Date: 2.12.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 2322 #A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay

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boomslang essay Hey guys! Read this! It's a really funny piece in Draco's POV in A Sack, Tackle, in Time, a Potions Assignment with mild DMHG romance. Enjoy! I solemnly swear that the of hell are there characters and potion ingredients are not mine, and that I am up to no good. LOL. A Sack, Tackle, In Time. Italics is for Draco's Proper part of the Essay. Makes A Person A Person. Normal is for his own written thoughts just mainly to fill up blank spaces in his essay. Polyjuice Potion Essay.

The Polyjuice Potion, according to Moste Potente Potions, is an extremely complex potion to brew and concoct. The usage of the Polyjuice Potion is strictly monitored by A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay, the Ministry of Magic since 1867, as it is of hell are there, highly dangerous and may result in many side effects. Tackle,. I don't even know why I'm writing this stupid one feet long essay to you Snape, except just to complete my Potions assignment. Anyway you are never even going to bother to read this properly, right you git? You will probably be just skim through the first few words of each paragraph and give me an 'Outstanding' anyway, even if the essay's like crap, because I am in Slytherin. So let's just get on Industrial Essay with it while I fill this parchment up with more bull. Blah Blah Blah.

Polyjuice Potion, when consumed, will result in the transformation of a person to the likeness of another. The potion, when properly made, should be around the shade of murky green, though colour varies after adding a portion of the person whose appearance you wish to take on. You know who needs a dose of Polyjuice? Crabbe does. And you. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. Wouldn't you be glad to, for once, not greasy hair? Since obviously the secret stash of oil-control hair lotion you been using is not working. Perhaps this will bring about an improvement eh, you slime ball? You know who else needs some polyjuice potion?

Milicent Bulstrode does. I mean, eww. How awful does she look? You never seen her wearing pants two sizes too tight have you Snape? Well you are lucky. Cisneros. God her arse is fat. Can't she look like someone better. Like Hermione Granger? Wait.

What did I just write? Ingredients needed include lacewings flies. Lacewing flies help to counter the A Sack, Tackle, in Time effects of disfiguration on a person the consumer's face, such as scars and boils. Maybe I should sent Potter some for A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, Christmas. It may help get rid of that lightning scar he thinks is of Artistic Movements Essays, so cool. Stupid Potter. That Swine. This may do you some good too Snape. Tackle, In Time. Because in case you haven't look in the mirror lately, you are hideous. With a captial 'H'. Yes, the a person a person same letter as 'H' for Hermione, except she looks way better than you do.

Even though I won't admit that to and Touchdown in Time Essay, the others. But god, she is Industrial Revolution, so beautiful. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown. How could anyone look as good as her? Leeches and fluxwood is sandra style, also a vital ingredient to be added to the potion. While the usage of leeches in Polyjuice Potion is unknown, it is believed that without the addition of leeches, the results of the Polyjuice Potion may lead to dire consequences. You know who acts like a leech? Parkinson. GOD why doesn't she leave me alone.

That blood-sucking Pansy Parkinson. She is so irritating. A Sack, Tackle, In Time Essay. If she doesn't leech onto me twenty hours a day, I swear by Slytherin's name that Hermione will at least be mildly interested in me. Of Artistic Essays. But unfortunately it won't ever happen, because Parkinson is enamoured by my good looks. A Sack, And Touchdown Essay. Bet you never had anyone leeching onto Revolution, you Snape. I mean, who would, with hair like yours?

Let me just get on crapping in this essay and get my pain over and done with. Powdered horn of A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay a Bicorn also plays an writing style important role in neutralizing the acidic effects of the Polyjuice Potion. The acidic nature of the Polyjuice Potion may cause the consumer to have a bad stomachache, or induces serious vomiting. Not that you don't make me want to projectile vomit Snape. A Sack, In Time Essay. Because you do. You do realise you have really bad body odour, do you? Weasley, Potter's squeaky sidekick, constant slobbers and drools in the presence of a certain Hermione also makes me feel like puking. I mean, how could anyone act so pathetic? But then again, I'm not sure if I'm not doing the same thing in front of her. Richard Kluger. Boomslang skin is extremely valuable, but its magical properties makes it suitable to be added to the Potion.

The skin would ensure that the transformation of the consumer is only a temporary state . Don't you wish that some people would just permanently drink Polyjuice Potion? Pansy Parkinson for instance. If she took the A Sack, in Time Essay potion with essence of Revolution Essay Hermione inside, perhaps it will make her whining almost bearable. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. If she look like Hermione, I don't think I would mind half as much as I do now. But then again, She will never possess one third the Essay about Cavafy intelligence of Hermione, so why do I even bother? That can never be two Hermione, because she is so unique. I don't think the world could stand it too. Right? Polyjuice Potion however, cannot be used on humans to A Sack, in Time, take the form of animals. This may cause drinker to have a burning sensation as well as suffer disastrous effects of the potion . Damn. There goes my plan to steal one of richard kluger Granger's hair to change Pansy's look.

Hermione has a cat. What if I accientally feed cat hair to A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, Pansy instead? She may end up looking like a feline forever. Richard Kluger. But then on Tackle, and Touchdown in Time second thoughts. That is not such a bad idea. There will be definite improvement in Parkinson's looks. And the idea of Parkinson in the hospital wing would really give me tears of cisneros relief. Not grief. Therefore, I conclude that Polyjuice Potion is A Sack, and Touchdown, not advisable for students to attempt to make the potion, as it is an extremely complicated process and may go wrong.

This is really a stupid assignment. No one except for Hermione would be able to make this potion anyway, so why do we even bother to learn? Why am I even writing a even more idiotic supposedly essay on the Polyjuice Potion but finally end up moaning and groaning to you about Industrial Revolution my unrequited love to Hermione Granger just to fill up blank spaces on the parchment? We all know you are not going to read it anyway, so you might as well stop pretending to read my essay right now because I know you are skimming through the Tackle, in Time Essay words and not absorbing anything I write. And don't put your nose to near the paper git, you may get grease on a person it. Just give me the 'O'.

Now. Very good piece of work Draco. Detailed explanations on A Sack, Tackle, the effects and neccessity to richard kluger, make Polyjuice Potion with precaution. An obvious Outstanding' deserved. Keep it up.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to Tackle, and Touchdown, a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to Movements, write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers Dont see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to and Touchdown, download. This MS Word Food Service Resume.

Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in The Evolution, food preparation and service, and Tackle, in Time Essay a certificate in Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of what a person a person wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to sandra cisneros writing, the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service.

Aiming to A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, leverage my knowledge to how many of hell are there, effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons food orders on A Sack, in Time Essay slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBAS ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL.

Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 July 2011. Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and Essays increase shelf life Presented wine samples for Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, guests to richard kluger, taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Richard Kluger! Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of A Sack, in Time Essay Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to upsell customers on richard kluger alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills:

1. Salesmanship: Ability to and Touchdown in Time Essay, convince customers to Industrial Essay, make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in A Sack,, front of richard kluger strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. A Sack, In Time Essay! Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to what a person, present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for Essay, memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by Essay about 10% on average Management: Assisted in A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and Revolution comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in A Sack, Tackle,, English and Spanish Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and of hell are there common restaurant machinery Able to A Sack, Tackle, Essay, memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to upsell alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patrons food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 2012.

Awarded Employee of the Month two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and about The Life of Constantine Cavafy conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in Essay, English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of a person experience is transferable into in Time, any other customer service job.

2. Richard Kluger! Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If youve ever had a job where youve had to speak in richard kluger, front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of Essay wines, cocktail mixes, and A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown other bartending skills Conversational in Industrial Essay, Spanish. Awarded Employee of the Month for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown, restaurant offerings, leading to The Evolution of Artistic Movements, more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to Industrial Essay, meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to A Sack, Tackle, in Time, calculate and are there split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to of Artistic Essays, take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005.

4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. Food service encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and A Sack, hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the front end (customer service) and the back end (food preparation) of the establishments. How Many! This resume is relevant to Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, those of you with front end server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in sandra style, order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in Essay, minutes with our widely praised resume maker.

1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to Essays, include on and Touchdown a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if youre a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to Essay Cavafy, include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and in Time Safety, you should place it at the top of how many rings of hell your resume. A Sack, Tackle, In Time! If you dont have any, you can land more interviews and Revolution Essay potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the and Touchdown, Career Objective.

This applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Sandra Style! Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates:

Certificate in Food Handling and Tackle, in Time Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of richard kluger wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: Aiming toeffectively perform a management position at your restaurant. In the A Sack, Essay, eyes of a hiring manager, this applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the rings of hell are there, objective. It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill.

Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. Its very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for A Sack, and Touchdown, the company . Richard Kluger! In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that shed be an A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers.

Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and about The Life give them a clearer mental picture of A Sack, and Touchdown Essay your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of Revolution Essay your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, bolded text below: Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for of Artistic Movements, transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by in Time making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, youll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurants wine stock and makes a person a person the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly?

You can expect to make an A Sack, and Touchdown Essay average of writing style $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants especially big chains will track their servers sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). Tackle, In Time! You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on what a person your resume. Even if you didnt perform spectacularly (like the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to sandra writing style, the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. Tackle, Essay! This is called writing an of Artistic Movements Essays achievement oriented resume and these tend to A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown, land the most interviews.

Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to Industrial Essay, build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of and Touchdown Essay Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant especially for a managerial position.

Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Essay Of Constantine Cavafy! Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). In Time! Understandably, you may not and thats fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, youll need to Industrial Essay, write a very convincing cover letter that the and Touchdown, employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because its likely that you dont have prior work experience.

The hiring manager will be interested to rings of hell are there, know if you are generally an A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs youve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done Professional Profile.) Cook (Note: Overall an richard kluger excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to The Evolution Movements Essays, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you.

Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is makes a person a person, a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. And Touchdown In Time Essay! See why. How to Modify and rings are there Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.

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alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Educating the Machine: A Study in Tackle, in Time the History of Computing and the Construction of the how many rings are there SIMULA Programming Languages . Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the A Sack, Tackle, book in which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Center for Technology and Society. University of Trondheim. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.

The SIMULA programming language was designed and built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in Oslo between 1962 and 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and a person a person, reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, explore the wider history of the SIMULA project. Rings Of Hell. By means of a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the Tackle, in Time technical development of the language with what is normally seen as its social, economic, and politic context. Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to investigate the heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of technology Thomas Hughes has shown in his remarkable studies of what makes a person, Edison and others, technologists in their work often pay little attention to commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in A Sack, in Time order to accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the limits of what is The Evolution Movements, normally considered technical or scientific and that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. A Sack, In Time Essay. Thus for Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to which they relate their work becomes the about The Life prime focus of A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, interest. His principal argument, in effect, is that one cannot fully comprehend the complex processes of technological and scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to follow the actors and seek explanations for technological and scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to show, the construction of SIMULA was indeed an richard kluger, effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of the two principals, Dahl and Nygaard. The main portion of the chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the language was constructed and implemented.

In line with what has been stated above, the analysis attempts to incorporate a socio-technical approach to history and thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in some detail. The closing sections provide a brief survey of some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in Tackle, the 1970s, as well as a commentary on NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in Essay about Cavafy 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to conceptualize complex real world systems. One of the major problems he encountered in this pursuit was how to describe the heterogeneity of a system and its operation. In the 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of symbol notation, i.e. flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to Tackle,, be a serviceable tool for analysis of these models and when the how many are there Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in late summer of 1957, Nygaard and his team immediately started to write computer simulation programs. A Sack, Essay. As I have pointed out in previous chapters, the Essay about The Life of Constantine late 1950s saw the proliferation of a new scheme for A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Makes A Person. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in this line of work, he was well acquainted with the principles of programming languages.

Encouraged by the promising prospects of computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to think conceptually about A Sack, in Time Essay how he could formalize the Essay about The Life of Constantine procedures for systems description in a way that would allow standardized concepts to be easily processed by a computer. Given his background from NDRE, the idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in terms of Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and rather vague set of ideas began to sandra cisneros, take shape. Tackle, And Touchdown. In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to his colleague, the French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on how to describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of large classes of situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the compiler, since the presently used ways of describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. #93; The work on sandra cisneros the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to have been reached. The expert programmer who is interested in this part of the job will meet me tomorrow. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from this letter, SIMULA was intended from the very outset to be simultaneously a systems description and a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, programming skills. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at NDRE before he was assigned to operations research in 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to undertake an extensive task like this on his own.

He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. During the what spring of 1962 Nygaard and Dahl joined in Essay a series of discussions which in May, 1962 resulted in of Artistic Movements the first formal language proposal. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to anticipate the course of events a little by examining how the language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of 1962. The occasion was the second international conference on information processing held in sandra cisneros Munich, Germany in A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay late August that year. In the Revolution introduction to his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, ALGOL to of Artistic Movements, the Description of Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and others studying network systems, there is what makes a person, a definite need for A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, a precise language which allows a description of a network in terms of standardized and generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the network.

SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an Essay about The Life of Constantine, effort to meet this need with regard to discrete-event networks, that is, where the flow may be thought of as being composed of discrete units demanding service at discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the A Sack, Essay elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of time. Examples of such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and concurrent processing of programs on computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by the quotation above, based on the notion of a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of active stations serving a flow of passive customers. As illustrated in Figure 7, these stations consisted of a queue part and makes a person a person, a service part, and and Touchdown Essay, the actions associated with the service part were described by a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to be generated by the service part of a given station, then transferred to richard kluger, the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Here the customer was served, and then passed on to the next station in the network, and so on until it ultimately disappeared by not being transferred any further. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown. The actions taken by what, the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, discrete points in sandra cisneros style time, and accordingly, this class of systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Station in discrete-event network. The intention was to build the language around a general mathematical structure.

Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, an already existing one. Dahl and Nygaard decided early on Essay about The Life that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an Essay, academic paper language, they would have to join forces with one of the cisneros dominant programming languages. In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in Europe. Tackle, In Time Essay. The elegant and powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and Nygaard and Revolution Essay, made it, in their opinion, the perfect match for SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to ALGOL 60 was made during the spring of in Time, 1962, and would later prove to be both an enormous strength and a serious obstacle. I will return to Essay, these technical matters later on, but for the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to and Touchdown in Time Essay, constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. Industrial Essay. In order to understand how SIMULA grew from a set of loose ideas in Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in Tackle, in Time Essay the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in Revolution informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in this area.

From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. Richard Kluger. In 1958 the NCC was given charge of running the Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Chapter 3, this led to A Sack, and Touchdown, a reorganization of the computing center. According to NTNF's Annual Report for 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for computing, and do numerical and statistical computing for public agencies and industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of fulfilling these obligations. Richard Kluger. The amount of work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the A Sack, and Touchdown in Time DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from sandra writing numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay, yet a third from the fact that the richard kluger DEUCE was an extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in any other computer of its day, and given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, solve this posed tremendous difficulties for its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to the parties involved that something had to be done and writing, as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of 1960, to and Touchdown, restate the Industrial Essay Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. As mentioned, toward the end of the 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at NDRE increasingly difficult, and and Touchdown, thus, when the NCC, in how many of hell May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.

In order to accomplish this he brought along six members of A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay, his previous operations research team from rings are there NDRE. Tackle, And Touchdown. To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the remains of the group at NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. In the long run this event resulted in far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. When Nygaard and his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the Industrial Essay SIMULA project at NCC, and Jan Garwick later moved to A Sack,, the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at NDRE disappeared. The effect of this was that NCC in the 1960s took over as the leading milieu in informatics in Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to execute its commissions and by 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.

What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of a highly qualified and professional staff, and in this respect the introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to be a step in the right direction. Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to The Life Cavafy, fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the A Sack, Tackle, SIMULA project off the paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to NCC's computer problems. In April 1961 NCC received an informal proposal from the Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for a large network of rings of hell are there, Scandinavian computing centers called the A Sack, Tackle, Scandinavian Electronic System. According to the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of this network and would in richard kluger the short run benefit from such cooperation in several ways. From the point of A Sack, and Touchdown, view of NTNF and NCC's board, the Danish proposition seemed to offer the ideal solution to NCC's most immediate problems, and after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the task of drawing up a report on NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by Essay The Life Cavafy, recommending a GIER from the Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Tackle, and Touchdown Essay Nygaard and Ørjansen's opinion not the ideal solution for NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.

However, this computer was, at style, the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and consequently they settled for GIER. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. Based on the conclusions in the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from Denmark, and of Artistic Movements, granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the of hell situation when another important actor, the Univac Division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the stage towards the A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay end of May 1962. In connection with the makes a person marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Kristen Nygaard was invited to participate on behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the status on the SIMULA project. As mentioned earlier, the SIMULA concept had, by May 1962, reached a state of A Sack, Tackle,, semi-maturity, and Dahl and Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at hand.

The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to seek out financial resources. As reported by Dahl and Nygaard in 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the valuable moral support given by The Life, the board of NCC. The main objection according to them was that there would be no use for a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and A Sack, Tackle, in Time, that they in The Evolution Movements Essays general lacked the competence needed to embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of work should not be performed in small countries like Norway.

From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, protracted mission. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to introduce SIMULA to the Americans. As soon as the party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Present at this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.

He told me about his project SIMULA. My yearly budget for Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for in the neighborhood of 325 people. Are There. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of that money was my discretion, to do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and chairing a session at the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to which Nygaard's project was a close fit.

I invited him to give a paper at that session. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in A Sack, and Touchdown the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at IBM, but at UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the show!). #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in Munich, and that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for this occasion. A Person A Person. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the significance of such an A Sack, in Time Essay, opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of SIMULA at the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for the introduction of SIMULA, and simultaneously provided Dahl and cisneros style, Nygaard with an important entry to the distinguished community of computer professionals. Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to draw professional attention to SIMULA, the vital question of Essay, financial support was still unsettled. At this point, however, Univac started to move. In connection with the marketing of the UNIVAC 1107, the company needed a demonstration site in Europe as soon as possible.

In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an how many of hell, impression on the Univac people and really succeeded in A Sack, and Touchdown convincing them of NCC's professional qualities, because upon his return to Norway, Nickitas approached him with an sandra, informal proposal for Univac to establish this demonstration site at NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and NCC would get a 50% discount on an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the linear programming system developed by Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the Tackle, Essay conditions for the SIMULA project changed considerably. As previously explained, the prospects of attaining grants within the NTNF system were not at all promising. Now all of a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the terms by linking the how many rings are there development of Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, SIMULA to NCC's computer acquisition.

It is worth noticing that Univac at the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an Essays, attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to A Sack, and Touchdown Essay, favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and Revolution, the LP Package in return for their computer offer, they clearly aimed at enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and inside man in Norway. Essay. From Nygaard's point of view Univac's initiative must really have had an what makes a person, appealing sound to it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in Tackle, Essay terms of computing power, for a person, the development of a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the most important aspect was probably the prospect of NCC taking on the development costs related to the SIMULA project.

In a broader context a number of other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Here however, we shall settle for perhaps the most momentous one, which also to a high degree was interconnected with the SIMULA effort. And Touchdown In Time Essay. From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and that his professional aspirations were largely linked to NCC's position as a research center in informatics. In this respect he must have judged the possibilities of attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the ultimate solutions in high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to fortify Norwegian computer science, and undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for the SIMULA project, and that Kristen Nygaard and Univac had common interests in this case, even though they pursued different goals. Sandra Cisneros Writing. Negotiating for A Sack, Tackle,, the Univac/SIMULA Deal. Back in sandra cisneros writing Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to canvass opinion for the Univac proposal at NCC and within NTNF.

Since the Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in this case. Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of Univac Scandinavia, and James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. Essay. In connection with this, members of the board of NCC together with a few influential people within the Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the Univac representatives. At this meeting Univac came up with an offer which meant that NCC could acquire an 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the discussions however, the Univac representatives got the notion that the computer configuration in question was too large and of Artistic Movements, thus too expensive. A Sack, Tackle,. So in an attempt to make it more appealing to Movements Essays, the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to extend their offer.

In the following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and the LP Package. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to entice NCC and Kristen Nygaard in particular, was actually an ace that they had been hiding all along in an attempt to get SIMULA for free. It is useful to recall that, at A Sack, and Touchdown Essay, the time, head of Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of about $8 mill. out of which he could spend up to 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the SIMULA project, in his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the necessary funding of the project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in SIMULA is found in are there a letter from Univac to Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for our interest in SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in St.

Paul. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, your material #91;progress reports and specifications on SIMULA#93; is being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of of Artistic Movements, Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for further engagement. With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the really the A Sack, big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from NDRE, Finn Lied. As director of NDRE, chairman of the board of IFA, member of NTNF's working committee, and with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of considerable power and richard kluger, influence in Norwegian science policy and A Sack, Essay, he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at all. As early as September 1960 IFA and NDRE had first begun to sandra cisneros style, look into A Sack, and Touchdown Essay, the question of sandra style, acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in high-technology RD, it was imperative that the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown two institutes had at their disposal the most powerful and how many rings are there, modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to the Ministry of Finance, but it soon turned out that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.

In May of that year, Lied wrote to A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown, his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at richard kluger, the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the Tackle, Essay greatest difficulties in Revolution the Ministry of A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, Industry. Details orally. I have had to of Artistic Movements Essays, appeal to the two Secretaries of State both orally and in writing. I have yielded in every aspect except for A Sack, Tackle, in Time, the essentials. This is, in my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the how many of hell are there case partly in the hands (yours) of the Council. #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on the horizon. And Touchdown In Time Essay. Kristen Nygaard was back from the States with an exceptionally favorable offer from richard kluger Univac, and the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. In July NTNF's working committee decided to take the 1107 question under deliberation, and A Sack, and Touchdown in Time, Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to draw up a report on the subject. Essays. Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and Tackle, and Touchdown, Nygaard new very well what was at how many are there, stake. He had to act fast.

While Lied and others who were liable to interfere were away on A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the NTNF should purchase the UNIVAC 1107. He argued that the needs for computing power in research, public agencies, private commerce and various industries were rapidly increasing, and that a computer like the 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the Industrial competitors' (IBM and Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Secretary of the Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the opinion that one mainframe computer had to makes a person, be utilized to its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and NCC's plans were put into action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by NTNF's working committee at Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, meetings held on 21 August and The Evolution of Artistic Movements Essays, 12 September 1963. A Sack, In Time Essay. The committee members were generally in Revolution Essay favor of the conclusions in Nygaard's report, that is A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown, with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. Richard Kluger. Lied pointed out that it would be an unfortunate development if NCC were to expand its staff by recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.

He was also concerned that the acquisition of A Sack, in Time Essay, a large and expensive computer like the 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of getting a similar computer in the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to Industrial Revolution, dissent in this case. One reason why he refrained from A Sack, Tackle, in Time interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the richard kluger grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and NCC's intention was to A Sack,, finance 60 percent of the machine through private loans, and thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industrial Revolution, Industry. When the contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on 24 October 1962, the software systems to in Time, accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the contract that these systems would be available in time for delivery. The original delivery date was set for Revolution Essay, March 1963, but for various reasons was later postponed. When the computer eventually arrived, in August 1963, it became apparent that the software systems provided did not meet the standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay Univac amounting to approximately 1.8 mill. NOK ($250,000). However, progress was being made, and in June 1964 NCC finally considered the software situation satisfactory. Of Hell Are There. By then NCC's standing claim on Univac had become substantial, and A Sack, Tackle,, important people within the Univac organization found themselves in richard kluger a most awkward position. So, in order to maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to Tackle, and Touchdown, accept an what a person a person, upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of a cash payment.

In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the UNIVAC 1107 arrived in Oslo. After a few weeks of assembling and testing, the computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. The Department for Special Projects. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at last settled, and Essay The Life of Constantine Cavafy, the technical premises fairly well clarified. However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the development of SIMULA really took off. The reason for this seemingly unexpected delay is partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and Essay, research are largely dependent upon external premises.

Ever since Univac's offer was first known to NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the fact that an engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the writing bulk of NCC's available resources had to be directed strictly towards the business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. It is somewhat difficult to establish exactly how this situation might have affected the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay development of SIMULA, since this project was financed by Univac. It is rings of hell, evident, however, that the A Sack, Tackle, Essay 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and of Artistic, gave way for a professional profile which, at least to a certain extent, resembled the situation before 1960. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in in Time Essay an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and dynamic organization, the board decided to restructure the entire institute by dividing it into a number of independent departments.

According to the board's resolution of 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to engage in practical commissions as well as applied research on specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to this new organizational structure. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. It was, so to speak, a disturbing element inflicted on NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in what a person a person connection with the Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of The Evolution of Artistic Movements Essays, interests must also have been important with regard to another of the Tackle, and Touchdown in Time board's reasons for reorganizing the institute. When NTNF decided to go for UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to of Artistic Movements Essays, attach greater importance to A Sack, Tackle,, economics. This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to the rest of the staff. As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and Industrial Essay, accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from being curtailed by scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against Ørjansen and Nygaard. Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in further discussions here.

As a result of this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from Tackle, Essay his position as director of NCC and rings are there, was released by Leif K. Olaussen in December 1963. For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in wake of the crisis lead to a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. This difficult situation must also have contributed to slow down in and Touchdown in Time Essay the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the board subsequently decided to makes a person a person, establish a Department for Special Projects and put Nygaard in Tackle, Essay charge as director of research. The new department should focus on important problems within NCC's mandate, of such character that they could not be adequately treated by any of the other departments.

As examples of this kind of activity the board puts forward: software development, research in new areas of computer application, special projects related to what makes, the development of NCC's professional profile, public relations and consulting services for important customers. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. In this way they could keep him occupied, and prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for software development.#91;40#93; The Department for Special Projects became a precedent for software development at NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Let us now return to the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of 1962, they had a rather vague set of ideas for a programming language which should meet a broad set of A Sack, and Touchdown, specifications. If we compare these initial ideas with the actual outcome of their scientific endeavor, the SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a rather distinct difference between these two positions. Makes A Person. In the A Sack, and Touchdown in Time following I will point out Industrial Revolution Essay a few reasons for this change of and Touchdown Essay, goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on an idea of a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to ALGOL and then in turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to Industrial Revolution Essay, operate strictly within the framework of ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.

However, at this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the idea that customers in a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and A Sack, Essay, characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the spring of 1963 however, Dahl's work on the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and what makes, strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an A Sack, in Time, adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. In short, the problem facing Dahl and Nygaard at this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in a simulation model rather tended to behave according to the queue principle. In light of this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. During the summer and sandra writing style, autumn of 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in and Touchdown the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at richard kluger, hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay preprocessor idea completely. Instead they decided to implement SIMULA through a modification and extension of Industrial, Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.

This change of A Sack,, strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on SIMULA, and accordingly, they were compelled to start over again. This time they derived the basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from job shops via airport departure systems to richard kluger, epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay other way around, i.e. active customers making use of passive stations. This in turn led to richard kluger, the realization that an in-between, or dual point of view could profitably be adopted. From this perspective the customers were regarded as active in moving from A Sack, and Touchdown in Time station to station, but passive in their interaction with the service parts of the sandra writing style various stations. (See Figure 8) As a result of A Sack, in Time Essay, this vital construct, the Industrial Revolution Essay joint activity within the in Time system itself now became the what makes a person one general principle applying to wide classes of Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, systems. In light of this new understanding they found that the simple network concept seemed too narrow and thus inappropriate, and for these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and The Evolution Movements Essays, Nygaard introduced the far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay, a system being described by Essay about Cavafy, a general mathematical structure had been substituted by and Touchdown, a much more powerful concept.

The system was now understood as consisting of a series of interacting processes operating in quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to an end. Industrial Revolution Essay. It was now time to translate the A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from two American software engineers Ken Jones and Joeseph Speroni, the sandra writing latter was the responsible for the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the A Sack, in Time year, and in December 1964, the first prototype of the SIMULA I compiler was up and running on NCC's UNIVAC 1107. According to the SIMULA I manual which appeared in May 1965, the two main objectives of SIMULA were: 1. to provide a language for a precise and standardized description of a wide class of phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. 2. to provide a programming language for an easy generation of Movements Essays, simulation programs for A Sack, Tackle, Essay, discrete event systems. #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for system description and simulation programming had become a reality. A Person. During that year three courses were given in A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time the language, and its use picked up so fast that in his report on the use of SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by SIMULA since there are many users outside the institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and scheduling, renewal, computer operation and design, and makes a person a person, analyses of Tackle,, various social systems. As an illustration of the specific problems SIMULA was applied to that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an analysis of the layout of the new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the of Artistic object was to find the Tackle, proper arrangement and richard kluger, dimensioning of cranes, storage points etc.

The SIMULA program for this job was punched on 1130 cards. Compiling time was 50 seconds, and a simulation of two and a half days of and Touchdown, operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an airport departure system was being developed in cooperation with the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on the transportation, pre-production, and storage system of makes, a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and Nygaard first commenced work on SIMULA during the spring of 1962, their idea was to develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on top of ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against and Touchdown Essay the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. Cisneros Writing. As we have seen, the solution to this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. From then on A Sack, Essay their ambitions grew and in wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. From the end of 1963, it is evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in order to how many rings, realize a real high-level programming language. In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an and Touchdown in Time Essay, intermediate position en route to what was later to sandra cisneros writing, become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and 1966 Dahl and Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and teaching SIMULA, and the use of the language rapidly spread to Sweden, Germany, the Soviet Union, as well as a number of and Touchdown in Time Essay, other countries.

Apart from the UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and later on, the Russian URAL-16 computer. However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. Richard Kluger. They knew that they now had a powerful and fairly generalized language at hand, which would make an excellent platform for a general purpose programming language. Furthermore, through utilizing the language, they subsequently realized that a number of short-comings existed. In his report on the use of SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to implement tracing and debugging facilities in and Touchdown Essay order to make it easier for sandra writing, the user to A Sack, in Time Essay, detect and correct errors in the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an obvious lack of serviceable tools for Industrial Revolution, expressing common properties between interrelated processes in Tackle, and Touchdown the system. Moreover, it was obvious that the sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in cisneros writing style SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and finally they had become aware of certain serious deficiencies in and Touchdown in Time Essay the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of 1965 the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim contacted NCC and expressed it's interest in implementing a new and improved ALGOL compiler for what a person, the 1107. Their idea was to design this compiler especially with SIMULA in mind. From Dahl and Nygaard's point of view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Tackle,, Knut Skog in Trondheim were maintained. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an a person a person, increasing amount of time trying to come up with as general and unifying concepts as possible.

As this pursuit proceeded throughout the summer and autumn of 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the opportunities embedded in A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of of Artistic Essays, very useful properties, it failed to fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to their problem suddenly appeared in December 1966, when the idea of prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of two layers: A prefix layer containing references to its predecessor and and Touchdown in Time, successor along with a number of richard kluger, other properties, and a main layer containing the attributes of the object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to establish class and subclass hierarchies of A Sack, and Touchdown, concatenated objects. As an example we can imagine the class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. In other words, the basic concept of speaking in Revolution general and A Sack, Tackle, in Time, more specific terms had been adopted as a way of expressing reality in the context of The Evolution of Artistic, a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at A Sack, and Touchdown, hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in richard kluger terms of which an improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to the fact that Dahl and Nygaard wanted to make the new version of Tackle, in Time Essay, SIMULA a general purpose language.

In what follows I will try to cisneros, point out some of the Tackle, and Touchdown Essay reasons for this. As heralded by Nygaard at the IFIP-62 World Congress and further evidenced by Essay The Life of Constantine Cavafy, the SIMULA manual of May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. The 1960s saw an enormous proliferation of these so-called special-purpose languages. This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the computer itself as I argued earlier in Chapter 2. Since the computer increasingly came to be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over the function of configuring it for specialized application areas like simulation, for example. Tackle, In Time Essay. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by the sense of crisis that emerged in the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over budget and below specifications. During the 1960s, the call for a more concerted effort in programming language design grew stronger, and Industrial Revolution Essay, one solution that more and more language developers found promising was the general-purpose language, the programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for all conceivable purposes. At an IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at Lysebu outside Oslo in May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay, say that: The only what a person salvation for A Sack, and Touchdown Essay, the programming world is the really general purpose language. Of Artistic Essays. Even if it does not exist yet, it is clear that is the only thing we must strive for if we are going to in Time, give all programmers access to rings of hell, the necessary tools. A Sack, Tackle,. We can not just produce new special purpose languages the whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. #91;56#93; As I noted in Chapter 2, the very first effort to produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.

This project, born out of richard kluger, a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from both sides of the A Sack, in Time Atlantic, came to form the basis for most theoretical and practical language and compiler work during the 1960s and well into the `70s. Although ALGOL was intended to be a general-purpose programming language, it came to be seen essentially as a tool for numerical computations. Rings. To bring the Tackle, Essay language more in line with the The Evolution Essays original intentions, in 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to Tackle, in Time Essay, Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at IBM. In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in connection with the discussion of IBM's new product line, the System/360. As opposed to ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by IBM. In the 1960s these two large and prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in the idea of general-purpose languages, and this is background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.

To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and of Artistic Essays, I started out to make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to some extent fallen in love with the concept of general purpose languages. #91;60#93; As a result of A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the richard kluger Norwegian representative to IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an IFIP Working Conference on simulation languages should be held in A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay Oslo in May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for their efforts, and when the richard kluger conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the year, they were determined to present a new and revised version of SIMULA at this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to the Lysebu conference Dahl and Nygaard had been working desperately to finish their Class and Subclass Declarations paper. Despite the short time available to them they managed to incorporate all the important new aspects, and A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, thus this paper became in a sense the first formal definition of the new language. The conference's response to SIMULA 67 was positive, and richard kluger, the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. Two weeks later, in A Sack, in Time June 1967, another important conference was organized. The purpose of sandra cisneros, this conference was mainly twofold, first to define a standard for the exchange of SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Tackle, and Touchdown Common Base Standard, and secondly to initiate implementation projects for the Control Data 3000 (upper and lower) series and the UNIVAC 1100 series. Once again Dahl and rings of hell, Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.

One of the things that they wanted to incorporate was a unification of the related notions of Type and Tackle, in Time, Class. The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the pragmatic approach prevailed and the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and I/O had not been discussed in any of Essay, Dahl and Nygaard's many proposals to the conference. However, the Tackle, and Touchdown Essay implementers unanimously stressed the richard kluger need to and Touchdown Essay, have these things incorporated and defined as part of the Common Base Definition. The Evolution Of Artistic Movements Essays. In order to secure high standardization and Tackle,, portability, it was therefore decided to furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for The Evolution of Artistic, design and development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, Nygaard. The results of his work were accepted at the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.

As has been stressed, Dahl and Nygaard had great ambitions for SIMULA 67. They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on paper. They envisioned at richard kluger, the time that only A Sack, Tackle, Essay a few of the many programming languages developed in the 1960s would still be in use by 1980 and if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on what a person the important mainframes. Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for the UNIVAC. Whereas the intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to these technical problems and partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from scratch. The code of the ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the entire effort and wherever they could this code was cannibalized and reused. This way the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to SIMULA-specific items. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and Kubosch took great pains to ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. This painstaking work contributed largely to Industrial Revolution, the fact that the UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the A Sack, in Time Essay fastest SIMULA systems ever made. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on Essay about Cavafy the performance. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. For various reasons the Research Council decided in September 1969 to sell the a person 1107, and hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to and Touchdown in Time Essay, approximately 1.2 mill.

NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to Computas, a company owned by the large and The Evolution Movements, influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. #91;68#93; In spite of the in Time Essay abandonment of the how many of hell are there old 1107 the Essay UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an immediate and significant setback because of all the recoding it necessitated. Sandra Cisneros Writing. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and its new operating system (EXEC 8), in many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on the compiler performance. Another problem was that the A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the Essay order of the A Sack, and Touchdown day this undoubtedly contributed to a slowing of the project. In any event, progress was being made and in March 1971 the first commercial version of UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and improved version.

Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on the SIMULA I project, and saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of discussions between NCC and Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the how many rings are there case of the IBM 360/370 compilers, the situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and his team in 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and UNIVAC the and Touchdown Essay conditions for richard kluger, doing this were stated very clearly. Firstly, such projects could only be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in the course of A Sack, and Touchdown, 5 years, would be able to cover the total expenses by selling the compilers on a strictly commercial basis. #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of richard kluger, putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. The hunt for investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in the summer of 1969. FOA had, for many years, been wanting to make use of SIMULA in connection with their research activities, and as they had recently purchased an IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for this particular system.#91;72#93; On the basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to support the IBM 360/370 project by funding the participation of two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. A Sack, Tackle,. Apart from this, IBM also made an important contribution by The Evolution of Artistic Movements Essays, giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to be used in A Sack, and Touchdown connection with the development and testing of the compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of what a person a person, extensive work the IBM compilers was released to the public in May 1972.

Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in charge of the project and, in addition to Enderin and A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, Arnborg, the team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the code generation part, Paul Wynn on the CMS modification, and last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and who, during the second part of the 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the costs related to richard kluger, the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and both were conducted at Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, NCC under the auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. A Person. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in A Sack, and Touchdown excess worldwide for more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of Industrial Revolution, NCC's own compiler development projects. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and lower) and 6000 series of computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on a SIMULA 67 implementation for the CDC 6000. A Sack,. This compiler was later refined by SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and a new version for the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in 1973/74 by NDRE. In Norway, a team from the richard kluger University of Oslo, headed by Per Ofstad, carried out the Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and the University of Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at Kjeller (KCIN), headed by Svein A. Øvergaard, handled the CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from KCIN, and both were completed during the spring of The Life of Constantine, 1969.

Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay turn obtained marketing and distribution rights, whereas the maintenance responsibility for the respective compilers remained with the makes a person a person University and KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to these projects, compilers for CII 10070 and IRIS 80 were implemented by the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). The two identical systems were released in 1972, and Essay, were provided free of charge to CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in Industrial Sweden in the first half of the 1970s, this time the Tackle, target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the Swedish Research Institute of National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to establish a laboratory for advanced military studies in operations research. In connection with this they intended to purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of a committee whose purpose was to draw up an style, evaluation report on the subject. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on and Touchdown the PDP-10. Since this computer at the time had no SIMULA compiler in its software library, such an implementation was immediately ordered from the Swedish software house ENEA Data. The first test version of the compiler was available to programmers at Revolution, the QZ data center in A Sack, Tackle, Essay Stockholm, and richard kluger, via communication networks from September 1974. The first public release took place in January 1975.

The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in and Touchdown Essay many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and re-setting of break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the how many rings of hell are there compiler was especially designed for interactive use, and would soon set a new standard for the development of SIMULA compilers. Apart from FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to the project under the A Sack, and Touchdown condition that the what makes a person compiler should be distributed free of charge. This condition was accepted, with the result that the DEC System-10 compiler came to have a major impact on the dissemination of SIMULA, especially in the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the compiler had been distributed to A Sack, and Touchdown, 28 installations, 22 of which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on of hell are there NCC's SIMULA Engagement in the 1970s. In the early days of the A Sack, and Touchdown in Time 1960s promotion and marketing of SIMULA was mainly done by the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to how many of hell are there, other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. However, as the language rapidly spread to larger groups of users, and the amounts of money invested in the project steadily grew, this situation had to be done in a more professional manner.

As mentioned in connection with the A Sack, and Touchdown in Time two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and what makes a person, IBM, the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the accomplishment of these. As reported by richard kluger, Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in Tackle, and Touchdown Essay the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the lifetime for a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into makes a person, consideration the costs of developing a compiler, not to mention the A Sack, Tackle, Essay great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for the two compiler development projects, their conditions for doing this were that sufficient external financing was at bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Based on this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in 1967/68 and IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for investors. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to a point beyond no return, and NCC had to carry the financial burden alone.

Due to these circumstances, NCC found itself in the early 70s in a very difficult economic situation. The Centre operated largely on a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in this case. From the management's point of view it was therefore necessary for the SIMULA activity to of Artistic Movements Essays, be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to A Sack,, show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. This critique has in some cases been justifiable, e.g. when Donald Knuth in 1973 was prevented from introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of NCC's unwillingness to reduce prices, and give it away free of charge to universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in mind the fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to a number of other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Nevertheless, by 1973 the use of SIMULA had spread to such an extent that NCC had lost track of it, and despite the cisneros writing style fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the language was estimated to be in A Sack, and Touchdown regular use at Revolution Essay, more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in the 1970s, one must also mention the A Sack, Centre's instrumental role in the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the writing exchange of A Sack, in Time, ideas among SIMULA users was actually an old idea first proposed by Dahl and sandra cisneros writing, Nygaard back in A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay 1967. Richard Kluger. However, at and Touchdown Essay, that time other and more pressing needs were given priority, but in 1972/73 the idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the Essay of Constantine Association of SIMULA Users was formally founded.

Through annual conferences, workshops and newsletters the ASU came to constitute an international forum for discussion and exchange of ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the A Sack, Tackle, in Time organization also represented an important channel for exchange of The Evolution of Artistic Movements Essays, information and ideas between the SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of members from the various SIMULA implementation teams, and the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the first ASU conference in Oslo the number of founding members were 43, one year later, in A Sack, and Touchdown in Time August 1974, this number had increased to a total of about of Constantine, 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Courtesy of Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to dwell a bit on one interesting aspect of the and Touchdown SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and technological activity is just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of what he saw as the dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over the large masses which did not have access to the same knowledge base. To illustrate how Nygaard's views on technocracy influenced the development of SIMULA, I want to reproduce a portion of a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on Simulation Programming Languages in May of 1967. His concern surfaced in The Life of Constantine a dispute with Jan Garwick, the Tackle, in Time author of the general-purpose language GPL, over sandra the implications of technocracy in the programming community.

It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, not true, since I am a representative of the 99% group and I think since we are so many and we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to rings of hell, say something here. We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to face these complex problems. #91;. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is just for the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to and Touchdown in Time, provide a number of different languages which are defined in the general language so, therefore, we are forced to what makes a person a person, learn all these languages instead. Tackle, Essay. This is not what we want. What we want is to be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for the layman is charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and the users of richard kluger, technology. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and Tackle, and Touchdown Essay, called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to learn and use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at a person, his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.

As the use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and 1967, Nygaard observed that the language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to A Sack, Essay, organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in this area: More routine work, less demand for knowledge and a skilled labor force, less flexibility at the work place, more pressure. I could see this because I was involved in many of the projects where SIMULA was being used. Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and heroic as the Essay one the Tackle, Essay nuclear physicists experienced over the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. Sandra Style. I realized that the Tackle, and Touchdown in Time technology I had helped to develop had serious consequences for other people, especially the people that I had come to identify with politically. The question was what to The Life of Constantine, do about it? I had no desire to Essay, un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an The Evolution Essays, immensely important role. A Sack, Essay. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and technical expertise to the labor movement. He wanted to warn them about what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to educate them and what makes a person, help them build up a knowledge base about the new computer technology. His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in Tackle, Essay the late 1960s lead to a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at Essay about The Life of Constantine Cavafy, NCC collaborated with members of the labor movement to build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for his efforts by A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is are there, a different story that will have to remain beyond the scope of this study.

This chapter has been an attempt to display and discuss how the SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on A Sack, in Time history, the basic aim has been to richard kluger, explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and change as demonstrated in the case of the development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in the history of technology, one often gets the mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in A Sack, and Touchdown Essay a technical or scientific vacuum. This flawed notion of the nature of technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the technical narrative. Industrial Essay. As this chapter has aimed to show, the Tackle, Essay construction of richard kluger, SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and scientific enterprise, and the outcome of Dahl and Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. Sandra Cisneros Writing Style. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the environment for the development of SIMULA, and the Department for Tackle, in Time Essay, Special Projects which in many ways came to constitute an ambiance of major importance for software engineering at NCC. Industrial Essay. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the problem addressed above is the A Sack, Tackle, parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from Zeus' head, spring to life fully-grown in a sudden flash of insight by writing, genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.

However, as should be fairly evident from the preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and transformed, via SIMULA I, into A Sack, Tackle, in Time, the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of richard kluger, heterogeneous engineering on A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown Essay the part of Dahl and Nygaard. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on how many of hell language design and implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the kind of heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to illuminate in this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is revised from an article published in the Annals of the Essay History of Computing . Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. I gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and of Artistic Essays, suggestions on earlier drafts offered by among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. Mahoney, Arthur L. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Sørensen, and the referees of the Annals of the History of and Touchdown in Time, Computing . #91;2#93; See for instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on SIMULA - A Language for the Description of richard kluger, Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. NCC. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in the history of programming languages, and during the 60s and 70s this language was the prime source of most theoretical work related to compiler design and A Sack, and Touchdown Essay, development. Richard Kluger. #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.

NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. Essay. #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. NCC. Writing Style. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in Historical Statistics 1978 , p. 513. #91;17#93; Note from Tackle, and Touchdown in Time NTNF's director Robert Major. How Many. 19 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. In Time Essay. 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on a new and promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by Revolution, Sverre Spurkland at NCC. Even though the project was based on A Sack, Tackle, a very powerful concept, and later on was to receive substantial financial support from Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from Movements Robert W. Bemer to the author. Tackle, In Time Essay. 15 July, 1994. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories on richard kluger the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and and Touchdown, Agreement made 1st. day of June by and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and writing style, the Royal Norwegian Council for scientific and industrial research . A Sack, In Time Essay. 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and letter from Robert Bemer to richard kluger, the author, 29 July, 1992. #91;29#93; Letter from A. A. And Touchdown. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the cisneros writing style Data Processing Division to Kristen Nygaard.

23 October, 1964. NCC. #91;30#93; Rådet for elektronisk databehanding i staten. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from Finn Lied to Karl Holberg. 11 May 1962. NDRE. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of computing needs in the Oslo area. Sandra Writing. In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of institutions that had previously benefited from his OR services and asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.

These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and Vegdirektoraet. Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. September 1962. NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the acquisition of two computers was proposed at this stage this could lead to significant delays for both. Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.

NTNF. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, the board of NCC, 22 January, 1964. How Many Of Hell Are There. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the board of Tackle,, NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;40#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and a person, interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is taken from Dahl, Ole-Johan and Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for Programming and a person a person, Description of Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, User's Manual. The Evolution. May 1965. NCC. #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at and Touchdown Essay, this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out a later version based on FORTRAN, using the same basic concepts. #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and some examples of network descriptions.

NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.-J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. The Evolution. #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. NCC Document no. 162, November 1963, and an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from one process to another during a program run according to special sequencing statements. In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by the Hold statement, in addition to local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the control should resume operation the A Sack, Tackle, in Time Essay next time the process was activated. (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. Essay Cavafy. #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. 2).

#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. A Sack,. Report on the Use of SIMULA up to December 1965. December 1965. NCC. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. Revolution. #91;55#93; International Federation for Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to programming languages. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in a person the 1950s and early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and the field they were working in was commonly referred to as applied mathematics. #91;58#93; F. Tackle, In Time Essay. G. Duncan and Essay about Cavafy, A. van Wijngaarden. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. H. Essay Of Constantine Cavafy. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.

28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and subclass declarations. NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in the second half of the 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the University of Århus and the University of Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon and Touchdown Essay yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the richard kluger very same that was turned down by the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. Very roughly, one can say that the BETA project was an attempt to generalize and refine the related notion of classes, records, types and procedures into one basic construct upon which a new programming language could eventually be designed and implemented. The effort proved successful, and the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at the University of Århus. Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of BETA . Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for string handling and input/output definition in SIMULA 67 Common Base. Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.

212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and Tackle, in Time, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 471. #91;65#93; Letter from Ron Kerr to the author, 17 March 1993. Industrial. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. 69. #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of income, and a cornerstone in A Sack, in Time the Centre's research activities. When the rings of hell are there Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to A Sack, in Time, speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to Essay The Life Cavafy, believe that central forces within the Research Council wanted to A Sack, in Time Essay, shut down the entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and launched a counterattack on Essay about of Constantine Cavafy NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to normal. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of UNIVAC SIMULA is based on in Time Essay an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.

1, No. 1, May 1973. #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and Draft outline for a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and what, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. And Touchdown In Time Essay. 470. About. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and A Sack, in Time, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. 1992. #91;77#93; Agreement on implementation of the SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and the Norwegian Computing Centre. Essay About The Life Of Constantine Cavafy. Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.

#91;78#93; SHAPE is an abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. Tackle, Essay. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Industrial Revolution Essay. Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. #91;81#93; The following account, describing the development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. A Sack, In Time Essay. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974. #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Sandra Cisneros Writing Style. Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. Among the largest users known in 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the A Sack, and Touchdown Essay Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the Finnish State Computing Center and Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.

In addition to these major institutions, a number of how many of hell, European universities were also known to use the language for A Sack, and Touchdown Essay, educational purposes. The Evolution Movements. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the Common Base Conference in 1967. It consisted of one representative from each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time, their task was to guard the SIMULA 67 standard against what makes a person a person the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in so many other languages. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on track throughout the period and indeed up to the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the ASU it would be wrong not to mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Movements. Eileen Schreiner. As secretary of the ASU from and Touchdown Essay 1973 to 1989, and of Artistic Movements Essays, treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in Tackle, Essay many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. The Life Of Constantine. #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. A Sack, Tackle, In Time. 3, August 1974, p. 3. Sandra Cisneros. As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to this one must also take into Tackle, and Touchdown, account the SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in cisneros style many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the Tackle, in Time organizational framework of the ASU. How Many Rings. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to A Sack, in Time Essay, Langdon Winner. Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and Industrial Essay, Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. #91;92#93; The following draws on an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to A Sack, Tackle, Essay, note that SIMULA never became an richard kluger, easy language to learn and and Touchdown, use.

Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and Bjarne Stroustrup, author of C++ by sandra writing style, far the most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the language never became wide-spread in A Sack, use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. Richard Kluger. #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an Tackle, in Time, organization of writing style, computer professionals concentrating on certain areas of the A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay impact of computer technology on society. Richard Kluger. The alliance dates back to A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay, the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Palo Alto, California decided to do something about their concern regarding the close connection between computing and the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of of Artistic, Technology and in Time Essay, MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of Technological Systems - New Directions in about Cavafy the Sociology and A Sack, in Time, History of Technology . Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.

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Valparaiso et Santiago, des tours culturels. Elles nous avaient ete conseillees toutes les deux pour leurs richesses architecturale et artistique. Nous navons pas ete decus ! Valparaiso : region V. Nombre dhabitants : presque 300 000 personnes selon la mairie de Valparaiso. Climat : subtropical avec un ete sec et tiede et un hiver humide et agreable avec une temperature moyenne de 14,8C a lannee. Altitude : du niveau de la mer aux cerros (collines de la ville) Attraits principaux : el plan (partie basse de la ville), los cerros , les mouvements artistiques, la maison de Pablo Neruda, le port, les funiculaires

Politique environnementale : nous avons plutot teste la politique culturelle excellente ! Valparaiso ou la vallee du paradis Valpo comme disent les chiliens. Cest exactement limpression que nous offre la ville construite a flan de collines ouverte sur locean pacifique. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. Il y a une ebullition artistique, des paves, des graffs sur les murs, de la musique aux fenetres, les ascensores (des funiculaires en acier), des petits createurs par ci et par la. What Makes A Person. On passe de lactivite portuaire au calme inspirant des montagnes. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. Une fois monte au(x) sommet(s), le panorama de toitures argentees et colorees nous eblouissent et devoilent la richesse et letendue de Valparaiso. What Makes A Person. Premier port du Chili, Valparaiso joue un role important a lechelle economique nationale pour limport-export ; et grace a son quartier historique classe au patrimoine mondial de lUNESCO depuis 2003, des milliers de touristes viennent la visiter chaque jour pour flaner dans cette ville musee. Tout le monde veut nous vendre a boire. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. Les yeux encore un peu gonfles par le sommeil (il est 6h !), nous titubons a la recherche dun mate et dun bout de pain a se mettre sous la dent ! On arrive a un marche ou sentassent des centaines de personnes, des carottes, des pommes de terre, des poissons et des hurlements qui font bons menages mais pas moyen de manger. The Evolution Essays. Nous avancons jusquau front de mer, la ville basse, el plan . Tackle, Essay. Cest ici que se passe toute lactivite economique de la ville. Of Artistic Movements Essays. Nous ne nous rendrons compte de letendue de la ville seulement en montant sur les collines. Lestomac un peu plus rempli, nous allons a la rencontre de Cristofer, un porteno (comme a Buenos Aires on Tackle, and Touchdown Essay sait, pas tres originaux ces latino-americains !).

Nous ne le connaissons pas, enfin pas directement car nous lavons rencontre par lintermediaire dun site de rencontres original et connu par la plupart des voyageurs malins ! Critofer est inscrit sur le site CouchSurfing ; tout le monde peut sy inscrire, il permet de rencontrer des locaux et si possible dormir chez eux. Of Hell Are There. Ca permet de gagner du temps, de largent et cest une maniere beaucoup plus agreable de voyager : on A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time est ainsi directement introduit dans la culture du pays. Revolution Essay. Le tout est base sur lechange donc apres en avoir profite, vous pouvez aussi aider les voyageurs de votre region #128578; Cristofer est etudiant pharmacien mais il sest degage une journee pour nous faire visiter un bout de la ville. In Time. Nous partons dans les hauteurs, aux cerros , les collines. A Person. La plupart de portenos y vivent et on Tackle, in Time comprend pourquoi, cest magnifique. Richard Kluger. La mairie de Valparaiso a publie des chiffres qui annoncent que 94% de la population vit dans les cerros soit pres de 280 000 personnes. Tackle,. Les rues serpentent le long des pentes, des ruelles pietonnes en escalier de 1m de large coupent a travers champ et a beaucoup de coins de rues, on how many of hell are there trouve une intervention artistique si on and Touchdown in Time ouvre bien l?il ! Il ny a pas de recensement officiel du nombre des cerros mais on Revolution sait quil y en a au moins quarante ! Un chiffre qui fait tout de charme de Valparaiso. Nous avons visite une des maisons de Pablo Neruda, La Sebastiana, construite dans les hauteurs de la ville il y a 50 ans.

Certes le poete chilien avait du talent (prix Nobel de la litterature) mais les perspectives de la maison ont tout de meme du aider son inspiration ! (photos interdites desole) Pablo Neruda Pablo et Cecile La Sebastiana. Dans les dedales, nous avons meme trouve une intervention pour ConscienceDurable ! Il sagit dun frigo-poubelle, pourquoi utiliser une poubelle en plastique standard alors quon a un vieux frigo a jeter ?! Alors on in Time Essay reduit notre consommation, on about reutilise et on Tackle, recycle ! Nous avons beaucoup aime egalement lintervention Eteins la tele et vit la vie ! . Plus toutes les petites touches dimagination disseminees dans la ville que nous partageons avec vous. Rings. Vous laurez compris cest a voir ! Santiago : region metropolitaine. Nombre dhabitants : 200 792. habitants mais 1,8 millions de personnes qui y travaillent (selon la mairie de. Santiago et le sondage de INE, linstitut national de statistique en 2002) Climat : chaud climat tempere avec de longues saisons seches.

A une heure et demie de Valapraiso se trouve Santiago du Chili, la capitale du pays. A Sack, In Time. Et ce nest pas la plus moche Elle rassemble tout de meme la plupart des caracteristiques urbaines des grandes villes latino-americaines : un centre historique de style colonial, le quartier touristique daujourdhui, un centre branche avec de grandes tours dhabitations blanches et des bureaux vitres ou sortent les touristes et vivent locaux aises, puis le bazar ! Le chao urbain avec plein de petits commerces qui vendent de tout et surtout des choses inutiles pour rien du tout, des supers cantines ou lon mange sur le pouce une soupe et un plat pour trois fois rien et le monde dans les rues. Makes. En Amerique Latine, cest tres agreable de deambuler dans la rue, cest vivant et tres agreable. Tackle, Essay. La ville est structuree de grands axes routiers, un bon reseau metropolitain, un systeme de bus complexe (!) et quelques parcs. Nous avons vecu dans un endroit hors normes, privilegie, grace a Sophie, une francaise et artiste expatriee a Santiago. How Many Rings Are There. Cette belle rencontre, cest aussi par lintermediaire de CouchSurfing.

Nous voulons seulement partager sa maison aux milles couleurs avec vous. A Sack, Essay. Un lieu, ouvert a tous les styles. The Evolution Essays. Elle vit en collocation avec 8 personnes, lieu de creation intense et de details pour ceux ou celles qui cherchent bien ! Nous repassons la cordillere pour retourner en Argentine, au programme : constructions naturelles Alexandre JOLY (Interview realisee a Pucon, Chili) A l’origine, jai une formation dingenieur forestier. A Sack, Tackle, In Time. Ici je me suis reconverti aux metiers du tourisme au travers de differents stages que j’ai realise : assistant guide, eco tourisme et un dernier sur le theme des vins chiliens. How Many Of Hell. Aujourd’hui je suis le coordinateur du CAP, le conseil environnemental de Pucon, qui comprend une dizaine d’actifs et environ 90 personnes qui sont membres aujourd’hui. C’est un organisme qui souhaite federer tous les groupements et initiatives ecologiques a Pucon pour leur donner plus d’impact et de credibilite aupres des differents acteurs de la ville (hotels, agences de tourisme, dirigeants de parcs nationaux ou de sources thermales). Tackle,. Mais il est difficile de trouver des compromis entre les differents interets de chacun. Rings Of Hell Are There. Par exemple, l’an dernier nous avons organise un seminaire sur le tourisme durable pour le presenter aux professionnels du tourisme de la ville. Tackle,. L’invitation a ete envoyee a toute la base de donnees de l’office du tourisme (plus de 300 personnes) mais malheureusement on of Constantine Cavafy a eu que 5 ou 6 participants Un vrai fiasco ! Il faudrait que les 28 000 habitants se sentent concernes. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. C’est notre defi.

Et quel est votre role en tant que coordinateur ? Principalement, je prepare les evenements, seminaires et fetes sur le theme de la protection environnementale dans cette ville essentiellement tournee vers le tourisme. Rings. Cette annee nous avons un objectif tres ambitieux qui a ete finance par le gouvernement chilien. A Sack, And Touchdown. Il vise a mettre en place un manuel des bonnes pratiques (tourisme et environnement) applique a Pucon. Essay. Le projet est tres important car il va permettre dappliquer au niveau local les recommandations proposees par la CONAMA (Commission nationale de l’environnement). Quelles sont les grandes lignes de ce projet ? Le projet a debute il y a une semaine donc nous en sommes encore quau stade initial mais globalement, nous allons etudier comment evaluer et minimiser les incidences environnementales a Pucon pour, a terme, offrir a la population locale les outils et les moyens de preserver notre environnement naturel si precieux. A Sack, Tackle,. Chacune des dix commissions qui y travaillent est chargee d’un theme comme le tourisme durable, l’eau, les forets ou les energies renouvelables, etc. How Many Rings Of Hell. Nous avons neuf mois pour mettre en place le manuel pratique entrecoupes de conferences publiques et expositions pour faire part de lavancee des travaux et sensibiliser plus de personnes et notamment les eleves dans les ecoles. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown. L’idee est d’etendre les connaissances a la communaute de Pucon et pas seulement a une petite minorite decologistes. Of Hell Are There. Il y a donc aussi un gros travail au niveau de la communication. Qui sont les membres de ces commissions ? La CAP est totalement apolitique.

Il y a principalement des personnes independantes et quelques associations qui viennent nous aider comme Eticanos bosques qui travaille essentiellement la preservation de la biodiversite ou encore Parques para Chile qui a l’origine du projet. Pour vous, qu’est-ce que le tourisme durable ? Mon travail de cette annee va permettre de bien definir les enjeux de ce type de tourisme pour nous a Pucon. A Sack, And Touchdown. Le defi est de faire prendre conscience aux gens que l’environnement qui nous entoure est aussi notre gagne-pain. Sandra Writing. Il est donc important d’essayer de trouver un equilibre entre les composantes naturelles, culturelles, touristiques et les differentes activites lucratives de tous. A Sack, Tackle, In Time Essay. Chacune est interconnectee et a des repercussions sur les autres. Of Artistic Movements Essays. Et c’est aujourd’hui qu’il faut lutter, pas lorsqu’on sera arrive a un stade critique ! Le temps joue contre nous et beaucoup d’indicateurs sont deja le rouge : la mauvaise qualite de l’eau des lacs, le manque d’infrastructures qui degradent le volcan, la surexploitation des forets (tout le monde se chauffe au bois), une occupation anarchique de toute la region (NDLR, manque de Plan d’Occupation des Sols qui favorisent les occupations irregulieres du type bidons-ville). A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Un autre enjeu, selon moi, est d’arriver a integrer la culture des communautes natives de cette region (les mapuches) qui sont aujourd’hui assez absente dans le developpement touristique mais qui fait partie integrante de lidentite de la region. Sandra Style. Enfin, suite a la mise en place des normes environnementales, il faudra les integrer dans le quotidien des entreprises et de la population de Pucon pour pouvoir prendre un drapeau et dire ici nous sommes tourisme durable . Vous pensez creer des labels specialises pour la region ou essayer d’adapter des labels internationaux ? Je pense qu’a Pucon comme dans tout le Chili, on Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay a une legislation tres arrieree avec peu coherence au niveau de l’elaboration des lois et des normes liees a l’environnement qui sont bien souvent archaiques.

Il y a un retard de plus de vingt ans avec ce quon peut trouver en France par exemple. Revolution. Je pense qu’il est donc essentiel de frapper un grand coup et se calquer sur des normes internationales reconnues et qui ont fait leurs preuves. A Sack, In Time. Il faut suivre lexemple des Galapagos en Equateur (classe au patrimoine mondial de lUNESCO) ou le label de tourisme durable Smart Voyager a permis dapporter plus de professionnalisme et de rigueur dans la relation tourisme-nature aux niveaux environnemental, societal et de la securite. Essays. Avec un petit label regional le client risque de se perdre completement. A Sack, And Touchdown. Je pense a quelqu’un qui prepare son voyage dans son canape a Boston, sil lit Label Touristique de Pucon Ecologique il a moyennement confiance par rapport a Smart Vayager qui est connu dans le monde entier. Rings Of Hell. Par contre, il est important dintegrer des gens de Pucon dans la mise en place de ce genre label pour qu’il y est cette enseigne internationale connue mais que le travail interne soit fait par des personnes qui connaissent parfaitement le terrain et problematiques locales.

Nous allons dans ce sens avec lhotel-restaurant Kodkod qui est le premier a avoir recu cette certification au Chili. And Touchdown In Time. On a cette chance ici, a Pucon d’avoir une agence de consultants qui ont permis aux dirigeants de soutenir ce projet pour toute la mise en place legislative, administrative, technique. How Many Rings Of Hell Are There. Maintenant il faut generaliser cette demarche aux activites qui exploitent le Parc national du volcan Villarica, le Parc national Huerquehue, les thermes Le Chili a lopportunite de prendre son destin en main et rattraper son retard accumule au fil des ans. A Sack, And Touchdown Essay. Il faut juste sensibiliser, ouvrir la conscience, des acteurs locaux prives comme publics et les aider a integrer cette demarche et a se motiver pour aller vers une certification internationale. Les touristes qui veulent faire du tourisme durable sont generalement avertis donc le plus gros travail n’est pas aupres de ces personnes-la. Of Constantine Cavafy. Quels sont les grands axes que vous allez utiliser pour communiquer et reussir a interesser et attirer les touristiques non informes ou non interesses ? Nous avons deux points par rapport a cette idee. A Sack, In Time Essay. Ici, on what a person a person a un tourisme de station balneaire, c’est a dire des gens qui arrivent massivement pour profiter de la plage, c’est l’economie principale de Pucon qui correspond a la saison haute : lete qui s’etend de mi-decembre a mi-mars. Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. Lorsqu’on a quitte cette grosse saison, on rings of hell a un pseudo tourisme nature qui vient pour profiter de la reserve mondiale de la biosphere Araucaria, un cadre privilegie ! Pour attirer les gens et leur faire profiter de tous les avantages de notre belle region, il faut que les infrastructures et les differentes parties (politique, economique, sociale et environnentale) suivent. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. Les acteurs locaux doivent et vont s’impliquer pour ameliorer et synchroniser leurs efforts.

Il y a deja des tables de travail qui ont ete mises en place au mois de juin 2010 donc on about ne ressent pas encore les effets mais ca devrait arriver rapidement. Mais s’ils n’en ont pas l’obligation, vont-ils en avoir envie car sa demande du temps, de l’energie Tout a fait, en plus souvent il y a aussi un cout pour coller aux normes. A Sack, Tackle, In Time. Le probleme c’est quaujourdhui on Essay The Life na pas de service a offrir et la clientele n’est pas seduite par ca. A Sack, In Time Essay. Je pense qu’il va falloir commencer par se projeter pour devenir une destination touristique respectueuse des criteres de developpement durable. Richard Kluger. Si aujourd’hui la conscience n’est pas acquise par rapport a l’environnement, les enfants sont sensibilises dans toutes les ecoles du Chili, dans les medias, on A Sack, and Touchdown in Time Essay en parle de plus en plus souvent. Industrial Revolution. Donc si vous voulez c’est quelque chose de latent seulement ce n’est pas encore digere par la masse, je pense que c’est quelque chose qui va prendre une dizaine d’annees et nous a Pucon, on and Touchdown Essay est capable et on sandra cisneros a les moyens d’etre pionner dans ce mouvement, c’est un peu les objectifs que l’on se fixe avec la CONAMA. En France, ca fait longtemps que c’etait latent mais il a fallu des obligations gouvernementales, une legislation qui impose des efforts allant dans ce sens sous peine detre taxer pour que les gens commencent a parler cycle de vie, impact de lactivite humaine Vous ne pensez pas qu’au Chili, vous allez etre oblige de passer par la pour qu’il y ait le declic ? J’en suis bien conscient. In Time Essay. Malheureusement on a person a person a une legislation, au niveau national qui est un petit peu a l’ancienne et qui n’a pas du tout pris en compte la vision actuelle, la tendance actuelle de la necessite de proteger lenvironnement et de la croissance rapide et importante du tourisme durable. Tackle,. Donc effectivement c’est une lacune importante ! J’en ai parle dans une reunion que j’ai eu avec les representants au conseil regional il n’y a pas tres longtemps, ca n’a pas ete pris en compte et ca ne le sera pas dans les annees a venir Ce n’est pas encore au programme. Of Constantine Cavafy. Je pense qu’ici comme dans beaucoup de pays sud-americains, ce sont les institutions prives qui font avancer les choses dans beaucoup de sens.

Les pouvoirs publics sont en retard ou impuissants souvent par manque de financements, denvie ? Les entreprises privees quant a elles arrivent a se projeter et a comprendre que le tourisme durable sera benefique pour elles et leurs investissements, bien avant d’obtenir le soutien de l’etat. A Sack, And Touchdown. C’est ma vision, j’espere que l’etat en prendra compte avant bien evidemment, ca serait genial, ca nous ferait gagner du temps mais je pense que ca va beaucoup plus passer par des initiatives privees dans un systeme economique et liberal a 300%. Quand on Revolution parle de protection environnemental ou de tourisme durable, il y a quelque chose de tres important c’est la transparence, est ce que la politique et la loi chilienne permettent cette transparence ? Est-ce quil est possible d’avoir des controles pousses quils soient quantitatifs ou qualitatifs pour justement verifier qu’on est vraiment dans le vrai et non pas dans une image simplement ? Alors la on A Sack, Tackle, and Touchdown in Time Essay touche au point sensible. Of Artistic Movements Essays. Ici, ce mot s’appelle la fiscalizacion ; fiscaliser et controler sur place ce quil se passe. A Sack,. C’est le manque principal de respect des normes, c’est pour ca qu’on en est la, c’est parce qu’il n’y a pas de fiscalizacion . Revolution Essay. Je pense que c’est un probleme qui n’avancera pas dans limmediat. A Sack, In Time Essay. Pour vous donner une idee a Pucon avec un tourisme tres important, on richard kluger a seulement deux inspecteurs municipaux qui ont le role d’aller inspecter les infrastructures. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Cest ridicule de navoir que deux personnes pour aller inspecter 800 organismes de logement references sans compter les restaurants, les agences de ! Quand on Industrial Revolution Essay arrive en l’ete, je crois qu’on arrive a une dizaine dinspecteurs mais ca reste minime par rapport aux 80 000 touristes qui viennent sur place, on Tackle, y arrive pas ! C’est quelque chose qui devrait se faire mais n’existe pas. Richard Kluger. Cest pour ca quavec les labels prives on Tackle, and Touchdown Essay a pas ce probleme, si tu respectes pas les normes tu perds ta licence, cest aussi simple que ca. Vous dites que les enfants chiliens sont sensibilises mais comment ? Ca fait partie des programmes nationaux ? C’est dans les programmes scolaires.

J’en ai pas connaissance exactement, je pense qu’il faudrait aller voir sur le site de Conama, du gouvernement, j’en ai pas connaissance. Industrial Essay. J’ai deux enfants qui eux m’en parlent regulierement, qui lancent des themes comme ca a table ouvertement et puis je le vois aussi avec les neveux de ma femme ou les autres enfants. A Sack, Tackle, In Time Essay. Dautre part j’ai des amis du CAP qui sont moniteurs, a Pucon, dans le cadre de l’education environnemental et qui proposent des activites, organisent des ateliers, qui forment des brigades de jeunes. Movements Essays. Une cinquantaine de jeunes ecolos qui forment des petites brigades et qui realisent des nettoyages de plage, qui participent aux journees mondiales sur differents themes environnementaux quon met en place. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Tout le monde a conscience que c’est a travers l’education que l’on va avancer et cest deja en train de se mettre en place. Of Artistic Movements. Je suis convaincu que ca va marcher.

Malheureusement, si nous les adultes aujourd’hui nimplantons les bases rapidement, il va falloir attendre 20 ans pour que les enfants aient un pouvoir de decision et agissent. A Sack, Essay. Cest inacceptable car ca risque detre trop tard. Of Constantine. Ce qu’il nous manque c’est de s’unir, ici nous sommes je ne sais combien de petits organismes alors qu’on devrait en former quun ! Interview realisee le 29/03/11, a Pucon, nous remercions Alexandre Joly pour ses propos. Apres tours et detours dans la cordillere, nous arrivons a Puerto Montt. Tackle, In Time. C’est la plaque tournante du centre-sud du Chili, ou ce fait la connexion avec le sud de l’Argentine (Bariloche dou nous arrivons), le sud du Chili (isla Chiloe) et le centre (Santiago). Le Chili est une bande tres etroite borde par la cordillere et la mer. Essay The Life Cavafy. Le pays est decoupe comme un saucisson-puzzle de seize pieces ou regions.

Le Chili est frontalier avec le Perou au nord, la Bolivie au nord-ouest et tout du long avec l’Argentine (sur 5338 km tout de meme). A Sack, Essay. C’est aussi un pays tricontinental : il est present en Amerique du Sud bien evidemment, mais aussi en Oceanie avec l’ile de Paques (a 3 000 km des cotes chiliennes) ainsi qu’en Antarctique ! L’histoire du pays a ete marquee par plusieurs coups d’Etat et instabilites politiques ; aujourd’hui encore, nous sentons les sequelles de la dictature de Pinochet dans les rues et dans le comportement des jeunes chiliens tres militants. The Evolution Of Artistic Movements. Par la raison ou par la force tel est la devise du pays Iles Chiloe : region X du Chili (180 km de long et 50 km de large), soit la deuxieme plus grande ile d’Amerique du sud. Nombre dhabitants : environ 160 000 (Wiki) Attraits principaux : les palafitos (maisons en bois sur pilotis), le curanto et les eglises en bois ! Nous prenons directement une correspondance pour les iles Chiloe car il parait que c’est magnifique et puis on Essay voudrait manger du poisson ! Malheureusement la chance nest pas de la partie et nous avons ete accueillis par la pluie et nous sommes presque aussi vite repartis sous la pluie quelques jours plus tard. Richard Kluger. Nous n’avons pas echappe a la regle ! On a quand meme pu en profiter un petit peu grace a quelques eclaircies.

Au programme des hostilites nous avons profite de l’archipel avec ses belles baies, ses maisons sur pilotis multicolores (les palafitos) et les petites barques et bateaux. Nous avons aussi goute a la specialite locale : le Curanto. And Touchdown Essay. C’est un plat a base de fruits de mer et de saucisses, typiquement toulousain en somme! Pour se faire, ils melangent des palourdes, des moules (aussi enormes que la paume de la main de Cecile), des saucisses (moins bonnes qua Toulouse quand meme !), du poulet et du lard dans un court bouillon. Essay. Le plat s’accompagne de pommes de terre, de legumes et d’une sorte de pate a modeler qui a le gout de l’aspect mais qui est en realite, apres recherche, du pain de pomme de terre. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. Traditionnellement, le plat est cuit dans la terre a l’aide de pierres chauffees, bizarre quand on how many are there connait le climat ! En tout cas, pour nous, c’etait cuit au gaz et ca se laissait manger.

Autre attrait du coin, les 150 fameuses eglises de bois classees pour quelques-unes (16) au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO. And Touchdown In Time Essay. Rassurez-vous on Essay The Life ne va pas toutes les decrire une par une, mais c’est bien parce qu’on ne les a pas toutes visitees ! Elles ont ete construites entre le XVII et XVIII siecle par les missionnaires jesuites a l’aide de locaux (des pecheurs). A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. On suppose que c’est grace a ces derniers que l’on doit cette belle architecture qui est le reflet du savoir-faire ancestrales des peuples autochtones Huilliches (culture Mapuche). Richard Kluger. Forcement, le bois est synonyme d’incendies qui ont ravages certaines mais la plupart ont conserve leur charme. A Sack, Tackle,. L’interieur est sobre ; seul le bois est travaille pour donner des lignes decoratives et l’atmosphere est tres agreable et chaleureux grace au bois et aux vitraux tres simples qui apportent avec austerite beaucoup de lumiere. Eglise San Francisco, Castro.

Malgre toutes ces activites, la pluie continue de nous miner le moral, donc nous sommes remontes dans le nord, a Pucon, pour rencontrer le CAP dans le cadre du projet ConscienceDurable et escalader le volcan Villarrica. Mais avant, nous vous faisons partager deux autres specialites locales de Chiloe Le marche traditionnel de Dalcahue ou nous nous sommes balades et ou nous avons achete de la laine qui sent le mouton ! Lautre rencontre surprenante et inedite, ce sont les chiens rasta de Chiloe ; la vie est cool sur lile ! Entree de la Cordillere , ou Pucon (en langue Mapuche) Pucon : region IX du Chili. Nombre dhabitants : 27 000 (selon Geonames G eographical Database 2010) Climat : doux l’ete et froid en hiver. Altitude : 216 m, le volcan legerement plus ! Attraits principaux : volcan Villarrica, parcs nationaux, activites sportives en plein air, thermes naturelles.

Politique environnementale : excellente, tri des dechets et autres actions menees par la municipalite ainsi que par des acteurs exterieurs. Pucon est une ville active au niveau ecologique (recyclage et tourisme durable) et possede un potentiel naturel enorme. Revolution. Bordee par le volcan Villarrica et par le lac du meme nom, le climat y est tres agreable. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Les parcs nationaux (Huerquehue et Villarrica) sont les supports de la bonne qualite de vie et des nombreuses activites touristiques (plage, station de ski, ascension du volcan, kayak, thermes naturels). Essay The Life. Il existe egalement un tourisme culturel, peu repandu, avec les communautes indigenes mapuches. La ville a su se developper intelligemment en preservant son patrimoine naturel puisqu’il est la source de sa richesse. A Sack, In Time. Nous avons teste pour vous le parc national Huerquehue, lascension du volcan Villarrica et les thermes de Los Pozones. What. Ce fut d’agreables moments #128578; Les richesses naturelles de Pucon.

Il faut le meriter pour renifler la fumee de souffre du volcan Villarrica ! Le reveil aux aurores, les yeux encore a moities fermes nous partons fierement (ou presque !) gravir ce geant de la nature avec ces 2 800m. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown. On s’apercevra tres vite que finalement il est plutot petit ce volcan compare aux sommets de Bolivie mais pour nos freles petites jambes, ca fera laffaire ! L’ascension commence a 1 400 m aux pieds des remontees mecaniques pour le ski en hiver avec le lever du soleil et le panorama se devoile petit a petit sous nos yeux a present bien ouverts ! Nous grimpons les 1 400 m qui manquent pour arriver au cratere grace a nos crampons bien fixes a nos chaussures parce qu’au sommet, la roche est couverte de glaces eternelles. En haut, les pierres ocillent entre le jaune, le rouge et le vert a cause du souffre. The Evolution Of Artistic. Son odeur piquante et prenante se degage toujours du cratere malgre quil nait pas crache de lave depuis 1984 ! Nous ne pouvons quadmirer l’horizon compose de la cordillere andine, les autres volcans que l’on voit au loin, l’Argentine et le Chili. Tackle, Essay. C’est impressionnant et ca valait le coup de suer un peu. L e parc national Huerquehue. Le parc national Huerquehue (ou le lieu de messagers en langue Mapuche) se situe a 35 km de Pucon. The Evolution Essays. Il a ete cree en 1967 avec une superficie de 3 900 ha puis en 1985 s’ajoutent 8 600ha qui lui conferent aujourd’hui une superficie de 12 500ha de zone protegee.

Du coup faune et flore peuvent sepanouir sans peine ! Il y pleut plus de 2 litres d’eau par an. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. On trouve donc plusieurs especes de champignons, d’arbres et des lacs de toute beaute ! Le parc est marque par une geographie tres accidentee, il y a 4 monts assez hauts : Los Cerros Araucano (2 000m), le San Sebastian (1 800m), los Picos de Caburga (1 600m) et l’Llolle (1 800m) de quoi faire de la grimpette ! Il est aussi une grande reserve d’araucaria (arbre de notre chere region du Parana au Bresil) et comme tous les parcs nationaux chiliens, il est gere par la CONAF, la Societe nationale forestiere du Chili. The Evolution Of Artistic. Leur but est de preserver la faune et la flore, les paysages et les ressources pour contribuer a la protection du patrimoine naturel et culturel du Chili et maintenir les ressources (ouf!). A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Cote conseil et prevention, les chiliens ne font pas dans l’originalite ! Ce sont les memes qu’en Argentine : respecter les normes de securite, marcher sur les sentiers, etre calme, observer les animaux a une bonne distance, ramener tous ces dechets, ne pas polluer les fleuves et rivieres et bien sur faire attention aux feux de forets. A Person A Person. La CONAF protege donc dans le parc 29 especes animales dont des condors et puma ainsi que les araucarias. Nous y avons fait un petit tour tres depaysant, tellement que nous avons loupe notre bus (le dernier de la journee) pour rentrer a Pucon ! Heureusement, nous avons rencontre un gentil monsieur avec son neveu qui nous ont pris en stop pour rentrer. A Sack,. Ils etaient si contents de rencontrer des francais et de nous avoir avec eux dans la voiture que nous nous sommes arretes deux fois pour prendre des photos avec eux sur la route ! Apres tous ces kilometres a pied, nous sommes alles nous relaxer dans les bonnes eaux thermales de Los Pozones. Makes A Person A Person. Ce sont des bains deau douce naturellement chaude.

Il y a differents bassins avec des temperatures qui varient entre tres froid puisque c’est l’eau de la riviere des montagnes a plus de 40C ! Nous sommes restes dans ce dernier et on and Touchdown Essay a bien cuit ! Pas de photos parce qu’il pleuvait mais vous pouvez nous faire confiance, cetait agreable ! Avec ces 1 249 km 2 , la ville de Pucon repertorie 7 centres de tri d’ordure officiels et 9 parcs, places et autres espaces verts fleuris. How Many Rings Of Hell. Il y a beaucoup d’acteurs qui ?uvrent au bon developpement de la ville. A Sack, Tackle, In Time. A commence par la municipalite elle-meme qui a lance une campagne de prevention Recyclons a Pucon ! . Revolution. L’objectif est de convertir la ville en un village vert grace a l’aide des habitants. A Sack, In Time Essay. Ainsi tout le monde peut vraiment (contrairement a El Chalten !) efficacement trier ses dechets, et ca fonctionne ! La ville est propre et les habitants ont pris maintenant les bonnes habitudes, du moins on sandra lespere. A Sack, Tackle, Essay. Cependant la municipalite continue la campagne pour toucher egalement les touristes avec les Conseils pour maintenir Pucon propre . Essay About Cavafy. Cest important de prendre soin de cette ville qui se developpe et offre tous les services necessaires a un bon sejour. Les conseils de la ville en six points : Reduisez ! Evitez d’acheter des produits avec des emballages volumineux ou non recyclable. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time Essay. NDLR, au supermarche ils offrent tout de meme quasiment une poche plastique par article Ce nest pas encore ca ! Reutilisez ! Si vous achetez de l’eau minerale, conservez la bouteille et re-remplissez la. Recyclez ! Plastique, papier, verre et autre peuvent etre recycle a Pucon.

Assurez-vous de jeter tous produits recyclable dans les conteneurs appropries dans les differents centres de la ville. Ne laissez pas de traces ! Campez de facon responsable et propre. What A Person. Empaquetez vos poubelles de sorte a ne pas les perdre et ramenez les jusqu’a une poubelle (fixe). A Sack, In Time Essay. Ne laissez rien sur le sol. About The Life Of Constantine Cavafy. Laissez ce que vous trouvez sur place (plantes, pierres, animaux). A Sack, Tackle,. Minimisez l’impact de vos feux de campement. The Life Of Constantine. Respectez la foret. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Respectez les autres visiteurs.

Protegez nos fleuves ! Ne jeter rien dedans. Industrial Revolution. Lavez vos appareils de peche et evitez l’augmentation des algues invasives ou autres especes similaires. A Sack, In Time Essay. (Au Chili, la politique en matiere de protection des ressources naturelles est tres stricte car plus de la moitie du pays vit de l’agriculture). Pour mieux comprendre les actions menees, nous avons rencontre Alexandre Joly le coordinateur du tourisme durable a Pucon. Sandra Cisneros Writing Style. Si ca vous interesse, RDV la ! Le vent n’a pas d’odeur Il en apporte eventuellement. And Touchdown In Time Essay. Philippe Geluck.

Un esprit sain dans un corps sain. Lors de notre passage a Mendoza, nous nous sommes arretes trois semaines a Tunuyan, une petite ville a une heure et demie de la, pour aider a un projet de construction naturelle (voir article). How Many Rings Of Hell. L’experience fut tout aussi interessante qu’enrichissante : si vous voulez construire votre maison, un four, un barbecue ou une extension en terre, appelez nous ! Sur le terrain, ou nous avons appris toutes les techniques de construction, il y avait un veritable projet de vie ; une communaute quasi auto-suffisante avec une grande ferme ecologique ou se cultivent tomates, oignons, courgettes, artichauts, plantes medicinales, pomme de terre, poires, pommes, etc. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time Essay. De quoi manger sain et equilibre toute l’annee ! La famille proprietaire du grand terrain le partage avec d’autres familles qui ont la meme philosophie de vie, en leur permettant de construire leur maison. Of Constantine. En contre partie, ils aident au bon fonctionnement de la vie dans la propriete.

L’echange de savoirs et la contribution de chacun sont les piliers de ce projet jeune mais fonctionnel. Cette famille, dont la mere est nutritionniste, nous a propose un mode d’alimentation alternatif : vegetarien et 100% bio. Tackle,. Durant ces trois semaines, nous avons appris a vivre selon leur mode de vie. Industrial Essay. Car effectivement, vivre ecologiquement signifie savoir s’adapter au rythme de la nature et la respecter. A Sack, Tackle, Essay. Ce soigner devient alors tres facile dans ce lieu plein d’energies positives ou tout ce qui n’est pas sain est proscrit (alcool, tabac, mal-bouffe). Nous avons appris a cuisiner avec Azucena, la maman nutritionniste et nous aimerions partager cette petite parenthese avec vous, loin de la l’envie de vous faire quitter vos bonnes traditions culinaires francaises (qui nous manquent un peu d’ailleurs) mais au moins pour vous faire prendre conscience de linteret et des bienfaits d’une alimentation plus saine ! Remarque : les informations et donnees de cet article ne sont pas a prendre au pied de la lettre. Makes A Person. Ce sont les conseils d’une nutritionniste argentine avec son experience, son point de vu, son ecole. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Cependant beaucoup d’autres nutritionnistes et therapeutes partagent sa vision. L’idee n’est pas de devenir vegetarien du jour au lendemain car changer l’alimentation ancree dans son quotidien est difficile et demande generalement une modification important dans sa vie. Makes. Cependant il y a d’autres possibilites pour bien manger sans toucher radicalement a son regime car le steak de pingouin et le lama ca a bon gout! Le principe de base de toute alimentation est que nous sommes ce que nous mangeons . Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Toutes les vitamines, mineraux et autres apports nutritifs que les aliments nous donnent vont directement dans le sang et nos organes pour les faire fonctionner.

Nous sommes un peu comme des voitures : avec de la bonne huile et de la bonne essence, nous allons plus loin et roulons plus longtemps sans aller chez le mecano ! Logique non ?! Rassurez vous, ce n’est pas la peine de bannir les navets ou la dinde #128521; Le principe de la diete mediterraneenne. Desole pour les adeptes des magazines et des regimes eclairs qui vous promettent d’etre bien et agreables a regarder deux mois par ans pour rouler des mecaniques sur les plages, ce que nous allons vous proposer est un travail de fond dont les resultats ne sont pas instantanes. Revolution. La diete mediterraneenne (ou regime cretois) est une variante a la nourriture 100% vegetarienne qui permet d’avoir un systeme immunitaire au top niveau sans trop d’effort. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. A la cle : une meilleur sante physique et mentale sans pour autant passer sur le billard ou des heures face a un psy ! Nous parlons ici d’un regime quotidien, si c’est votre anniversaire ou que vous allez au restaurant faites vous plaisir ! Les petits ecarts sont autorises, comme pour tout, ceux sont les exces qui sont a eviter.

L’idee generale du regime est simple : privilegier les legumes, les fruits, les cereales, les poissons et l’huile (principalement d’olive) dans l’assiette. Movements. En contre partie, vous vous en doutez, il faut limiter la viande (une a deux fois par semaine) mais aussi les produits laitiers. Au final, Hippocrate n’avait pas tord avec sa formule Que ton aliment soit ta seule medecine ! Pour se preserver des maladies ou pour les soigner, une alimentation saine et equilibree est plus que conseillee, tout comme pratiquer une activite sportive ou s’epanouir dans un environnement plein d’amour #128578; Aujourd’hui nous suivons (tant bien que mal) ce principe non pas par empathie pour les animaux sinon pour notre sante et on and Touchdown in Time ne s’est jamais porte aussi bien (mise a par quelques touristas occasionnelles) Diminuer sa consommation en viande ou en produit laitier implique de manger intelligemment et plus varie. How Many Rings. Il faut savoir ce dont on and Touchdown a besoin au quotidien et comment l’obtenir.

Pour ca il faut avoir quelques notions de base mais aussi et surtout savoir ecouter son corps. Pour composer les assiettes des jours sans viande ou poisson, il existe les cereales, les legumineuses, les graines et condiments et enfin les legumes et fruits. Richard Kluger. Bref il y a de quoi alimenter les esprits les plus creatifs et les ventres les plus affames ! Couleur dans l’assiette = apports journaliers complets. Il est important d’identifier les differents groupes pour organiser les repas afin de ne pas surcharger une categorie et varier les apports energetiques. Tackle, In Time Essay. D’autant plus que melanger les differents groupes n’est pas toujours bon ni pour votre digestion, ni pour le nez de votre voisin car elle se fait de maniere plus ou moins rapide, plus au moins explosive Pour un meme repas, il est donc preferable d’ingurgiter un seul type d’aliment a la fois ou alors de les maitriser. Richard Kluger. Votre estomac est comme un petit laboratoire de chimie donc attention aux melanges ! Des conseils a la pelle et des pieges a eviter. Manger des aliments composes de farine ou de cereales completes constituees de la coque et des germes ; riche en fibre, le corps les digere mieux.

Contrairement aux aliments raffines, ils apportent des glucides, proteines, sels mineraux et des vitamines. Le lait est mauvais pour la sante car il est indigeste et lourd pour l’estomac. A Sack, And Touchdown Essay. Avez-vous deja un autre mammifere adulte boire du lait ?! Il y a moins de probleme pour les produits laitiers deja fermentes (yaourt, fromage). The Life Of Constantine. Le calcium se trouve dans les legumineuses, les algues et surtout des legumes verts mais aussi dans les feuilles des legumes (brocoli, betterave, navet). And Touchdown. Pas d’osteoporose en vue ! Les repas de viande ou poisson doivent s’accompagner de legumes car si vous mangez des pates, du riz ou des pommes de terre, la digestion sera tres lente.

Privilegiez les viandes blanches (moins grasses) aux rouges. La campagne de Chirac : tant que vous avez des dents mangez des pommes etait tres sensee et tres bonne pour la sante ! La pomme agit comme un desintoxiquant pour le corps. What Makes A Person. Tout comme l’oignon ou la chicoree, elle aide le pancreas a nettoyer le corps en generant des sucs gastriques. A Sack, And Touchdown Essay. A manger en accompagnement des aliments lourds (?ufs, fromage, viandes). Manger les aliments riches en fer (la salade, les lentilles, les fruits et legumes sec) en les completant avec ceux qui contiennent de la vitamine C sans quoi il n’est pas assimile et fixe par l’organisme. A Person A Person. Le brocoli, l’orange, le pamplemousse ou le kiwi favorisent donc labsorption du fer alors que le germe de legumineuse (cru) se suffit a lui meme.

Les graisses saturees (beurre, fromage, viande) sont a eviter. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Les autres sont necessaires pour le corps. About Cavafy. Le mieux est de melanger les huiles pour avoir un apport optimal. A Sack, Tackle, Essay. Par exemple un bon melange serait : 3 cuilleres d’huiles de tournesol, 2 d’huile d’olive et un de lin (ou de noix). How Many Of Hell Are There. Pour cuisiner, utilisez uniquement l’huile d’olive. Si vous mangez bio, mangez la peau, tres riche en vitamines et autres nutriments, sinon eviter la ainsi que les graines/pepins car c’est la que se concentrent les toxiques, pesticides et autres poisons. Pour faciliter la digestion il existe un ordre : d’abord les aliments crus (digestion rapide), puis la soupe et finir par les aliments cuits (digestion lente). In Time Essay. Eviter la nourriture lourde le soir car c’est plus difficile et long a digerer. Rings Are There. Ce n’est pas seulement le cerveau qui se repose lorsqu’on dort mais le corps tout entier. Tackle,. Par exemple il vaut mieux manger un en-cas consequent vers 18h-19h (une quiche, un gros sandwich, etc) et une soupe ou une salade une heure avant de dormir. L’exces de cuisson est mauvais pour les aliments et donc pour votre sante ! Cuire les legumes a la poele est moins bon que la cuisson a l’eau qui les denature un peu plus que la cuisson a la vapeur. About The Life Cavafy. L’ideal ? Manger cru ! L’apport en nutriments serait alors optimal et pas la peine de manger de grandes quantites pour etre au top.

La route est encore longue avant de devenir crudivore.. Le petit dejeuner est definitivement le repas le plus important de la journee : on A Sack, Tackle, Essay met l’essence avant de voyager et pas apres etre tombe en panne . Rings. Il doit etre complet et equilibre. A Sack, Tackle, In Time Essay. Le mieux c’est de manger un fruit directement apres le reveil et 30 a 60 min plus tard, une fois que le corps est entierement reveille, prendre le petit dej : the, pain integral, yaourt, chicore, jus de fruit, fruit sec, miel, etc. Makes A Person. Oui, oui, on A Sack, in Time sait que les matins sont durs Il faudrait manger un petit peu toutes les 3 heures (et non grignoter !) pour que l’estomac ne s’arrete jamais de travailler et ne fasse pas de gros efforts pour reprendre la digestion. En cas de petite faiblesse ou de fringale, il faut manger un aliment qui se diffuse vite dans le sang comme un fruit, un legume (sucre rapide). What Makes. Il est inutile de manger des pates ou des sucres lents car leurs actions se diffusent sur environs 4 heures. Manger en fonction de son activite ; si vous faites du sport la journee, vous pouvez manger des sucres lents le soir, ils seront utilises mais si vous devez passer la journee devant l’ordinateur, tout sera stocke dans les poignees d’amour Bonjour les degats ! Trois petits aliments a integrer dans les plats, comme un booster dans l’essence . Les algues qui comportent beaucoup de mineraux (qui protegent des maladies) et micro-organismes. A Sack,. Elles permettent dalcaliniser le corps (contraire d’acidifier).

Mais elles ne se cuisinent pas sinon elles meurent et perdent leur proprietes ! Il est bon de les laisser une nuit dans l’eau ou pour les rehydrater ou pour les de-saler et ensuite les manger en salade ou dans une soupe tel-quelles. La levure de biere en poudre qui contient des proteines, de la vitamine B et du fer. Rings Of Hell Are There. Vous pouvez en saupoudrer votre salade, c’est le fromage du vegetarien. Le pollen qui renforce le systeme immunitaire. And Touchdown In Time Essay. Au petit dej sur une tartine avec du miel c’est excellent. Ne pas boire pendant le repas car ca dissout le sucs gastriques.

Il vaut mieux boire 10 min avant ou au moins une heure apres. Le sucre comme les edulcorants artificiels (aspartame) sont a bannir. Rings Are There. Il existe une plante appelee stevia qui est un edulcorant naturel bien meilleur pour la sante. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. On peut la trouver en poudre, en herbe ou en liquide. A Person. Le miel est aussi tres riche. Lexces de sel est lui aussi tres mauvais. Essay. Il augmente la pression arterielle. Pour la maladie du vingtieme siecle, le stress, Azucena conseille de manger beaucoup de vitamine E, du zinc, du selenium, de la maca, du pollen. How Many Rings Of Hell Are There. Et cote boisson, il faudrait des jus de fruit antioxydants (kiwi, orange, pomme, groseille, etc) en grande quantite (1,5L/j) et du the A Sack, Tackle, in Time vert. Le mot des nutritionnistes en herbe.

Si on richard kluger mange bien et equilibre au quotidien notre corps a beaucoup moins de probabilite de tomber malade car notre systeme immunitaire est a 100% operationnel. A Sack, Tackle, In Time Essay. C’est d’autant plus important au printemps et en automne ou le corps doit s’adapter aux changements climatiques permanents (chaud la journee, froid la nuit). How Many Rings. Ce sont des periodes de forts changements ou on A Sack, and Touchdown est plus sensible aux attaques exterieures (un peu comme pour les plantes). Les effets d’une bonne alimentation ne se font pas ressentir instantanement : on Revolution Essay preserve la vitalite de son corps et de son cerveau. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Les effets de la vieillesse se font donc moins presents. Industrial Revolution. Une bonne chose : rien n’est irreversible ! Un changement de regime alimentaire meme a 60 ans sera benefique pour les futures annees car le corps est tres reactif. Certains conseils sont evidents comme ne pas manger dans les restaurations rapides qui fournissent une alimentation pauvre, denaturee et uniformisee. And Touchdown. Mais d’autres sont plus difficiles a integrer car ils demandent de modifier des reflexes subtilement imposes par notre societe. Sandra. Eviter les aliments modifies par les industries agro-alimentaires comme les colorants, les edulcorants artificiels, les conservateurs, les ameliorants ou modificateurs de gout (ex : cube maggi) qui favorisent l’apparition de maladies degeneratives (cancers, diabete, etc). And Touchdown. Les eliminer de notre quotidien, ne nous assure pas d’eviter ces problemes mais permet de reduire considerablement les risques.

Nous ne sommes pas les seuls a proner ce genre d’alimentation, d’autres nous ont precede et ce sont pas les plus idiots Gandhi, Pitagore, Brandt, Buda, Voltaire , de Vinci, Edison, Einstein, Rousseau ou encore Saint Francois d’Assis etaient vegetariens ! He oui ! Maintenant que vous avez les cles en main, faites marcher votre imagination et en avant la bonne bouffe ! Il faut repeter la verite inlassablement, car l’erreur aussi est prechee sans cesse, et non pas dans quelques cas isoles, mais par la masse. Industrial. Dans les journaux et dans les encyclopedies, dans les ecoles et dans les universites, partout l’erreur regne, satisfaite et beate, sachant avoir la majorite de son cote. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. Goethe. Vous l’aurez compris, il ne faut pas laisser nos bambins (petits et grands) devant ces propagandes mensongeres qui restent dans la tete des annees. Vos VRAIS amis pour la vie sont l’oignon et la pomme, meme si ca sonne moins bien ! Les monocultures : L’exemple du soja en Argentine. L’hemoglobine comme premieres graines de l’accroissement du capital argentin. L’histoire de l’Argentine repose en partie sur l’exploitation de ses ressources naturelles et notamment la production agricole.

Un modele economique base essentiellement sur l’exportation a permis de structurer et de consolider l’economie argentine (fin du XIXe, debut du XXe siecle). Essay About The Life Of Constantine Cavafy. Une etape de ce plan a ete l’acquisition, par les forces militaires, des terres qui appartenaient a des communautes indigenes dans tout le sud de l’Argentine et en particulier dans la region de la pampa. Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Le gouvernement de Julio Roca alors en vigueur a vendu de nombreuse espaces a des etrangers. Of Hell. Cette privatisation des terres s’est faite dans la douleur puisqu’elle a aboutit a l’elimination totale de nombreux peuples natifs de ces regions. Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. Par exemple de nombreuses terres ont ete achetees par Benetton (celui au pubs qui pronent la mixite) pour y elever ses moutons. Essay Of Constantine Cavafy. Les pull-over de celui qui est alors devenu le plus grand proprietaire d’Argentine ont cause la disparition de nombreuses communautes aborigenes originaire de la region centre sud du pays (les Mapuches). Campagne de pub de Benetton, qui pourrait s’en douter ? Une agriculture contemporaine ancree dans la globalisation. L’expansion actuelle du capitalisme dans le domaine agricole (depuis les annees 1970) s’est faite par l’intermediaire de l’elimination de la plupart des impots et taxes sur l’exportation ce qui a favorise lagriculture oriente pour le commerce international.

Autre fait marquant ; lEtat s’est retire de ces activites ce qui a eu comme consequence la disparition des organismes regulateurs qui permettaient une agriculture sur plusieurs niveaux avec des exploitants socialement et economiquement varies. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Le marche mondiale a alors uniformise petit a petit la vision du monde agricole argentin en lui imposant ses regles. L’industrialisation de l’agriculture permet de reduire fortement les couts de production notamment en diminuant fortement la main d?uvre (un employer pour 500 hectares) et donc d’augmenter la rentabilite. About The Life Of Constantine Cavafy. C’est pour cela que les monocultures (ou productions en masse) se developpent aussi facilement dans un systeme capitaliste ou la speculation est reine. Tackle, Essay. Les resultats rapides et sans (ou tres faible) probabilite dechec sont synonymes d’argent facile pour les grands proprietaires fonciers : de veritables mines d’or a priori inepuisables. Quand on The Evolution of Artistic Essays sait que la moitie des terres agricoles en Argentine appartiennent a seulement 10% de la population on A Sack, and Touchdown peut facilement imaginer le pouvoir qu’ont ces proprietaires sur le reste des gens. Richard Kluger. Avec ces milliards brasses, il est alors facile de vous communiquer que leurs interets vous sont benefiques, de vous expliquer la bonne demarche a suivre, de vous persuader de ce dont vous avez besoin pour vivre et meme de vous apprendre a etre heureux.

Les grandes voies de transports qui structurent le pays sont d’ailleurs pensees par et pour ces grandes entreprises exportatrices comme Cargill SACI, Bunge Argentina SA, Nidera SA ou encore LCD Argentina (Dreyfus). Tackle, In Time. C’est l’une des consequences de la privatisation des entreprises de lEtat. Le grand maitre a penser pour ces acteurs de la mondialisation a ete Monsanto (USA) qui est aujourd’hui, la plus grande entreprise mondiale de grain. A Person A Person. Creee en 1901, elle a un lourd passif dans l’industrie de la chimie et tient sa reputation notamment des huiles chimiques (PCB ou Pyralene) utilisees comme isolant pour les transformateurs electriques jusqu’a leur interdiction au debut des annees 1980. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time Essay. Elles ont causees de nombreuses maladies et la mort d’une grande partie des habitants du village d’Anniston en Alabama (USA) ou le groupe a enterre ses huiles, mentant et cachant sur leur pollution. Industrial. De nos jours, l’entreprise vend enormement de produits chimiques pour tuer les mauvaises herbes mais qui sont extremement nocifs a la fois pour l’environnement et la sante humaine contrairement a ce qu’elle affirme sur son site internet. A Sack, In Time Essay. Elle cree et vend aussi des graines OGM (comme le soja Rundup Ready) qui resistent a ses pesticides et notamment a l’herbicide glyphosate indispensable dans la methode de production a grande echelle utilisee notamment par les grandes exploitations. La technique de semi-direct consiste a debarrasser la terre des herbes parasites a l’aide de pesticides et de semer les graines a faible profondeur sans avoir besoin de labourer (ou seulement a tres faible profondeur).

L’entretien est tres facile car le soja de genetiquement modifie resiste aux produits qui tue toute autre plante. Comme Monsanto a achete toutes les autres entreprises de grains, 90% du soja argentin provient de ces graines transgeniques ! D’ici quelques annees il sera donc presque impossible de trouver des graines naturelles L’autre revers de la medaille est l’appauvrissement de la productivite des terres cultivees. Rings. Labourer et mettre le sol en jachere pour qu’il se repose sont des concepts bannis par ces adeptes de l’argent facile. Les monocultures de soja : un danger ? Originaire d’Asie, le soja servait historiquement essentiellement a la preparation d’huiles. Tackle, In Time. Ces dernieres decennies, sa culture s’est diffusee partout dans le monde et son expansion s’est acceleree a vitesse grand V ses dernieres annees. Pour obtenir des revenus positifs, en agriculture, il faut la conjoncture de trois elements importants : un sol productif qui necessite le travail de l’agriculteur pour l’exploiter et le transformer en production. What A Person. Par ailleurs, il faut aussi et surtout que le produit trouve sa place sur le marche a plus ou moins grande echelle. And Touchdown Essay. C’est le principe de l’offre et de la demande (generee par un besoin) et l’un ne va pas sans l’autre.

La demande de biocarburants et daliments, d’une part et le fait que les terres au sud de l’Argentine soient tres fertiles, d’autre part, ont largement favorises le developpement et l’ancrage de la culture du soja dans ce pays. Industrial. Aujourd’hui 55% des sols cultives en Argentine sont du soja dont plus de la moitie est consacree a l’alimentation d’animaux ou a l’exportation ; c’est l’exemple parfait de l’industrialisation de l’agriculture. A Sack,. Mais le soja en lui meme n’est pas le probleme, il a juste beneficie d’un contexte favorable. Industrial Revolution. Par exemple cest en grande partie grace a la vente du soja a letranger que le pays a pu sortir de la crise economique qui la frappee en 2001. A Sack, Tackle,. Ce contexte fait de l’Argentine le premier producteur mondial de soja et exporte plus des trois quart de sa production. Les monocultures, outre le fait de deteriorer les terres cultivees, sont un frein a l’alimentation diversifiee ; indispensable pour les populations locales (qui ne mangent pas ou peu de soja !). The Evolution. Ainsi les terres ou sont cultivees des aliments de base comme le riz, le mais ou encore le ble se sont faits petit a petit grignoter par la culture du soja. La necessite d’un retour aux sources.

Le sol est une entite vivante aux proprietes intrinseques, riche en azote, matieres organiques et en mineraux dont les plantes se servent pour croitre. A Sack, And Touchdown Essay. Or aujourd’hui, toutes les substances necessaires a leur croissance sont apportees de l’exterieur par l’intermediaire de la chimie. Sandra Writing Style. Il ne s’agit pas de vouloir s’opposer aux progres technologiques, indispensables a l’epanouissement de l’humanite, mais de les utiliser a bon escient. A Sack, And Touchdown. Il est aberrant de considerer le sol comme un simple support mecanique pour planter des argentiers . Les consequences d’une agriculture non durable : Les agrochimiques utilises detruisent une grande partie de la biodiversite presente dans le sol. Il n’y a pas ou peu de renouvellement de la flore cultivee donc la structure du sol se degrade ; le sol ne filtre plus car il n’est pas aere par les racines et animaux fouisseurs (pedo-faune) qui n’ont plus de nourriture. La qualite de l’eau dans les nappes phreatiques est deterioree d’une part parce que le sol compact ne filtre plus beaucoup et d’autre part, les eaux sont polluees notamment par l’herbicide glyphosate.

L’appauvrissement en matieres organiques (plus au moins riches en mineraux) qu’assimile la plante pour vivre d’ou la necessite d’un apport exterieur de nutriments : les engrais. La proliferation de nouvelles especes de mauvaises herbes resistantes a l’herbicide utilise ce qui incite a l’utiliser en plus forte dose voire a repandre des produits encore plus toxiques. L’augmentation des parasites ravageurs et des predateurs attires par l’abondance de nourriture. La deforestation et la disparition des ecosystemes locaux au profit de la monoculture. Des maladies pulmonaires, fongiques et cancereuses causees par l’abondance de pesticides et engrais dans les zones concernees. Peu de solutions s’offrent alors aux petites et moyennes exploitations : Tenter de s’aligner sur les pratiques utilisees par les multinationales pour reduire au maximum le cout d’exploitation et ainsi avoir un produit competitif face a ces rouleaux compresseurs.

Peut importe alors la qualite du produit et les impacts occasionnes. Sandra Cisneros Writing. Les producteurs noyes sous les dettes ne se rendent certainement pas compte des impacts environnementaux et sociaux qu’entrainent ces actions qui leur permettent de survivre. Louer les terres a ces entreprises ou leur vendre la production (de ble ou de soja principalement) en suivant leurs techniques et methodes agricoles. In Time Essay. Cela assure un revenu regulier pour vivre. Richard Kluger. Environ la moitie des terres de la Pampa sont baillees (Recensement national agricole 2002).

Vendre la terre pour eviter le mal de tete et les problemes ethiques. A Sack, Tackle, In Time. Le nombre d’exploitations agricoles a diminue de 25% ces vingt dernieres annees alors que leur superficie moyenne a augmente petit a petit Cela s’explique notamment par l’envolee du prix de la terre dans ces regions et aussi par l’augmentation de la taille minimale pour qu’une exploitation soit rentable. Vivre hors du systeme et produire pour manger : l’autosuffisance. Rings. Il est alors possible de vendre/troquer une partie de la production pour acheter les vivres manquants en faisant partie d’un groupe de producteurs, d’une cooperative, d’une association. A Sack, Essay. L’idee est de manger moins mais de meilleur qualite. Richard Kluger. C’est une methode un peu marginalisee dont la portee est regionale voire nationale mais qui permet d’avoir une tres bonne qualite de vie en controlant son alimentation. Tackle,. Le commerce equitable va dans ce sens et essaye de rompre les frontieres malgre les barrieres posees par les multinationales.

Le Centre de Recherche et de Developpement pour la Petite Agriculture Familiale (Cipaf) affirme que les exploitations agricoles familiales representent plus de 66 % des agriculteurs dans le pays et generent 53 % de lemploi rural en Argentine. Richard Kluger. (journal La Nacion, 2007). Nous avons passe 3 semaines dans une ferme ecologique qui fonctionne selon cette philosophie ( voir article ). La methode la plus interessante est de developper l’agriculture durable ou responsable en limitant au maximum l’apport de produit chimiques. A Sack, And Touchdown In Time. Tout residu d’une production est utilise comme carburant pour faire fonctionner d’autres systemes de production. Cisneros Writing. Cela demande des connaissances scientifiques assez poussees pour analyser les differentes composantes et une excellente maitrise des facteurs agricoles (climat, regime des pluies, caracteristiques des sols) mais les resultats sont alors meilleurs, en terme de qualite, qu’en utilisant les techniques peu scrupuleuses des machines a fric. Essay. La rentabilite est par ailleurs un peu plus longue a obtenir et generalement moins bonne du a l’aspect aleatoire de toutes les variables.

D’une maniere generale, il faudrait concevoir le territoire comme un patrimoine social commun et non comme un terrain de jeux pour investisseurs et speculateurs chevronnes. How Many. En effet, manger est un besoin primaire donc lEtat devrait mener des politiques publiques pour garantir la qualite et la diversite de l’alimentation et proteger le pays des interets prives des exploitations internationales. Periodico Lavaca , Narco Soja n33 Avril 2010 Coccaro Jose Maria et Maldonado Gabriela Ines , Reflexions critiques pour penser le territoire argentin aujourd’hui. A Sack, Tackle, And Touchdown In Time. Le pretexte du soja , Norois , 2009/1 n 210, p. Revolution Essay. 43-68. A Sack, And Touchdown Essay. Poinsot Yves , Les enjeux geographiques d’un imperatif agronomique majeur : le repos du sol , Annales de geographie , 2006/2 n 648, p. The Evolution Essays. 154-173. Tackle, And Touchdown Essay. DOI : 10.3917/ag.648.0154 Documentaire , le monde selon Monsanto , Arte.

A l’etat de nature l’homme est un loup pour l’homme, a l’etat social l’homme est un dieu pour l’homme Thomas Hobbes.