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bumpy paper writing TO STUDENT-CENTERED INSTRUCTION. A Study Of Reading Habits? Richard M. Felder. Department of Chemical Engineering. North Carolina State University. Movie? Raleigh, NC 27695-7905. School of Education. East Carolina University. Greenville, NC 27858. Authors' note: An abridged version of this paper was published in College Teaching, 44 , 43-47 (1996).

In the traditional approach to higher education, the burden of a study habits, communicating course material resides primarily with the instructor. In student-centered instruction (SCI), some of this burden is shifted to Essay, the students. SCI is a broad approach that includes such techniques as substituting active learning experiences for lectures, holding students responsible for material that has not been explicitly discussed in class, assigning open-ended problems and a study of reading habits problems requiring critical or creative thinking that cannot be solved by following text examples, involving students in simulations and start in america role-plays, assigning a variety of unconventional writing exercises, and using self-paced and/or cooperative (team-based) learning. In traditional instruction, the habits teacher's primary functions are lecturing, designing assignments and tests, and grading; in SCI, the teacher still has these functions but also provides students with opportunities to learn independently and Essay from one another and coaches them in the skills they need to do so effectively. In recent decades, the education literature has described a wide variety of student-centered instructional methods and offered countless demonstrations that properly implemented SCI leads to increased motivation to learn, greater retention of knowledge, deeper understanding, and more positive attitudes toward the subject being taught (Bonwell and Eisen 1991; Johnson Johnson and Smith 1991a,b; McKeachie 1986; Meyers and Jones 1993). We use student-centered instruction extensively in our courses and discuss it in teaching workshops we present to faculty members and graduate teaching assistants. The workshop participants generally fall into two categories. On the one hand are the skeptics, who come up with all sorts of creative reasons why student-centered methods could not possibly work. On the other hand are the converts, who are sold on SCI and can't wait to a study of reading habits, try it. We know the fears teachers have about the instructional methods we advocate, having had most of them ourselves, and we can usually satisfy most of the skeptics that some of the problems they anticipate will not occur and the others are solvable. We worry more about the enthusiasts who leave the workshop ready to plunge right in, imagining that the spectacular results promised by the literature will show up immediately.

The enthusiasts may be in for a rude shock. It's not that SCI doesn't work when done correctly-it does, as both the literature and our personal experience in Influence of Television Essay, two strikingly different disciplines richly attest. The problem is that while the promised benefits are real, they are neither immediate nor automatic. The students, whose teachers have been telling them everything they needed to know from the first grade on, don't necessarily appreciate having this support suddenly withdrawn. Some students view the approach as a threat or as some kind of a study, game, and a few may become sullen or hostile when they find they have no choice about playing.

When confronted with a need to take more responsibility for their own learning, they may grouse that they are paying tuition-or their parents are paying taxes-to be taught, not to teach themselves. If cooperative learning is a feature of the instruction, they may gripe loudly and bitterly about example text, other team members not pulling their weight or about having to waste time explaining everything to slower teammates. Good lecturers may feel awkward when they start using student-centered methods and their course-end ratings may initially drop. It's tempting for instructors to give up in of reading habits, the face of all that, and the first many unfortunately do. Giving up is a mistake. A Study? SCI may impose steep learning curves on both instructors and students, and the initial instructor awkwardness and student hostility are both common and natural.

The key for the instructors is to Influence of Television in India, understand how the process works, take some precautionary steps to smooth out the of reading habits bumps, and wait out the inevitable setbacks until the payoffs start emerging. TRADITIONAL STUDENTS IN A NONTRADITIONAL CLASS: A PAINFUL ODYSSEY. Woods (1994) observes that students forced to take major responsibility for their own learning go through some or all of the steps psychologists associate with trauma and grief: 1. Bheem 2015? Shock : I don't believe it-we have to do homework in groups and she isn't going to lecture on the chapter before the problems are due? 2. Denial : She can't be serious about a study of reading habits, this-if I ignore it, it will go away. 3. Strong emotion : I can't do it-I'd better drop the course and take it next semester or She can't do this to me-I'm going to complain to the department head! 4. The Genome Revolution? Resistance and withdrawal : I'm not going to play her dumb games-I don't care if she fails me.

5. Surrender and acceptance : OK, I think it's stupid but I'm stuck with it and I might as well give it a shot. A Study Of Reading? 6. 2015 Full? Struggle and exploration : Everybody else seems to be getting this-maybe I need to habits, try harder or do things differently to get it to example text, work for me. 7. Return of confidence : Hey, I may be able to pull this off after all-I think it's starting to work. 8. Habits? Integration and success . Example Descriptive? YES! This stuff is all right-I don't understand why I had so much trouble with it before. Just as some people have an habits, easier time than others in getting through the grieving process, some students may immediately take to whichever SCI method you're using and short-circuit many of the eight steps, while others may have difficulty getting past the negativity of Steps 3 and 4. Revolution Essay? The point is to remember that the a study habits resistance you encounter from some students is a natural part of their journey from dependence to intellectual autonomy (see Kloss 1994).

If you provide sufficient structure and guidance along the way, by the end of the course most of them will reach satisfactory levels of both performance and acceptance of responsibility for their own learning. In the remainder of this paper, we list common faculty concerns about student-centered instructional methods and offer responses. Much of the Influence in India discussion involves issues associated with cooperative learning, the method that in a study, our experience occasions the Influence of Television Essay most vehement student resistance. If I spend time in class on active learning exercises, I'll never get through the syllabus. You don't have to spend that much time on in-class work to have a significant impact with it. Simply ask questions occasionally and give the students a short time to come up with solutions and answers, working either individually or in a study, small groups. Then collect answers from in India several randomly selected individuals or groups. One or two such exercises that take a total of 5-10 minutes can keep a class relatively attentive for an entire period. On a broader note, much of what happens in most classes is a waste of a study habits, everyone's time. It is neither teaching nor learning. It is stenography.

Instructors recite their course notes and transcribe them onto the board, the students do their best to transcribe as much as they can into their notebooks, and text the information flowing from one set of a study of reading, notes to the other does not pass through anyone's brain. A more productive approach is to put substantial portions of the course notes-lengthy prose, detailed derivations, complex diagrams-in handouts or coursepaks, leaving gaps to be filled in and sprinkling questions and text descriptive instructions like Prove, Justify, Verify, Explain throughout the a study of reading presentation. Start In America? Spend class time only on a study habits, the most critically important and Revolution Essay conceptually difficult parts of the notes, leaving the students to cover the rest for a study of reading habits themselves. The Genome Revolution Essay? The many hours of a study, class time you will save by did slavery start in america doing this should be more than sufficient for all the active learning exercises you might want to use. Your classes will be more lively and effective, you will still cover the a study of reading syllabus, and you might even be able to The Genome Essay, augment it to include topics you never had time to cover before. Moreover, if you announce that some of the gaps and exercises in the handouts will be the subject of test questions and a study of reading then keep your promise, the students will even read the handouts-at least after the first test. If I don't lecture I'll lose control of the class. Example Descriptive? That's one way to a study of reading habits, look at it. Another is that several times during a class period your students may become heavily involved in working on or arguing about what you're trying to in India Essay, get them to a study of reading habits, learn, and it may take a few seconds (never longer once you get the hang of it) to bring their attention back to you. There are worse problems!

I assign readings but many of my students don't read them and those who do seem unable to understand the material independently. In our experience, the only reliable way to compel most students to read the assigned material is to test them on it without covering all of it in class. Some instructors use short quizzes at the beginning of every period for Influence of Television this purpose; others who don't want to spend that much class time giving and a study of reading habits grading quizzes prefer to include questions on the readings in their regularly scheduled examinations. Influence Of Television In India Essay? In either case, the instructors soon learn that testing students on material not explicitly covered in class inevitably leads to vigorous protests. A Study Of Reading Habits? There are several ways to ease the students' transition from reliance on the instructor to self-reliance. Did Slavery? Create graphic organizers that visually illustrate the a study of reading habits structures and key points of the readings (Bellanca 1990) and who was of egypt later ask the of reading students to do so. Prepare study guides that summarize critical questions answered by the readings and then include some of the questions on the exams.

Give brief or extended writing assignments that call on the students to explain portions of the readings in their own words. Well-constructed writing assignments compel students to process material actively, identifying important points or connecting the material to their prior knowledge (Brent and Felder 1992). Some of my students just don't seem to get what I'm asking them to do-they keep trying to find the right answer to happened island, open-ended problems, they still don't have a clue about what a critical question is, and the problems they make up are consistently trivial. An essential feature of of reading, any skill development program is practice and feedback. Most students have never been taught to solve open-ended problems or think critically or formulate problems, so that the first time you assign such an Essay, exercise they will probably do it poorly. Collect their products and a study provide constructive comments. In addition, reproduce several products (perhaps slipping in one of your own as well), hand them out without attribution, go over some of them in class to example text, illustrate the sort of thing you're looking for, and suggest ways to make good products even better.

Modeling of this type helps students understand the process they need to a study of reading, go through to improve their own work. After several similar assignments and feedback sessions, students will start giving you the kind of results you're looking for and they will also begin giving one another meaningful feedback in group work. This approach serves a double purpose: the students gain more skill and confidence and what happened at three you gain a classroom of teaching assistants who can help each other learn. By the end of the course some of them may be performing at a surprisingly high level. When I tried active learning in of reading, one of my classes, many of the students hated it. Some refused to cooperate and made their hostility to the approach and to me very clear. Instructors who set out to try student-centered instruction in a class for the first time are often unpleasantly surprised by when did slavery in america the fierce negativity of some responses. Many who don't anticipate such reactions get discouraged when they encounter them, give up, and go back to of reading habits, more comfortable but less effective methods. What At Three? To minimize resistance to any student-centered method, try to persuade the students from the outset that you are neither playing a game nor performing an experiment, but teaching in a study habits, a way known to mile island, help students learn more and understand better. You can reinforce your point about the effectiveness of SCI by offering variations on one or more of the of reading habits following observations: You've all had the experience of sitting through a good lecture, believing that you understood it, and then later when you tried to do the homework you realized that you didn't get it at all.

By putting you to work in class I'm giving you a jump start on understanding the The Genome Revolution Essay material and doing the homework efficiently. In our experience, most students bright enough to complain about being held back by their classmates are also bright enough to recognize the truth of the a study habits last argument. I'm having a particularly hard time getting my students to work in teams. Many of them resent having to do it and the first a couple of them protested to my department head about it. Cooperative learning tends to be the hardest student-centered method to sell initially, especially to high academic achievers and strong introverts. The points given above about the prevalence of a study of reading habits, teamwork on descriptive, most jobs, the importance of teamwork skills to most employers, and the fact that we learn best what we teach, can help. Perhaps the most effective selling point for cooperative learning (unfortunately) involves grades. A Study Of Reading? Many research studies have demonstrated that students who learn cooperatively get higher grades than students who try to learn the same material individually (Johnson et al. 1991b). Before assigning group work for the first time, we may mention a study (Tschumi 1991) in which an instructor taught an bheem full, introductory computer science course three times, once with the students working individually and twice using group work, with common examinations in the first two classes.

In the first class, only 36% of the students earned grades of C or better, while in the classes taught cooperatively, 58% and a study 65% of the students did so. Those earning A's in the course included 6.4% (first offering) and 11.5% (second offering) of those who worked cooperatively and only 3% of those who worked individually. Example Text? There was some student resentment about group work in a study of reading habits, the first cooperative offering and almost none in who was pharaoh, the second one, presumably because the a study of reading habits instructor was more skilled in the method the second time and pharaoh possibly because the of reading habits students in Essay, the second cooperative class knew about the results from the first class. Persuading students that group work is in their interest is only the first step in making this instructional approach work effectively. The instructor must also structure group exercises to promote positive interdependence among team members, assure individual accountability for of reading habits all work done, facilitate development of example descriptive, teamwork skills, and provide for periodic self-assessment of group functioning. Techniques for achieving these goals are suggested by Johnson et al . (1991a), Felder and Brent (1994), and many other books and articles in the recent education literature. Instructors new to cooperative learning are advised to have several such references handy when planning activities and assignments and a study of reading habits dealing with problems. If I assign homework, presentation, or projects to groups, some students will hitchhike, getting credit for work in which they did not actively participate. This is always a danger, although students determined to get a free ride will usually find a way whether the what happened island assignments are done individually or in a study habits, groups.

In fact, cooperative learning that includes provisions to did slavery, assure individual accountability-such as individual tests on the material in the group assignments-cuts down on hitchhiking (Johnson et al. 1991a,b). Students who don't actually participate in the homework will generally fail the tests, especially if the assignments are challenging (as they always should be if they are assigned to groups) and the tests truly reflect the skills involved in the assignments. If the of reading habits group work only counts for a small fraction of the overall course grade (say, 10-20%), hitchhikers can get high marks on the homework and still fail the the first of egypt course. One way to a study habits, detect and discourage hitchhiking is to have team members individually or collectively distribute the total points for an assignment among themselves in proportion to the effort each one put in. Students want to be nice to one another and so may agree to put names on assignments of teammates who barely participated, but they are less likely to credit them with high levels of at three island, participation. Another technique is to call randomly on individual team members to present sections of project reports or partial solutions to problems, with everyone in the group getting a grade based on the selected student's response. The best students will then make it their business to see that their teammates all understand the complete solutions, and they will also be less inclined to put a hitchhiker's name on the written product and risk having him or her be the designated presenter. Many of the cooperative teams in my class are not working well-their assignments are superficial and incomplete and some team members keep complaining to me about others not participating. Of Reading Habits? The interpersonal challenges of Essay, cooperative learning may be severe.

Students have widely varying intellectual abilities, work ethics, and levels of sensitivity to criticism, and a substantial part of the cooperative learning experience is learning how to confront and work through the conflicts that inevitably arise from a study habits these variations. One way to get groups off to a good start is to the first pharaoh, have them formulate and write out a set of team standards and expectations, sign it, make copies for a study of reading themselves, and example text descriptive turn in the original to you. Of Reading? As the course proceeds, have them periodically evaluate how well they are working as a team to meet those standards and what they might do to Essay, work more effectively. You may invite teams with serious problems to have a session in your office. If they do, try to help them find their own solutions rather than telling them what they should do. Taking a few minutes in class to focus on critical teamwork skills can make a major difference in how groups function. A Study Habits? Periodically select an of Television Essay, important activity like brainstorming or resolving conflicts and offer tips in class on effective ways to carry out the activity. An effective technique is to present a short scenario describing a common problem and brainstorm solutions with the class.

You may also give teams the of reading last resort option of firing uncooperative members after giving them at least two warnings, and Influence in India Essay you may give individuals carrying most of the workload the option of joining another group after giving their uncooperative teammates at least two warnings. In our experience, teams almost invariably find ways of working things out themselves before these options have to be exercised. Teams working together on quantitative problem assignments may always rely on one or two members to get the problem solutions started. The others may then have difficulties on individual tests, when they must begin the solutions themselves. This is a legitimate concern. An effective way to minimize it is for each team member to set up and outline each problem solution individually, and then for of reading the team to work together to obtain the complete solutions. Happened? If the students are instructed in this strategy and are periodically reminded of it, most of them will discover its importance and effectiveness and a study of reading adopt it. There is also merit in assigning some individual homework problems to give the students practice in the problem-solving mode they will encounter on in america, the tests. Habits? I teach a class containing students in minority populations that tend to bheem cartoon full movie, be at risk academically. Habits? Does active, cooperative learning work in Influence Essay, this kind of of reading, setting? In fact, the most frequently cited cooperative learning success story comes from the minority education literature.

Beginning in the mid-1970's, Uri Treisman, a mathematics professor then at in america the University of California-Berkeley, established a group-based calculus honors program, reserving two-thirds of the places for minority students whose entering credentials suggested that they were at risk. Of Reading? The students who participated in this program ended with a higher retention rate after three years than the overall average for all university students, while minority students in a control population were mostly gone after three years. Treisman's model has been used at many institutions with comparable success (Fullilove and Treisman 1990). In another study, George (1994) tested several cooperative learning techniques on a predominantly African-American psychology class and compared their performance with that of a control group taught noncooperatively. She found that group work led to significant improvements in both academic achievement and The Genome Essay attitudes toward instruction.

When using cooperative learning in classes that include minority students-ethnic minorities, or women in engineering and other nontraditionally female fields-try to avoid groups in which the minority students are isolated. Felder et al. (1995) report a study of a study of reading habits, cooperative learning in a sequence of example text, engineering courses. Women responded to group work with overwhelming approval, but many indicated that they tended to assume less active roles in a study of reading habits, group discussions and start in america some reported that their ideas tended to be devalued or discounted within their teams. The likelihood of these occurrences is reduced if a team contains more than one member of the minority population. Even though I've done everything the a study experts recommend, some of my students still complain that they don't like the student-centered approach I'm using and they would have learned more if they had taken a normal class. They could be right. Students have a variety of in India, learning styles and no instructional approach can be optimal for everyone (Claxton and Murrell 1987; Felder 1993; Grasha 1990, 1994). A Study Of Reading? In the end, despite our best efforts, some students fail and some who pass continue to resent our putting so much of the burden of their learning on their shoulders. One of our students once wrote in a course-end evaluation, Felder really makes us think!

It was on the list of things he disliked. On the other hand, for The Genome Essay all their complaints about how hard we are on them, our students on the average do better work than they ever did when we just lectured, and many more of them now tell us that after getting through one of our courses they feel confident that they can do anything. So you may lose some, but you can expect to win a lot more. In short, we are convinced that the benefits of properly implemented student-centered instruction more than compensate for any difficulties that may be encountered when implementing it. Instructors who follow recommended SCI procedures when designing their courses, who are prepared for initially negative student reactions, and who have the patience and the confidence to wait out these reactions, will reap their rewards in more and deeper student learning and more positive student attitudes toward their subjects and toward themselves. It may take an effort to get there, but it is an a study, effort well worth making. Bellanca, J. 1990. Happened? The cooperative think tank: Graphic organizers to teach thinking in the cooperative classroom. Palatine, IL: Skylight Publishing. Bonwell, C.C., and J.A. Eison.

1991. Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom . ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, DC: George Washington University. Brent, R., and R.M. Felder. 1992. Writing assignments-Pathways to connections, clarity, creativity. College Teaching, 40 2, 43-47.

Claxton, C.S., and P.H. Murrell. 1987. Learning styles: Implications for improving educational practice . ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, DC: George Washington University. Felder, R.M. 1993. Reaching the a study of reading second tier: Learning and teaching styles in college science education. J. Coll.

Science Teaching , 23 5, 286-290. -, and R. Brent. 1994. Cooperative learning in technical courses: Procedures, pitfalls, and text payoffs. ERIC Document Reproduction Service Report ED 377 038. -, G.N. Felder, M. Mauney, C.E. Hamrin, Jr., and E.J. Dietz.

1995. A longitudinal study of engineering student performance and retention. III. Gender differences in student performance and a study of reading habits attitudes. Influence Of Television In India? J. A Study Of Reading Habits? Engr. Education, 84 (2), 151-174. Fullilove, R.E., and P.U.

Treisman. 1990. Mathematics achievement among African American undergraduates at the University of California Berkeley: An evaluation of the mathematics workshop program. At Three Island? J. A Study Of Reading Habits? Negro Education, 59 3, 463-478. George, P.G. 1994. The effectiveness of cooperative learning strategies in bheem movie, multicultural university classrooms. J. Excellence in Coll. Habits? Teaching, 5 1, 21-30. Bheem Cartoon 2015 Movie? Grasha, A.F.

1990. The naturalistic approach to learning styles. College Teaching, 38 (3), 106-113. Of Reading? -. 1994. A matter of style: The teacher as expert, formal authority, personal model, facilitator, and delegator. College Teaching, 42 (4), 142-149. Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and K.A. Smith. 1991a. Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. -. 1991b.

Cooperative learning: Increasing college faculty instructional productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, DC: George Washington University. Kloss, R.J. 1994. A nudge is best: Helping students through the Perry scheme of intellectual development. College Teaching, 42 4, 151-158. McKeachie, W. 1986. Teaching tips , 8th Edition.

Lexington, MA: Heath Co. Meyers, C., and T.B. Cartoon Full Movie? Jones. 1993. Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom . San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Tschumi, P. 1991. 1991 ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings pp. 1987-1990. Washington, DC: Am.

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Philip Larkin - "A Study of Reading Habits"

A study of reading habits

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A Study Of Reading Habits Analysis Philip Larkin: Summary

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A Study Of Reading Habits Analysis Philip Larkin: Summary

History: World/ Eugenics term paper 17639. Since the of reading habits end of the the first pharaoh 19th century, eugenics has had a significant role in of reading habits the development of Western society. There have been laws established by its presence and a war fought to cease its progress. Example Descriptive. To analyze the philosophy of and the actions due to eugenics, one must look at the past and see what contributions eugenics has made to events in history. One must also look at the present applications of eugenics and how they affect the lives of people.

With these two directions, one can see that because it is racist, encourages immoral actions and is biologically unsound, eugenics is iniquitous and should be abolished from of reading habits modern medical and Revolution Essay, political thought. In 1883, Sir Francis Galton developed a so called science that dealt with the manner in which the human population could be improved. Galton thought that a pure race would make all population problems on earth obsolete and therefore contribute to a study of reading habits, an increased longevity of the human race. He called it the science of eugenics, a word derived from the Greek eugenes, meaning well born. He published the aspects of his new science in his book Hereditary Genius in 1869, establishing the roots and importance of his theories. Galton had admired how horticulturists tried to improve the plant system by The Genome Essay, encouraging reproduction between the strongest species. He decided that this could be done with humans in the same way. Galton once wrote that the point of eugenics was to give the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable (Chase, p.13). Galton wrote in a time where the habits industrial revolution had brought along some new medical advancements that decreased the death rate among newborn babies.

These new technologies however were only given to the upper classes at first. As a result, the upper classes had a lower birth-rate as they were more confident in keeping their children alive. This scared Galton, seeing this change as a threat to humanity as he believed that it meant there would be more lower class citizens in the future, thus decreasing the average level of society. These ideas came from the fact that he believed the old theories that the in america poor received infectious diseases, were illiterate and generally uneducated because it was this way in of reading their blood. He also looked at the most important people in society such as judges, politicians and scientists and decided that they were all biologically alike.

He saw that they were all Caucasian and mostly Nordic, which makes sense since he conducted his studies in England. It then logically follows that he believed that the social pyramid was and should be dominated by Caucasians, at the top of which reigned the Nordics. Galton thus encouraged reproduction among upper class citizens to Revolution, eugenically encourage this hereditarily superior race to a study of reading habits, fend off the increasing number of inferior, poorer breeds. He not only concentrated on when did slavery in america, economic factors when dividing the people but on racial factors as well. Galton believed that he had created a new science and thus proceeded to develop its scientific components. He created a scale from A to X, X being the highest and A the lowest, grading different aspects of human beings. It was also based on a study, rarity; an individual in the V-class appeared every 300 births and was therefore assured a successful life while an individual in the C-class appeared every 16 births, placing him in the ranks of the common folk.

There was a different system however for the Negroes. Galton once said, classes E and F of the Negro may roughly be considered as the equivalent of our C and D-a result which again points to the conclusion that the average intellectual standard of the Negro race is what happened at three mile island, some two grades below our own(Galton, P.327). Of Reading Habits. He also said that, the Jews are specialized for when in america parasitical existence upon other nations, showing that his science was to a study of reading, be partially derived from personal, self-admiring beliefs. Galton's theories were accepted by many high-profile people in most industrial countries but the type of eugenics practiced was slightly different and over time became entirely different philosophies. The first difference between eugenic practices around the world is the type of eugenics practiced.

There are two types: positive eugenics and negative eugenics. The latter involves the expulsion of people that are racially deficient. Many such techniques have been practiced in history. Positive eugenics improves humans by encouraging the reproduction of Influence in India Essay fit humans or by genetically improving a person. Unfortunately, although positive eugenics is a study of reading habits, regarded as a better technique, it tends to bring on in India Essay, negative eugenics, which causes many problems. It seems as though one cannot be present without the a study other. When Start In America. In history, this happened in some of the most respected countries. Galton created, in a study England, The National Eugenics Education Society in 1907, with followers such as Winston Churchill and Harold Laski. When. In Canada, a group called the Eugenics Society of Canada was put together in 1930, and in a study of reading habits the United States, many different divisions of the Galton Society came together in 1923. They formed the American Eugenics Society.

It is here and in Nazi Germany that the most interesting events took place; where the happened eugenics movement became almost synonymous to a religious faith. In the United States, a Eugenics society was not needed in order for a study people to believe in it. Ten years before the happened island Eugenics Society was created, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote, it is obvious that if in the future racial qualities are to be improved, the a study improving must be wrought mainly by favoring the fecundity of the worthy types(Chase, p.15). In the United States, this favoring became a new type of in India racism, labeling all non-Nordic immigrants as less suitable races. There had also been many laws established, allowing the of reading sterilization of deviants and deficients. The first such law was created in Indiana in 1907, followed by 27 other States in the next 30 years.

These laws gave the permission to the individual States to forcefully sterilize all confirmed criminals, idiots, rapists and imbeciles By 1964, 63, 678 forced sterilizations had been performed under sterilization laws in 28 American States. In order for the purification of the American population to occur, it had to be determined who were the intelligent races and who were the idiots. As a result, a group of happened mile island psychologists introduced the idea of testing, using IQ tests, the intelligence of all army recruits during the First World War. Carl Brigham, a member of this group, then published his book, A Study of American Intelligence, showing that the Nordic Races were indeed more intelligent than the other races. He concluded that the average mental age of White individuals was 13 years and of reading, that of Black individuals was 10 years. It was then accepted by the American public that the Blacks were the The Genome Essay unclean race and the whites were the honorable race. Galton's theories were therefore proven by of reading habits, these tests and were doubtlessly accepted by happened, many psychologists, not only by the naive public. When Calvin Coolidge became President in a study 1924, he signed the Immigration Restriction Act, which limited, in percentage, the entrance of text descriptive immigrants according to the American Census of 1890. He tried to, Keep America American, as he stated when he was the vice-president. The attitude being developed in the United States was one slightly different from Galton's.

It was concerned with the invasion of the country by of reading habits, inferior races rather than Galton's idea of the upper class being threatened by pauperism. However, eugenics in Germany also took on a new look compared to Galton's theories. In fact, when the nazi party came into power in 1933, they exercised eugenic ideas to the point of causing the Second World War. The Nazis exercised their power long before their election however, something that people fail to realize. The man in charge of the who was purification of the German race was Heinrich Himmler, the Reichfuhrer SS as of of reading habits 1929. He had a fleet of example 300 men who would be responsible for a study habits purifying the German race. Himmler decided that the whole country was to be examined in order to find out exactly how many Germans were actually of the authentic race before he could accurately control them. Hans Gunther decided that this race of when did slavery heroes had the following characteristics: Tall, long head, narrow face, well-defined chin, narrow nose with very high root, soft fair hair, receding light eyes, and pink white skin colour(Hillel, p. 24). Himmler was thus searching for descendants of the a study of reading habits tribes of Denmark, on which he was to base his ideal race, the Teutonic race.

The SS army was also to be comprised of only such Teutonic specimens. In late 1931, the bheem full movie RuSHA (Head Office for Race and Settlement) was created, which was to be responsible for the eugenic movement during the Third Reich. Its initial role was that of of reading a propaganda machine. Essay. Slogans were posted up on walls, warning of mixing Aryan and inferior blood. Much like the American ideas, Nazi leaders thought that the degradation of the a study German race was due to the incorporation of The Genome mostly Jewish blood into it. Of Reading. This led to the publication of the Nuremberg laws in 1935 that forbade marriage, and sexual relations between Jews and of Television, citizens of German blood(Hillel, p. A Study Of Reading. 28). The RuSHA also encouraged a breeding program developed by Dr.

Wilhelm Schallmayer. Essay. It was composed of a study of reading eight main points that basically encouraged Aryan women to have many children and to do nothing else. Schallamayer also encouraged SS soldiers, who had been judged as perfect human beings to The Genome, have many wives. Habits. The doctor did not want to simply encourage his points, but he wanted permanent eugenic control of the German population. This doctor became a driving force in the creation of the concentration camps as well as the Lebensborns. In 1935, the what island Lebensborn Registered Society came into existence.

Lebensborns were establishments that housed Aryan women, whose basic responsibilities were to produce children. They were originally designed to house pregnant widows or orphan girls. A Study Of Reading Habits. Women thus flocked to them as they were thought to give great services. Full Movie. However, they soon became brothels where Aryan men could go and conceive racially appropriate children for the State. They often married the women but breeding was the emphasis since according to Himmler, the a study of reading Lebensborns' founder, a marriage without many children is no more than an affair (Hillel, p. 48).

Not any woman could be taken in to a Lebensborn however. She had to bheem full, be young, attractive, slim and a study, of course, Aryan. For this reason, 50 percent of the pregnant women who applied to Lebensborns were rejected. As the number of Lebensborns grew, they were officially taken over by The Genome, the SS in 1936. A Study. The Nazi party thus had complete power over them. The SS soldiers would find Jewish run orphanages, take them over, sending the Jews to concentration camps and killing those who would not readily go. They would then fill up the buildings with young girls destined to be child-bearers.

Soon, Aryan girls were being kidnapped from Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other Northern European countries. In fact, 100 000 girls were taken from The Genome Essay Poland alone. Truly harsh deeds were done to them. For example, they were given drugs in order to achieve puberty earlier. This would make them capable of having more children. Also, racially inadequate children, perhaps conceived by non-Aryan men, would be sent off to be tossed on flaming heaps of garbage in the Nazi concentration camps. These concentration camps were perhaps the most brutal and a study habits, most notorious acts of the Nazi party that involved eugenic ideas. The Lebensborns were responsible for the reproduction of Essay racially adequate Germans and the concentration camps were responsible for the extermination of the racially inferior. Many people were gassed, shot and even buried alive. By 1945, there had been 6 million Jews and approximately 2 million non-Jews killed in concentration camps.

The Holocaust was perhaps the most repulsive government operation in the history of the a study habits world. Since this event, eugenics has been looked upon in an entirely different way. As seen, Eugenics has been quite a driving force in Influence in India Essay the history of modern civilization. Such events in the United States and of reading habits, Europe are still shocking and disgusting, even to people who have been hearing about them for many years. This shows how negative eugenics can ultimately destroy the harmony between members of a diverse society.

Although most reputable eugenic practices have been practiced in cartoon movie the past, there are still many different customs that can be filed under eugenic behaviour. The new type of eugenics involves much more science. The increased knowledge in of reading the field of the first of egypt genetics and heredity has made it possible to accurately predict the medical future of a child before it is born or even fertilized. In this way, a doctor can see that a child will have a genetic disorder and can prepare the parents for of reading the child's birth. The general term for these practices is genetic counseling. Text. This is an of reading umbrella term which includes in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling.

In vitro fertilization and artificial insemination are techniques that were originally created in full order to overcome infertility among couples. In vitro fertilization involves fertilizing an egg outside a woman's body and later inserting it into the uterus. Artificial insemination involves placing sperm inside a female in order to fertilize an egg. Due to eugenic ideals, these techniques have become a way of producing racially or intellectually superior children. For example, Hermann J. Muller, an American Nobel-prize winning biologist suggested that a few outstanding males could be used for breeding with many women. This would create many strong, beautiful and intelligent children.

This led to Robert K. Graham's suggestion to a study habits, keep Nobel-prize winners' sperm frozen in sperm banks such as his 1971 Hermann J. Did Slavery. Muller Repository for Germinal Choice, dedicated to of reading habits, his mentor. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are surgical procedures that help determine if a f?tus will be healthy after birth. Amniocentesis consists of extracting some of the amniotic fluid using a needle. The liquid contains some shed cells from the bheem cartoon 2015 full f?tus and therefore can be evaluated to habits, see if there are any genetic disorders. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is essentially the same thing but instead of extracting liquid, a piece of the membrane surrounding the f?tus is removed and descriptive, evaluated.

Another difference is that amniocentesis can only of reading habits, be performed five months into the pregnancy whereas CVS can be used only 9 weeks after fertilization. Amniocentesis and cartoon full movie, CVS have also become eugenic procedures as the a study habits main concern of doctors is example text, if the parents should have the baby. A Study Habits. Most genetically unfit f?tuses end up being aborted. Therefore, the unfit are rejected which is a characteristic of eugenics. Although it has, until now, been portrayed as a universally accepted concept, eugenics has been critiqued since its dawn in England. For example, scientists have rejected it because of its unscientific practices and pro-life advocates rejected its use of abortion. Even though these groups have slightly different perspectives on the issue, one can see that they all have the same basic concern. They want eugenics, as it has been practiced until now, to be abolished.

Scientifically speaking, most critiques of eugenics are consequentialists. All these people think about when judging eugenic actions are their consequences. The main scientific objection to eugenics is the The Genome Revolution Essay fact that human crossbreeding is a study of reading habits, a great contributor to genetic variation. Of Egypt. By having many different types of a study genes, a human can more easily adapt to its environment. However, if a pure race is produced, many of the genes responsible for of egypt effective adadtation may disappear from the human gene pool.

In this way, in a study of reading the future, humans could not adapt to mile, an increased global temperature, for example, and the population could be severely depleted. Therefore, keeping the gene pool diverse could represent a longer duration of human life. Similarly, there is a belief that genes that are harmful in the homozygous (double dose) state, they may be helpful in the heterozygous (single dose) state. Therefore, removing these genes from of reading humanity by sterilizing or killing all carriers may be harmful to other people who could benefit from the heterozygous state of the gene. Before scientists can begin to Influence in India, eliminate certain genes, they must know exactly what role each gene plays in an individual. It is perhaps possible to obtain this information, but humanity is very far from achieving this type of knowledge. Therefore, scientists should let nature take its course as people have done for millions of years. There is also a concern that gene mutations can be eliminated in other ways instead of eliminating the genes themselves. A Study Habits. For example, it has been discovered that radiation is a great contributor to text descriptive, gene mutations. North Americans might think that this only applies to victims of Hiroshima but in fact, X rays such as those in all North American hospitals and a study habits, doctors' offices, have much greater mutative effects on a population gene pool than that of Hiroshima.

In this way, abolishing X-ray machines could inhibit new mutations to occur. Thus, eugenic practices would be unnecessary. The Catholic Church also rejects most eugenic practices. John-Paul II once wrote that No biologist or doctor can reasonably claim, by virtue of his scientific competence, to be able to decide on people's origin and Influence in India, destiny(John Paul II, p.14). In essence, this is what eugenicists do. They judge who should live and who should die. The Pope also wrote that no one can, in any circumstance, claim for himself the a study right to destroy directly an innocent human being(John Paul II, p. 16). This statement directly attacks Nazi holocaust as well as the sterilization laws of the early 20th century. By sterilizing a person, one is essentially destroying the the first of egypt lives of future children. As stated earlier, no doctor can decide if these children should be born or not, therefore eugenic sterilization is essentially wrong. These opinions are rooted deeply in the Catholic Faith as it is believed that all humans are the temples of God and that they are created in his image.

The body as it is in nature thus must be the standard of biological good. In this way, any genetic tampering or physical harm inflicted on the body is actually interfering with what God wants for human beings. Therefore, Catholics believe that eugenics is iniquitous. Catholics also have a strong opinion on natural human rights. Of Reading Habits. For example, the Charter of the Rights of the Family, published by pharaoh, the Holy See, states that, Human life must be absolutely respected and protected from the moment of habits conception(Holy See, 4). This statement places a delicacy upon the modern eugenic practices such as amniocentesis and artificial insemination. What Happened At Three Mile Island. These customs could be regarded as sinful by the above statement as it is interference with the natural birth process devised by God. However, therapeutic interventions such as the ones mentioned are not completely wrong, according to of reading habits, Pope John Paul II.

He stated in 1983, at the 35th General Assembly of the World Medical Association that, A strictly therapeutic intervention whose explicit objective is the healing of various maladies such as those stemming from chromosomal defects will, in of Television Essay principle, be considered desirable, provided it is habits, directed to the true promotion of the personal well-being of the individual without doing harm to his integrity or worsening his conditions of life. Such an intervention would indeed fall within the logic of the bheem 2015 Christian moral tradition. (John Paul II, p. 22) The problem though is the fact that the eugenic use of therapeutic intervention usually leads to abortion. Therefore, the a study Catholic Church disapproves of eugenics, and its use of who was intervention on f?tuses. As seen, the a study of reading habits eugenic movement is completely opposed to the beliefs encouraged by the Catholic Church. Some people would say that the Church is when in america, exaggerating its conservative values, which tends to be a common comment these days, but when one truly thinks about what the habits Church is opposing, one can see that its objections are well conceived. In fact, there are also other elements that make eugenics a truly immoral activity. Perhaps the foremost problem with eugenics is the fact that the people in charge of the projects decide the fate of others.

This totally contradicts the ancient and still reasonable idea of human rights. By these rights, an individual is bheem cartoon movie, allowed to make his own choices that determine the fate of himself and his family. In a eugenic system, the of reading whole population is considered a whole body. When part of the population gets sick, they are sterilized and they die without reproducing themselves. This is like cutting off a baby finger when it is happened island, diseased; it does not hurt the whole body . A Study. The population is not a whole body however, it is a society where each person is an individual human being. In this way, eugenic practices threaten the existence of human rights and therefore should be abolished. Eugenics is pharaoh of egypt, also a very useful science for of reading habits powerful villains. All eugenic practices, as seen in the past, have been based on what island, the personal feelings of the a study habits leader of the society involved. For example, if Hitler had been an atheist, he would have killed religious people and if he had hated Orientals, he would have killed them. Eugenics seems to be an easy way for powerful people to act against their enemies. This is wrong since no person has the right to expose another person to suffering or death simply because of who they are.

This is truly prejudiced and pharaoh, without a doubt immoral. Unfortunately, some people disregard this natural right. Racism is a big part of eugenics as well as eugenicists determine that a certain group is more fit to live than another. This means that some individuals are more important than others. Since God created all humans equal, then it is outright impossible for a person to be inferior to another. Habits. Therefore racism is The Genome Essay, iniquitous and a study habits, should not be a part of eugenics. Influence Of Television In India. However, it is difficult to have eugenics without racism.

If a perfect race was discovered, the unforgettable fact is that no sane person would accept his own to be inferior. A Study Of Reading. Even if it was proven by legitimate tests, that person would do anything to avoid suffering, which, for in India Essay the racially unfit, is the ultimate end of a study of reading habits eugenic practices. The Genome Revolution. As a result, whoever is the authority of the research tests will ultimately choose another race to be eliminated. Therefore, there is extreme racism when eugenics comes into a study habits people's heads. Biologically and ecologically speaking, eugenics is a very uncertain practice.

Humans have been alive for millions of years now, without ever tampering with their biological makeup. They simply let nature do its job. Now, by looking at everything that humans have developed, one can then see that letting evolution function by itself is not a bad thing. Influence Of Television In India Essay. In fact, it is probably the wisest thing to habits, do. Scientists tend to think that they know all the consequences of eugenic practices but actually, this is impossible. The human being and its society are too complex for the first people to know the effect of every minute change. A small variation in the gene pool could cause some major problems. Therefore, humans should simply let nature do its job in preserving the life of of reading humans, just as it has for millions of years. Descriptive. Who knows, scientists might be lowering the survival rate of humanity by a study of reading habits, tampering with its natural biological processes.

As seen, because eugenics is biologically unsound, encourages racial inequality and includes immoral actions, eugenics is iniquitous and should no longer be performed. If eugenics ever became a driving force in society, there would be racial, biological and Influence of Television, moral disputes everywhere. The fact of the matter is that eugenic conclusions cannot satisfy everyone. Of Reading. There must be a triumphant party as well as a failing one. Bheem Cartoon Full. Naturally, the failing group would not give up its fight and a study habits, larger disputes would arise.

Ultimately, this could lead to World War III, and, considering the presence of what happened mile nuclear weapons, the destruction of the world. A Study Of Reading. In this way, the science concerned with the in India amelioration the a study of reading habits condition of Influence humanity would ultimately be responsible for its destruction. Chase, Allan The Legacy of Malthus: the Social Costs of the a study habits New Scientific Racism New York: The Random House, 1976. Eugenics New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1st Edition (1967), Volume V, pp. 627-629. Garrigan, Owen Man's Intervention in Nature New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967. Henton, Darcy, $740,000 Awarded for full movie Sterilization, The Toronto Star (January 26, 1996), p. Of Reading Habits. A 2. Henton, Darcy, Faith in Eugenics Ran Deep in Alberta The Toronto Star (February 11, 1996), p. F 1.

Hillel, Marc Of Pure Blood New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976. Hilton, Bruce Ethical Issues in Human Genetics New York: Plenum Press, 1973. Hillel, Marc Of Pure Blood New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976. John Paul II Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and the Dignity of Procreation Sherbrooke: Les Editions Paulines, 1987. Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Use of of Television Human Heredity Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. McLaren, Angus Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885-1945 Toronto: McClelland Stewart Inc., 1990. Packard, Vance Oakley The People Shapers Boston: Brown Little, 1977. Rey, Alain Le Petit Robert 2 Montreal: Les Dictionnaires Robert - Canada, 1987. Word Count: 4014.

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A Study Of Reading Habits Poem by Philip Larkin - Poem

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A Short Analysis of Philip Larkin s A Study of

Alles andere als eine Koloratur-Nachtigall. D iese Traviata wird spalten, ganz sicher. Of Reading? Das wei? niemand besser als Natalie Dessay selbst, die sich als lupenreiner Koloratursopran jetzt eine Rolle zuruckerobert hat, die langst eine Domane der lyrisch-dramatischen Soprane geworden ist. The First? Die sicherlich erregte Diskussion wird spatestens dann anheben, wenn die so starrsinnige wie faszinierende Franzosin diese, ihre Violetta Valery auch in a study habits, Europa singen wird: im Sommer 2011 in Influence in India Essay, Aix-en-Provence und dann in Wien, wohin die Produktion wandert; auch in a study habits, Japan und an der Metropolitan Opera ist sie bereits verpflicht. Of Television Essay? Doch geboren hat sie die schwere Partie des leichten Madchens jetzt weit weg, an of reading, der herrlich atmospharischen Santa Fe Opera, Amerikas schonstem Opernsommerfestival in bheem cartoon 2015 full movie, New Mexiko. A Study? Weit weg vom internationalen Opernzirkus, aber doch unter Beachtung. Start In America? Mit ihrem Mann, dem beweglich-einpragsamen Bariton Laurent Naouri, der ebenfalls als Vater Germont debutierte, und mit dem jungen Albaner Saimir Pirgu, der einen kraftvollen und doch verletzlichen, immer ein wenig vor diesem kauflichen Kobold zuruckschreckenden Alfredo gab. Of Reading? Doch von der ersten Verdi-Sekunde, die der auch spater sich nie vordrangelnde, straff rhythmische und pikant tanzerische, aber mit wenig Paris-Morbidezza aufwartende Frederic Chaslin dirigiert, ist klar: Diese Traviata, erarbeitet mit ihrem Lieblingsregisseur Laurent Pelly, ist wirklich vom ublichen Weg abgekommen. What At Three? Kaum ist ihr eigener Beerdigungszug uber das Durcheinander schwarzer Kuben hinweg geschritten, das Chantal Thomas in a study of reading habits, Anspielung an Influence of Television Essay, das Graberlabyrinth des Friedhofs Pere Lachaise vor den offenen, mit letzter Tagesblaue aufwartenden Abendhimmel uber den Jemez-Bergen gestellt hat, hupft Violetta als Ruckblende ihrer selbst aus der Grube. Of Reading Habits? Und sofort gehort ihr die Buhne.

Also fuchsienrosagrelle Puderquaste zwischen sich bauschenden Volants, mit viel Bein in of Television, hohen Schnurstiefeln, die kurzen Haare pumucklrot, die Hande ekstatisch lebensgierig gen Himmel geworfen. Ein erotischer Wirbelwind, ein sinnlicher Brummkreisel. A Study Habits? Eine Figur von gestern zwar und doch in Essay, jeder Bewegung, in of reading, der unverblumten Suche nach erotischer Erfullung eine Frau von heute. Revolution? Freilich keine gro?e Kurtisane, die sich mit noch gro?erem Ausschnitt und Edelcremesopran als ehrbare Dirne und Primadonna geriert, wie es etwa Angela Gheorghiu und Rene Fleming kultivieren - und so die Figur im Goldrahmen entrucken. Die Dessay ist in a study, jeder Faser und Phrase mehr eine Kabarettfigur, grotesk, uberspannt und doch anruhrend; die nach Tingeltangel und Cafe chantant riecht, billig und berechnend, die nicht nur wegen der Haarfarbe der oft von Toulouse-Lautrec gemalten Diseuse Yvette Guilbert nachempfunden scheint.

So singt sie auch. At Three Mile Island? Exaltiert, ohne Netz, gurrend und knurrend, nicht immer schon, die nicht stetig leicht erreichten Stratospharentone sind inzwischen sehr monochrom geworden. Of Reading? Die Dessay stirbt kaum in Schonheit, zelebriert nicht ihr Verloschen, sie verzehrt sich bewusst, greift gierig und kindhaft nach dem Leben und den Mannern. Opfert sich aber auch auf, genie?t ihr kleines Gluck auf dem Land, wenn die Graber nur unvollkommen mit Rasen bedeckt sind, sie in of Television, Mannerhemd und Hosen einmal keine Rolle spielen, sich nicht verstellen muss. A Study Habits? So ist diese Traviata zur mondanen Schwester der knabenhaft rustikalen Regimentstochter geworden, als die Natalie Dessay, ebenfalls unter Pelly, in den letzten Monaten in of Television in India, London, Wien und New York triumphal abraumte. A Study? Selten hat man eine Sangerin offentlicher mit dem altmodischen Image der Koloraturnachtigall kampfen sehen. Und selten auch hat gerade an den Belcantotempeln der Welt eine weniger orthodoxe Vokalartistin in when did slavery in america, eben diesem Fach reussiert - weil sie immer auch Schauspielerin ist, dramatisch sein will. A Study Of Reading? Die 1965 in when did slavery start in america, Lyon geborene, in habits, Bordeaux aufgewachsene Dessay, die eher zufallig in example, eine Gesangskarriere rutschte, weil es zur Ballerina nicht langte, wirkt oft wie im falschen Kleid, wie ein Mann, der als Frau geboren wurde. Sie wehrt sich und straubt sich, verwandelt so Unzufriedenheit in a study habits, kunstlerische Klasse. Example Text Descriptive? Diejenigen, die bei einer Sangerin nur den schonen Ton suchen, werden freilich nicht bedient.

Nur in a study of reading habits, ganz jungen Jahren, als sie 1992 von Paris und Wien aus mit unmittelbarem Erfolg startete, besa? die Stimme wirklichen Liebreiz und zarte Verfuhrungssu?e; doch selbst als Offenbachs Puppe Olympia wollte da eine schon raus aus ihrem Vokalautomatengefangnis, so wie auch ihre Konigin der Nacht gefahrlich scharf funkelte und knisterte, ihre Zerbinetta nicht trillernde Commedia dell'arte-Porzellanpuppe war, sondern eine herausfordernd sexualisierte Popsirene. Who Was The First Pharaoh Of Egypt? Mit dem fur franzosische Koloratursopranistinnen typischen Zitronenspritzer im Timbre wurden selbst so scheinbar flache Singdrosseln wie Lakme, Manon und die Hamlet-Orphelie zu schneidend schmerzenden Tragodienfiguren a la Dessay. A Study Of Reading Habits? Und ihre Lucia di Lammermoor (die sie auch in der franzosischen Fassung drauf hat) liefert keine sich in what happened at three island, gepflegten Glissandiketten abspulende Wahnsinnsarie ab, sondern den existenziellen Irrsinn einer Gattenmorderin, wie er nicht immer in of reading, den Noten steht. Of Television? Dafur wurde sie sogar im stimmfetischistischen New York, wo sie bereits als Strauss' alberne Fiakermilli aufhorchen lie?, zur Konigin der Stadt. Of Reading Habits? Keine franzosische Sangerin konnte in did slavery start in america, den letzten drei Dekaden an a study, der Metropolitan Opera so punkten, wie dieser kleine Irrwisch von auch schon 44 Jahren. In India? Met-Intendant Peter Gelb hat sie deshalb fur die nachsten Jahre mit einer Dessay-Premiere pro a study habits Saison als feste Spielplangro?e eingeplant. Influence? Dieses Jahr wird es der dort ewig nicht gespielte Hamlet sein, den man sonst nur auf besonderen Baritonwunsch hin inszeniert, letztes Jahr war es Bellinis Belcanto-Ruhrstuck La Sonnambula. Weil dem Star die Story um eine tugendsame Schlafwandlerin im Schweizer Gebirgsdorf gar zu albern erschien, musste Regisseurin Mary Zimmerman sie als ironisches Stuck im Stuck auf einer Opernprobe inszenieren. Of Reading Habits? Was die librettoglaubigen New Yorker nicht verstanden und goutierten: Zimmerman wurde ausgebuht, Dessay trotzdem gefeiert.

Natalie Dessay, die sich erstmals 2001 und spater noch einmal an happened mile island, den Stimmbandern operieren lassen musste und so monatelang auch fern der Buhne als schweigsame Frau agierte, will nur Neuinszenierungen und liebt besonders die Proben (die abschlie?ende Premiere brauche ich eigentlich nicht mehr). Of Reading? Sie will als Kontrollfreak, dass das Umfeld stimmt. Start In America? Deshalb erlebt man sie im deutschen Repertoirebetrieb uberhaupt nicht. Habits? Sie ist eine Schwierige, sie wei? das, genie?t es und leidet gleichzeitig darunter, halb aus Koketterie, halb aus dem Minderwertigkeitsgefuhl heraus, nur ein soubrettiger Koloratursopran zu sein, wo sie doch so gern Isolde ware. When In America? Jedes ihrer Interviews ist mehr Lamento als Glucksbotschaft. A Study Of Reading? Trotzdem erfullt sie sich konsequent ihre Traume. Movie? Weil sie erfolgreich ist, und die Kasse jubeln lasst, darf sie das auch. A Study? Wie im Januar in The Genome Revolution Essay, Wien die Debussy-Melisande, die ihr eigentlich zu tief liegen musste, sie aber wunderbar scheu spielte (erscheint im Herbst auf DVD). A Study Of Reading Habits? Und eben jetzt die Traviata, wo man nicht jeden Ton auf die Goldwagen legen darf, wo die Stimme nicht selten eigentlich zu klein ist, zu wenig tragt, wo aber jeder Ton trifft und ruhrt, kalkuliert ist und doch spontan wirkt. Kaum eine Violetta der letzten Jahre - die Sensations-Netrebko von Salzburg einmal ausgenommen - hat in did slavery, der scheinbar ausgelutschten Rolle so viele neue Nuancen entdeckt. Of Reading? Statt im Sommer in when did slavery start, Salzburg zum Hofstallgassen-Bussiparcours aufzumarschieren, ist Natalie Dessay lieber mit Mann, zwei Kindern und Eltern im ihr ergebenen Santa Fe, wo auch ihre untypische Traviata bejubelt wird.

Dort war sie Bellinis Amina und - zum ersten und gleich wieder letzten Mal - Mozarts Pamina. A Study Of Reading? Wie stark die Dessay im Umgang mit einem vertrauten Partner ist, das erlebt man immer wieder bei den seltenen Auftritten mit Laurent Naouri, fur den sie sogar zum Judentum konvertiert ist. Example Text? Hier stimmt zwischen einem Sangerpaar die Chemie ganz offensichtlich auch auf der Buhne. Wie lange sie noch singen wird, wei? sie selbst nicht, aber kaum ewig. A Study? Die Uhr tickt, nicht jeder Koloratursopran hat die eherne Technik und die genau kontrollierte Affektgewalt einer Edita Gruberova. Erst einmal singt sie in what happened mile island, Paris, wo die neue Intendanz ihr ebenfalls die Opera zu Fu?en legt, Puccinis Musetta. Dann aber spielt die ehemalige Schauspielschulerin Natalie Dessay, die in a study, Frankreich bis zu 250000 Stuck pro The Genome Essay CD verkauft, Theater: Thomas Bernhards Der Ignorant und der Wahnsinnige. Habits? Ihre Rolle? Naturlich die Konigin der Nacht. Who Was Pharaoh? Aber ohne einen Mozartton.

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Philip Larkin - "A Study of Reading Habits"

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A Short Analysis of Philip Larkin s A Study of

Cours et exercices MERISE [Résolu/Fermé] Prepare par : Ahmed OULD TEBAKH, ing. Consultant en informatique. 05 decembre 2006. On considere une relation R construite sur les attributs Proprietaire, Occupant, Adresse, Noapt, Nbpieces, Nbpersonnes, un nuplet (p, o, a, n, nb1, nb2) ayant la signification suivante : la personne o habite avec nb2 personnes l'appartement de numero n ayant nb1 pieces dont le proprietaire est p. Une analyse de cette relation nous fournit un ensemble initial E de dependances fonctionnelles : adresse, noapt -- proprietaire. adresse, noapt -- occupant. adresse, noapt -- nbpieces. 1- Donner l'ensemble des dependances fonctionnelles elementaires engendrees par E.

2- Quelles sont les cles potentielles de R ? 3- R est elle en 3eme forme normale ? On considere le schema relationnel R defini sur les attributs suivants : un nuplet (c, p, h, s, e, n) a pour signification que le cours c est fait par le professeur p a l'heure h dans la salle s par l'etudiant e qui a recu la note n. L'ensemble E des dependances fonctionnelles initiales est le suivant : 1- Donner l'ensemble des dependances fonctionnelles elementaires engendrees par E. 2- Quelle est la cle de la relation R ? Montrer qu'elle est unique. 3- Quelle est la forme normale de la relation R ? Si elle n'est pas en 3FN proposer une decomposition en 3FN. On considere les deux relations suivantes ou les cles sont en caracteres gras : * LESFILMS(TITRE, PAYS, ANNEE, REALISATEUR, DUREE) et ou les attributs ont les significations et les types suivants: -TITRE : titre d'un film (chaine 50 caracteres) -PAYS : pays d'ou un film est originaire (chaine 10 caracteres) -ANNEE : annee de sortie du film (entier 4 chiffres) -REALISATEUR: Nom du realisateur du film (chaine 20 caracteres) - DUREE : duree du film en mn (entier 3 chiffres) -ACTEUR : Nom d'acteur (chaine 20 caracteres) La relation LESFILMS donne pour chaque film identifie par son titre, le pays , l'annee de sortie, realisateur et la duree. La relation LESACTEURS donne pour chaque film l'ensemble des principaux acteurs. A l'aide de l'algebre relationnelle exprimer les requetes suivantes:

Q1: Liste des films francais (titre, annee, realisateur). Q2: Donnez les annees de sortie des films tournes par GABIN. 1- soient les tables suivantes. Artiste(Num art Nom, prenom , date_nais) ?uvre (Num ov, titre) Produire( #Num_art #Num ov) 1. A Study Of Reading Habits? schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees. 2- faire les requetes suivantes. a-compter le nombre d'artistes ? b- selectionner les noms des artistes qui commence par la lettre i ? c- compter le nombre d'?uvre ? d- selectionner les numeros des artistes qui commence par la lettre i ? e- selectionner les numeros des artistes qui sont produire l'?uvre numero 3 ? f- donner la liste des numeros des artistes qui ont pas produire. Dans le domaine curriculum vitae, on when did slavery in america dispose des informations ci-apres : 1- nom et prenom de l'individu.

2- date de naissance de l'individu. 3- langues pratiquees par l'individu. 4- designation du diplome. 5- designation des centres d'interet (sport, musique ) a- schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees ? b- donner le model relationnel des donnees ? Pour les etudiants de ISET on a study of reading utilise une base des donnees pour gerer les resultats de fin dannee. What Happened At Three Island? Cette base est composee des relations suivantes : Matiere ( codemat , coefjp ,coef_ecrit, coef_mat ) Etudiant ( numinsc ,nom ,prenom ,date_nais ?tel ) Evaluation ( # code_mat, # num insc , note_exam) 1. Of Reading Habits? schematiser le model conceptuel des donnees ? 2. The Genome? refaire le model relationnel des donnees ? 3. A Study Habits? creer les tables en mode de creation ? 4. Bheem 2015 Full Movie? remplissez les tables par des informations arbitraires ? 5. A Study? compter le nombre des etudiants qui sont inscrit ? 6. Movie? quel est le nombre des matieres ? 7. A Study Of Reading? quel est le nombre des etudiants ayant une note d'examen superieur ou. 8. The First Pharaoh? quels sont les etudiants qui n'ont pas la moyenne dans l'examen ? 9. A Study Of Reading Habits? selectionner les etudiants qui sont passer l'examen ? 10. Did Slavery Start In America? donner les noms ,les prenoms des etudiants qui ont la moyenne dans. 11. A Study Habits? les matieres qui ne sont pas evaluer ? 12. The Genome Essay? selectionner le code du matiere ,sa coefficient de TP, sa coeff. A Study Habits? d'ecrit ? 13. When? refaire question 12 en selectionnant aussi le note de l'examen ? Schema 1 - MODELE CONCEPTUEL DES DONNEES.

2. Of Reading? A partir de ce que l'on comprend du 1er schema, presentez un MCD corrige. 3. When Did Slavery In America? Deduisez de votre MCD un Modele Logique des Donnees normalise (toutes les relations en 3FN) ARTICLE (ref_art, lib_art, pu_art) RELEVE (date_vte, ref_art, no_vendeur, qte) CCIAL (no_vendeur, nom, prenom, ville) SECTEUR (code_secteur, ville_sect, no_vendeur) 1. A Study Of Reading Habits? Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite d'entite : - Verifier les cles primaires (doivent etre uniques et non nulles) 2. At Three Mile Island? Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite de domaine : (Voir les rubriques Taille du champ, Masque de saisie, Valide si en utilisant l'aide contextuelle F1) - Le prix unitaire des articles ne peut pas etre inferieur ou egal a zero. - Le nom des commerciaux doit etre au maximum de 25 lettres majuscules, espaces autorises. 3. Habits? Ajouter les contraintes d'integrite de reference. 4. The First Pharaoh? Creer la table SECTEUR.

5. A Study Habits? Ecrire les requetes permettant d'obtenir les informations suivantes : 1. Cartoon 2015? Afficher les articles dont le prix est superieur a 500. 2. Of Reading? Afficher tous les articles dont le prix est compris entre 200 et 500 avec tri decroissant sur prix. 3. Bheem Cartoon 2015? Afficher les articles avec le prix converti en dollars (hyp. Habits? : 1 dollar = 1,07 ) 4. Example? Afficher les articles dont le libelle contient le mot clavier ou Clavier 5. A Study Habits? Afficher le nombre d'articles disponibles. 6. When? Afficher le prix de l'article le plus cher, le moins cher et le prix moyen. 7. A Study? Afficher les ref et lib des articles ayant ete vendus au moins une fois. 8. Descriptive? Afficher le montant total des ventes realisees par Gates. 9. Habits? Afficher la ref et le libelle des articles vendus en mars 2002, tries par libelle.

10. Essay? Afficher pour chaque date, le montant total des ventes journalieres, trie par CA decroissant. 11. Habits? Dates ou il y a eu au moins une vente (sans doublons) 12.

Liste (libelle) des articles qui ont ete vendus au moins une fois (sans doublons) 13. At Three Mile? Nombre d'articles differents ayant ete vendus (chaque ref trouvee compte pour 1) 14. Of Reading Habits? Libelle des articles tries par prix decroissant (uniquement ceux dont la ref. Did Slavery? est superieure a 1040, en excluant ceux dont le prix est superieur a 1000 ) 15. A Study Habits? Articles dont le nom contient disquette ainsi que ceux dont le prix est superieur a 20K. 16. The Genome Revolution? Articles dont le prix est compris entre 10K et 15K , tries par prix decroissant. 17. A Study Of Reading? Ref. Bheem Cartoon Full? des articles et quantite totale vendue de chaque article. 18.

Pour chaque date, quantite moyenne journaliere darticles vendus. 19. Habits? Nom des vendeurs ayant vendu quelque chose le 13/01/2002. 20. In India? Afficher pour chaque nom de vendeur, le CA total realise en janvier 2002. 21. Habits? Libelle et prix des articles moins chers que la pince a listing (vous netes bien sur pas cense connaitre le prix de la pince) 22. Text? Libelle et quantite vendue de larticle qui detient le record de ventes journalieres. 23.

Liste des vendeurs habitant dans la meme ville que le vendeur n13. 24. A Study Habits? Ref. Who Was Of Egypt? et libelle des articles pour lesquels il ny a pas eu de vente. Exercice 1 : soit le model conceptuel suivant. 2. Of Reading Habits? les associations entre les entites ? 3. Essay? quels sont les types de ces associations ? 4. A Study Of Reading? selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms des auteurs? 5. The First Of Egypt? selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms, tel des auteurs ? 6. A Study? selectionner les codes, noms, prenoms, dates des naissances des auteurs qui realisons. 7. Text Descriptive? selectionner les code, noms, prenoms , dates des naissances des auteurs qui realisons. des exercices qui possede des difficultes ? 8. Of Reading? donner les codes d'exercices et sont types et ces nombres qui possede des difficultes ? 9. The First Of Egypt? donner les types des difficultes et ces libelles estimer ? 10. Habits? donner le code d'exercice et son type et sa difficulte qui lui possede ? Exercice 1 : soit le model conceptuel suivant. 2. The Genome Essay? les associations entre les entites ? 3. A Study Habits? deduire le MRD ? 4. What? selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms ? 5. A Study? selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs qui sont fait le match numero 2 ? 6. Influence In India? selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs qui sont fait le match numero 1 ? 7. A Study Habits? refaire question 6 en affichant le temps ? 8. At Three? selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms, prenoms et ces equipes ? 9. Habits? les equipes qui sont joue des matches ? 10. The Genome Revolution? selectionner les numeros des licences des joueurs, noms, prenom, l'action qu'ils.

11. Of Reading? selectionner les numeros des licence des joueurs, noms, prenom, l'action qu'ils faisant. et dans quelle match ? Epargnant (nepargnant ,nom,prenom) Ce Schema correspond aux places financieres ou sont cotes les titres (action ,obligations, ..)de lentreprise. Ces titres sont detenus par des epargnants. When Did Slavery In America? Un epargnant peut detenir plusieurs portefeuilles de titres qui peuvent etre geres par divers societes dintermediation. A Creer la base de donnees Compte en respectant le MLD ci-dessus. B Ecrire les requetes SQL suivantes : 1. A Study Habits? La liste des epargnants qui possedent le titre WAFABANK. 2. 2015 Movie? Les titres cotes a la fois a la place de casablanca et au caire.

3. A Study Habits? Calcul des valeurs des titres detenus par Mr SUBHI. 4. Cartoon Movie? Les titres qui ont progresse de plus de 20% depuis leur introduction en bourse. 5. Of Reading Habits? Suppression des titres du portefeuille n15 du monsieur hassani. 6. 2015 Full? Les actionnaires detenant laction BMCE et BCM. 7. A Study Of Reading? Les epargnants qui nont plus de portefeuille de titre. 8. The Genome Revolution Essay? Les societes dintermediation qui ne gerent plus de portefeuilles contenant le titre ONA. Prepare par : Ahmed OULD TEBAKH, ing. Consultant en informatique. 05 decembre 2006. Mots-clef : Merise.

MCD. A Study Habits? entite, association, MLD. The First? relation, traduction, MPD. 1 Modele conceptuel de donnees (MCD) 2. 11 Sc hema (mtite-assoriatioi) 2. 1.2 Cas particuliers 4. 13 Roules de normalisation 6. 14 Methodlogie 7. 2 Modele logique de donnees (MLD) 7. 2.1 Systemes logiques 7. 2.2 Scliema relationnel 8. 2.3 Traduction 8.

3 Modele physique de donnees (MPD) 12 4 Retro-conception 12. 5 Compleme nts 13. 5.1 Agregation 13. 5.2 Identifiant relatif 14. 5.3 Sous entite .. A Study Habits? . When Did Slavery? .. Of Reading Habits? 16. 5.-3 Sous-associat ion .. Text Descriptive? . Of Reading Habits? 17.

2 MODELE LOGIQUE DE DONNEES (MLD) 8. 2.2 Schema relationnel. Concentrons-nous sur le MLDR. Influence Essay? Lorsque des donnees ont la meme structure (comme par exemple, les bordereaux de livraison), on of reading habits peut les organiser en table dans laquelle les colonnes decrivent les champs en commun et les lignes contiennent les valeurs de ces champs pour chaque enregistrement. Les lignes d'une table doivent etre uniques, cela signifie qu'une colonne (au moins) doit servir de cle primaire. Bheem Cartoon 2015 Full Movie? La cle primaire d'une ligne ne doit pas changer au cours du temps et ne peut contenir la valeur NULL, alors que les autres colonnes le peuvent. Par ailleurs, il se peut qu'une colonne Colonnel d'une table ne doive contenir que des valeurs prises par une colonne Colonne2 d'une autre table (par exemple, le numero du client sur une commande doit correspondre a un vrai numero de client). Of Reading Habits? La Colonne2 doit etre sans doublons (bien souvent il s'agit d'une cle primaire) et on at three mile dit que la Colonnel est cle etrangere.

Par convention, on a study souligne les cles primaires et on what mile island fait preceder les cles etrangeres d'un diese # dans la description des colonnes d'une table : clients(numero client, nom client, prenom, adresse client, . Of Reading? ) commandes(numero commande, date, #numero client, . The First? ) - une meme table peut avoir plusieurs cles etrangeres mais une seule cle primaire (eventuellement. composees de plusieurs colonnes) ; - une cle etrangere peut aussi etre primaire; une cle etrangere peut etre composee (c'est le cas si la cle primaire en liaison est composee). A Study Of Reading Habits? La section suivante contient des exemples. On peut represente]- les tables d'une base de donnees relationnelle par un schema relationnel dans lequel les tables sont appelees relations et les liens entre les cles etrangeres et leur cle primaire est symbolise par un connecteur : Pour traduire un MOD en troisieme forme normale en un MLDR. Example Text Descriptive? il suffit d'appliquer cinq regles (a connaitre par coeur). A Study Of Reading? Mais avant, on text dit qu'une association entre deux entites (eventuellement reflexive) est de type : - 1 : 1 si les deux cardinalites sont 0,1 ou 1,1 ; - 1 : n si une des deux cardinalite est 0,n ou l.n; - n : m (plusieurs a plusieurs) si les deux cardinalites sont 0,n ou l,n. En fait, un schema relationnel ne peut faire la difference entre 0,n et l,n. A Study Of Reading Habits? Par contre, il peut la faire outre 0.1 et 1,1 (cf. Start In America? regles 2 et 3). Regle 1 : toute entite devient une table dans laquelle les attributs deviennent des colonnes. A Study? L'identifiant de l'entite constitue alors la cle primaire de la table. Par exemple, l'entite articles de la figure 9 devient la table : articles(numero article, nom article, prix unitaire de vente, . 2015 Full Movie? ) Regle 2 : dans le cas de deux entites reliees par une association de type 1 : n, on a study habits ajoute une cle etrangere dans la table cote 0.1 ou 1,1, vers la cle primaire de la table cote 0,n ou l,n. Who Was The First Pharaoh Of Egypt? Les attributs de l'association glissent vers la table cote 0,1 ou 1,1.

Et si la cardinalite est 1,1 alors la cle etrangere ne peut recevoir la valeur NULL (autrement dit, vide interdit). Par exemple, l'association livrer de la figure 9 est traduite par : fournisseurs(numero fournisseur, nom fournisseur, telephone, . Of Reading? ) livraisons(numero livraison, date, #numero fournisseur (non vide), nom livreur) ajoute une contrainte d'unicite sur chaque de ces cles etrangeres la colonne correspondante ne peut. prendre que des valeurs distincte- Les attributs de l'association sont alors repartis vers l'une des deux tables. The Genome Revolution Essay? Et si la cardinalite est 1.1 alors la cle etrangere concernee ne peut recevoir la valeur NULL (autrement dit, vide. Par exemple. Of Reading Habits? l'association resider de la figure 8 est traduite p. etres humains(numero personnel, nom, prenom, #numero appartement (unique), date d'entree, . When Did Slavery Start In America? ) logement(numero appartement, adresse, #numero personnel (unique), montant du loyer, . A Study Of Reading? ) En fait, la regle 3 considere que le type 1 : 1 correspond a deux type 1 : n symetriques. Mile Island? Autre technique : ajouter une table intermediaire dont la cle primaire est composee de cles etrangeres vers les cles primaires des tables en association et une contrainte d'unicite sur ces cles etrangeres (c'est-a-dire considerer le type ] : 1 comme un cas particulier du type n : m) : etres humains(numero personnel, nom, prenom, . Of Reading? ) logement(numero appartement, adresse, . Cartoon Full Movie? ) resider(#numero personnel (unique), #numero appartement (unique), date d'entree, montant du loyer) 2 MODELE LOGIQ UE DE DONNEES (MLD) 11. Par exemple, l'association concerner (1) de la figure 9 est traduite par : articles(numero article, nom article, prix unitaire de vente, . Of Reading Habits? ) lignes de commande (tournero commande, #numero article, quantite commandee) commandes(numero commande, date, . What Happened At Three? ) exemple, l'association vols de la figure 7 devient la table : . A Study Of Reading Habits? s(#numero avion, toumero pilote, toumero aeroport, date et heure, duree, distance)

3 Modele physique de donnees (MPD) Bien que certains outils (PowerAMC notamment) considere que le MPD et le MLD representent la meme chose, c'est faux. Who Was Pharaoh? Le MPD est une implementation particuliere du MLD pour un materiel, un environnement et un logiciel donne. Notamment, le MPD s'interesse au stockage des donnees a travers le type et la taille (en octets ou en bits) des attributs du MCD. Habits? Cela permet, de prevoir la place necessaire a chaque table dans le cas d'un SGBDR. Le MPD tient compte des limites materielles et logicielles afin d'optimiser l'espace consomme et d'optimiser le temps de calcul (qui representent deux optimisations contradictoires). Influence Of Television? Dans le cas d'un SGBDR, le MPD definit les index et peut etre amene a accepter certaines redondances d'information afin d'accelerer les requetes. Par exemple, la table commandes de la figure 14 peut etre supprimees et ses colonnes, notamment date, sont ajoutees a la table lignes de commandes. A Study Of Reading Habits? On renonce donc a la troisieme forme normale.

Une application pratique de la separation entre le MLDR et le MPD est le portage d'une base de nees d'un SGBD a un autre. Example? Par exemple, on a study habits peut traduire un MPD Access on who was un MLDR puis traduire MLDR en un MPD Oracle. Dans la majorite des cas, le travail du concepteur de bases de donnees consiste non pas a creer une. mais plutot a corriger ou etendre une base existante. A Study? Dans ce cas, la donnee est un modele lethode consiste a. The Genome? le traduire en un modele conceptuel, modifier ce modele et regenerer le modele physique modifie.

Il s'agit de retro-conception ou reverse engineering. bases de donnees relationnelles, il suffit de traduire le modele physique en un MLDR, puis d'appiquer les regles de traduction du paragraphe 2.3 dans le sens inverse. Regle 1 les tables dont la cle primaire est non composee (et non cle etrangere) deviennent des. entites ( les colonnes - non cles etrangeres deviennent dos attributs et la cle primaire devient identifiant). Regle 2 : les tables dont la cle primaire est composee (exclusivement) de cles etrangeres deviennent. des associations n-aires, ou n est le nombre de colonne definissant la cle primaire (les autres colonnes non.

cles etrangeres de viennent attributs). Regle 3 : les colonnes cles etrangeres restantes deviennent des associations binaires de type 1 : n (il reste a re-inventer leur nom). Regle 4 : les cardinalites minimales sont 1 si figure la. Habits? mention (non vide) et a retrouver par le bon sens sinon (0 par defaut). Influence Essay? Les cardinalites maximales sont 1 ou n selon que la mention (unique) figure ou non. Les extensions presentees dans cette section font partie de la version 2 de Merise (cf. Of Reading? [ ]).

Elles. permettent de traiter certaines situations reelles plus simplement. Exemple : dans un entreprise dont les representants vendent des produits dans differentes regions, une des regles de gestion est qu'un produit pour une region donnee, ne peut etre vendu que par un seul representant. Si on Revolution Essay se contente du schema de la figure 17, alors cette regle n'est pas forcement respectee. Of Reading? Il faut. L'agregation constitue alors une entite dont l'identifiant est compose des identifiants de ses propres. representants(numero representant, nom representant, . Text? ) regions(numero region, nom region, . Of Reading? ) produits(numero produit, nom produit, . The First Pharaoh? ) couvrir(#numero region, ftnumero produit. A Study Of Reading Habits? #numero representant (non vide), date et heure) type n : m (cf. Full? figure 19). Of Reading Habits? alors le schema relationnel ferait intervenir une table supplementaire. representants(numero representant, nom representant, . The First? ) regions(numero region, nom region, . Of Reading Habits? ) produits(numero produit, nom produit, . Cartoon Movie? ) couvrir(numero region. Of Reading Habits? #numero produit) vendre(##numero region. Of Egypt? ##numero produit, #numero representant, date et heure) une eut: du batiment numerote les factures relatives a un chantier par le numero du. -uivi d'un numero automatique. Habits? Les factures du chantier 14 sont 1401, 1402 et 1403 tandis que . The Genome Revolution? chantier 15 sont 1501 et 1502.

Exemple : les factures d'une entreprise font l'objet d'un reglement par cheque ou par carte. Of Reading Habits? Cette entreprise souhaite connaitre pour tous les reglements, leur date, pour les reglements par cheque, le nom de la banque et le numero du cheque et pour les reglements par carte, le numero de la carte, le nom de la banque et la date d'expiration. On a donc une entite generique reglements et deux entites specialisees cheques et cartes. Who Was The First? Ces deux sous-entites de l'entite reglements ont des attributs propres mais pas d'identifiants propres. Sur le schema entite-association, on of reading habits represente le lien qui unie une sous-entite a son entite generique par une fleche (cf. Example Text? figure 22 ).

La traduction des sous-entites au niveau logique relationnel fait intervenir une cle primaire commune ussi etrangere : reglements(numero reglement, date, nom banque) cheques(#numero reglement, numero cheque) cartes(#numero reglement, numero carte, date expiration) Remarque au niveau logique objet, on of reading retrouve la notion d'heritage. Exemple : une entreprise artisanale vend non seulement des produits a prix unitaire fixe, mais aussi des produits sur mesure dont le prix unitaire est calcule a partir de la duree de confection et d'un taux horaire. Dans ce cas. In India? non seulement l'entite produits est specialisee en produits standards et produits personnalises, mais en plus, l'association concerner entre les entites commandes et produits est specialisee selon qu'il s'agit d'un produit standard ou personnalise (cf. Habits? figure 23 ). On a alors les sov s-associations concerner standard et concerner personnalise dont le lien avec l'association generique concerner est represente par une fleche. Dans le schema relationnel, les sous-associations sont traduites de la meme maniere que l'association generique correspondante, mais avec leurs attributs propres : produits(numero produit, nom produit, . Influence Of Television In India? ) produits standards(#(l)numero produit, prix unitaire) produits personnalises(#(2)numero produit, taux horaire) coccndes(numero commande, date, . A Study Of Reading Habits? . Cartoon 2015? . A Study? ) concerner(#numero commande, #numero produit, quantite) concerner standard(##numero commande, 3#(l)numero produit) concerner personnalise(##numero When Did Slavery? ##(2)numero produit, duree)

Interets de la decomposition MCD/MLD/MPD : - le MOD permet d'eviter certaines erreurs de conception (en contradiction avec les regles de norma le MCD permet de voir facilement quelles associations de type n : m, non binaires ou reflexives sont en presence (c'est important) ; - le MLD peut etre obtenu automatiquement par des outils de genie logiciel ; - le MCD peut etre traduit en differents MLD coherents (notamment on of reading habits peut traduire un MCD en. un MLDR puis en une base de donnees Access tandis qu'en parallele le MCD est traduit en un. ensemble de classes Java (MPD oriente objet) afin de developper une application web sur cette base. Cependant, la methodologie Merise est typiquement francaise. In America? En Grande-Bretagne, la methodologie standard s'appelle SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis ans Design Method) et repose sur les memes principes. Habits? Les nord-americains utilisent ce qu'on appelle des diagrammes de flux dont les principes sont repris par la version 2 de Merise. Aujourd'hui, ce sont les methodologies objets et leur unification UML (Unified Modeling Language, autrement dit langage unifie de modelisation objet) qui tendent a remplacer Merise et ses extensions objets. Example Descriptive? Le lecteur est donc invite a se documenter sur le cadre UML pour etre a la pointe de l'etat de l'art en methodologie de conception. Table des figures.

2 Associations 2. 1 Identifiants 3. 5 Cardinaiites 4. (i Association reflexive 4. 7 Association ternaire 5. 8 Associations plurielles 5. 9 Normalisation des relations G. 10 Schema relationnel 8. 11 Traduction d'une association de type 1 : n 9. !) Traduction d'une association de type 1:1 10.

13 Traduction alternative d'une association de type 1:1 10. M Traduction d'une association de type n : m 11. 15 Traduction d'une association ternaire 11. 16 Sacrifice de la troisieme forme normale 12. 17 Mauvais MCD 13. 18 Solution avec- agregation 14. 19 Agregation avec une association de type n : m 15. 20 Identifiant par concatenation 15. 21 Representation d'un identifiant relatif 16.

22 Representat ion des sous-entites 16. 23 Representation des sou^-associa?ions 17. mon email est : Pour les reponses aux questions sur MERISE : il y a aussi l'excellente F.A.Q MERISE : je veux savoir est ce que le nombre des flux du MCC doivent etre egaux aux nombres d'operations du MCT? et merci d'avance. pour les ex de merise pour debutant je vous propose ce site: j'espere que je trouve celui qui va m'aider sachant j'ai un examen sur les systemes d'information dans 5 jours. 1/ Construire le MCD a partir des informartions recoltees aupres des utilisateurs et determiner ainsi les entites en jeux, les associations, les cardinalites ie les regles de gestions, les proprietes. 2/ Construire le MCT = cad traduire les consequences d unevenement precis sur le SI. Je comprend ce qu est le MCT . Of Reading Habits? Ce que je ne comprend c est a quel moment il intervient dans la realisation de mon SI automatise . Who Was Pharaoh? Je sais que le MCD se traduit facilement en MLd mais que vient faire le MCT dasn tt ca? 3/ Le MOT = comment se determine t il et meme question sur son action dans la realisation du SI. le mct va definire la circulation des docs etudies par expl l'evenemant declancheur c'est le depot d'un dossier (pour inscription) op: verification du dossier.

etat(resultat de l'op): dossier accepter ou dossier rejeter. pour le mot vous allez en + vous allez etre obliger de definir le type de l'op (manuel, automatique ou semiautomatique) c'est tous que je me rappel pour l'instant. je suis un etudiant en systeme d'information j'ai besoin queleque. donne sur l'analyse merise. Si c'est possible je veux quelques exercices sur MLT (guidage fonctionnel, NNI, dialogue) et la quantification des MOD de la methode merise version 2. le site que vous cherchez est le je le trouve tres interressant. si vous voulez je cherche un site riche en UML. Min ketata hajer. si c'est possible, je veux quelques exercices sur MLT(guidage fonctionnel, NNI, dialogue) et sur la quantification des MOD de la methode MERISE 2. je vous serai reconnaissant si vous me repondez. prendre comme le cas d'un debutant.

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