitation purr,#8221; is slightly different from the regular purr and is used to ask for food. Snell Law Experiment! I have never experienced owning a cat, my family has always owned dogs. From stray dog to a breeded one, it has always been dogs. The loyalty shown by the dog, companionship to sleep essays, their owner, the active lifestyle given by the dog, and capability of the dog to learn tricks are the reasons why my family would own a dog than a cat.

I have never thought of having a cat, even in the future. The cats of our neighbours have helped me in making that decision. Every time we leave a door open, a cat would manage to go inside, hop on the dining table and law experiment report, get some of the The Complexity Atom examples food prepared. Another case would be that some cats bear their children at our garage which would make our dogs bark out loud. Snell! These cases have lead me to make the decision that dogs are better pets than cats. Animal Cognition (May 30,2013), University of London, http://www.livescience.com/20823canine-comfort-dogs-understand-emotion.html Arden Moore (2007), The Cat Behavior Answer Book, http://www.petfinder.com/cats/catbehavior-and-training/why-cats-meow/ APPA National Pet Owners Survey (2011), The Humane Society of the United States, http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html Douglas, K. Have Unrealistic! (9 December 2009).#8221;Dogs vs. Cats: The Great Pet Showdown. Snell Law Experiment Report! New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427381.200-dogs-vs-cats-the-great-petshowdown-.html McComb, K., Taylor, A., Wilson, C., Charlton, B. Vandalism Essay! (2009). #8220;The Cry Embedded Within the snell law experiment Purr.#8221; Current Biology, 19(13). Abortion Be Illegal In The Untied States Essay! Retrieved 17. December 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database.

University/College: University of report, Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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Snell law experiment report

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lowell monke essay In recent times, critical opinion has appeared concerning the use of computers by law experiment, children and adolescents, especially in the Public Unrealistic Expectations for the Presidency? education at snell report, the primary and high school levels. In this essay, we begin by the Public Have Unrealistic for the Presidency? Essay, citing and summarizing some of the arguments given in favor of the use of computers by children and in education. Snell Law Experiment Report? Then we argue against causes them using some opinions which we consider to be non-standard. Another approach and some more details on many of the issues covered here may be found in [8,9]. We also introduce here some new arguments. Arguments in favor of early use.

Let us introduce here some arguments for using computers in education, at snell, home and in school, using quotations. T.Oppenheimer, in Abortion Should States a recent article criticizing indiscriminate introduction of computers in schools, lists the following popular reasons for computerizing our nation's [the USA] schools, [1]: 1. Computers improve both teaching and student achievement. 2. Computer literacy should be taught as early as possible; otherwise students will be left behind. 3. Technology programs leverage support from the business community - badly needed today because schools are increasingly starved for funds. 4. To make tomorrow's work force competitive in an increasingly high-tech world, learning computer skills must be a priority. 5. Work with computers - particularly using the Internet - brings students valuable connections with teachers, other schools and students, and a wide network of professionals around the globe. Those connections spice the school day with a sense of real-world relevance, and broaden the educational community. Let us now hear a strong fighter for snell report, the introduction of computers in education, who gives deeper reasons. We will cite him in Does Unrealistic Expectations Presidency? chronological order. In his book Mindstorms [2], S.Papert writes:

6. I began to see how children who had learned how to program a computer could use very concrete computer models to think about thinking and to report, learn about sleep essays learning and in doing so, enhance their powers as psychologists and as epistemologists. [p. Snell Law Experiment Report? 23] 7. Anasarca Define? I believe that the computer as a writing instrument offers children an opportunity to become more like adults, indeed like advanced professionals, in their relationships to other intellectual products and to themselves. [p. 31] 8. Snell? Increasingly, the computers of the very near future will be the private property of The Complexity of the Atom Essay examples, individuals, and this will gradually return to the individual the power to determine patterns of education. Education will become more of a private act. There will be new opportunities for imagination and originality. [p.

37] 9. Snell Law Experiment? . the computer may serve as a force to break down the line between the 'two cultures' [humanities and science]. . So in this book I try to Should be Illegal Untied States, show how the computer presence can bring children in a more humanistic as well as a more humane relationship with mathematics. [p. Snell? 38] 10. Anasarca Define? LOGO environments are not [Brazilian] samba schools, but they are useful for imagining what it would be like to have a 'samba school for snell law experiment, mathematics.' . The computer brings it into the realm of the possible by providing mathematically rich activities which could, in principle, be truly engaging for the novice and the expert, young and of the armada old. [p. 182] 11. The computer can be seen as an engine that can be harnessed to existing structures in order to solve, in local and incremental measures, the problems that face schools as they exist today. [p. 186]

12. Computation can be more than a theoretical science and a practical art: It can also be the material from which to fashion a powerful and personal vision of the world [p. 210]. In his book The Children's Machine [3], Papert says: 13. Across the world children have entered a passionate and law experiment enduring love affair with the computer. [p. ix]

14. The introduction of computers is not the first challenge to education values. The Complexity Of The Essay? [p. 5] 15. The computer graphics and the artificial creature projects give a glimpse of report, directions of change of Abortion be Illegal Untied States, School that move toward megachange. [p. 21] In his book The Connected Family [11] Papert says: 16.

Across the law experiment, world there is a passionate love affair between children and Abortion in the computers. [p. 1] 17. The best uses of computers that I have seen in homes are so much better than what is being done with computers in most schools that I have come to snell law experiment, see home computing as a major (perhaps the major) source of pressure for educational reform. [p. 15]

18. Be Illegal States Essay? . one of the big contributions of the computer is the opportunity for snell law experiment, children to experience the thrill of chasing after knowledge they really want. [p. 19] 19. What will children learn by making a game? They will learn some technical things, for example to program computers. . They will develop some psychological, social and moral kinds of thinking. Most important of all in anasarca define my view is that children will develop their sense of self and of control. For instance, they will begin to snell law experiment report, learn what it's like to control their own intellectual activity. [p. Should Untied? 47] 20. Law Experiment? . parents should recognize the need to build new kinds of relationships with their children and should see the computer as a vehicle for building, rather than as an obstacle to, family cohesion. [p. Sleep Essays? 79. 21. . using the children's enthusiasm for computers as a basis for enhancing the family's learning-culture. [p.

79] Computer learning experiences give the family a chance to become more aware of its learning culture and a chance to snell report, work at slowly (cultures never change fast) improving it. The Public Expectations For The Essay? [p. Report? 81] Examining these arguments, the following patterns emerge (at the Unrealistic for the, end of each item we refer to the above arguments which apply to it): a) Computers should be learned and used as soon as possible because they will be essential for the individual in snell the professional working place (2,4). b) Students who do not master computers will not keep pace with their classmates (2). c) Computers are good tools for vandalism, learning (1,8,9,19). d) Computers improve students' achievements (1,19). e) Computers accelerate children's development, mainly intellectual (6,7,19). f) Computers may provide a free environment for snell, learning (7,8,18). g) Computers may promote social (and family) cohesion (20,21).

h) Computers provide a fascinating learning environment, one that attracts children and young people (13,16,18). i) Computers provide for a challenge of traditional educational methods and values (11,14,15,17). j) Computers induce a certain vision of the world (12). k) Computers make it possible to learn without tensions and sleep essays pressures (10,13,18). l) Computers (through the Internet) make students get interested in foreign cultures and report people (5). m) Computers develop self-control (19). n) Computers may provide for anasarca define, a more humanistic teaching (9). o) Computers may enhance imagination and creativity (8). p) Computers may be used to make children conscious of their own thinking process (6,7,19).

q) Computers provide for an individual way and pace of learning (8). We want to add the snell law experiment report, following patterns that did not appear in the quotations: r) Children have to spanish armada, learn computers otherwise they will be afraid of them at adult ages. s) Children who don't use a computer at home may develop psychological and social problems (e.g. a sense of inferiority). t) Through the Internet, computers make it possible for students to access all sorts of information not available through other means. In the sequel, we will refer to snell law experiment report, the arguments as (1), (1,3) etc. and to the patterns as (a), (a,c) etc.

Critique of the patterns. It is causes of the spanish armada a great fallacy that children and young people have to learn computers now because otherwise they will fall behind in their future search for professional jobs. Computers are becoming so easy to snell law experiment, use and learn, on-line tutorials and helps are becoming so powerful, that any person will be able to learn how to use computers very fast at any age. We believe that the use of computers will be part of on-the-job training, provided by of the Atom examples, the enterprises themselves. Just look at the millions of people now using computers without having had any previous special training, sometimes just with some hints from other people. It is a fact that many adults are afraid of computers (r), but we presume this will not be the case with children who were born after the introduction of personal computers, which have become as common as airplanes. Snell? How many people are nowadays afraid of The Complexity of the Copper Essay, flying in a plane? A fraction of those who were when planes were still not so common in our skies; furthermore, there is a certain physical danger in flying, but apparently none when using a computer. This pattern applies mainly to the use of computers by children at home.

Here we have to consider two cases: they are also used in school, so there is no need to install them at home; or they are not used in snell law experiment school. In the Abortion Should be Illegal in the States Essay, latter case, it is necessary to consider if teachers are requiring something that only students with computers at snell law experiment report, home can do, for instance handing in an essay necessarily composed with a text editor, or looking for some information through the Internet. In these and similar cases, the teacher should be advised that it is not fair to discriminate against The Complexity of the Atom students who don't have access to a computer. Moreover, if a parent considers that his children should not use computers, as we are trying to show here, he or she should look for an appropriate school which does not use them in the educational process (at least at the elementary level) and does not require their use at home. We are aware that this is going to be increasingly difficult; we should fight for the existence of alternative schools, in these case those that do not advocate the use of computers in education before high school. We will expound on this later.

One of the reasons computers seem to be excellent tools for learning is the attraction they exercise upon children and teen-agers. But if we go deep into this phenomenon, it is possible to observe that this attraction is due to two main reasons: what we call the cosmetics and the video game effects. In the first case, users are attracted by snell, the multi-media effects, such as fascinating pictures, sound and animation. Does The Public Expectations For The Essay? In the second, by an excitement similar to that felt when playing a video game: the setting is perfectly, mathematically defined, and the user feels the power of completely dominating the machine. When the desired result is not reached - either not being able to force the machine to snell report, do what was expected, or not being able to discover by trial-and-error an appropriate command or sequence of commands - the user enters into a state of excitement which stems from a purely intellectual challenge. We mean here a challenge which has nothing to do with physical ability (such as those required in sports). The certainty that one will eventually discover the right way to do something with the essay example, computer attracts the user to such a degree that he forgets everything else, entering what we have called the obsessive user state. Thus, when used for educational programs, what attracts the child or adolescent is not the beauty or interest of the contents being learned, but these cosmetic and video game effects. One may object that a human teacher also tries to present each subject in a fascinating fashion.

We would object that she would be using her own enthusiasm, and the knowledge she has of law experiment report, her class to present the subject in a agreeable way, which should be appropriate to her students at their age and proper development, and certainly without forgetting the contents. In other words, the subject should be presented in a contextual form, appropriate to the students in causes of the armada that class. Report? Educational software does not have the ability of knowing or deducing what is the student's context: what she or he has learned the week or even the essay, year before, what has been happening around or in the world, etc. An interesting question is this: what happens to a student who gets used to learning with computers? Is she going to report, tolerate a normal class without all those cosmetic and video game effects? How about the interest in reading and studying through books, and Does the Public Have Unrealistic Essay the concentration necessary for this activity? We conjecture that all these activities will be damaged by the use of the unique setting presented by computers.

In other words, computers damage traditional learning methods. If this is good or not, is another question. Suppose this pattern is correct. Snell Report? Then one should ask: what kinds of achievements are improved by Abortion Should be Illegal in the Untied States, the use of computers in snell report education? It is possible that students get better grades in anasarca define multiple-choice tests in snell law experiment mathematics, but is this a good or a bad sign? The necessary logical thinking exercised while using a computer (recall that it is an abstract, mathematical, logic-symbolic machine) may improve logic-symbolic thinking. We doubt that it improves other kinds of mathematical thinking, or any kind of non-mathematical thinking. In fact, the working space presented by computers is absolutely well defined. We consider that real creativity does not happen in well-defined spaces but in ill-defined ones, such as those involving handicrafts, art, humanities and social interaction. We conjecture that the development of logic-symbolic thinking forced by The Complexity examples, computers in fact hinders real creativity in non-logical, formal symbolic areas. We have no doubt that computers accelerate children's development.

This is quite clear to law experiment report, us: forcing a virtual setting, a formal language (when issuing or choosing commands to any software) and a logic-symbolic thinking, computers force children and teenagers to physically and mentally behave like adults. The Complexity Of The Copper Essay? It is snell law experiment report quite unnatural for a child to sit on sleep essays a chair for long periods of time, if the child has no possibility of imagining, innerly fantasizing (this would happen while hearing a fairy tale, for snell, instance). As with TV, educational software full of images leaves no space for inner imagination. In fact, we conjecture that the capacity for sleep essays, forming inner mental images is law experiment damaged by the use of such software. Note that if this software is not rich in images, and consists essentially of texts, it will be so boring to a child or adolescent that it will not be used at all. The acceleration of gradual mental and psychological development, making the child innerly and Abortion be Illegal in the States outwardly behave like an snell law experiment report, adult, is in our opinion the Does Expectations Presidency? Essay, worst influence exercised by computers. Obviously, we are of the opinion that there is a proper timing for snell law experiment, every development in children and young people. Copper Atom Essay Examples? Any undue acceleration produces some damage; in particular, we think that early intellectual activities tend to report, steal the child's childhood, necessary for a balanced development, which should encompass physical, psychological, artistic, social and intellectual aspects. In this sense, we extend to any kind of computer usage Neil Postman's fears for the disappearance of childhood [4], which he concluded mainly from examining the essay, impact of communication media. Therefore pattern (e), which is praised by snell report, many authors, Papert in particular, is for us a counter-argument for the use of computers in education. Anasarca Define? Paperts position is absolutely clear, as in snell law experiment his following statement:

The image of children using the computer as a writing instrument is a particularly good example of my general theses that what is of the Copper Atom Essay examples good for professionals is snell report good for children. [2, p. 30] That is, in our opinion he does not recognize some essential differences existing between children and adults. He also does not see the damage one can do to children when they are handled as adults. His argument (6) seems astonishing: behaving like psychologists and epistemologists puts a child into a clear adult state of consciousness. This pattern is based upon a conception that traditional schooling methods impose strict forms of behavior and learning, and this is damaging to the child or young person. We are absolutely against Should in the Untied authoritarian teaching. Law Experiment? But we are not against vandalism essay example the exercise of a loving authority, such as that recommended to law experiment, teachers using the Waldorf methodology [5]. This means that the teacher recognizes that children and Copper Atom examples adolescents need orientation and a firm guidance when necessary. Look at law experiment report, a child walking along a street with her father or mother holding her little hand.

How secure she feels! This image should accompany the whole teaching process: the child needs guidance. This means recognizing the example, child's or young person's needs, not imposing what is snell not proper or interesting for her. In this sense, we are against what has been called libertarian education, a method where the vandalism essay, child does in snell law experiment school whatever she pleases. This is exactly what Papert praises in his LOGO environment, because the child is programming the computer and sleep essays has an open space to do whatever she pleases. In fact, for him the teacher is a mere facilitator, not a counselor or orienting authority.

He even praises the fact that in this environment children sometimes teach their teachers. In the report, elementary education environment, this seems to us to be Illegal in the States, be an aberration. In elementary school the child should admire the teacher's personality, feeling secure that she will be guided by snell law experiment report, the latter's experience through the wonderful mysteries of life. During high school, the Does Have Expectations Presidency?, student should admire the teacher's specialized knowledge. Snell Report? We think it is absolutely necessary for a healthy future social life that students of any age learn that there are limits to what they should do and how they should behave; probably too much freedom too early tends to produce insecure adults. An interesting aspect of the use of the Internet in education is the fact that it presents a libertarian setting: the of the spanish armada, user has the whole world at law experiment report, his fingertips, and nobody is orienting him as to The Complexity Copper Atom, what to law experiment, fetch and examine - unless only sleep essays limited access to some sites is allowed; in this case we think that the experience is going to be so boring that the student will rapidly lose his interest. Only an adult has, or should have, the self-control necessary to impose self-limits, such as limiting the time of use, objectively looking only at what one has previously determined as the goal of the report, interactive session, and so on. A child is normally not able to exercise such controls; if she does, she is behaving like an adult, and has stopped being a child (refer to our comments on Does Have Unrealistic for the Presidency? Essay pattern (e)).

The promotion of social and family interaction is law experiment report due to the fact that a user may discover some new command or sequences of commands, or even a new site at the web and then show it to the other people around. We find this social interaction extremely poor. Compare it with a child playing ball with her playmates, or a family activity such as a conversation during a calm meal. One should ask: which one is The Complexity of the a healthier, more natural, more intensive interactive setting? Which one really improves social relations?

Note that the snell law experiment report, computer setting will normally only occur in professional life; on the other hand, normal social interaction without the incentive of a machine will be the standard setting for sleep essays, the adult life. Do we wish to teach our children to law experiment, be led to social interactions by a machine or through his or her inner interest and pleasure in social life? We have already commented on this pattern. We recall that this attraction is a fake, provided by the cosmetic and video game effect of vandalism essay, computers. Computers do in fact challenge traditional educational methods and values. Report? We fully agree with Papert that these methods and causes values are not adequate. But our diagnosis differs somewhat from snell report his, and our solutions are totally different.

One of the problems with educational systems is that they are too abstract, at all levels, especially in elementary and high school. In Brazil, for sleep essays, example, children in grade 2 or 3 learn what an island is in snell law experiment report the following way: An island is Should be Illegal Essay a piece of land surrounded by water on all sides. This is a formal definition, and as such is devoid of life, leaving almost no space for imagination. Compare it with a story told by the teacher, of law experiment, someone whose boat sank and swam to a beach, then tried to go home and Does Have Unrealistic wherever he went there were more beaches. This story should be enriched by all sorts of details on what the person found, fruits, animals, and so on. It could be accompanied by a beautiful drawing made by the teacher at the blackboard using colored chalk. Snell Law Experiment Report? The drawing should leave space for Should States Essay, imagination, and not contain all possible details as though it were a photograph. In this way the law experiment report, children can create their own inner images, and innerly participate in the drama felt by the hero of the story. They could create a living island in the Public Have Unrealistic Expectations Presidency? Essay their minds.

According to the Waldorf Education method [5], after such a story the children would be asked to draw with crayons whatever they liked about the story (and here an element of freedom is introduced into the class), thus requiring some exterior action, and not just intellectual absorption. The excessive abstraction in learning activities causes children and young people to hate school. They simply cannot identify with what they are learning, because it usually has nothing to do with reality and their whole beings - it is snell law experiment report mostly directed at their intellects. The simple fact that children and young people have to sit for hours listening to what the teacher says, without doing anything else than thinking, eventually interrupting this process by writing in notebooks the sleep essays, abstractions and definitions they hear or read on the blackboard, is completely unnatural for young people. Observe children leaving a typical school: often one observes something like an law experiment report, explosion, running around, beating each other, etc. This is an Abortion Should be Illegal States, expression of their having absorbed the snell, whole time and not having been able to actively contribute anything. Causes Of The Spanish? Usually classes are not balanced, in a rhythm of inspiration and expiration, as they are organized in Waldorf Education. What happens with computers in this respect? Being abstract machines which present virtual settings, they introduce even more abstraction into the learning process! It is astonishing that Papert, who so convincingly criticizes the traditional schooling system, does not notice that programming a computer, which is what his LOGO setting forces its users to do, is the utmost in abstraction. Report? Programming a computer means using only a mathematical language, developing what is called in mathematics an algorithm.

But we want to stress the sleep essays, fact that any use of computers forces abstractions. Any picture displayed on the screen has no reality; the law experiment report, computer does not present the reality of the human teacher in front of the class, of the whole class hearing the same subject. We agree that computers challenge the traditional educational methods - not for sleep essays, better, but for worse! Unfortunately Papert does not know that the traditional class setting may be profoundly transformed, enriching it with a new way of regarding the students and the educational process. To begin with, teachers must recognize that the main attitude is developing an altruistic love towards their students. Secondly, they should regard their profession as a sacrifice: they should not force each student to law experiment report, be what they think is ideal (and abstract), but need to recognize what the student needs as an unfolding individuality. Thirdly, the teacher should have a profound knowledge of what is proper for each age and each group of students. This last factor is perhaps the most distinct characteristic of vandalism essay, Waldorf Education. Snell Law Experiment? It presents a revolutionary educational method based upon the developmental model introduced by Rudolf Steiner. There are other such models, but none is so encompassing, taking into sleep essays consideration all aspects of the law experiment, human constitution as it unfolds according to the age of the young person.

Fourthly, teaching should be directed to the students as whole individuals, and not just as intellectual brains. In The States? In other words, actions (willing) and feelings should be as cherished and developed as good thinking. Waldorf Education stresses that during elementary school, teaching should be oriented through feelings, mainly through artistic activities and an artistic presentation of snell law experiment, any subject (even mathematics!). At normal high school age students start looking for purely conceptual explanations of the world; it is at this stage that the sleep essays, Waldorf method presents subjects in abstract, formal ways, as required by scientific theories, - but always in relation to the real world, and not as purely intellectual abstractions. We have stressed here the Waldorf method because it is an established one, in existence since 1919 and in practice in more than 700 schools all over the world (more than 100 in the USA and Canada, about 20 in Latin America). It is astonishing that proponents of radical changes in education, such as Papert, ignore such a revolutionary change which at the same time preserves the traditional school setting with human teachers, classes, and so on. In [6, 9], we have expounded our ideas and proposals for law experiment report, the introduction of vandalism, computers in education, at high school level, inspired mainly by snell law experiment, Waldorf Education.

Summarizing, yes, we have to radically change the The Complexity Essay examples, educational process, but this change is not a technological one, it is a humane one. It is sad to see so much hope put on computers as saviors of the educational system, when it represents the continuity of its main problems. We agree that computers induce a certain vision of the world. Snell Law Experiment? Unfortunately, for us this vision is totally inappropriate for children and teenagers. It is The Complexity Copper Atom Essay not a humane vision, it is a machine, a technological vision. Schumaker, the renowned author of Small is Beautiful has called our attention to the fact that science and snell technology have tried to solve the problems of the armada, world. Law Experiment Report? Nevertheless, what one hears and reads is most frequently questions of survival - problems caused by technology or technological points of view of society [7]. Computers require exercising a particular kind of thinking, leading to commands which we may give the machine, and which it is able to interpret. In other words, when issuing commands to any software we are forced to Abortion Should in the Untied States Essay, think in such a way as to snell report, make it possible to introduce these thoughts into the machine. We call this type of of the Copper Atom Essay, thinking Machine-Thinking.

When exercising it, we reduce our wide thinking space to that defined (and accepted) by the machine. Obviously, this has an influence on the way the person thinks, because humans are continuously incorporating and being influenced by their experiences (the reader of this paper is not going to be the same after having read it; the author expects that the transformation has been for snell law experiment report, better!): the tendency is to think in The Complexity a logical, unambiguous way, and snell expect everything in the world to be as abstract, deterministic and foreseeable as computers are. We fear particularly the deep influence this attitude may have upon children and young people, who are precisely developing their way of regarding the world. This pattern makes use of the fact that computers may be programmed never to censor, being always available for new experiments. We are also against a teaching method that produces tensions and pressures, as the causes spanish, typical ones with grading systems, flunking, admonitions about deficient academic accomplishment, etc. The problem can be solved, as Waldorf Education has been demonstrating for decades. In this system grades, which are pure abstractions, are not given. In Brazil, the grading system goes from 0 to 10; what does a 5 in a test (in general, the minimum to report, pass) mean? That the student knows half of all topics or half of each topic? One sees how ridiculous it is to handle real people in the Public Expectations Essay a purely abstract fashion.

Waldorf Education has demonstrated that a new kind of learning may take place in law experiment a classical setting - this change does not require any machine. On the contrary, it requires a more humane approach to education, and causes not a technological one. One of the arguments in favor of the use of computers in education is their application on the Internet, making it possible for students to exchange fast mail with people or students in foreign countries. We think this may be a positive application, but it requires quite a bit of maturity from the student. So we would recommend the report, use of the essay example, Internet only during the last year of high school. Lowell Monke, who taught in a high school in the USA, once made an interesting observation: his students, leaving his class on computers, faced foreign students leaving the front room from a class in English as second language. He noticed that not one of his students addressed a foreigner. Snell Law Experiment Report? So one may think: shouldn't we teach our students how to get interested in real people, developing their social interests and sensitivity, instead of giving them the opportunity to engage in a conversation with a virtual person living in causes of the armada another country? Is this contact perhaps a palliative to real person-to-person interaction, eventually producing an anti-social attitude, instead of the opposite report one? Furthermore, what is more important, engaging in a probably futile conversation or seriously reading a description of the foreign country?

Our recommendation in this respect is that such Internet contacts (to be carried out Does Have Unrealistic for the Presidency? Essay only by high school students) be always carefully programmed by teachers, who should continually follow what is snell law experiment report happening. We think that, much more often than developing self-control, computers develop lack of discipline. Sleep Essays? Let us make a simple comparison. When handwriting a letter or typing it with an old-fashioned typewriter, a person has to exercise a tremendous mental discipline. In fact, the possibilities for making corrections are extremely limited; a neat format is only reached through painful observation and control on how the lines are being written. Now compare this with the use of a text editor. The user does not have to pay almost any attention, because she will be able to report, change everything, move paragraphs or phrases around, and obtain a neat print just by choosing appropriate commands or icons. She doesn't even have to pay much attention to spelling and grammar, because correctors will detect most of her mistakes and causes of the spanish suggest corrections. The result of this lack of need for paying attention is, in our opinion, an invitation for exercising lack of law experiment report, discipline.

In fact, relatively very few people want to be disciplined and, if possible don't behave so. This is even more typical when developing a program. Very few programmers use a strict methodology which imposes some discipline at the design and programming levels: the computer does not require it. The result is that almost all programs are big mysteries: the year 2000 problem was a result of this lack of The Complexity, discipline. If the programmers would have decently documented their programs, and had chosen appropriate names for the variables containing dates, the law experiment, changes would be quite simple. The big problem is to causes, discover which variables contain dates. Moreover, it was poor programming practice saving 2 bytes (or even not saving anything, depending on the format used for the date variables) for each year: this was a typical optimization in the wrong place. Snell Law Experiment? All this is vandalism due to one essential characteristic of computers: it is possible to badly develop (software) products which work fairly well. The problem occurs later when they have to be adapted or maintained.

For small children, perhaps up to age 6, the author has given a suggestion which he learned through the snell, Waldorf electronic discussion list (information on it through its moderator, Dick Oliver, dicko@netletter.com), and Abortion Untied States has received feedback with excellent results. At that age children have an enormous drive to imitate. So a parent (who is forced by his/her profession to use the snell law experiment report, computer at home while the child is awake) could together with the child construct a cardboard computer cutting boxes in the shapes of the various units, connect them with wool strings, draw the keys and screen with crayons, and even build a printer with slots for inserting and taking out a sheet of paper. Sleep Essays? While daddy or mom are using their computers, the child could be using hers, eventually printing a letter to snell law experiment report, a relative, with some drawing, etc. For older children, we strongly recommend that one firmly says that computers are not adequate for them, for instance because the child is forced to remain seated for a long time without doing almost anything with her hands and not being able to invent new games. Sound prohibitions should be part of education: the child is already used to the fact that it is not permitted to drink alcoholic beverages, drive the car, and Abortion be Illegal States so on. A child who has not learned to respect limits will probably be an snell law experiment, insecure adult with some social problems - in causes spanish our opinion much bigger than those she may suffer for having been different and having had no access to law experiment, computers (and, we urge parents, to TV and video games). The Internet does make information available that is difficult to obtain through other means. But the questions here are: is this information important and absolutely essential? Does it really bring something to anasarca define, the learning process that can't be obtained by other means, without the problems caused by the use of a computer and the Internet, as we have been discussing here?

To be able to put the computer in an adequate perspective in education or in law experiment individual or social life it is necessary to understand very well what it is. We think its main characteristic is that it is an abstract, and not concrete machine (as, e.g. a power lathe or a bicycle): it acts in a virtual space, the space of the thoughts we may insert into the machine. So any use of it forces some abstract thinking. To be able to consider computers in The Complexity Essay education it is law experiment report absolutely necessary to sleep essays, have a model of the development of each child and teenager. We have based our considerations on the model established by Rudolf Steiner, successfully in use in Waldorf Education since 1919. According to this model, only at high school age is the child prepared to exercise pure abstract, formal, logic-symbolic thinking; before then it damages her healthy and law experiment balanced development.

So we recommend the sleep essays, use of computers only at that stage. Taking into consideration that computers require enormous self-discipline, we have located an ideal age to begin using software at about the end of the sophomore high school year, that is, 16-17 years of age. Hardware may be taught before, as we have proposed in [8], because of its physical characteristics, that is, it is not purely virtual as software is. This fits nicely with the young persons understanding what a computer internally is, learning afterwards how to use it and criticize its influence. In particular, it is impossible to snell, teach a child how the computer works internally this requires quite a bit of knowledge of mathematics and Should be Illegal Untied Essay physics. We insist that our proposed age applies to any use of the report, computer for teaching any subject before high school. In particular, Papert's LOGO system is centered on learning how to program a computer, which is a purely mental, abstract activity.

It does not matter that the results are graphically displayed on the screen; this does not transform a LOGO program, consisting of strictly formal commands as any programming language, producing a logic-symbolic processing, into a less abstract, formal entity. Finally, our preoccupation is with the Does the Public Expectations for the Presidency?, acceleration of law experiment report, a child's or teenager's development. Be Illegal In The Untied States Essay? The human being is a whole, and any activity which appeals to report, a part of it, such as abstract reasoning, affects the other parts. Anasarca Define? We have to wait until the young person has developed her mental abilities to push for the abstractions and self-control required by any use of computers. As Jane Healey has put it, accelerating the neural development may hinder the proper future neural functioning [10].

We don't embrace such type of arguments because from the physical point of view the law experiment report, thinking process is still a big unresolved question; but its consequences coincide with our way of regarding these problems. We hope this paper serves the purpose of calling the attention to the protection our present world's children need, who have been attacked by machines since the 1950's (beginning with TV, then video games and now computers). Essay? We firmly believe that it is snell law experiment report only by preserving their simple, naive, semi-conscious childhood and adolescence that they will become balanced, creative, socially integrated and positively active grown-ups. In particular, we are afraid that computers used too early contribute to creating insensitive, amoral adults, behaving and reacting like a machine, unable to feel interest in other people, unable to feel compassion and without social responsibility. This means the destruction of some of our most essential humane and non-machine characteristics. [1] Oppenheimer, T. The computer delusion. Sleep Essays? The Atlantic Monthly , Vol. 280, N. 1, July 1997, pp. Report? 45-62. [2] Papert, S. Mindstorms - Children, Computers and Powerful Ideas . Basic Books, New York 1980. [3] Papert, S. The Children's Machine - Rethinking School in Abortion be Illegal the Age of the Computer . Basic Books, New York 1993.

[4] Postman, N. The disappearance of Childhood . Vintage Books, New York 1994. [6] Setzer, V.W. and L.Monke. Computers in report Education: Why, When, How. Also available through http://www.ime.usp.br/ [7] Schumaker, E.F. Good Work . The Complexity Of The Atom? Harper, New York 1979. [8] Setzer, V.W. Computers as instruments of counter-art. Available through http://www.ime.usp.br/ [9] Setzer, V.W. O computador no ensino: nova vida ou destruição? in E.O.Chaves e V.W.Setzer, O uso de Comutadores em Escolas - Fundamentos e Críticas ., Editora Scipione, S.Paulo 1988.

See also the consecutively enlarged versions V.W.Setzer, Computers in Education , Floris Books, Edinburgh 1989 and V.W.Setzer, Computer in der Schule? - Thesen und Argumente , Verlag Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 1992. [10] Healey, J.M. Law Experiment Report? Edangered Minds . Simon Schuster, New York 1990. [11] Papert, S. Does Unrealistic Essay? The Connected Family . Longstreet Press, Atlanta, 1996. #169 2000 Valdemar W. Setzer.

Dr. Valdemar W. Setzer is Professor of Computer Science at the Institute of Mathematics and snell report Statistics, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He has published ten books as well as numerous articles in scientific journals on his specialty.

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Digital Publishing Annotation Use Cases. This document is also available in this non-normative format: ePub. This document describes the set of use cases generated for Annotation and Social Reading within the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, in coordination with the Open Annotation Community Group. This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of law experiment this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document was published by the Digital Publishing Interest Group as an Interest Group Note. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-digipub@w3.org (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome. Publication as an sleep essays, Interest Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time.

It is snell report, inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. The disclosure obligations of the Participants of this group are described in Abortion be Illegal Untied States Essay the charter. This section is snell law experiment, non-normative. Annotation is a pervasive activity when reading or otherwise engaging with publications. In the physical world, highlighting and sticky notes are common paradigms for marking up and associating one's own content with the work being read, and many digital solutions exist in of the Copper Essay examples the same space. Law Experiment Report? These digital solutions are, however, not interoperable between systems, even when there is only one user with multiple devices. This document lays out the use cases for annotations on digital publications, as envisioned by the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, the W3C Open Annotation Community Group and the International Digital Publishing Forum. The use cases are provided as a means to drive forwards the conversation about standards in this arena.

The use cases are divided into anasarca define five sections: annotations that target only the entire publication, annotations that target a particular part of a publication, more complex annotations, the publication of snell report annotations and Abortion in the States, finally use cases that are directly related to accessibility. 2.1 Annotations Targeting the Full Publication. A user wishes to write a comment about a particular publication, such as a single issue of a comic or a single book title. The comment is written in plain text or basic HTML, either on the reading platform (such as a web browser or reading system, henceforth user agent) or in the content provider's platform. The user wishes other readers to be able to see the comment linked to law experiment, the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it, as well as afterwards.

Anna is reading Alice in Wonderland online and, using a tool built into the provider's website, comments that she really loves the of the spanish armada, way the book is written. She then shares this with her friend, Ben. Ben is report, reading a Manga comic on a mobile device. Of The Armada? He comments that it is helping him to snell law experiment, learn Japanese and publishes this comment for anyone to read online. A user wishes to organize their personal digital library by Abortion Should in the States Essay tagging the publications that they have access to. The tag could be either drawn from a list of terms (a taxonomy) or free text (sometimes called a folksonomy). User agents encountering such an annotation must be aware of the difference between a tag and a comment, even though both might be modeled as an annotation.

Tags are typically rendered separately and snell law experiment report, very differently from example, short textual comments, such as in a tag cloud or list. The user then wishes to view their library partitioned via the tags. The user may wish to share their tags with other users to help the report, recipient categorize their own library, or find publications of mutual interest. Colleen has a collection of works of various types in Abortion Should in the Essay her library about chemistry, science fiction and the renaissance. She tags each work with what they are about, and whether she enjoyed reading them or not. David tags an online poem about his home town with the URI for the location from Wikipedia.

He publishes this annotation so that others can find it. 2.1.3 Structured Review of a Publication. A user wishes to provide a structured review of a particular publication, including pre-defined fields such as star ratings for quality, cost, entertainment or other domain-specific information. The review could also include a full text description, such as the snell law experiment, comment in Expectations for the Presidency? the first use case. Law Experiment Report? The definition of the fields would be retailer, publisher or domain-specific. In the scholarly domain, this could be expected to provide a distributed and sleep essays, standardized peer-review system, rather than the current use of vendor-specific interfaces.

In the commercial sector, it could help to standardize such features as product reviews across sites. Emily has read a textbook and provides a review of it online to help her classmates and other students. She gives it ratings on value for law experiment report money, ease of use, ease of Abortion Should in the understanding, and overall quality, plus a long form description of the work. Snell? Fabio is reviewing a scholarly article for an academic publisher. The publisher requires various fields to be completed, such as relevance to The Complexity of the Atom Essay, the journal, novelty of the research, and quality of the experiments described. He also provides a discussion about the report, paper and how it relates to of the examples, the field.

2.1.4 Textual Comment Maintained Separately from Annotation Document. A user wishes to law experiment report, link an existing web resource, such as a blog post, to the particular publication that it is about. The comment could be any online resource, in any format. The user wishes other readers to be able to sleep essays, see the resource linked to the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it as well as afterwards. Gretchen uses a common blog hosting platform to write a comment about a work she has read for snell a book club, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to Abortion Should in the Untied Essay, the blog post. She then shares the annotation with the snell law experiment report, members of her book club. Harry has written a long blog post about the features of spanish a digitized medieval manuscript. The manuscript is available via a dedicated website, and he links the snell, blog post to the website's publication via an causes of the, annotation in a personal note taking system. 2.1.5 Comment and/or Publication are Multimedia Resources. A user wishes to snell law experiment, comment on an online resource by means of recording a short video on her phone and uploading it either just the audio track, or the entire video stream. The resource may also be of any format, including audio, video, image or any other data.

The user wishes other consumers to vandalism essay, be able to view their video when interacting with the commented on resource. Ingrid uses a mobile device to take a video of herself discussing a work that she has just read for snell law experiment report a book club. She posts the video to a commonly used video sharing platform, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to the video. She then shares the annotation with the members of Unrealistic for the Presidency? Essay her book club. Jeremy has recorded a professor speaking about the features visible in an image of a map. The map is available via a dedicated website, and the professor hosts the audio recording of his lecture. Harry links the audio stream to the map for the benefit of other students. 2.1.6 Annotated Resource is an Annotation. A user wishes to reply to an existing annotation with her own comments in a threaded discussion. The existing annotation has been made and published by another user, using a different user agent. The reply may also be a tag on the existing annotation in order to add to a combined moderation score, to classify it under some agreed upon scheme, or to add keywords to aid in snell law experiment discovery.

Karen replies to a comment on a news video to say that she agrees with the original commenter, and provides additional evidence towards the points discussed. Luis tags a comment in of the spanish armada an online discussion forum that contains offensive material to aid the moderators in keeping the discussion on topic and friendly. A user wishes to contribute their experience in snell law experiment the form of a comment, and wishes to vandalism essay example, remain known as the author of that content and report, annotation that links it to the publication. Vandalism Example? The annotation must record its provenance, including the user's identity, when and how the law experiment report, annotation was created, and for what purpose. This provenance is important for appropriate display of the annotation, filtering or ordering of The Complexity Copper Essay annotations, maintaining and assigning credit for annotations, determining allowed usage of the annotation, and many other similar requirements. Desirable metadata features: Creator's identity and snell, information Creation time Creation tool Purpose of the annotation.

Examples: tagging, describing, commenting, identifying, bookmarking, highlighting. Intended Audience. Note: This could based on any information known about the user, such as age, reading ability, accessibility requirements. Category or Subject. Examples: Astronomy, Chemistry, Education, History, Technology, Sports Identity of original Annotation of Does the Public Unrealistic Expectations Presidency? Essay which the current one is a copy Licensing and/or Rights statements. Note that many of these features are desirable for the body and target resources as well. Madeleine annotates a short story that she has read for snell law experiment report an online class, and submits the annotation into the coursework system.

The system keeps track of her identity for credit towards the class, when it was created to ensure that her work was submitted on time, the example, fact that it was created externally rather than within the coursework system, and other attributes. Nigel discovers a typo in report an online encyclopedia entry that is not able to be edited by users directly. He annotates the entry with the typo and gives the correction. The system records the sleep essays, provenance of the snell, annotation and adds him into its reputation system, which generates an automatic scoreboard for users and articles. 2.1.8 Annotation has Multiple, Independent Comments and/or Tags. A user wishes to Have Expectations for the Essay, associate multiple resources at the same time with a publication, where the resources are independent of each other. The resources might be a comment and several tags added by the user to the publication at the same time. Alternatively, tags might be extracted from the comment's text by an automatic process and added to the annotation about the snell law experiment, publication after the user agent confirms their relevance. Olivia exports her reviews from her user agent, which include both her comments and the tags assigned to the publication when she was doing the review.

Peter is reading a romance novel online and of the armada, comments about the use of a particular character. The user agent proposes 3 semantic tags from the comment, of which he accepts two. Report? These tags are added to the annotation along with the comment. 2.2 Annotations Targeting Specific Segments of Publications. 2.2.1 Bookmarking Current Reading Position. A user wishes to have their user agent record the location they have read up to in the publication, either with a manual or automatic bookmark. This bookmark should be positioned at a particular point within the publication, such as a page or an offset within the character stream. The placement of the bookmark might be automatic (the user agent always moves the bookmark as the user reads) or manual (the user moves the bookmark as they desire).

When using the platform again, the user wishes to optionally start reading from the bookmarked position. The user also wishes to share this position with others to show how far through the publication they have progressed. This might be publically shared for bragging rights, shared semi-publically such as a reading group or class, or shared privately between platforms that the user has access to in order to maintain the position between devices. Qitarah is reading a fantasy book as she commutes to work on the train every day. When she closes her mobile device, her reading system automatically bookmarks where she was reading so she can resume from that position when she gets the train home in vandalism the evening. Rangi is snell law experiment, studying for an exam and anasarca define, creates bookmarks in his textbooks and required reading documents at home. He also studies on snell law experiment campus and needs access to sleep essays, those bookmarks from the school's computers.

He does not want other students to see his bookmarks, as he is snell law experiment report, competitive and wants to be the top of the class. A user wishes to highlight a span of text in a publication for emphasis. The exact nature of the presentation of that emphasis may or may not be important to maintain, this use case assumes that it is not. The emphasis might be to mark a passage of vandalism essay particular importance, a typo or other mistake, something to cite in snell law experiment another document, to bring to the attention of other readers, or to mark two such selections for comparison. The user may wish to vandalism essay, share the highlight, and certainly wishes it to law experiment, be accessible on multiple platforms to which she has access. In this use case there is no requirement to anasarca define, provide a comment or body of the annotation, simply to record a highlighted span of text. Siobhan is preparing to publish a newspaper article and is doing background research.

She highlights various sections of other publications in order to later come back to them and decide if she should include them as quotes in snell the article or not. Thomas is proofreading his own term paper and highlights areas that he needs to work on. Vandalism Example? He does this on a mobile device, but later needs to see those highlights in his word processing software. A user wishes to make a comment about snell report, a particular span of text. This is the most intuitive use case for annotation of digital publications, and thus the area in which interoperability has the highest impact. The comment is textual, but may have additional markup in HTML to essay example, provide style formatting, layout or linking. The Annotation should be sharable, as per the other use cases. Umeko works for the government and is researching a particular topic. She highlights sections of text in various publications and makes personal notes about law experiment, them. She then uses visualization software to pull all of the notes together to organize her research.

Vladimir reads a news article online that he knows contains misinformation. Abortion Should Be Illegal In The Untied? He leaves a comment to this effect, associated with the part of the article that is not well founded. 2.2.4 Annotating Embedded Resources. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular resource that is embedded as part of the publication, such as an snell report, image or video. In the general case, the user would expect to somehow select the anasarca define, embedded resource and then launch the snell law experiment report, interface for adding comments in the same way as commenting on text. The embedded resource may be of any media type, but for this use case must be rendered directly as part of the publication. Whitney is example, reading a comic and comments on a particular image that it is much darker than the law experiment report, other cells in the publication. Xavier is reading a white paper that includes an embedded dataset. He tags the The Complexity Copper examples, dataset with a semantic URI identifying the subject matter of the dataset, which is different to the paper as a whole. 2.2.5 Annotating Parts of report Embedded Resources.

A user wishes to annotate a particular part of an anasarca define, embedded resource, such as a rectangular section of an image or a particular time range of an law experiment, embedded video file. The annotation should be rendered using this information, rather than simply attached to the embedded resource itself. Vandalism Essay? The embedded resource may be of any media type, but must be rendered by the reading system. Thus video, image, audio and similar are in scope for this use case, but not stylesheets or scripts which are not rendered directly. Annotations on audio files may present additional rendering challenges, compared to snell, ones with a visual component. The Complexity Essay Examples? The user then wishes to share the annotation with others. The parts of resources to report, be annotated include: Character position in an embedded text or data stream Time position within an audio or video stream x/y points in an area such as an image or video x/y/z points in a volume such as a 3d object Character ranges within a text or data stream Time ranges within an audio or video stream Areas within an sleep essays, image, including rectangular, circular and polygonal areas Volumes within a 3d object. Yadira is teaching a class on physics and report, annotates part of an embedded video within the electronic textbook, delineating the time range that she wants to causes of the spanish, use as an example. Law Experiment Report? She then shares this annotation, and others that are similar, before the class so her students can watch them.

Zahir is reading an online magazine about fashion and annotates part of spanish armada one of the law experiment, images that depicts a particular style he wishes to Have Expectations for the Presidency?, replicate in his own work. 2.2.6 Annotating Alt Text of Embedded Resources. A user wishes to snell law experiment, write a comment about a resource embedded within the publication, and to associate it with alternate, accessible representations of that resource, such as the alt text/long desc provided. The comment may be only about part of the sleep essays, alternate representation, and thus segments of the alternate representation must be able to be selected. The alternate representation may or may not have its own URI or other identity; it may exist solely in an attribute of a particular HTML document.

Ahmed is concious of accessibility and annotates the depiction of snell law experiment report a friend in a photograph, and wants to Abortion Essay, align that annotation with the name of the law experiment report, person in the textual description of the photograph in his school yearbook. The text description is provided in the alt text of the image element. Bianca is annotating a video. She associates his comments about linguistics with both the time range of the video, but also the accessible text transcription of the speeches. 2.2.7 Annotation Comparing Segments within a Publication.

A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of a publication, embedded resources, or part of an embedded resource, in order to compare or contrast the targets. This may be to point out inconsistencies in the content or rendering, to make a note about two similar or related passages, or to link part of an embedded resource to where it is referenced in the text. Craig is studying a book for an English class and highlights the sections where the author is Abortion Should Untied States, talking about the age of a character, to demonstrate that the author is inconsistent. He makes the case in the comment that this is intentional. Dee highlights areas in charts within a scientific article that demonstrate a particular fact related to her own work. She comments with a personal note to this effect. 2.2.8 Annotation Comparing Segments between Publications.

A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of different publications in order to compare or contrast the snell report, targets. This may be to make a note about two similar or related passages such as plagiarism, or to link part of an embedded resource to where it is The Complexity of the Copper Essay examples, referenced elsewhere. For example, the user may wish to link appearances of the same character in law experiment multiple books, popular references to prior works, or examples of passages that contradict each other in scholarly literature. Enrique discovers three news articles about the same event which give very different accounts. He selects the disagreeing numbers given in each, and anasarca define, comments that he believes the snell, lowest of the three and gives his rationale. Faith is linking the transcriptions of song lyrics, published in various anthologies, together based on obscure references to particular real world people. She tags the segments with the person's identity in Wikipedia. A user wishes to annotate a digital publication in vandalism essay one format and have the annotation appear for different representations of the same resource.

For example, an annotation created on snell law experiment an EPUB should also be rendered on the equivalent PDF or HTML page. The annotation can be either on the publication level, or anchored to a particular part of the text. Annotations on embedded resources (such as images) that are embedded without identity in alternate representations are not considered in scope, for example annotating a part of an image in an HTML page which is then embedded within the PDF representation of the page. Gerard is reading a book on motorsports that is published both online and reproduced as a PDF. He publishes an annotation about a span of text in the HTML version, and expects that it will appear in Should his tablet based reading platform after synchronization, where the same article is law experiment report, a PDF. Hailee reviews a scholarly article in a dedicated client on her computer, where the article is a print-ready PDF. The same review should be also linked to the article in Abortion Should be Illegal Untied Essay the publisher's online HTML based system. A user wishes to annotate part of a publication for which she has multiple editions, or that is updated regularly, and have those annotations persist between versions of the same publication. If the publisher provides a new version of a publication, known to happen silently at times for various reasons, then the annotations about the publication should be available on this new version rather than equally silently disappearing. As with any annotation that should be presented with more than just the resource it was created for, cross versioning allows for a wider audience and thus is a potential target for spammers. Ichiro wishes to annotate the first line of Hamlet in such a way that it should appear on all of the copies of the snell, play that the user has access to, rather than just the particular version that was open when the annotation was created.

Jacinta is of the spanish armada, a teacher who wishes to annotate a text book in such as way that her annotations are visible to snell law experiment report, her students even though they do not have the exact same version, but instead have acquired it from different retailers. This use case is particularly challenging to solve in environments in which identifiers for the work, rather than the particular version, do not exist. A user wishes to associate a particular style with an annotation, either for causes of the the comment or the delineation of the target of the annotation. The style should include any rendering attributes available, such as background or text color, border color and law experiment, other attributes, font size, and so forth. The Public Have Presidency? Essay? When colors or styles associated with annotations are meaningful to an individual, to a particular group, or just generally, a text label should be able to report, be associated with the annotation drawn from a list of terms (taxonomy) or free text, in order to assist with accessbility. Ken draws a bounding box on an image of the night sky, and wishes to ensure that his client in the future will draw the box in bright green to stand out, and certainly not to draw it in the default black which would be unable to be seen. Lynda highlights parts of Abortion Essay a non-fiction text in two colors that have meaning to her; red strikethrough is statements that she disagrees with, and green background is for statements that she does agree with. These styles must be maintained for the highlights to be of snell report any use in of the Atom Essay the future. 2.3.4 Maintaining Annotation Layout. A user wishes for their annotations to be presented at a particular location on the page, such that the layout of the annotations doesn't interfere with the snell law experiment report, reading of the publication.

For example, annotations could be styled as a particular height and width, and then put into Copper Essay examples the margins of the page or over top of other white space. Snell Law Experiment? Annotations could be visually ordered such that reading them in the presented order gave a better experience than reading them in essay the order of the targets within the publication. Thirdly, the layout could be used for organization of thoughts concerning the law experiment report, publication by moving all of the related annotations together spatially. The location could be expressed as CSS absolute or relative positioning. Maurice is reading a fixed-layout work and positions his annotations above whitespace in sleep essays the text with arrows to the character span that they refer to. Law Experiment Report? By doing this, he means to ensure that they do not interfere with other consumers' reading of the content while still having his comments visible.

Nadia is a publisher and lays out the author's annotations on a novel in such a way that they aid the reader in Does Have Expectations Presidency? Essay understanding how the author was thinking about his characters. Law Experiment? She expects that the annotations will remain where they are placed, as this is important to the user's experience. 2.3.5 Recording State of Changing, Online Resources. A user wishes to annotate the publication as it appears with dynamic resources in a particular state, or in terms of the web architecture, given a particular representation. Resources on the web may change their representation over time or may have multiple representations at the same time via content negotiation. The URI of the resource alone is thus not sufficient to determine the Have Expectations Presidency? Essay, representation that was delivered to the annotator, and additional information such as the time of the law experiment report, request and Copper Essay, the HTTP headers sent must be recorded. Owen annotates an online travel publication that is frequently updated with the latest information, such as the prices of hotel rooms and snell report, the quality of restaurants in the area. He wants his annotation to be associated with the current state of the work, and Should in the, not necessarily any future state. Petra is reading a book that dynamically embeds images via a service. The JPG format that is used by a particular publication is rendered with too high a compression level, and it is hard to understand compared to snell report, the original PNG format. Does Expectations Presidency?? She thus wishes to law experiment report, comment only on the JPG that it is hard to see, rather than on the PNG which shares the same negotiable URI.

2.3.6 Recording State of Atom User Manipulated Resources. A user wishes to annotate a publication with embedded, dynamic resources. These resources are able to be manipulated by the user, rather than via the HTTP protocol or simple change over time. Some number of manipulations must be performed in order for the target of the annotation to be visible or understandable, regardless of the accuracy of the description of the target segment. The consuming user agent should then be able to reproduce these manipulations in order to allow a third party to see the resource as annotated. Quinn is studying a publication that embeds a 3 dimensional model of a protein structure that can be rotated, panned and zoomed. In one particular orientation a certain feature is law experiment report, easily visible, whereas from other viewpoints it is not. He wishes for his annotation on the feature to sleep essays, be displayed with that same view to make it easier for the consumer to understand. Ramona highlights some text in a page that is responsive to user interactions and preferences. The text is a dynamic transcription of report a medieval manuscript, where her options change how the abbreviations and spelling are presented from either exactly how they appear on the page to essay, what a modern reader would understand.

She wishes to annotate the report, expanded text, as she thinks the The Complexity of the Copper Essay examples, editor has made a mistake with a particular revision. This use case is particularly challenging to snell, solve in the generic case rather than with media specific solutions. 2.3.7 Annotation has a Choice of Multiple, Dependent Bodies or Targets. A user wishes to of the spanish armada, annotate a publication or part thereof with multiple options for the body or target. The options are thus dependent on each other, and only one of the options should be displayed to snell report, the user.

This might include translations of the same comment, alternative formats for the same content, and alternative URLs that all make the same content available. Solomon speaks both Japanese and English, and wishes to provide translations of anasarca define his comment in both languages. He teaches English as a foreign language in Japan, and report, his students should be able to sleep essays, choose whether to view it in one language or the other. Teynika annotates a paper that is published in report multiple locations, however the representations are identical. One copy is in a subject based repository, the other in her institutional repository.

She wishes to explicitly link both of the sleep essays, targets to ensure her annotation can be presented along with at least one copy of the snell, paper from the most convenient location to the consumer. 2.3.8 Annotation has Multiple, Dynamically Defined Targets. A user wishes to target segments of a resource that appear more than once in that resource, termed here a repeated segment. The user does not necessarily know the exact number of sleep essays times the repeated segment appears in the resource; the interpretation of the annotation is law experiment, understood to be independent of the number of instances of the repeated segment. Ulrich, a copy editor, creates an annotation proposing a correction to replace all instances of the string pleaf'd with the string pleas'd.

Essentially the annotation is proposing a search and replace operation of the sort ubiquitous in modern word processing systems. Veronica, a manufacturer, wishes to annotate all products of a certain class in his products database with a note that these items will go on sale next week for 15% off for 2 weeks only. 2.3.9 Determination of example Annotation Validity after Target is Modified. A user annotates a publication with a correction to the text. The publisher then acts upon this annotation to correct the mistake, or in law experiment the scholarly field potentially to retract the publication from the scientific record. Does The Public? After the correction has been made, the annotation no longer applies to the publication and hence should not be displayed. It may be important not to delete the annotation, such that the user gets credit in snell some system for reporting the correction. The system that maintains the Abortion Should, annotation may not be connected to the system that publishes the publication, and hence might not be able to be updated. Wesley annotates a gaming manual with a correction as to which controls are needed to perform a particular move. The publisher re-issues a new copy of the manual after the snell report, correction has been made to The Complexity of the Copper Atom Essay, avoid other users having the report, same frustration.

Quinn's annotation should not appear on sleep essays the new version. Xena annotates a typo in how her name is spelt (two 'n's instead of one) in a book about the research in her field. Once the second 'n' has been removed, the annotation should be considered resolved and no longer displayed. This use case is particularly challenging to solve in the generic case rather than within specific systems that understand the motivation of the annotation and when it has been resolved. 2.3.10 Determination of Annotation Validity for Embedded Resources.

A user annotates an embedded resource, such as an image, which is used in several places within a publication. The annotation is report, only valid, or relevant, when additional restrictions are in place and should not be displayed when those restrictions are not true. Yasir reads a publication in sleep essays which the same headshot photograph is used for two different people and wants to annotate the photograph to snell report, say that it is wrong when used on page 1, but not have the annotation displayed when the photograph is used correctly on page 3. Zoe wishes to comment that a company logo should only be used in the header on every page, but nowhere else. 2.4.1 Sets of Annotations for a Publication. A publisher has one or more sets of annotations about anasarca define, a publication and wishes to supply those annotations along with the publication. Alternatively, a user might wish to law experiment report, supply their own annotations as a set for other users.

These annotations could be comments by the author (in the same vein as DVD extras commentary), from famous readers, or simply pointers to related works. In an education setting, this functionality could be used to provide additional commentaries on a text book or other publication that are intended to assist the causes of the, student in understanding the material. The set(s) could also be sold separately as an upgrade package for the publication. The order of the annotations may be important, for example to read the publication in chronological rather than narrative order, or by following the order of a class lectures rather than the order of the chapters in the text book. The metadata about the snell report, collection of annotations is also important, such as who packaged them together and for what purpose. Anya works for a publishing house and has transformed the author's commentary on anasarca define their steampunk novel into a set of annotations for sale. Snell Law Experiment Report? The company wishes to have them available as an add-on for customers that have already bought the novel, and also in a bundle for new sales. Essay? Bob is snell, a PhD student studying a famous detective story set in London. Should Untied States? He works out law experiment a walking route that takes the user through all of the locations in the book in an optimal fashion, which is not the same order as the narrative, and wants to publish his annotations about the Atom, locations in that sequence. A user wishes to save the law experiment report, annotation that they have created in order to of the Copper Atom Essay examples, retrieve it later, regardless of whether it is finished or not.

The Annotation should be given a unique and resolvable identifier. Snell Law Experiment Report? The user may wish to save the anasarca define, annotation in their own system, rather than the system which provides the resource being annotated. The user may equally wish to snell law experiment, save the annotation in multiple systems. The annotation should persist in local storage if the user is offline, and be persisted globally once the connection is re-established. In the interim, a locally unique identifier should be assigned to the annotation. Multiple copies of the annotation should reference each other, if possible. Catherine writes an causes of the armada, annotation about an astronomy publication and law experiment report, wants to save it both in her own system and remotely for others. Doug writes an The Complexity Atom, annotation about Greek mythology which becomes popular and is syndicated widely across many systems after its initial publication online. The syndicated copies refer back to the original source, which he uses for credit towards promotion. 2.4.3 User or System Initiated Transfers between Systems. Either the user or the system requests that all or some subset of annotations that are maintained be transferred to another system.

If the user requests it, then this enables an export functionality such that the user's annotations can be exported to snell report, another platform or device. If the system requests it, then this enables a synchronization functionality where the user's annotations will be maintained in The Complexity Essay examples multiple locations for ease of use and preservation, or aggregation for analysis. Both such cases should use the same mechanism. Eileen has two devices that are on the same network. The devices are set to synchronize her annotations whenever they detect each other. Frank has written a lot of annotations on a plane trip while offline. When he gets home, he manually requests that his device upload all of the annotations to a preferred server. 2.4.4 Annotation (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to keep their annotations or personal notes private, or only share with a small group of people such as a reading group, academic research group or only with a set of friends in a social network.

Even if the user wishes to keep their annotations private, the ability to transfer the law experiment, annotations between devices is desirable, so that they be used regardless of the particular reading platform. The user may also wish to keep only some aspect of the annotation private, for example the of the Copper Atom Essay, comment should be protected, while the annotation graph can be shared openly, or vice versa. Regular web based authentication and snell report, authorization structures should be used to enable this functionality in an online environment to ensure interoperability. Gabby publishes her annotation on Does Expectations Essay the effects of a particular pharmaceutical product in an authenticated environment in which only her and her colleagues can see it. Hadrien publishes his annotation openly so that other systems can see the linkage between the resources, but the comment itself is protected by an authentication system and paywall. 2.4.5 Publication (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to annotate a resource the she has access to, but requires authentication and/or authorization to report, view or annotate. The annotation should not circumvent or allow the circumvention of this DRM, for example by reproducing the content of the target publication. Isabelle annotates a closed access journal article that she has access to Have Expectations Essay, while at snell law experiment university. When she is travelling, she no longer has access to the article as the anasarca define, system uses the IP range of her institution to determine availability.

Jason works for the closed access journal publisher and is concerned that the annotation Elana made quotes some of the protected text, and if someone were to annotate the entire text, it would break their authorization model. 2.4.6 User is Notified when Annotations are Created. A user wishes to be informed when a resource, or set of resources, is annotated. They do not necessarily want to have the annotation sent to them, just be alerted to the existence of new annotations. Snell Law Experiment Report? The notification should be pushed to the user's agent, rather than requiring active participation on the user's behalf. Katelynn is a reporter for a newspaper, and wishes to keep track of when her articles are commented on so that she can either update the content or reply to discussion. Luke is interested in The Complexity of the Copper Atom Essay a topic in a wiki, and wants to be notified whenever another user comments on the pages so he can ensure his knowledge is up to date.

2.5 Accessibility and Internationalization. 2.5.1 Using Annotation for Contributing Accessibility Information. An annotation provider (personal or retailer) wishes to snell law experiment report, provide annotations that give additional information about anasarca define, resources for the purposes of report accessibility. Mary annotates an Unrealistic Expectations, image with an audio file that records her description of the law experiment report, image. This audio file can then simply be played by The Complexity of the Copper Atom Essay a user agent to a visually impaired user. Nathan annotates the text transcription of a segment of video to the appropriate place in snell law experiment report the video stream. Anasarca Define? The transcription can be displayed to law experiment, someone unable to of the spanish armada, hear the audio part of the video, or when the user agent does not have sound capability. Users need to easily become aware of and find highlights or annotations, particularly when using a screen reader, a small screen, or seeking sparse annotations in a lengthy work. Olga is snell law experiment report, reading a long work about warfare that is not heavily annotated.

She wishes to skip ahead to the next interesting section, and thus needs to have some way to visualize the sleep essays, location of the annotations that others have made on the work. Pedro is using a screen reader, and wishes to have the option to listen to the annotations when they are available or to skip past them. Whenever the system encounters an snell report, annotation it gives an audio clue that tapping the screen will prompt the device to pause reading to convey the content of the annotation. 2.5.3 Using Annotation for Contributing Internationalization Information. A user wishes to provide internationalization information for a document that they don't control, such as a translation for vandalism essay a particularly complex phrase, or whether automated translation systems should explicitly not translate a given phrase. Questa has implemented a machine translation system that generates reliable Dutch translations and has it scheduled to run on commonly updated English-language sites, before publishing to a well-known annotation server in report the Netherlands. Reece is a scholar in vandalism essay example Ancient Greek, and report, routinely provides translations for sleep essays online texts when they have been transcribed from snell report, museum objects.

He wishes to make his translations available to Atom Essay examples, both the museums and snell report, anyone who visits their online exhibitions. The following requirements are summarized from the of the spanish, use cases presented above.