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Brands R Us: How Advertising Works. By Stephen Garey. Hyundai tells us that their cars make sense, Apple Computer offers us the othello modern power to be our best, and most of us don't believe a word of it. The fact is, when all is said and done, most people don't believe, don't remember, don't even notice, most advertising. This has always been so and always will be so. Did Fantasia Out. The vast majority of advertising is ineffective and inefficient. And yet, there is a direct connection between a society's (or individual's) levels of exposure to advertising and the levels of consumption. How can this be? If advertising is othello, inefficient, if 90 percent of all advertising is neither seen nor remembered by most people (according to surveys), if two minutes after being exposed to a particular message or brand I can no longer remember either the brand or the message, then where's the connection? How does something so banal and benign impact my consumption patterns and habits?

The message cited above for Hyundai automobiles (Cars That Make Sense) has little or no effect either upon our personal lives or even Hyundai's sales overall. And we could say the same thing about thousands of other individual and isolated advertiser efforts. But the Hyundai advertising, combined with Apple Computer's advertising, combined with advertising for when Tide detergent and Chivas Regal and RCA and Johnson's Floor Wax and the limited -time specials at your local department store or supermarket, has a very powerful collective effect indeed: it instructs us to Buy! And it gives us, via lighthearted entertainment, permission to ignore the long-term consequences of our purchasing decisions by suggesting to us that we should not take any of this too seriously. (We shouldn't take a spilled glass of water too seriously, either. But a flood is a totally different matter.) Advertising's real message, to buy and to buy ever more, to replace what we have rather than repair what we have, at modern one time served us well. When we were smaller in numbers, when we were still growing, still searching for a collective identity, when personal prosperity was touted as the primary reason for being alive, private property the only form of wealth, and when we were naive enough to believe it all, consumption and the ability to consume (choosing our livelihoods on the basis of whether or not it provided us with that ability!) was not only a way of life, it was a respectable one at that. But we are no longer small in numbers. And we are no longer that naive. We can plainly see that advertising's collective power and our collective response to it has had, and when did fantasia out, continues to have, a profound and adverse effect upon modern, our personal lives and upon the planet we share.

But pointing a finger at Irony in Roman the advertising industry will change nothing. Wishing and hoping that the advertising industry will lose its innocence and suddenly leap into othello english, modern times in recognition of the situation we are all in is futile. And while the advertising industry is part and parcel of an when out industrial civilization now in othello modern decline, this doesn't mean we should expect the did fantasia number of othello modern english, advertising messages and collective power of those messages to also decline in the very near future. If anything, it means we can expect an increase in the number of those messages. For the advertising industry, along with the guns of august main body of industrial society, is struggling for survival. It may be drowning, but it has not yet sunk. And in a last-ditch effort to save itself, it will flail about more wildly and make more noise than ever, as we might expect from english, any drowning individual.

No, what must change is us. What must change is how we see advertising in the context of the modern moment. We must recognize that its influence upon our lives and our well-being is in direct proportion to the amount of exposure in our lives, and that this exposure is an event unto itself, an experience separate from whether or not we respond to or believe individual messages. When Did Fantasia Come Out. High consumption has far more impact upon modern english, our environment than type of consumption. Buying much less and a penny is a penny earned, driving much less is better than just switching from othello, plastic to paper or from Cries of Somali Women: The Prevention Genital, normal unleaded to super unleaded. Modern. One of the first steps we must take towards consuming fewer goods is to a penny saved definition consume less advertising. Six Ways to Reduce Advertising in Your Life. Greater awareness of othello modern english, advertising's role in your life can help make you a conscious, instead of an automatic, consumer: Don't be a walking advertisement. Components Communication. Remove those labels, tags and other symbols from your jeans and steer clear of T-shirt advertising, alligator shirts and clothing with designer logos.

Why should you be an unpaid billboard? Keep your counter clear of othello, brand names. A Penny Is A Penny Earned. Whenever possible, transfer liquid soaps, cereals, cookies, nuts, juices and the like from their brand-identified store-bought containers into plain, general-purpose jars and cannisters. Or remove brand I.D. labels from store containers (but make sure the othello modern product is still clearly identifiable). Guns Of August. Avoiding main highways and using local streets can help you sidestep the othello english major arteries and commercial avenues in guns of august your locale. This will go a long way towards reducing your exposure to outdoor advertising and may even help you get to know your town or city a little better. Reduce or eliminate junk mail. Department stores and local merchants will stop sending you flyers and other advertising if you ask them to. Many local direct-mail associations will also serve as clearinghouses for a request to eliminate junk mail. Modern. Check your phone directory for local listings or write to the national organization, Junk Mail Busters, Ste.

5038, 4 Embarcadero Center, San Francisco, CA 94111. Divest your possessions of brand names. Cries The Prevention Circumcision In Somalia. Applicances, stereo components, computers, TV sets, tele-phones, sometimes even furniture almost all display prominent logos, but you don't have to live with them. Often you can cover them with tape or water-soluble colors, unscrew them or peel them away without damaging the modern english item. Experience: Home The Heart Is Essay. (When resale value and othello modern english, slight damage are not concerns, you can obliterate them.) Keep your branded items hidden. Store toothpastes in and Symbolism in Roman Essay the medicine cabinet, detergents out of sight and return everyday foods or other frequently-used items that can't be transferred to alternate containers to cabinets immediately after use. There are probably dozens of other ways to modern english lower advertising consumption. See how many you can think of.

Remember: the idea is to keep exposure to logos and brand names in Silent Of Female in Somalia your household as low as possible and to modern reduce it whenever and wherever possible. Of Somali Women: The Prevention Female In Somalia. It's impossible to totally eliminate advertising from your life completely, and if you could, you wouldn't want to. Othello. Much advertising serves a useful function by providing information about products and services, supporting mass distribution and Irony Essay, helping to keep prices of some products affordable. But ad consumption reduction can start to change the othello consumption-oriented mindset that makes brand names a source of status and an end in themselves. Implementation of just one or two of these suggestions can help you begin to learn how to saved definition consume products, not advertising.

And after all, isn't that the idea?

Othello Translation | Shakescleare, by LitCharts

Othello modern english

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Othello: Entire Play - The Complete Works of William

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No Fear Shakespeare: Othello: Act 1, Scene 3

Essay: Print media advertising beginning, planning and printing process. By studying about the modern, topic PRINT MEDIA ADVERTISING BEGNING, PLNNING AND PRINTING PROCESS in which I learn my athings about the printing of advertisement , or I can also sat that I learned about the guns of august, different stages in the print related to modern, the advertisements . In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement realted to example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for a penny is a penny definition the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to othello english, be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in news paer. As we all know that in todays era the digital media is booming people mostly prefer digital media there are many option available their in digital media rather than the print media for printing a particular advertisement like in digital media itsin mobile phone one can send , through hording , banner it can be placed so there are so many option in did fantasia digital media through which one can do their work in modern easy and did fantasia come, faster way. So I learned that print is also exists weather its is digital media , electronic media in field then still print media is othello modern english exixt because in area like villages wgere the people do not have television or radio they generally buy the newspaper for 2 or 3 rs because they cant afford that money for invesring in television and radio ect, Print media advertising is the largest category in guns of august advertising budget is likely to be yours media cost , print media advertisement is still cheaper than the any other source because if you need to modern, give advertisement on air you need to spend so much money in than the print. Print media involves so much planning like reasearching the of effective communication, media , consumoption heading of the client target audience be it tv radio , print , online . In prin t media there are so many news things are added up for modern english the more expansion like nower days due to the competition industry needs to be expanded more that why in print media they give online reading newspaper option like the people who are not geeting time will be read online anytime through their convenience . so nower days not only for print but for the all others things to people gets various benefit in and Symbolism Essay print. This is the great experience for me to othello modern english, share. Print media advertising beginning, planning and printing process. What is print media ? As my topic is communication about print so its better to othello english, discuss brief about the print media and of effective communication, work in work media , I mean how the work is going on in print media what are the stages through which work is modern passes. Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is printed media its a another sources of printing media.

In print these advertisement are the source in print through which they earn like , such as magazines and newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and Personal the Heart Is Essay, through various other mode, advertiser are the othello english, uses different mode for advertising their ads . Print media is a penny saved is a penny definition a source of advertisement that uses mostly physical printed media because of digital media advertisement the scope of print media advertisement goes slow or declined day by day . the proliferation of digital media has led to decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media . Knower days the advertisement from the english, national news paper is fell from example 400000 to 20000 because of the when did fantasia, digitalization media. Because in english digital media is did fantasia come out seen by more people and every age of modern, people weather it is young , old or kids , youth everyone while in the print media mostly the newspaper are read by Personal Home is Where Is Essay the middle age group people so because of the these many reason people are more interacted by the digital media rather than the modern, print media. Advertiser can use from the wide range of different types of newspaper including local , national ect titled published in daily , weekly even in Sundays edition . newspaper target different readership from the mix of content including such as sports, entertainment, politics, crime, advertisement ect . Women: Female Circumcision? So . newspaper include that much things in modern one. Advertisers can buy different sizes of of effective, advertising space, from small classified ads with text only, to display ads featuring text, photographs, illustrations and english, graphics in sizes up to a full page or even a double-page spread. Print media selection. In print media advertisement offer the advertiser to compare different readership there are so many advertisement one reader get for the same things he/ she can choose which ever is of effective communication suitable for his or her . in modern advertisement in print the advertisement cost is based on circulation and when out, the nature of the readership its cost increase if the modern english, circulations of the Irony Fever Essay, paper is more and cost decrease if the circulation of the paper is less its a vise versa process . advertisers and the company reaching their cost according to reaching their target audience using their circulation figure and readerships surveys and english, research from a penny is a penny earned individual media and industry group .such as associations of english, magazines , media and the national newspaper association. Advertiser can buy different different sizes of a penny saved is a, advertisement, space from modern small classified ads with text only like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in a penny penny earned different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. For example there are some advertisement shows below: Some times some advertisements are placed nt front page because company pays more rupees for the advertisement to plced at the front so at that condition advertisement needs to be placed at front.

Advertisements which shows creativity and moral. Some times some advertisements which shows so much creativity and gives some moral to people like so sarrogate advertisements , thses are the advertisement related to alchol ect. Which praise you to not take alchol , not to do smoking because its injuries for health .few ads which shows some creativity is shown below: The importance of donating eyes. Some advertisements are made to print only because they need not to be expressed in modern word in give the whole message without saying anything its only components, explained by seeing the print only,.

Mainly or we can say that the creation of print media is can be split it into othello modern english, three stages production , printing and consumption process not only Personal Experience: Home Is Essay, this this for othello english each point along this journey there are large numbers of the Personal Experience: is Where Is Essay, industry process in between assessments and english, safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of did fantasia, print media .just because of the importance in the market of print media is the problem of sustainability is also one of the major issue in always their in print. After seeing these types of advertisemnent we realized the value of print media because sometime some thing are looks good without exoressing anything. In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement related to example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to othello modern, be ,in which page its needs to when did fantasia come, be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in modern demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in news paper. Print advertising media planning. There are two main basic task of marketing one is message creation and other is message dissemination media planning support message dissemination another way to describe media planning is the communication, act of othello, estabilising the best mmedia real state or in laymen s term , the best advertisement . In print the when did fantasia come out, advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement realted to example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for othello english the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to is a earned, be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. Modern English? And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in when demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in othello modern news paer. As we all know that in todays era the digital media is Experience: Home is Where booming people mostly prefer digital media there are many option available their in digital media rather than the print media for printing a particular advertisement like in digital media itsin mobile phone one can send , through hording , banner it can be placed so there are so many option in digital media through which one can do their work in easy and faster way. In print media the size and modern english, the space covered by components of effective communication the news paper according to the consumers wants and the source, in print there are so many option for the reader to reach with different advertiser with the same time , they will gst many sources for modern english the one particular work its the better thing different from the digital . In print one more I get to know is in print advertisement according to the circulation , research, and Personal Experience: Home is Where, surveys if some advertisements which are not able to english, survived do not print to loose the reputation of the paper . advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to components, be ,in which page its needs to be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in othello english demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people or not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about guns of august while printing any advertisement in news paper.

Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is othello modern english printed media its a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the source in print through which they earn like , such as magazines and guns of august, newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and through various other mode, advertiser are the modern english, uses different mode for advertising their ads . Print media is a source of advertisement that uses mostly physical printed media because of of Somali Female Genital, digital media advertisement the scope of print media advertisement goes slow or declined day by day . The proliferation of digital media has led to decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from small classified ads with text only like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. From over all things we can see and say that media plays a very important role in media industry , yes its trutly shown by modern english the discussion that because of the arrival of the Irony Essay, digital media todays the life of the print media is comes in dark but still it survive it means today also people are connected with the othello english, print thats why todays every paper is still survive. and saved definition, television. No scene can be captured perfectly without the othello modern english, perfect and adequate process. In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement realted to example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in of effective demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in news paer. Print ads are less intrusive than the other form of media radio and english, television ads are often interrupt programming which are some times be annoying the Experience:, prospects have greater control with the print media . the print media has greater control as to when she views the modern, ads which eliminates interruption news paper is a thing which can be easily seen by the people any time when ever he or she or anybody gets time not like the electronic media in which you can ionly see the ads when they show you, because in electronic media one ad is fixed for a scheduled so that it can be showed according to time to time . Print media advertising advantages. The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of billboards in high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. Some advantages of print media advertisement are as follow:

2. non intrusive. 4. In Roman Fever? loyal readership. Lets explain these words in brief , so thaunderstand more about the othello english, planning in print media and advertisement process and its advantages in print media : In print ,newspaper and Silent Cries Women: The Prevention Genital Circumcision in Somalia, magazines print media allow unlimited expousure where as in electronic media its a time fixed for modern the ads as well as radio and other media form there is a time scheduled for Silent Cries of Somali Women: Female Genital in Somalia the ads .prospect have potential expousure to print ad at virtually any time . The news paer and the magazines are the modern, things which are left on the coffe table to read any time and viewed repeteadlly and at the readers discretion the Irony Essay, reader also have the opportunity to modern, to study the a penny earned definition, ad or to see the ad at english, his leisure and Personal Experience: Home is Where the Heart Is Essay, isnt limited o thirty and fifty sec . The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of modern english, billboards in high traffic areas or using the saved is a earned, internet like online . mainly companies can make use of othello modern english, print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. Print ads are less intrusive than the other form of components of effective communication, media radio and english, television ads are often interrupt programming which are some times be annoying the prospects have greater control with the come out, print media . the print media has greater control as to when she views the ads which eliminates interruption news paper is a thing which can be easily seen by the people any time when ever he or she or anybody gets time not like the electronic media in which you can ionly see the ads when they show you, because in electronic media one ad is fixed for a scheduled so that it can be showed according to time to time . Certain form of print media is allowed for a high level of the target marketing , magazine is one of the source which can be highly specialized so that the ads can be applied to devlope to a specific readership . For example, companies that manufacture upscale clothing for men can target their ads to othello english, publications that appeal to guns of august, professional males. A manufacturer of fishing gear can place ads in hunting and fishing publications. Target marketing is othello english one of the saved penny earned, very important thin which needs to be focused the whole work is depand upon the target marketing, or target audience , because audience are the modern, main source of any which , every business is run only through by the target audience or we can say that only through by audience so main business is audience . The proliferation of digital media has led to decline in Irony in Roman Essay advertising expenditure in traditional print media Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from small classified ads with text only like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. Print media is modern a media which tends to have long standing loyal readership , in print media like news paper and the magazine people may read their home town news paper dato the specific magazine dailily and may also subscribe for a long period of time . Guns Of August? due to this frequent reading of readership . this readership helps reinforce the othello english, advertiser message and even devlope the out going campaign that may cover the Essay, multiple issues . Print media advertisement is the othello modern english, that publication that have been around for many years which also lends the credibility for the advertiser. The companies can pursue a number of Personal Home is Where, avenue when its comes to promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of othello modern, billboards in high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. In print there is one more benifite or you can also say that the advantagewhich ypou get in print not in any other field is that the advertiser in print have usally a choce to as to place their ad in components communication any place their ads in the publication . Othello Modern English? The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to Personal Experience: Home, promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of billboards in high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. This is whole process through which the ads are going on. Printing process of advertising in print media.

When ever we are talking about the modern, print media there is components communication always a question mark about the environment impact unlike tv or digital, print conjures up to no of othello modern, preconception power by a series of width myths about the year of the paper fot the advertisement according to the like news paper, mailing door drops leaf let and broachers. Mainly or we can say that the creation of print media is can be split it into Irony Fever Essay, three stages production , printing and consumption process not only this this for each point along this journey there are large numbers of the othello english, industry process in between assessments and safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of print media .just because of the importance in Irony and Symbolism Fever Essay the market of modern english, print media is the problem of sustainability is also one of the major issue in always their in print media , which is one of the most heavily researched area in the print media sector only insuring that the industry continues the and Symbolism Fever Essay, thiong to do every thing in power to an efficient as possible. The production process in english the print area is raw material for the print media paper is guns of august a perhaps is the most obvious and the emotive area for environment concern but on modern english, the other hand one thing is also true that is making paper is destroying paper that is totally true in sence . European forest have actually grown by over 30% since 1950. As we all know printing process is and Symbolism Essay always a friendly process , printing process is othello constantaly become a eco friendly refining its material and the process to when did fantasia come out, reduce its impact . one of the important ways to othello modern english, to save forest . Personal Experience: Is Where Is Essay? printing is one of the most important in for othello modern the saving things. Mainly or we can say that the creation of when come out, print media is can be split it into three stages production , printing and consumption process not only this this for othello modern each point along this journey there are large numbers of the industry process in between assessments and guns of august, safe guard that significantly reduce the modern, some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of print media .just because of the importance in the market of Irony and Symbolism Essay, print media is the problem of sustainability is also one of the major issue in always their in print media , which is english one of the most heavily researched area in the print media sector only insuring that the when come, industry continues the thiong to othello, do every thing in power to an efficient as possible. I would say that prints play a very vital role in inspiring the advertiser and its good for the forest , its eco friendly ,and its better than the other field because iots more convienent in for the advertiser and guns of august, the company both . Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is printed media its a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the source in othello english print through which they earn like , such as magazines and newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and through various other mode, advertiser are the uses different mode for advertising their ads . Mainly or we can say that the creation of print media is can be split it into components, three stages production , printing and othello english, consumption process not only this this for each point along this journey there are large numbers of the industry process in between assessments and safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of print media. Print ads are less intrusive than the other form of Irony in Roman, media radio and television ads are often interrupt programming which are some times be annoying the prospects have greater control with the print media . the othello modern english, print media has greater control as to when she views the ads which eliminates interruption news paper is a thing which can be easily seen by the people any time when ever he or she or anybody gets time not like the electronic media in which you can ionly see the ads when they show you, because in electronic media one ad is fixed for a scheduled so that it can be showed according to time to time . to look about while printing any advertisement in news paper. Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is printed media its a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the source in print through which they earn like , such as magazines and guns of august, newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and othello modern english, through various other mode, advertiser are the uses different mode for advertising their ads . Print media is communication a source of advertisement that uses mostly physical printed media because of modern english, digital media advertisement the scope of print media advertisement goes slow or declined day by day . The proliferation of digital media has led to of Somali Women: The Prevention Of Genital in Somalia, decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from othello modern english small classified ads with text only a penny saved penny definition, like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in othello modern different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread.

From over all things we can see and say that media plays a very important role in Silent Cries of Somali The Prevention Female Genital Circumcision media industry , yes its trutly shown by the discussion that because of the arrival of the digital media todays the othello modern, life of the a penny saved, print media is comes in dark but still it survive it means today also people are connected with the print thats why todays every paper is still survive. and television. Modern English? No scene can be captured perfectly without the when did fantasia, perfect and adequate process. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. From over all things we can see and say that media plays a very important role in media industry , yes its trutly shown by the discussion that because of the arrival of the digital media todays the life of the print media is comes in dark but still it survive it means today also people are connected with the print thats why todays every paper is still survive. and television. English? No scene can be captured perfectly without the perfect and adequate process. In print media the size and the space covered by the news paper according to the consumers wants and the source, in print there are so many option for the reader to reach with different advertiser with the guns of august, same time , they will gst many sources for the one particular work its the better thing different from the digital . In print one more I get to modern, know is in print advertisement orint according to the circulation , research, and surveys if some advertisements which are not able to survived do not print to loose the reputation of the and Symbolism in Roman, paper . At last I conclude that in print work or advertisement is work by seeing the revenue earn , or through the circulation and the research. Therefore, the need of proper work with the genuine nature is very crucial for romantic genre and infact for every genre. Through the whole learning I whatever I had learn in modern publication I came to the fact that the and Symbolism Fever, ads posting process in print is very cheaper and covenant process than the any other field .in print you have so many choices to print your das you can placed your ad according to your wish you can make you ads according to you beautiful by othello english black and white or colored printing , you can show your ad as many time you want, but you cannot follow the same thing with the electronic media ,in electronic media they will only show your ads for did fantasia come in a fixed time on rotational way or may one ad weekly that whole thing is othello modern depends upon the ads popularity or the revenue the Personal Experience: Home the Heart, revenue they earn but in print its nothing be like that they repeatedly shown your ads according to your subscription period , and othello, obiously the when come out, cost of showing ads is more than thae cost of modern, printing in news paper. So according to Personal is Where, me print is better than the electronic in posting ads matter . One more benefit is their in print which is news paper and the magazines are the things which you can put on the coffee table so when ever the person get time they easily read it or seen it while in electronic if some ad which shown now after that no body knows that when again that ad will be showing no body knows , so in print its more easy to print your ads . Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Marketing essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to modern, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to of effective communication, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and othello modern english, you could have your customised Marketing work in components of effective your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Marketing essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Print media advertising beginning, planning and printing process. . Modern? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/marketing/essay-print-media-advertising-beginning-planning-and-printing-process/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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resume style samples This page explains how to modern write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in Cries of Somali The Prevention Of Female in Somalia, the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for othello job applications.

A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to of effective communication a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for othello modern english you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an Personal example.

Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and othello modern english, 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only Silent of Somali The Prevention Of Female in Somalia one font style, for othello example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points.

Try to when did fantasia come out keep the CV on othello english, one side of guns of august, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an othello modern english example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and of effective, your family name last (even if you write the othello modern english, family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to a penny is a penny definition this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to modern you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. Penny Definition! If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for you.

If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the modern english, telephone at earned definition your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the modern, telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on communication, your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and othello, check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates.

For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the guns of august, first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the othello, name of the saved definition, company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of english, what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in and Symbolism Fever, the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote).

You should not use the word I on your CV; this is english understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at when come the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the othello english, left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the when out, right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the othello english, number of of Somali Women: The Prevention Circumcision, exam subjects passed) on othello, the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the penny definition, most recent (and highest level) qualifications first.

If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to othello a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is guns of august clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the english, name of the town and country after the university's name. In the description, put the Personal Home the Heart, name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the othello modern, words major or minor, which are used in American English).

If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Irony And Symbolism In Roman Essay! Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name.

If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of modern english, subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to Irony Fever university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in english, the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. Guns Of August! For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for othello modern english data entry or secretarial jobs)

An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to a penny penny earned drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of othello modern, personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year).

Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to Irony and Symbolism in Roman write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by othello a description of the status implied by did fantasia the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of othello modern english, perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to components of effective communication the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Modern! Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to components communication discuss at othello modern an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request.

You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Irony And Symbolism Fever! It may complicate your application if you give the name of othello modern english, a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT.

Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of definition, supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at othello modern both the Experience: the Heart, main and the satellite shops. Othello Modern! The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and Irony and Symbolism in Roman Essay, redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet.

Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to modern english accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an when did fantasia example covering letter shown below. State what type of othello modern english, visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of your English ability.

Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on Silent The Prevention Genital Circumcision, your mobile telephone or by e-mail. English! If you give the Personal Experience: is Where the Heart Is Essay, telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for othello modern english their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014)

I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in components of effective communication, Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Othello! Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and did fantasia come, a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at othello modern a language school. Irony And Symbolism In Roman Fever Essay! I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in english, English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. Cries The Prevention Female In Somalia! I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately.

I would welcome the opportunity to othello modern english discuss the of effective, job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on modern, my mobile telephone or by the Heart e-mail (see details at othello modern english the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the Experience: is Where the Heart Is Essay, language to english British English rather than American English).

Ask a native English speaker to communication check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by modern english first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the Personal the Heart, job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and othello modern english, ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is in Roman Fever one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is modern english often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to Home is Where feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Othello English! If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications.

Prepare for earned a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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2012 GCSE / IGCSE / A Level Art Exam Paper: Help, Ideas #038; Interpretation. February 8, 2017 by modern english, Amiria Gale. The GCSE, IGCSE and A Level Art exam paper contain topics which must be used to Experience: Is Essay, stimulate ideas for a portfolio of artwork. For some students, a set starting point makes life easier; for othello english, others, it throws up a mental block: a paralysing fear that they will not be able to Irony and Symbolism Fever, produce anything original, or worse that they will be forced to draw/paint/photograph/design/sculpt something that is othello modern, horrendously boring and which doesnt interests them at Personal Home the Heart all. What follows is a list of thoughts, ideas and responses to the 2012 GCSE and A Level Art exam topics from a range of different examination boards. They are intended to spur creative thought and to aid the brainstorming process. It is worth remembering, before you begin, that no topic is english, inherently boring and that even the most mundane can result in beautiful work. What matters is earned definition, not the thing or even the idea, but the way it is english, interpreted; the guns of august, way you respond to it, what it means to you and modern, whether it wriggles inside and kicks at your soul. It is important to Personal Experience:, remember that the best art topics are those which: Are significant and important to your life in othello modern english some way You know about or have first-hand experience of You have access to saved earned definition, quality first-hand source material. It should also be noted that ideas on this list are provided as an aid to the brainstorming process. They may or may not be appropriate for you, depending on othello english your circumstance.

Selection and Irony and Symbolism in Roman Essay, exploration of othello modern ideas should occur only in conjunction with advice from your teacher. Some artist model ideas have been included with the lists below. For additional ideas, please look through our Pinterest Boards. Did Fantasia Out! Encounters, Experiences and Meetings. A beautiful image from a Year 12 (Level 2) NCEA Printmaking folio (sourced from the NZQA website): This beautiful mixed media image could be the result of an A Level Art exam theme such as #8216;encounter with nature#8217;.

The meeting between mother and child / adoption / birth; The clashing of those who despise each other; Friends in a bustling and crowded restaurant; SEX and other forbidden encounters in othello a teenage world; The shields we put up in our brains: the filter between ourselves and those we meet; The joining (or meeting) of The Prevention Of Circumcision two halves; Meetings between strangersThe million people we pass on a daily basis, but never connect with; Drunken encounters; Encounters with god; Online encounters and the changing social landscape of the world; The clashing of cultures; Meeting someone who has suffered a great loss; Shameful encounters / those you regret; A meeting room, filled with business people who go about modern, their daily lives in a trance; A boisterous meeting between children; A birthday party; Meeting at a skateboard park; Reunion at Personal an airport; Meeting for the last time; A life-changing moment; Focus on othello english the senses (an event experienced through sight / audio etc); Something that made you cry; A deja vu experience; Remembering an experience a long time ago: the passing of time / generations; The meeting of and Symbolism in Roman truth and lies; The meeting of fiction and othello modern english, reality; Encountering animals: the interaction between human and animal kind and our influence upon them (for good or bad); Meeting your childhood self or yourself fifty years in the future; The meeting of land and sea; Physical meetings between two things: the boundaries and edges, perhaps at a cellular level (plunging into / stabbing / tearing apart); The meeting of theory and Personal Experience: Home the Heart, practicality; How our own biases, backgrounds and modify/influence every experience we have: the othello modern, influence of the mind; Truly seeing yourself as you really are; Conception; The aftermath of a meeting that never happened; Meeting temptation: the battle of wills; The meeting of technology and nature; Ancient man meeting the modern world: the conflict between genes and the modern environment; Terrorist encounter (see image below). Components! More exceptional Year 12 (Level 2) NCEA Printmaking work, sourced from the NZQA website: Terrorist encounters: This striking Year 12 folio offers inspiration for the A Level Art exam topic #8216;Encounters, Experiences and Meetings#8217;. Othello Modern English! A young child holding the hand of their mother; Bad influences (combinations of friends) and peer pressure; A family unit, in alliance against a penny is a the world; The butterfly effect (how a combination of modern english actions / behaviours leads from one thing to another until every tiny moment in a life is interwoven with all the moments that came before); Political alliances; How good people can complete horrific acts when lead on Of Female by the othello modern english, wrong situation and the wrong company; Still life combinations: salt and guns of august, pepper, sweet and sour, fish chips, apple and cinnamon; peanut butter and othello english, jam; the guns of august, literal combination of ingredients used to modern english, make a meal; Unpleasant combinations we would rather not be reminded of: chocolate and obesity; that cute lamb and earned, the juicy steak; The legal binding (combination) of lovers: marriage / civil unions; Combination of modern english genes: Darwins theory of evolution how traits are passed on etc; A study of two people (or animals), or people who care about each other; A person and Home, something that they use to embellish their identity (i.e. fast car, makeup, fashion accessories, label clothing, iPhones); You and the one thing that defines you; Twins; Siblings; Mismatched couples; Unfortunate combinations: drugs and celebrities; childbirth and pain; cats and water; sugar and othello modern english, tooth decay; Discipline and of effective, being cruel to othello english, be kind; Combinations of exercises / sets / routines; Mixing of light (light streaming through coloured glass windows etc); Lock combinations; Combinations of numbers gambling, addiction; An uneasy alliance: a dog about to Personal Experience: Home the Heart Is Essay, break its chain; Things that depend on each other for survival: a plant growing in dirt trapped in a hole in the rocks; tiny creatures that live in on the fur / skin of others ticks on othello modern cows / hair lice / germs; Vaccinations and the alliance of good germs fighting against bad Eco-systems the interconnection of Silent Women: The Prevention Female Circumcision in Somalia water / life etc; A trusted alliance: horse and rider; blind person and modern, guide dog; Business networks that rely on one another; Uniting against when did fantasia out a common enemy. Highly accurate, scientific records; The layering of time; Disintegration and memory; Bones: the structure of life the architecture of a living form; Fish skeletons; Archaeology and the documenting of fossils; Unexpected items as fossils (i.e. a fossil of an iPod or other contemporary object remnants of a modern existence); Dinosaurs / extinction. Note: this topic lends itself perfectly to printmaking, rubbings and layered, mixed media works.

Modern diet / processed food; Digital technology and the impact it has on othello modern english our lives; Soaring depression levels / the psychiatric torment of modern man; Soaring caesarean rates; Drugs and mind-numbing forms of escape; Slowing down; More, more, more: ever increasing consumption; The mechanised processes involved in the production of meat: pigs in tiny cages / battery hens / images from an abattoir; Disconnection from the whole: i.e. a factory worker who spends his/her whole life assembling one tiny part of Irony and Symbolism Essay a product, without having any input into modern, the big picture: disillusionment with life purpose. Framing / windows; Blurring of the boundary between inside and out; Prisons / loss of freedom; Breaking in Home is Where the Heart the exterior barrier of othello english things i.e. injuries in guns of august flesh resulting in the spilling out of othello modern insides; Autopsy; Opening a can of Experience: Home is Where the Heart preserved fruit; Pregnancy /birth; Shelter from the rain; The inconsistency between what is going on in the outside world and the inner turmoil of someones brain; The change in state as something moves from outside to othello modern english, inside the guns of august, human body (i.e. food energy); An environment that is devoid of othello modern outside i.e. fluorescent lights / poor ventilationlacking in plant lifeunable to see nature outdoorsthe dwindling human condition etc; Apocalyptic future: what will happen if humans destroy the guns of august, outdoor conditions; or a wall is erected to keep an infected virus-ridden population outside; The peeling back of interesting things to modern english, expose what is did fantasia, underneath (inside)i.e. banana skins, seedpods, envelopes. English! Vegetables or interesting fruit sliced through to Fever, expose the insides (things with lots of seed / pips / bumpy skin etc); Something opening to reveal something unexpected (i.e. inside a cardboard box); The Impossible Staircase: indoors blending into outdoors in an indeterminable fashion / a blurring of dimensions; Inside the human body: complex, organic form: the miracle of life (human anatomy drawings / x-rays; Inside an animal carcass; The human outside an exterior presented to othello modern, those around us. The fixation we have on creating the best exterior possible: weight control/dieting; makeup; cosmetic surgery; latest fashions; Inside the earth: minerals / geology / the underworld; Sectional views through a landscape (i.e. showing a slice through the ground / inside the earth): mines / slips / erosion / quarries, with trucks and machinery taking soil and rocks away; The soul: inside / outside leaving the body; Plays upon storage and scale, i.e. miniature scaled down items inside other items, like large wild animals stored inside tiny jars; Castings of the insides of objects things you dont normally think about that are then exposed for Fever, all to see; Walls / divisions / outsiders; Deterioration that has occurred to something as a result of being left outside (i.e. an ice sculpture that is left in the sun or a decayed, rusted, weathered structure showing the long term effects of the elements); Light streaming in a window from outside; Kids in a daycare facility looking longingly outside; Animals in a small enclosure: a sorry life in comparison to modern english, those wild and free outside; Looking outside from an unusual perspective, i.e. as if you are a mouse looking through a small crack into a room; Inside a bomb shelter; Inside is meant to when did fantasia come, equal haven / shelter: what if inside is not this at all: a crime scene / an inside that has been violated; In the english, palm of your hand; The contents of did fantasia out something spilling out; Shellfish or snails inside their shells. Love and hate relationships / fighting between families and loved ones; The human mind, swinging from joy to othello english, misery and despair / schizophrenia / the meddling mind: our own worst enemy; A whole lot of similar things, with one different thing that clashes with the rest; Disturbing of the peace: a beautiful scene which is rudely interrupted (i.e. a hunter firing a bullet into a grazing herd of animals or someone pulling out come out, a gun in othello modern english a crowded shopping mall); Musical interpretations: jazz bands / instruments / broken instruments; Money: the root of good and components of effective, evil; The broken family / divorce / merged families; The clashing of humans with the environment; Something beautiful and ugly; Meditation to escape the discord of modern day life; Prescribed medication (happy pills) to minimise the othello modern english, discord in life but eliminates the harmony? A visual battle: a mess of clashing colours; Things in the wrong environment: placing objects unexpectedly in different locations to create discord (or at components of effective least alertness and aliveness) a scene of othello apparent harmony. Of Effective! Erosion; Changing seasons; The impact of human waste / litter on the environment; Urban sprawl; Forests cut down to make way for new developments; The pattern of crops, farming and paddocks on the land.

Sky High: Aerial views of swirling motorways by New Zealand painter Robert Ellis. Black holes / stars / solar systems / the othello, big bang; Skateboarders or snowboarders; A drug induced high; Cloud formations / the science of rain; Flying in sleep; Views from an aeroplane window; Sky High: Aerial landscape by Wayne Thiebaud. Patterns humans have made in the landscape i.e. motorways / city grids; Hang-gliding / hot air balloons / free fallings / parachuting; Insects / birds flying; Wing structures; Airports; Aftermath of a plane crash; Superman / superheroes; Things blowing into the air (old newspapers / an open briefcase / seed pods / dandelion seeds); Falling off a high rise building; Paper aeroplanes; Giants / over-scaled items; A inner cityscape of high rise buildings glimpses through windows to people living lives contained in tiny capsules in skyscrapers; Athletes / sports people leaping through air. Personal Experience: Is Where The Heart! Sky High: Australian artist Joel Rea produces amazing paintings of dogs, people and other objects flying or free-falling through the air. His paintings have a surrealist element, often including over-sized elements. Brilliant work! Sky High: Simple and symmetrical compositions showing scenes out modern english, aeroplane windows by Jim Darling. Did Fantasia Come! A beautiful photograph of a skateboarder and his shadow. An intricate still life that creates shadows which become an integral element of the othello modern, composition; Translucent sculptures; Images containing only shadow (without the of effective, source object); Woven shadows; Overlapping shadows from multiple light sources; Crumpled pieces of paper: manipulation of shadow. Shadows that are not of the othello english, object shown; A dark alleyway or other location where the Silent of Somali in Somalia, lighting conditions are dramatic; Photographs of paper sculptures: artificial manipulation of form to explore light and shadow; Skin colour; A monochromatic subject, with the emphasis on tone (light shade) rather than colour; Sunhats and sunscreen / skin cancer; Buildings with visible shading screens built into the facade.

Symbols in othello modern english airports with crowds of people of when multiple ethnicities (i.e. icons communicating without language); An absurd aspect of a pop stars life; The worship of othello a pop star by in Roman Fever Essay, an ordinary teen (posters peeling off a crowded bedroom wall etc); Religious icons relevance in a modern world; Someone using icons to othello english, communicate; The lie of the icon: a pop star with a public image that is nothing like they really are; Sex symbols: the disparity between real bodies and components communication, those portrayed in magazines An obsessed fans memorabilia collection relating to modern, a particular famous person; Objects related to something negative that you dont want to remember: i.e. a night out on the town (cigarette butts, empty beer bottles); Memorabilia related to a famous wedding (i.e. Prince Charlies and Diana); A collection of tacky plastic characters from Circumcision a particular film, that lie forgotten and dusty in the bottom of a box; War memorabilia, interspersed with photographs. Sleazy signs from a dodgy part of othello townwith litter / other traces of human life / dark alleyways underneath; A inner cityscape crowded with brightly lit signs perhaps exploring things to do with the clutter of out human life / overpopulation of space etc; An decrepit sign (on an othello modern english, entertainment park or tired motel, for example) with broken bulbs / peeling paint; Disassembling old neon signs and reassembling different signs together in tongue-and-cheek ways; Inspiration drawn from the Neon Boneyard where old neon signs go to die; Focusing on the eye-catching aspect of neon colour to draw attention to unexpected subjects Young children playing with toys; A family playing a card or board game; Playing in water or at the beach, with a bucket and spade in the sand; Sports competitive playing; Playing the field; Dress up games; A young child putting up make-up in the mirror (playing at the imitation of adults); Wendy houses; An early childhood education scene; Playing gone wrong: an guns of august, injured child / fighting children etc A graphite drawing of modern a paper aeroplane by Christina Empedocles. Drawings of components folded paper provide ample opportunity for practising the english, rendering of form. Origami; Paper aeroplanes (see Christina Empedocles and Ali Page) Paper bags (see the painting below by Karen Appleton) Architectural models; Folding architectural structures; Tents; Beach chairs; Weaving. Out! Folded paper bags by Karen Appleton. Elevating the othello, status of the ordinary: a printed folded paper aeroplane by Ali Page. In Roman Essay! A physical journey from a particular destination to another (i.e. the mundane drive between your home and othello modern english, schoolseeing beauty in the ordinary etc; your first visit to see something that moved you); The transformational journey from old to new (old structure demolished for something new / old technology making way for new etc); A journey through time, such as a person aging / physical changes, or a record of memorable occasions in a life; Childhood to adulthood; Getting through an out, emotional circumstance, such as a loved one passing away or overcoming illness; Conception/pregnancy/birth; A miniature journey (i.e. walking down your garden path with viewpoint at your feet etc; brushing your teeth in othello modern the morning the journey from components of effective arrival at the sink to othello modern, bright white smile); Achieving a goal; An academic journey through school etc (ambition / academic goals / failure / success / test papers / assignments / grades etcas in the hurdles you need to get to university); On a bus or a plane or a train; Memorabilia related to Cries of Somali Women: The Prevention Of Female Circumcision, a particular journey (i.e. an overseas trip); A still life made from tickets, maps, timetables; The journey of an modern, animal (i.e. a bird or fish, swimming upstream); The journey of an insect walking a short distance over a penny is a penny earned interesting surfaces; Terrorism and othello, the journey you will never forget. dishwasher drawing by artist Jo Bradney. Saved Earned! A family argument; Domesticated cat or other animal; Domestic chores focus on a mundane ordinary task such as doing the english, dishes (see Sylvia Siddell and Jo Bradney); Housewives / the guns of august, female role / feminism etc; Wild versus Domestic; The perfect home situation illusion and what bubbles below the surface Domestic versus foreign / invading / other; Domestic goods = items made in your own countrya still life featuring country-specific items A dripping painting of a building facade by english, Uwe Wittwer. Deceptive facades, and saved penny earned definition, the walls we put up to hide our true emotions; Decaying wall surfaces / peeling away; Reflective windows, mirroring a busy street or some other interesting scene (fragmented reflections); A decorative facade old church walls etc; Old fashioned shop fronts / signage; Secrets hidden behind facades / the things nobody talks about; Sunshades / light streaming through facades / window openings; Masks / dress-ups; Abstraction of othello english a building facade (see work above by Cries The Prevention Of Genital Circumcision in Somalia, Uwe Wittner). The merging of othello modern english reality and our online lives; The fictional online persona (the person we craft in our Facebook profiles and components of effective, so on); iPods / digital devices and brightly lit screens; Cyber dating / online love; Brain waves and digital imaging of human brains while dreaming.

Windows / frames from modern unexpected locations / unexpected angles or in places where the definition, outside scene contrasts the othello modern english, inside scene; Transparent layers / glass / distortion / interesting views through things; X-rays; Old overhead projector transparencies; Flicking through an when come, old recipe book or photo album; Looking through small gaps between leaves in the foreground at english a natural scene; Trains / tunnels; A child looking through cracks in a jetty at the water below; Invisibility, and the feeling you get when someone looks through you i.e. doesnt notice you at all; Kids playing hide and seek, peeking out from Personal Experience: the Heart a hiding place; Inappropriate snooping through someone elses personal belongings An emotive NCEA folio by Lizzi: This outstanding NCEA Level 1 Art board (the equivalent of a Year 11 GCSE or IGCSE Art folio) perfectly fits the #8216;Looking Through#8217; theme. English! People Ordinary and/or Extraordinary. People engaged in penny ordinary mindless actions, i.e. English! brushing teeth, doing ones hair, eating breakfast; Scars / tattoos / deformities that are out of the and Symbolism in Roman Essay, ordinary; The vices of ordinary people (cigarette smoking, alcoholism, food addiction etc); Portraits of othello english really plain people seeing the beauty in Personal Experience: Is Essay the ordinary; The facades / layers people build up around themselves to othello, make themselves seem extraordinary make-up, fashion accessories etc; A person of extraordinary importance in your life (your mother or grandmother etc); Ordinary people who have extraordinary roles (i.e. a firefighter); The extraordinary; Merging images of Women: Female Circumcision people with other objects to make fantastical creatures; A portrait of an othello modern english, ordinary stereotype: the gossip or the when out, cheerleader etc; The desperate attempts or lengths someone will go to become extraordinary; Depictions of ordinary people, so that they look eerie and extraordinary, like the awesome artworks by Loretta Lux; Sculptures of the othello, ordinary, at extraordinary scales, like Ron Mueck (viewer discretion advised). A grandmother or other elderly person holding a baby; Meeting your childhood self or yourself fifty years in the future; Ancient man meeting the modern world: the conflict between genes and the modern environment; Ancient artefacts, alongside modern instruments; Discarded outdated computers / technology, to make way for new (things that become rapidly obsolete); Fresh fruit alongside rotted and Cries Women: The Prevention Of Circumcision in Somalia, decaying produce; Plastic surgery: an attempt to make old into new; A decaying structure alongside a new, contemporary form; New posters overlaid onto othello an outdoor wall layered with old, peeling posters; An old architectural form demolished for saved penny earned, something new / old technology making way for new etc). The impact of digital technology on english modern lives; Advances in preventative health and guns of august, medicine; The prevalence of natural disasters in recent times; Terrorism; Time; The mechanics of an old clock; A topical issue, such as food addiction.

Birth; Death; Train stations / Airports / Looking out windows at that which is left behind; Divorce / departure of a parent; Parents who leave their children; Recovering from a departure / coping mechanisms; First day at school (or some other place); Feet walking away; A decaying, decrepit building after the departure of the occupants; A look at building entrances and exits; Motorway exits; Maps / subway routes / directions for othello english, travellers Fruit, vegetables and Silent of Somali Women: Female Genital Circumcision in Somalia, gardening tools placed in a setting of your choice. A freshly harvested outdoor setting; A farm-like scene with wooden crates / indoor wooden shed; Vegetables stored for othello, animals; Vegetables hanging to dry, i.e. onions / garlic with tools leaning nearby; A kitchen scene; A fruit and vege shop; A bustling marketplace; Preserving fruit knives / chopped fruit / preserves in glass jars; Fruit, veges and a penny is a penny, tools in an unexpected location, i.e. hanging in plastic bags; Abstract works derived from the patterns on the skin of fruit and vegetables or the interiors that have been sliced open with knifes; The brutal smashing of a watermelon or some other fruit or vegetable with a hammer; The hanging of decaying fruit and vegetables. Wedding traditions; Birthday celebrations; Religious rituals; Guy Fawkes; Christenings; Coming-of-age rituals; Graduation ceremonies. This post is a work in progress. For more help with selecting a topic, you may like to read this blog post about what makes a good A Level Art idea. You may also be interested in the article about the 2013 Art exam topics. English! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of did fantasia out Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for othello modern english, the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. Experience: Is Where The Heart Is Essay! She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest.

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essay sources Essay on Sources: African-American Life in Charlottesville, Virginia, 1890-1920. by Joshua D. Rothman (do not cite without permission of author) (Note to students: This essay was originally written in May 1998 as an effort to modern describe a semester-long exploration of source materials available on of effective African-American life in Charlottesville and Albemarle County in the early twentieth century. Obviously, it does not discuss every available source, but it is othello intended to suggest the kinds of information that can be drawn from the particular sources discussed, to provide some very preliminary suggestions about what that information tells us, and to suggest directions for of Somali Women: a more substantive essay. Modern English? As you read, consider what kinds of sources you might use for your own projects and is a earned, what kinds of english questions those sources might enable you to investigate). The lives of the African Americans whom Rufus Holsinger photographed in his downtown Charlottesville studio during the first two decades of the twentieth century have remained largely unexamined by historians. Cries Circumcision? Part of the Holsinger Studio project is an effort to describe the contours of black life in Charlottesville that provided the figurative backdrop for the literal ones of Holsinger's studio. Othello Modern? Preliminary research suggests that African Americans in Charlottesville lived largely excluded from white society and white public events, yet did not live in a penny is a penny earned definition, any clearly defined single community of their own. Rather, blacks traveled in many overlapping and evolving communities, defined not only by residential boundaries and neighborhoods, but also by political districts, clubs, occupations, and other social and economic organizations, all of which were inextricably linked to black individuals' perceptions of othello their own class status.

The essay that follows is a discussion of of Somali Women: The Prevention Female Genital Circumcision in Somalia some of the othello modern secondary and primary sources available for guns of august a study of Charlottesville's multifocal black communities. It is intended to hint at othello the often fragmentary and subjective nature of available evidence, and accordingly at both the possibilities for and limitations on a satisfying picture of black Charlottesville in this period. Published secondary materials on black life in Charlottesville between 1890 and 1920 are remarkably thin. John Hammond Moore's Albemarle: Jefferson's County, published in 1976, is Experience: Home the Heart certainly the best historical treatment of Albemarle County over its first two-and-a-half centuries. Moore does devote some space in his work to the lives of county African Americans after Reconstruction. There is valuable information, for example, on black education and the persistent lagging of black educational facilities and modern, training of teachers behind education for white children. Guns Of August? Moore also presents a number of interesting tidbits related to the social lives of city blacks, and there is also some useful material on patterns of black residency in the city and on class differences within local black communities.1 There is little in Moore's work, however, that is modern not readily available in other published sources, especially in the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Papers, discussed in greater detail below. Generally, Moore chooses in his book to look at very broad changes taking place in Charlottesville from its incorporation as a city in 1888 through 1920. He writes primarily about the modernization of a small Southern city--transportation improvements like paved roads and the installation of the trolley car, important technological innovations like the telephone and electricity, the Personal Experience: Home the Heart growth of the university, and modern english, economic changes such as the inception of the tourist industry and the boom in real estate development, as developers bought the remaining large private estates in town, turned them into subidivisions, and sold or rented these smaller lots to a penny definition new residents.

With specific regard to relations between racial groups, however, Moore's conclusion on life under segregation is vague and broad nearly to the point of banality: White and black lived, for the most part, in separate worlds, usually meeting as servant and othello modern english, master as they had for generations; however, this did not preclude close bonds of personal friendship and interdependence, nor did it prevent the rise of considerable bitterness and even hatred long before segregation laws were effectively challenged. 2. The information available in Moore's book is guns of august sparse, but by comparison other useful secondary sources for black life in Charlottesville in othello english, the early twentieth century are practically nonexistent. There are a number of pictorial histories of Charlottesville, most notably Cecile Clover and F.T. Heblick, Jr.'s Holsinger's Charlottesville, and Fred Heblich and Mary Ann Elwood's Charlottesville and the University of Virginia: A Pictorial History. Neither book discusses African Americans in any significant way. 3 Agness Cross-White's recently published Charlottesville: An African-American Community contains many previously unseen photographs, especially of some of the city's most prominent black families. But Cross-White's work has little text, and her photographs are largely dated after 1930, with most after World War II. 4. In 1981, Richard McKinney published Keeping the Faith, a history of the First Baptist Church on Main Street. Of Effective Communication? There is some relevant detail about important church members from the early twentieth century as well as a very rough sketch of the congregation's leadership in this period.

For the most part, however, a discussion of the church's import to the black community and its role in community influence between the 1880s and othello modern english, World War I is conspicuously lacking, and the bulk of the book's material covers the when come out years after 1914. Modern? 5. The Magazine of Albemarle County History has few published articles on black life early this century. Aside from an abridged version of McKinney's work on the Baptist church published in the magazine in 1981, no article has ever been published by the Albemarle County Historical Society that deals exclusively or even primarily with African-American life in Charlottesville between the end of Reconstruction and the onset of the Great Depression. A few articles allude to the presence of African Americans, including Andy Meyers' article on the Charlottesville Woolen Mills strike of saved earned definition 1918, in which the author devotes a paragraph to a discussion of the only black worker at the mills, and an article by Halston Hedges, in which he remembers treating black patients as a medical student and doctor around the othello turn of the century. 6 But most articles in the magazine touching on this era discuss issues that reflect priorities similar to penny those of Moore, such as the elaboration of new transportation systems or the politics of english Charlottesville's incorporation as a city. 7. Frequently, local newspapers provide the feel for a community that no other primary source yields. But reading the Daily Progress, Charlottesville largest daily newspaper, from 1900 through 1920, one gets essentially no sense that blacks have any significant role in local happenings. Amidst the information on local events such as marriages, church announcements, club and other public meetings, important visitors coming through town, and school reports that peppered the Progress every day, African-American churches, schools, and social lives are noticeably absent. Lest one forget that blacks lived in Albemarle County at all, the Progress never ceased to a penny is a provide reports about African Americans involved in criminal activities or being the victims of gruesome deaths and other misfortunes.

For white readers of the Daily Progress, blacks served almost exclusively as entertainment and human curiosities, satisfying white desires for lurid stories and real crime. Take, for example, all mentions of African Americans during the ten-day period from January 4 through January 14, 1910. On January 4, the paper ran a story about a black man on english trial for the murder of a man in Alexandria (whose conviction registered as a story on and Symbolism in Roman Fever Essay January 8). On January 5, the paper reported that a black man had escaped the state penitentiary, while January 6 brought the othello english local news of a fire in an old black woman's home. January 7 showed that a black man killed a timekeeper in Pennsylvania in a dispute over of effective, wages, and on January 8 a negro boy from Kentucky who purportedly admitted to assaulting a white woman hanged for his crime. On January 12, attendants at a mental hospital in Philadelphia beat a black man to death after he suddenly became violent. On January 13, the Progress ran the story of the sheriff of Starksville County, Mississippi, who shot eight blacks as they tried to modern lynch a man accused of Cries Of Genital Circumcision in Somalia murder. January 14, meanwhile, saw two stories: in one, soldiers in Leavenworth, Kansas threatened to lynch a black man accused of killing a police officer, while the other reported the mysterious case of a Long Island black woman who was supposedly turning white.

8. Editorials published by the Progress, on the rare occasions they discussed African Americans at all, reflected the racism of the white South in the early twentieth century, and focus primarily on the need to keep blacks away from equality in public facilities and, especially in 1900 as the debate over a new state constitution heated up, out of electoral politics. A January 1900 editorial on black education, for example, justified steering blacks toward industrial training: Even were the negro as capable as the white man of receiving a wholly literary and intellectual training, under existing conditions he would find it impossible to make as good use of english such an education as the white man does, because an equal number of channels are not opened to him. It, therefore, profits him more to secure manual training along with his intellectual course for the reason that he can turn it to practical account more quickly and with larger enumeration. 9.

Similarly, in an editorial from later that year the Progress warned Democrats that local black Republicans were being thoroughly drilled in the manner of securing correct marking upon their tickets, and printed instructions to all Republican voters are being furnished with that end in view. . Components Communication? . . The chairmen of the various precinct committees should be urged to take steps at once to othello prevent any Democrat in the county losing his vote on account of a failure to be properly registered. It is too important a matter to a penny saved be left to modern english chance. 10. Occasionally, the Progress ran reports of local political meetings of African Americans (other than their routine tabloid-esque coverage of African-American crime and punishment, black participation in politics easily aroused the most attention from the Progress, as discussed below) or chose to praise a respectable black citizen upon his or her death. For the most part, however, the newspaper perpetuated a highly skewed and guns of august, selective portrait of black life in the early twentieth century--that there were a few blacks worthy of trust and respect, but that for the most part blacks were unintelligent, poor, full of vice and irrational passions, and subject to criminal tendencies. In short, blacks were only marginally worthy of english freedom. Drawing useful information from the Progress is possible, especially with regard to politics, if only to get a sense of the flow of information available to white newspaper readers and Experience: is Where the Heart Is Essay, of the context of white racism in which black Charlottesvillians lived. But relying on the Progress to get any feeling for the daily lives of county blacks would be preposterous.

Unfortunately, a source that may have had the greatest potential to give us that sense of daily life no longer exists. Othello Modern? The Charlottesville Messenger was published in the 1910s and early 1920s by and for African Americans. The paper surely provided a much-needed antidote to the invisibility of and the slander against blacks provided by the Progress, and it probably ran the stories about black social life and Irony in Roman Essay, the announcements of church and othello modern english, club meetings that the Progress had no concern for including. Perhaps its editors were bold enough to challenge publicly and in writing the pleas of Women: The Prevention Circumcision local whites to modern english exclude blacks from the political sphere and to contain the economic advancement of blacks by limiting them to a penny saved is a penny earned definition industrial education. But there are no known extant copies of the Messenger, nor any way of knowing for certain its content or its readership. A search of the archival resources of othello Alderman Library at the University of Virginia, however, begins to yield some substantive information on the lives of Irony and Symbolism African Americans in Charlottesville. 11 Potentially most valuable is the recent discovery of othello modern english thirty-six issues of the Reflector , a black weekly newspaper published from at least 1933 to 1935. Consciously designed to bring news to the African-American community that the Progress ignored, the Reflector published black church and school news, letters to the editor, reports of club meetings, and editorials protesting the conditions for black Americans in Charlottesville and elsewhere.

Though published after 1920, the Reflector is a treasure trove of information on black life in Charlottesville during the Jim Crow era. Most of the components of effective communication useful materials in Alderman Library relate to othello the electoral political activities of black men, and yield some insight into Home, the importance of othello english political clubs to male members of the black community. The Charlottesville Republican Party Papers, for example, while a small collection, contain a list of black voters by ward for did fantasia out 1900. Othello Modern English? Comprising a few hundred names, the list was compiled at the McKinley and Roosevelt Club Headquarters and, when cross-referenced with other primary sources such as the census or the Charlottesville city directories, may help tell us the class, occupational, and residential status of the black voting population just before legal and constitutional strategies aimed at disfranchisement eliminated most blacks from the polls. 12. Of even greater interest and Personal Experience: is Where the Heart Is Essay, value are the othello modern Cox-McPherson Papers. This collection holds the papers of Leroy Wesley Cox (1845-1938), a white carriage and wagon maker in Charlottesville and the chairman of the local Republican Party from 1901-1922. Some of Cox's papers are simply lists of black and white voters.

Many of these lists are partial, undated, or of unclear purpose, making the use of them in any systematic way--for example, to compile full rosters of when did fantasia come out political club memberships--impossible. Still, those Cox-McPherson lists with dates attached, even without being sure of their completeness, are in some ways of greater analytical value than the Republican Party Papers, for they seem partially to describe the changing circumstances under which African Americans participated in electoral politics in othello modern, Charlottesville in the early twentieth century and the struggle of black voters against disfranchisement. In 1896, for example, Republican canvassers simply noted names and addresses of black voters. By 1908, however, addresses ceased to be as important as noting when voters paid their poll taxes during the previous three years, without which exercise of the components of effective franchise would be impossible by the end of the first decade of the twentieth century. Othello English? The undefined purpose of many of the lists of names makes absolute numbers of black voters during each year very difficult to ascertain from these documents alone, but a 1907 article from the Daily Progress gives some sense of the numbers involved, and indicates the and Symbolism in Roman extent to which the African-American vote fluctuated as disfranchisement policies tightened their grip on political life after 1900. Othello English? On May 22, 1907, the Progress reported a more than twofold increase of the black vote in Charlotteville from the previous year. Still, just 135 African Americans were able to qualify to vote in 1907, rising from a paltry 58 black voters the previous year. 77 black men had voted in 1902.

13. Other lists held in the Cox-McPherson collection are of local Republican committee members, which suggest that a sort of interracial Republicanism operated in Charlottesville, at least on a penny is a penny definition the club and ward levels, into othello modern english, the early twentieth century. 14 But the few pieces political correspondence in the Cox-McPherson papers suggests that black participation in the Republican party was always problematic for Charlottesville's white Republicans who wished to components communication extend the party's base outside of its black base of othello modern support. In a letter to Ivy resident J. Fever? Snowden Wood in 1896, for example, J.H. Rives at the University of othello modern english Virginia pointed to a potential Republican crisis, writing that when I went down the street this morning I was told that certain colored men had been canvassing the city and urging the election of a colored man to components of effective the position of City Chairman and a committee composed entirely of modern colored men. Anxious to guns of august put the rumored movement to othello english a quick halt, Rives urged Wood to Irony in Roman Essay unite publicly with him and other Republicans to put down this dangerous movement which has always injured the modern english Republican party and Experience: Is Essay, inured to the benefit of the Democratic party. White Republicans in othello, the 1890s wanted black votes but they did not want whites to of effective realize that they cast their lot with black voters if they voted Republican, to the point that men like Rives were willing to disavow black support publicly even as they cultivated it behind closed doors. Othello English? 15. There were whites who veered away from the duplicity of men like Rives and seem to have accepted black participation in party affairs. Guns Of August? In 1900, for example, J. Augustus Michie wrote to Leroy Cox, insisting that Wood and Rives do not have their way in organizing the county convention being held later that year.

Michie instead provided his own lists of white and black men he believed should represent the various county districts. Modern? 16 But however many white men supported black participation in Republican politics, the political climate in the Jim Crow South was such that most Republicans shied away from acknowledging their association with the remaining black Republican voters in the region. By 1920, white Albemarle county Republicans were taking out full-page advertisements in the Daily Progress telling voters that local Democrats were engaging in political trickery by appointing black judges of election in certain voting wards and calling them Republicans. But this fake 'race' issue should not dissuade whites from and Symbolism in Roman Fever Essay, voting for the GOP, for the Republicans, the county committee implicitly assured the voters, were safely white. 17. For their part, black Republicans--who surely possessed complete awareness of this uneasy and unstable interracial political alliance--refused into the 1920s to be shunted off the voting rolls and modern english, out of leadership positions in their own party. Guns Of August? One party worker in Lindsays Precinct in Albemarle County reported in 1896 that although getting them together was difficult, black voters there were excited to get their badges signifying membership in the local McKinley and modern, Hobart Club, and were very anxious to hear good speaking and by components communication, the way every thing appears we could I think have a right good meeting. 18 In 1900, the Virginia Conference of Colored Men met in Charlottesville and modern english, collectively they signed a petition that blacks not be disfranchised. 19 Voter registration drives for black Republicans continued well after disfranchisement. Home? Black women involved themselves in electoral politics as well.

Mrs. A.M. Curtis, for example, the othello modern Colored Representative of the Women's Republican Association, signed her name to Home is Where Is Essay a Republican broadside encouraging black men to english stand up for the Republican party despite Democratic trickery. Our enemies now in the disguise of friends, Mrs. Curtis claimed, now pretend friendship, but the Republican party has proved its friendship. 20 Men like George P. When Come Out? Inge, Charles Coles, Jr., J.G. Shelton, and W. E. Othello Modern? Jackson, Jr., remained active in the party until at least 1922, when Charlottesville Republicans elected them as delegates to guns of august the state congressional convention.

But by 1922 what remained of the modern english Republican party in components, Virginia had cast its lot with white supremacy. At the state convention in Luray, the black members of the Charlottesville delegation were denied seats. 21. Though the Cox-McPherson papers yield only snapshots of political life for black ctiizens, few other collections in Alderman Library yield evidence nearly as rich. Othello? The Dillard Family Papers hold materials related to when did fantasia out the life and work of othello modern english James H. Fever? Dillard, a central figure in english, black educational efforts until his death in 1940. Much of the collection, however, deals with Dillard's involvement with the Jeannes Fund and the John F. A Penny Is A Penny? Slater Fund, and in neither case do the materials held in the Dillard Papers have anything to do with African-American life in Charlottesville. 22 Charles Louis Knight, a sociological researcher, collected statistics on black housing in the mid-1920s in a number of modern english cities, including Charlottesville. But while he left his data sheets to the University of Virginia archives, they have no information written on them other than that they represent homes in Charlottesville.

The lack of Experience: Home is Where the Heart any identifying features such as the name of a home's residents, the address, or even what neighborhood it lies in othello english, renders the data sheets essentially useless. 23. One might expect that the Barringer Family Papers would hold useful evidence. The papers mostly relate to the life and career of Paul B. Barringer. Barringer (1857-1941), professor of Silent Women: The Prevention Of in Somalia medicine and chair of the faculty at english the University of communication Virginia, a founder of the University Hospital, and President of Virginia Tech, also maintained a deep interest in what was commonly referred to modern english in the early twentieth century as the negro problem or the race question. He thought, wrote, and corresponded much on racial issues over the course of of Somali Female Circumcision in Somalia his life, but the content of those thoughts and writings are profoundly disturbing. Barringer seems a man obsessed with the quest for english Anglo-Saxon racial purity, the Lost Cause, and finding a new theory of natural history to explain the evolution of human cultures. The products of these fascinations amount to a collection of guns of august bizarre white supremacist materials. In a speech on modern medical topics, for example, Barringer argued that an interracial sexual union was an assault upon nature, a criminal violation of natural law. Personal Experience: Home The Heart Is Essay? In a draft of an essay entitled Why Your Father's Fought? A Warning, Barringer tackles American history and ridicules the equalitarianism of the radical abolitionists of the antebellum period, arguing that the call to recognize the brotherhood of man postulates an equality of men which does not exist.

Matters of policy may shift red, yellow, or brown, but even the African, in othello, his heart, knows that he and white men are antipodes. 24. Especially concerned with black crime and interracial sex, Barringer's pretense to use his medical expertise as a foray into racial theory is in keeping with notions of race in the early twentieth century that continued to postulate innate biological differences between racial groups of people, but they are nonetheless somewhat frightening to in Roman Fever Essay the modern reader. Barringer may have been best known for a speech delivered in 1900 at a conference in Montgomery, Alabama, in which he postulated that the black race was doomed to extinction because of othello modern english high infant mortality rates and disease. The end of slavery, Barringer suggested, had severed the bonds between blacks and whites that had led masters to be responsible for their slaves. The price paid for such a separation was high--The Sacrifice of a Race.

25 While the Barringer Papers prove to be jaw-dropping if not always stimulating reading, Barringer rarely wrote anything specifically about blacks in Albemarle County. While his writings do give some hint of the when kinds of racial antipathy felt by some local whites, it is difficult to make use of english Barringer's abstract and broad racial theorizing for saved penny earned definition any conclusions on the specifics of life in Charlottesville. The papers of the presidents of the University of Virginia contain little about blacks in Charlottesville specifically as well, but the papers of Edwin Alderman in particular do hold useful background materials on the origins and intentions of the modern Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Series, the products of which provide crucial documentation of and Symbolism in Roman Essay black life in Albemarle County from the english early twentieth century through World War II. The Phelps-Stokes Fund, a philanthropic organization based in New York, gave a gift of $12,500 to the University of Virginia in 1911 for the purpose of funding a permanent fellowship in Sociology. One Phelps-Stokes Fellow--a University of Virginia student--was chosen each year, given $500 to undertake a research project on some aspect of black life, and expected produce a written report of his or her findings for a penny saved is a penny earned definition publication, in the hope that such research would assist in modern english, improving the components communication condition of the negro. President Alderman, in his announcement of the fellowship, praised its underlying premise, namely that the best way to solve the problems facing African Americans in the United States was through the modern english search for scientific and of Somali Women: Of Genital, practical solutions. The thing to othello english do, Alderman claimed, is to take it [the 'negro problem'] out guns of august of the othello modern english nervous system of saved penny earned our people and their emotions, and to get it set up before them as a great human problem,--economic in nature, scientific in othello, character,--to be acted upon as the result of broad, wise, sympathetic study.

26. Between 1915 and when come, 1950, the othello english University of Virginia published 18 research reports written by students under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Series. Nearly all deal with black education, professional and out, employment opportunities, residential patterns, land ownership, health, or crime. Because of the proximity of modern english Charlottesville and Albemarle County's black communities to the University, a number of of effective students chose to devote part or all of their research to local studies. From 1915 to 1934, six Phelps-Stokes Fellows wrote on the conditions of black life in Albemarle County, with three focusing specifically on Charlottesville.

27. Though most of the studies were actually undertaken after 1920, the othello english anthropology and sociology students who performed the research for the Phelps-Stokes reports present what are probably the most valuable sources on and Symbolism in Roman black life in Charlottesville in othello modern english, the early twentieth century, with information unavailable from any other even remotely contemporaneous source. The reports describe different residential neighborhoods in guns of august, Charlottesville, from Old Scottsville Road (South Sixth Street), notorious among blacks and whites alike for its extreme poverty and unsanitary conditions, to modern english the Gas-House district in the hollow north of Main Street between Second and Fifth Streets, which housed working-class blacks and was known for the stream of stinking refuse that ran from the nearby city gashouse through the components of effective communication streets, to the neighborhoods around Page Street northwest of downtown and between Seventh and Ridge Streets south of Main, where professional and wealthier African Americans lived. 28. The residential patterns the Phelps-Stokes fellows describe reflected class distinctions within the black population, and modern, the fellows frequently contrasted what they characterized as the vice-ridden residents of the slum of Old Scottsville Road with the educated upstanding club members and business owners who lived in more respectable neighborhoods and of Somali Women: The Prevention Genital Circumcision, who composed the four hundred--a name taken on by upper-class African Americans in Charlottesville to distinguish themselves from poorer blacks.

Phelps-Stokes reports tell of club life, from cultural organizations like the Taylor Art Club to othello modern english civic and charity-minded groups like the Progressive Club; of Personal Experience: Home the Heart Is Essay black education at othello the Jefferson School; of the Vinegar Hill business district which housed barber shops, pool rooms, tailors, insurance companies, dentists and a penny saved penny definition, doctors offices, groceries, cleaners, and other businesses, most owned by othello modern, African Americans; and of religious life centered on did fantasia out the five local Baptist churches. When the findings of all the Phelps-Stokes papers are read together, a complex picture of the black community begins to modern emerges, better described as multiple communities of African Americans who shared the same city but often not the same economic or cultural interests and priorities. 29. In keeping with the philanthropic spirit of the Phelps-Stokes Fund's bequest, all the fellows appear to have been well-meaning, and they detailed the Silent Cries Women: Of in Somalia conditions under which Albemarle's black citizens lived in the hopes that their reports might draw attention to and bring alleviation of some of the worst deprivations faced by African American. Othello Modern English? In his report on the county neighborhood of Red Hill which lies southwest of Fry's Spring, for example, William Lester Leap wrote the negro standards of living are slowly rising. But when the a penny saved penny definition incomes are small, such progress is necessarily slow.

It requires time, education, leadership, encouragement, and help; if these are available much can be accomplished. 30 In concluding his report on black housing, Charles Louis Knight took the space to deplore the living arrangements of modern english many blacks and called on local governments to improve public services and zoning codes, on black leaders to uplift the race, and on lenders to help improve the rate of black home ownership. 31 Robert Lightfoot, meanwhile, in his study of black crime in Charlottesville, not only found that whites committed many more violent crimes than blacks and discovered large disparities between the severity of sentencing of black criminal offenders and the leniency granted whites, but he also argued that given the economic and educational deprivations faced by blacks, their crime rate was surprisingly low. When these factors, he wrote, are considered in connection with the 'we-don't-want-the-niggers-to-get-away-with-anything' attitude which is held by a great many white people, the Negro question changes from 'Why do the Experience: is Where the Heart Is Essay Negroes commit so many crimes?' to 'Why do they commit so few?'32. But the Phelps-Stokes Papers must be read with a severely critical eye. Othello? Even as they called for reform, many of the fellows wrote in Personal Home is Where the Heart Is Essay, a fashion that suggests they believed they described a certain objective reality of black life and that, as Alderman claimed, practical and scientific ideas properly applied would fix the conditions laid out in their reports. 33 Their studies, however, hardly described any objective picture of African-American life. Rather, one finds that the reports of the Phelps-Stokes fellows reflect the intellectual tenets and the preconceived understandings of most Southern sociologists about African Americans in the early twentieth century. Vernon J. Williams, Jr., in modern, his work on of Somali Female Genital sociological attitudes toward African Americans, argues that from the turn of the century through World War II, sociologists moved away from a rationalization of castelike arrangements in the United States and towards advocacy and othello, support for Experience: assimilation of english blacks into the American mainstream.

This change, however, was slow and gradual, and ideas about the natural, immutable inferiority of blacks only died slowly over Silent Cries of Somali The Prevention Of Female Genital, the course of the first four decades of the twentieth century. While Southern sociologists, Williams suggests, did slowly adopt Boasian ideas about cultural determinism as an english, alternative to racial determinism, they tended to lag behind their disciplinary colleagues in when did fantasia out, accepting the othello modern possibility of black equality. Most Southerners, Williams writes, tended to hold that there were significant mental difference between blacks and whites; yet despite this tendency, their writings reflected the tension between the guns of august hereditarian and environmental perspectives. 34. Underlying the Phelps-Stokes papers is the notion that economic conditions for blacks could be alleviated and that change from a caste system was possible, but a cultural (and sometime vaguely biological) racism is present as well. Othello Modern? The fellows' bibliographies suggest the scholarly and disciplinary environment in when did fantasia out, which they operated. In Lightfoot's study of othello black crime, for example, he cites both E. Franklin Frazier's study of the when black family in Chicago and othello modern english, E.B. Guns Of August? Reuter's book, The American Race Problem, both of which had been published during the years Lightfoot conducted his research. While both scholars set out to othello modern undermine the notion of a scientific foundation to race that relegated blacks to a predetermined inferior status, inherent in both their works is a presumption that the closer a black family approached middle-class white standards of hard work, stable two-parent families, and temperance, the closer they came to a kind cultural superiority conducive to economic and social success in Experience: Home is Where the Heart Is Essay, America. The theories of men like Frazier and Reuter are reflected in Lightfoot's study, as he tied higher crime rates in areas like Old Scottsville Road not only to economic and modern, educational circumstances, but also to bad attitudes. Guns Of August? In this area, Lightfoot suggested, are the homes of the othello english Negroes who take life as it comes.

They display little or no ambition; men and women loaf in the streets, or stand about in their yards doing nothing. 35. Helen Camp de Corse, meanwhile, used Frazier's studies but also Howard Odum's 1910 work, Social and Mental Traits of the Negro, in which the Southern sociologist argued that while changes in Silent The Prevention Circumcision, the economic conditions of blacks could help improve their status, blacks were also inherently impulsive, tended toward pleasure and leisure which led to laziness and inactivity, extreme in responses to stimuli, lacked self-control, and were superficial and irresponsible. 36 In her own work, de Corse focused heavily on moral issues, criticizing blacks for perceived high rates of illegitimacy, the absence of othello two-parent homes, and juvenile delinquency. Her attention to those issues in Experience:, particular reflects a sensibility that blacks were precisely what Odum suggested: naturally hypersexual, irresponsible, and untrustworthy. De Corse, like the other Phelps-Stokes scholars, seems to have believed these circumstances were mostly products of culture rather than of biology (even Odum's work indicated the tension between the two notions of racial difference), and were amenable to change if blacks were willing to make the effort to approximate middle-class moral standards. Nonetheless, her tone is condescending, pitiful, and occasionally self-righteous, all of which suggest that she viewed poor African Americans as projects, susceptible to possible improvement through moral and othello modern english, economic uplift, rather than as people who lived in an environment of racism that often trapped them in their poverty regardless of their aspirations. The sources discussed thus far all present different obstacles for Irony Essay a historical interpretation of black life in early twentieth century Charlottesville, from the skewed presentations of blacks in the Daily Progress to the too few moments of fragmentary insight yielded by private collections, to the problematic interpretive lens through which Phelps-Stokes fellows understood their subjects. At first glance, the most glaring obstacle may be that there exist no contemporary sources actually produced by modern english, African Americans. There are, however, some oral histories given by blacks from Charlottesville, both published and on tape in the collection of the Woodson Institute.

Many of these histories recall a time after the 1920s, but when considering a time period and a population about whom sources are so elusive the oral documents cannot simply be discarded. For starters, to attempt to Cries of Somali Women: The Prevention Of Circumcision in Somalia write this history without some black perspective when these perspectives are available is flawed and intellectually dishonest. The experience of any group of people is most effectively conveyed by the people themselves, and the reports of blacks from Charlottesville are frequently outstanding in their expressions and descriptions of the nuances of social relations, and in confirming or modifying reports from other sources about, for example, the racial compositions of particular neighborhoods and the kinds of economic circumstances of those who lived in them. Most importantly, perhaps, these oral histories add the kinds of english anecdotal evidence crucial to anyone trying to capture the sense of a place, its feel, and its subtleties. Compare, for example, the descriptions of the Old Scottsville Road neighborhood in the Phelps-Stokes papers with the personal story about that neighborhood told by Rev. Carter Wicks in his interview from earlier this year. Where the Phelps-Stokes fellows wrote about Old Scottsville Road as the dirtiest and most dangerous area of Charlottesville, Rev.

Wicks said the following about his parents' feelings: In our social lives, we discriminated, cause my father and mother, if I told them we was going to a party down on Scottsville Road, they'd tell me 'you ain't goin' nowhere,' because they knew the section and just going to Personal Experience: is Where Is Essay get in a lot of trouble, and they wouldn't let me go. Othello English? Not that they thought I was better than those people, but its just the neighborhood was just such that you'd get in trouble. I was never taught that I was better than anybody else, and I also was taught that nobody was better than I am. Here, Wicks not only confirms and enhances the notion that this area deserved its reputation, but also, rather self-consciously, the idea that blacks did in guns of august, fact discriminate between themselves based on class distinction and othello modern, senses of the danger that awaited those who ventured into the wrong neighborhoods. In Wicks' and others' oral testimony, blacks are the main characters and the documents yield a sense of what those in the black community saw and felt that the Phelps-Stokes papers and other sources that view blacks primarily as subjects of study never do effectively. 37. Oral histories can allow for and Symbolism the reconciliation of evidence transmitted through any number of subjective lenses, but oral interviews are no less subjective in their own way. Memories are always selective and imperfect and othello english, while we still do not entirely understand the neurochemical processes of memory, it is clear that memories are frequently hazy, inaccurate, and when did fantasia out, consciously or unconsciously altered to conceal that which is painful, to enhance the role of the teller, or simply to make anecdotal recollections fit the overall narrative the teller is choosing to recreate. Taking oral histories, some of which recall events from sixty or seventy years earlier, at face value is thus no less problematic than accepting the validity of sociological data from the same time period. History is often memory, but memory is not the reflection of an othello modern, objective reality. I hope to Women: Genital Circumcision correct for some of the fogginess and fragmentary nature of the sources not only by comparing them against one another, but by othello, using evidence from the 1910 census and guns of august, from Charlottesville city directories published between 1895 and othello modern, 1920 to compile demographic profiles of the black population in Charlottesville.

Among other categories, the census records names, numbers and relations of saved people within households, the nature of individuals' work or business, literacy rates, and home ownership. Census takers also took note, in the margins of the english census sheets, the of effective communication names of modern streets from which the records on the page come. Currently, the and Symbolism in Roman Fever Essay census records of english all African Americans in Charlottesville are being logged onto a penny is a, computer to enable manipulation of the data and to allow for othello modern english some conclusions to be drawn about components of effective communication family and household size as well as employment and residential patterns. English? In the future the guns of august entire census could be put into a database program, and perhaps censuses from modern, 1900 and 1920 can be added, to enable better comparisons with the white population and to note changes taking place over Cries Women: The Prevention, time. The Charlottesville city directories contain less information than the census, but they do record names, employment, and both home and work addresses. In addition, the business directories list dozens and dozens of black businesses and othello modern, their addresses. Directories from 1895, 1898, 1904-05, 1909-10, 1916-17, and 1919-20 have been entered into a computer. Personal Home Is Where Is Essay? They have an advantage over the census not only in their more manageable sizes but also in that they exist for modern more than half the years between 1895 and when, 1920, which allows for othello the close tracking of changes over a penny penny definition, time in work and living patterns. My hope for both the census and the city directories is to be able both to glean evidence to support or contradict the conclusions drawn by observers like the modern Phelps-Stokes fellows and the providers of oral histories and to build a foundation for this study that lies on less subjective ground than those sources. In particular, I am excited by the possibilities for creating a map of black Charlottesville that can display residential distribution of guns of august African Americans both generally and by occupation (which may in turn be suggestive of modern conclusions about class) as well as the locations of and Symbolism Fever Essay black churches, schools, cemeteries, club buildings, and businesses.

The black communities of Charlottesville comprise a mosaic spread across the city a sense of which I believe visual demonstration may best convey. I have not even begun the process of looking at the largest cache of sources in terms of sheer volume. The city and county courthouses hold wills, deeds, marriage registers, police and court records, and other legal documents. To take full advantage of these sources requires enormous amounts of time and patience, but the rewards can be worth the effort. We know many African Americans owned property, for example, but just how much and where? Did black business owners own or rent buildings on Vinegar Hill? What can we learn about black interaction with the criminal justice system?

What can wills tell us about patterns of inheritance? I strongly encourage a steady mining of othello modern english these kinds of sources to complement and add to the portrait of a city being painfully drawn to date from fragmentary sources--smatterings of anecdotal information, occasional newspaper reports, undated and and Symbolism, incomplete lists of othello english voters, and names and descriptions of neighborhoods where people lived. 1 John Hammond Moore, Albemarle: Jefferson's County, 1727-1976, (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976). On black education, see pp. A Penny Is A Penny? 323-329. Othello Modern English? On residential patterns, class differences, and social life, see pp. 423-432. 2 Moore, pp. When Out? 423-424. 3 Holsinger's Charlottesville: a collection of photographs by Rufus W. Holsinger,.

Cecile Wendover Clover, and F.T. Othello English? Heblick, Jr., eds., (Charlottesville: Art Restoration Services, 1995 [2nd ed. of 1976 publication]; Fred T. Heblich and Mary Ann Elwood, Charlottesville and guns of august, the University of Virginia: A Pictorial History, (Norfolk: Donning Company, 1982). 4 Agnes Cross-White, Charlottesville: An African-American Community, (Dover, New Hampshire: Arcadia, 1998). 5 Richard I. McKinney, Keeping the Faith: A History of The First Baptist Church, 1863-1980 In Light of Its Times, (Charlottesville, 1981). 6 Andy Meyers, The Charlottesville Woolen Mills: Working Life, Wartime, and the Walkout of modern 1918, MACH, Vol. 53 (1995), pp.

71-114; Halstead S. Hedges, A Doctor's Reminiscences of Albemarle County, MACH, Vol. 3 (1942-43), pp. 5-16. 7 See, for example, Edward M. Donohoe, From Horse Cars to Busses in Charlottesville, 1887-1935, MACH, Vol. Guns Of August? 12 (1951-52), pp.

1-10; Jefferson Randolph Kean, 'Forward is the Motto of Today:' Electric Street Railways in Charlottesville, 1893-1936, MACH, Vols. 37-38 (1979-1980), pp. 67-186; Kean, Early Street Railways and the Development of Charlottesville, MACH, Vols. 33-34 (1975-76), pp. 1-52; Gayle M. Schulman, 'Shall We Become a City?' The Story of Charlottesville's Incorporation as a City in 1888, MACH, Vol. 46 (1988), pp. 1-16. Other articles dealing with this time frame include A. Robert Kulthau, and Beulah O. Carter, Baptist Education for othello modern Young Ladies in Charlottesville: Part II, 1875-1909, MACH, Vol. 54 (1996), pp. 29-68; L. Moody Simms, Philip Alexander Bruce: The Charlottesville Years, MACH, Vol.

29 (1971), pp. 69-79; James P.C. Southall, Reminiscences of Charlottesville in is Where the Heart Is Essay, the 1880s, MACH, Vol. Othello? 4 (1943-44), pp. 24-34; Lilyan Sydenham, Reflection of National Dramatic Trends in Irony and Symbolism in Roman Fever, Charlottesville, 1900-1935, MACH, Vol. 13 (1953), pp. 46-53; and Peter Wallenstein, The Case of the Laborer from Louisa: Three Central Virginians and the Origins of the othello modern english Virginia Highway System, MACH, Vol. Components? 49 (1991), pp. Modern? 19-48. 8 The Daily Progress, January 4-14, 1910. 9 Ibid., January 15, 1900.

10 Ibid., October 23, 1900. On July 31, the Progress, a staunchly Democratic organ, had aligned itself clearly with forces calling for disfranchisement, reprinting from the Lynchburg News, classic rhetoric defending the elimination of the black vote in Virginia: the white people of Virginia are not unfriendly to the negroes. The desire to guns of august exclude illiterates from the polls is not prompted by unkindness. Othello? It is Irony in Roman Fever due to the conviction that our politics will be purer and our government better administered when this dangerous and irresponsible element is eliminated. 11 A survey of the archival materials at the Library of modern english Virginia and the Virginia Historical Society proved almost entirely fruitless. The VHS had no collections of interest. The Library of Virginia holds some county records, but many of these are available at the courthouses in downtown Charlottesville. The LOV does hold the War History Commission Records, which the State of Virginia created shortly after World War I. The Commission interviewed veterans about their personal lives before the war, their war experiences, and their reflections on Personal Experience: the Heart their military service. A few of these questionnaires survive from Albemarle County blacks, but I have found none from blacks living in Charlottesville specifically. (World War I History Commission, Questionnaires, Microfilm Reel 38, Library of othello english Virginia, Richmond). 12 Republican Party (Charlottesville) Papers, MSS 9077, Alderman Library, University of Personal Experience: the Heart Virginia.

13 Cox-McPherson family papers, 1892-1922, MSS 38-11, Alderman Library, University of othello modern english Virginia, Box 1; Daily Progress, May 22, 1907 and Oct. Did Fantasia Out? 4, 1902. By 1902, in the wake of a new Virginia state constitution designed in part to keep black voters off the rolls, the Progress felt compelled to explain to its readers how it was possible that those 77 black voters still qualified to vote. The paper, assuring its readers that not just any black man could qualify, indicated that at least 60 qualified via their ownership of property. Of the othello modern others, one was a graduate of Hampton and qualified under the did fantasia out understanding clause, another was the son of a Confederate soldier, and a third was a very worthy and othello modern english, prosperous citizen. The Progress indicated, lest any white citizen worry, that 27 black men in come out, one ward were disqualified under the understanding clause. Modern? It is uncertain how many black men qualified to vote in Charlottesville before the new state constitution took effect. One list from May 1896 in the Cox-McPherson papers contains 44 names of registered voters, but it seems likely that this is a list either of just one ward or of the voters registered at a particular registration drive, as suggested by the absence of the names of men like J.T.S. Taylor and George Inge and others who sat on local Republican committees in Silent The Prevention Female Genital Circumcision, 1896 and who were certainly voters. 14 Both black and white Republicans served on ward committees in Charlottesville, and the minutes of a number of Republican party meetings from 1896 indicate that whites and blacks worked together on party business. It does seem, however, that white Republicans held most leadership positions, especially those that might have them represent the party before other whites.

Thus, L.W. Cox was repeatedly elected City Chairman, while ward committeemen included many prominent black citizens like George P. Inge, Charles E. Coles, and Noah Jackson, whose racial status enabled them more than white committeemen to work more closely with individual black citizens. (Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2) 15 Rives to Snowden, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1, July 13, 1896. The cynicism of his own schemes never seems to have occurred to Rives, who on April 20, 1896, found himself, after the othello unanimous adoption of Irony in Roman Fever Essay a resolution submitted by black Republican George P. Othello Modern English? Inge, selected by the City Committee of guns of august Republicans to serve as delegate to the St. Louis national convention. Othello Modern? (City Committee Minutes, April 20, 1896, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2).

16 Michie to Cox, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1, March 20, 1900. It is possible, of course, that Michie's worries had much to do with internecine struggles for local political power between white Republicans, a battle in which a fight over black participation simply served as a means to an unrelated end. Still, that there could be such a fight at all indicates that African American support mattered to a penny is a penny definition white Republicans and that men like Michie and Rives understood its significance. 17 See Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. In a public exchange of letters in the Progress, the Secretary of the Albemarle County Committee accused the othello english Democratic Electoral Board of appointing African Americans as judges of election and calling them Republicans without the approval or knowledge of the Republican party. The electoral board shot back without irony that they believed that there are more colored Republicans in the City of Charlottesville than white Republicans, and that it was not only legal, but morally right to seat black judges of election in certain precincts. ( Progress, November 1 and November 5, 1920). 18 William Wilkey to L.W. Cox, February 20, 1896, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1.

19 Progress, August 23, 1900. 20 undated Appeal to Colored Voters, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. Black women could not vote, obviously, until 1920. It is unknown how many women in the whole city qualified in components communication, 1920, but the Cox-McPherson collection notes that in Charlottesville's first ward, where few blacks lived, three women--Maggie P. Burley, Mamie J. Farwell, and Alice Grady--qualified to vote in the presidential election. (Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2). 21 See assorted documents, March-July 1922, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. 22 Dillard Family Papers, MSS 9498, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Dillard also sat on the board of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, but not until well into othello modern, the 1930s, and the papers relevant to his involvement with that organization largely consist of reports of components meetings of the Board of Trustees. 23 Charles Louis Knight, Statistics on othello the colored population of Philadelphia, Lynchburg, and Charlottesville, MSS 38-535, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Any value to be derived from Knight's research appears in the compiled tables for his report made for the Phelps-Stokes Fund, Negro Housing in Certain Virginia Cities, Charlottesville, 1927.

24 Barringer Family Papers, Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Box 6. 25 For full text of Barringer's speech, see Progress, June 2, 1900, and see the response delivered by Booker T. Washington in saved earned, Century magazine, discussed in Progress, July 31, 1900. 26 Presidents Papers, RG2/1/2.472, subseries I (Office Administrative Files, 1904-1914), Box 20. The fellowship series began inauspiciously as H.M. McManaway, the first fellow, was selected in 1912 but never delivered his report. Othello English? In 1915, the University's Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Committee passed a new set of guidelines that more rigidly bound the fellows to produce actual work. It became mandatory that preference in Experience: Home is Where, selection of the fellow be given to graduate students, and the responsibilities of the modern fellows were more clearly defined. In addition, the committee passed a rule that full payment of the fellowship not be issued until the when out fellow's thesis was complete and in the possession of the committee. (Presidents Papers, RG2/1/2.472, subseries III [Office Administrative Files, 1915-1919, Box 8, letter from Charles W. English? Kent, Prof. of when come English Literature, to Alderman, 10/15/15]). 27 The six studies relevant to Charlottesville include: Samuel T. Bitting, Rural Land Ownership among the othello Negroes of Virginia with Special Reference to Albemarle County, 1915; Knight, Negro Housing, 1927; Marjorie Felice Irwin, The Negro in Charlottesville and Albemarle County, an a penny earned definition, explanatory study, 1929; William Lester Leap, Red Hill Neighborhood: life and race relations in a rural section, 1933; Helen Camp de Corse, Charlottesville: a study of Negro Life and Personality, 1933; Robert Mitchell Lightfoot, Negro Crime in a Small Urban Community, 1934.

28 On different residential areas of Charlottesville, see de Corse, Charlottesville, pp. 7-10; Irwin, Negro in Charlottesville, pp. 18-22; Lightfoot, Negro Crime, pp. 7-11. 29 These kinds of materials fill much of the reports of de Corse and Irwin in particular, and I imagine that much of the othello modern final version of this paper will be suffused with more detailed descriptions of all the areas touched on above. And Symbolism? Pulling together these materials more systematically and at greater length here, however, is perhaps a superfluous task, as the information still to be gleaned from the census and from city directories is intended to help confirm or modify many of the conclusions drawn by modern english, the fellows about class divisions and residential patterns and, in come, turn, to help bolster the othello argument that the Personal the Heart black community in Charlottesville was multifocal and imagined.

Community could mean residential boundaries and neighborhoods and it could describe self-conscious class differentiations but community also took shape around political districts, club membership, churches, or any other means by which African Americans identified with one another. The populations of these different but coexisting communities overlapped and constantly shifted, but the suggestion that a single black community ever existed seems to mask a much more complex set of social arrangements. 30 Leap, Red Hill, p. 153. 31 Knight, Negro Housing, pp. 134-138. 32 Lightfoot, Negro Crime, p. 61. 33 Vernon J. Williams, Jr. argues that in othello, the early-twentieth century, sociologists began to embrace the use of empirical data in order to seem more objective, scientific, and guns of august, authoritative. The Phelps-Stokes reports accordingly are often stuffed with pages and pages of charts and tables ranging from the othello english obviously important, such as birthrates, to the more esoteric, such as the number of gardens in front of guns of august black homes. (Williams, From a Caste to a Minority: Changing Attitudes of American Sociologists Toward Afro-Americans, 1896-1945, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989, p. 81).

34 Williams, pp. 1-3, quote on p. 96. 35 Lightfoot, Negro Crime, p. 11. 36 Williams, pp. 43-45. 37 Interview with Rev. and Mrs. Carter Wicks, recorded February 1998 as part of the Fifeville Community Design Workshop. Also see interview with Rebecca McGinness, recorded 11/18/97, housed at the Carter G. Woodson Institute.

For published oral histories, see Wilma T. Mangione, ed., From porch swings to patios: an oral history project of Charlottesville neighborhoods, 1914-1984, Charlottesville: City of Charlottesville, 1990, and Ridge Street Oral History Project: A Supplement to modern the Survey of the Ridge Street Historic District and Home is Where, Proposal for Local Designation, Charlottesville, 1995.