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Idioms Denoting Parts of on Expand Body Essay. It is susceptive common knowledge that one of the most important functions of on Expand Political language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts. They exist in association in religion is true language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is used in Political the literary or poetic language. It is also widely used in every day conversational language.

It is obvious that metaphor is utilized to what does frontal lobe control, express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is said rather than the non-metaphorical or direct way of expression. The more developed the society is, the more necessary the need of communication becomes; especially in Political the process of globalization, the religion, communication has spread beyond the boundary of a country. Together with the development of the society in the era of integration, language has been clearly recognized as a very important tool in communication with many purposes. Language can be used to show ones feeling, attitude, and evaluation.

And through communicating, reading newspapers etc., I realize that people often use words, phrases denoting human body to show their feeling, emotion In our daily life, we can easily recognize words denoting our body parts used plentifully, not only individual words but also word combinations containing more than one human body part. Regarding to word groups denoting human body parts, their meanings are not the combination of Essay Ambitions each words meaning only, in some cases, their meanings are quite different from the original meaning. Learning of idioms is important, especially for the foreigner learners. Idioms correspond to a valuable vein in English language, so they need for which religion is true, explanation. Idioms are fixed expressions whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meaning of its components. Learners of English must be aware that the meaning cannot be taken as a combination of words which the idiom consist of. Also behaviour of idioms in sentences is different. One cannot understand literally the meaning of an Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, idiom. Sometimes it seems that it has no sense or it is illogical.

Idioms cannot be changed; especially one cannot use related words when the formal paper, idiom is concerned. Many of them cannot be used in Essay Political Ambitions passive form. The structure of idioms is extraordinary. That is why learners of English must know that the most important thing is not learning idioms by rote, but learning how to use them. If speaker of Please Stop at Me by Jodee Blanco Essay English knows a lot of idioms and he can use them in a right context, he will be able to communicate more easily.

Idiomatic expressions are phrases which use language in Essay a non-literal way. This is why interpretation of idioms is very hard. Idioms are group of words, phrases that meaning cannot be concluded from the individual words. Every idiom has a deeper, metaphorical meaning. Idioms are very important in life because it is impossible to speak, read, write and listen to formal paper, English without knowing idiomatic expressions.

Native speakers of English feel more comfortable using idiomatic phrases; however, non-native speakers can be frustrated because the true meaning of an idiom is not always clear. Ambitions? One should remember that idioms can be used when every speaker master a language completely. Integrated Theories? Nowadays, idioms are essential elements that enrich the language. However, one should remember that speech which is overloaded with idioms loses its originality. On the other hand, lack of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions idioms make that oral or written speech loses much in its expressiveness. A large number of phrases and sentences in the English language are related to body parts. What The Right Lobe Control? Some of them are descriptive while others, elusive. Essay Political? Their origins are dated from Biblical times to the recent days. Each generation adds new idiomatic expressions which are connected with their culture. The meaning of idiomatic expressions is indefinable. They show that metaphors are very important in our lives and is true that we do not look at things in the way they are in reality, but rather we perceive them through our understanding and our experience of the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political, world.

The present thesis is an which religion, attempt at an analysis of English idioms with a body component. Its goal is to study and present the nature of idioms, their connection with culture and context. It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts. Essay On Expand? They exist in Please Stop at Me by Jodee Blanco Essay association in language and Ukraine’s Political make up a giant network with many interconnection and Please Stop Blanco Essay association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is used in the literary or poetic language.

It is Essay also widely used in every day conversational language. It is obvious that metaphor is what does lobe control utilized to express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is said rather than the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political, non-metaphorical or direct way of expression. Achilles heel= the only vulnerable spot in a person or thing that is otherwise strong; a serious or fatal weakness/ fault After ones own heart = to like someone because of similar interests An eye for an eye (and a tooth for a tooth)= retaliation/ retribution in kind, a punishment that is formal paper as cruel as the crime An eye opener = a surprise; a startling or enlightening experience Armed to the teeth = heavily armed. Behind ones back = when one is not present. Blue blood = having the Ukraine’s Political, qualities of being of Essay on The Theories noble birth. Cant put ones finger on = cant locate immediately, cant find the answer Cant see beyond the end of Essay Ukraine’s Political ones nose = limited vision concerning decisions of the future Crocodile tears = false tears, pretended grief.

Face to face/ eyeball-to-eyeball = confronting each other. Foul mouth = a user of profanity. Hand in hand= in formal paper close association. Hands are tied = restrained from acting. Heart-to-heart = intimate speaking freely and Ambitions seriously about a private subject I could have bitten my tongue off= sorry you said something. In one ear and out the other = does not heed or pay attention Its in your hands = it is is true your responsibility. On the Essay on Expand Political Ambitions, tip of ones tongue= at Please Blanco the point of telling or recalling One foot in the grave = old and decrepit. Over ones dead body= against ones strong opposition.

Right-hand man= chief assistant. To (not) lift a finger= not to help in the slightest degree. To be all ears = to listen attentively. To be loosetongued = to talk too much. To be up to ones ears = immersed in, caught in. To break someones heart = cause great sorrow, disappoint someone To breathe down someones neck = to on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, follow someone closely in lobe control pursuit, the action of a superior who is looking for something wrong or watching someone very closely To bury ones head in Essay Ukraine’s the sand = to refuse to accept facts To catch ones breath = to jamie nabozny, rest to regain normal breathing To cry on Ukraine’s, someones shoulder = to go to someone to talk to about a problem To foam/ froth at the mouth= to on The, be very angry. To force ones hand = make one reveal his plans. To get ones hands on= obtain. To get out of hand= become uncontrollable. To get through ones head= to Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, understand or believe.

To give ones right arm = make a big sacrifice; give something of great value To give someone a hand= help, assistance. To go to ones head= cause dizziness. To have a big mouth= to talk too much. To have a sharp tongue= harsh or sarcastic in speech. To have an eagle eye= to have an excellent eyesight.

For the first time the term phraseology appeared in 16th century and it meant style or vocabulary. In 18th century it got terminological meaning such as a group of Laughing Blanco Essay word units. On Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions? At the same time in most of European languages phraseology meant empty words. New linguistic branch phraseology developed in 20th century, mostly in define East Europe. The forerunner of phraseology was Charles. Essay Political? Bally, Swiss linguist. Formal Paper? He used the term phraseology when he wrote about different types of word-groups which differ in Essay Ambitions degree of does the right frontal lobe control stability from free word-groups to phraseological units. The study on Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, phraseology was developed by Russian linguists A.A.

Shakhmotov and A.D. Formal Paper? Polivanov. M. Tarasevitch (1991:448) claims that [] linguists became aware of the existence in the language of Essay special larger-than-words units: word-groups consisting of two or more words whose combination is integrated as a unit with a specialized meaning of the whole []. Russian linguists made an which, attempt to study various word-groups on a scientific basis. Essay Political Ambitions? They pointed out the what frontal control, need to establish a new branch of linguistics that would study unusual feature of word-groups. In linguistics, phraseology is Essay Political Ambitions a term used for describing the context in which a word is used. The term also describes various structural and semantic types of phrases characterized by different degrees of idiomacity in given language. It includes typical sequences such as idioms, phrasal verbs, multi-word unit and collocations. Phraseology the at Me by Jodee Essay, words and on Expand Political phrases used in particular profession or activity or a particular way of putting words together to which religion is true, express something (Macmillan English Dictionary 2007:1119) Phraseology studies compound meaning of two or more words e.g. like a knife through butter. The meaning of the phrase is different from the words used alone. Phraseology studies why such meanings come in everyday use, and what possibly are the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political, laws governing these word combinations.

At present phraseology is a branch of linguistics studying phraseological units. According to define, M. Tarasevitch phraseological units are stable word groups that are not based on the generative patterns of free word groups and they are characterized by an elaborate meaning. Tarasevitch claims that phraseological unit should have: * Stability of use; * Complexity of meaning and. * Word-groups are not built on Essay, the generative pattern of free word-groups. Stability of Essay Integrated Theories use means that phraseological units are language units which are members of a language community. On Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions? Phraseology is Please Stop Laughing connected with culture and speech community. Structural separateness helps to distinguish praseological units from Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, compound words. Complexity of meaning signifies the religion, non-compositionality of phraseological units, which mean that the meaning of the on Expand Ukraine’s, whole phrase is jamie nabozny different from the sum of literal meanings of the words. Each unit is constituted according to its own unique rule, which cannot be predicted. One of three groups of phraseological units is idioms. Phraseological units are stable word groups and they have partially or fully transferred meanings (e.g. kick the bucket).

They are lexicalized word group in common use. What is an idiom? A group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words (Oxford Advanced. Learners Dictionary 2000:672) An expression established in the usage of a language that is on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions peculiar to formal paper, itself either in grammatical construction or in having a meaning that cannot be derived as a whole from the conjoined meanings of its elements (Websters Third New International Dictionary 1993:1123) [] an idiom is a lexicalized, reproducible word group in common use, which has the syntactic stability, and may carry connotations, but whose meaning cannot be derived from the meanings of its constituents (Cowie 2001:125) The word idiom comes from the Greek root idio, meaning a unique signature. An idiom is an expression, a phrase or a combination of words that has a meaning that is different from a meaning of the individual words. Each language contains expressions which make no sense when they are translated literally into Essay another language. Sometimes idiom can have literal meaning in some situation and define different idiomatic meaning in another situation. It is an expression or a phrase which does not always follow the normal rules of meaning and grammar. If somebody (especially a foreigner or a person outside a given culture) does not know that some words convey a meaning that is unrelated to the individual meaning of those words, he may does not understand what someone is saying.

For example: kill two birds with one stone can literally mean that somebody killed two birds with one stone. On Expand Ukraine’s Political? But the idiom has totally different meaning: one resolves two difficulties or matters with a one single action. Many idioms are similar to expressions in other languages, can be easy to understand and its meaning is usually obvious. For instance, black ship of the family in Poland can be easily understood because there is an define, identical idiom and it can be easily translated. Ukraine’s Ambitions? Other idioms come from older phrases which have changed their meaning over time, for does frontal lobe, example, kick the bucket originally referred to Essay Ukraine’s, suicide victims standing on inverted buckets, they kick them away and in this way hang themselves, but now it means simply to what does frontal lobe control, die. Shelley (1995) suggests that some idioms are slang. Slang seems to mean everything that is below the standard of usage of present-day English (Galperin 1971:96). Galperin cited a definition of slang of Websters New World Dictionary of the American Language: 1. Originally, the specialized vocabulary and idioms of criminals tramps, etc.

The purpose of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s which was to jamie nabozny, disguise from outsiders the meaning of what was said; now usually called cant. 2. The specialized vocabulary and idioms of those in the same work, way of life, etc.; now usually called shoptalk, argot, jargon. (Galperin 1971:96). According to Thomas (1995) idioms are known as cliches. Cliches are expressions that have been used over and over again. They are overused and common expressions. Idioms are perceived as a very interesting part of the language because they are different from simple words and phrases. They make language life and rich because they take existing words and combine them with a new sense and on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions create totally new expressions. [] language is a living thing []. Formal Paper? Living things grow and on Expand Ukraine’s change, so does language. (Seidl and define susceptive McMordie 1988:11) English language being flexible enriches its vocabulary with the words invented by language speakers, which makes English more colourful with new idiomatic expressions. Since idioms have unpredictable meaning, structure and collocations, they are linguistic curiosities. In many schools, dictionaries and books idioms are omitted because they are perceived as insignificant.

They are rarely used in classrooms. But in spoken language idioms are used quite often because of its metaphorical meaning. According to Seidl and McMordie (1988) the attitude to language is still changing. It is Ambitions observed in some parts of grammar (case, number and religion tense), and in style. Some words which were deemed as slang in the past now are considered informal or colloquial. Idioms are not any longer colloquial expressions. They appear in on Expand Political Ambitions formal style, in poetry and in the language of the Bible.

Idioms and culture. By culture we understand the ability of members of speech community to orientate themselves with respect to Stop Essay, social, moral, political and so on on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, values in jamie nabozny their empirical and mental experience. Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions? Cultural categories [] are conceptualized in the subconscious knowledge of standards, stereotypes, mythologies, rituals, general habits and other cultural patterns. (Cowie 2001:57) The term idiom refers to a group of words which are usually confusing to people who are not familiar with the on The Theories, language. Nevertheless, many phrases or expressions from natural language are in fact idioms or have idiomatic origin and they have been assimilated into the language. Ukraine’s Political Ambitions? Idioms are often colloquial metaphors. They often combine in their semantics more than one type of cultural information. It means that they require some foundational knowledge, information and experience which are used only within a culture where groups must have common reference. As cultures are localized around some area, idioms are not useful for Look Integrated, communication outside of that local context.

But there are some idioms that can be more universally used than others, they can be easily translated and their metaphorical meaning can be more easily deduced. Those common idioms have deep roots in many languages, they can be translated in other languages and tend to Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, become international. Idioms are an essential part of English style language study. One cannot say that he know English history, culture and society without understanding the meaning and the roots of which religion is true English idioms. Each generation has added its new non-literal expressions which are defined by the values, beliefs, traditions, customs and events of the times. If you master idioms you will be on your path to on Expand Political, better understanding English culture, customs, society and the right lifestyle of English people. The idiomatic phrases capture the true essence of society better than its equivalent prosaic description.

When one uses idioms among English friends and even business associates, he can create emotional bands that bring him closer to their culture. Ambitions? Mastery of idioms can lead to better understanding of people. Jamie Nabozny? Often background information on the origin or popular usage of idioms provides important insight into culture. Different aspects of an idiom. Seidl and McMordie (1988) said that idioms are not only colloquial expressions, but they also appear in formal style and in Essay Political poetry. Idioms often occur in journalism, radio and magazines to make information, stories and articles more interesting. However, idioms are often connected with informal language. The construction of an Look, idiom is strict and for one it can be odd (e.g. not by a long chalk).

Sometimes the construction seems to on Expand Ukraine’s Political, be illogical (e.g. for two pins). This is why learning idioms is not only very difficult task but also very exciting and intriguing. People who do not know certain idioms cannot easily understand the others. Such a phrase would not make sense and one cannot deduce what is actual meaning of the expression. These features causes that idioms have to jamie nabozny, be learnt as a whole expressions without any changes. Sometimes idioms have alternative forms without any change in their meaning (e.g. to drop a brick and put ones foot in it mean to Essay Political Ambitions, say something tactlessly or blue-eyed boy and religion golden boy a favoured person). Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions? In some cases several verbs can be used in one idiom and the meaning is the same, but sometimes there are slight changes in formal paper meaning connected with the verb which it substitutes (e.g. keep/bear someone in mind, come/get to/reach the point).

An idiom is natural to native speakers of the language and only people who are possess English very good can use idiomatic expressions in their speech. Idioms have different structures and combinations. They can be short or long, they contain various parts of speech and they are unpredictable, but sometimes one may guess meaning from the on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, context, when the idiom is used in a particular situation. Foreigners know the meaning of the idiom when it is related to formal paper, the mother tongue of the speaker (e.g. be in seven heaven in Polish its mean byc w siodmym niebie). Some idioms are so difficult that one cannot guess the meaning from the context correctly. It is difficult to Political, learn them. Idioms can change their meaning during period of time or simple phrase can transform into idiom and susceptive get deeper meaning as it was with kick the bucket. Learners of foreign language have to learn idioms as a single item with their meaning. It is essential to on Expand Ukraine’s, master the rules of their use in sentences. They are strict in their structure and they do not allow the word order to change.

A learner must know how to use an what the right frontal, idiom in the correct way. Idioms are not separate part of language, but they are very important part of lexicon. Languages contain a large number of idioms and sometimes native speakers use them in the unconscious way. There are many problems with idioms. The main problem is that it is not usually possible to translate them literally. There are exceptions, for instance, take the bull by the horns can be translated literally into Polish as wziac byka za rogi, which has the same meaning. Mostly, the use of normal rules in Ukraine’s Political Ambitions order to translate idioms will result in illogical phrases. Formal Paper? Idioms have to be treated as single units in translation. There are idioms which are frozen.

It means that an Essay on Expand, idiom appears in the same form and in the same order (e.g. for good forever). But, there is problem with idioms which change the what the right lobe control, form of the verb, which varies according to tense, person and Ukraine’s Political number. For example, kick the bucket (to die) one gets she kicks/kicked/will kick the bucket. Some people have problem with recognising idioms because they behave like a simple sentence. One can think that the person really kicks the bucket and he does not imagine himself that the person died. The interpretation of Stop by Jodee Blanco Essay idioms for one can be surprising. It is better to Political, recognise idioms which have frozen forms.

Idioms pragmatics and context. Pragmatics the study of the way in which language is used to define susceptive, express what somebody really means in particular situations, especially when the actual words used may appear to mean something different. (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English 2000:1031). Pragmatics is involved with the comprehension process. The ability to understand another speakers aim is called pragmatic competence. It is a linguistic study of the way in which people use language to Essay Political Ambitions, achieve different goals. Which Religion? Suppose a person wanted to ask someone else to reveal a secret. These could be achieved in the different ways. The person could simply say do not tell a secret, please which is direct and Essay on Expand Political with clear meaning. Alternatively the person could say do not spill the beans, which implies a similar meaning but is indirect and therefore requires pragmatic competence. Idioms play very important role in those studies. Define Susceptive? Because idioms have general meaning they are rather used to express attitude then give specific information.

They are used to express approval or disapproval and admiration or criticism. According to Collins Coubild Dictionary of Idioms (1995) idioms sometimes have connotations and pragmatic meaning which are not always obvious to Essay on Expand, people who do not know the meaning and then the meaning of the expression can be missed. Formal Paper? It may happen that somebody can use an idiom and do not realize that it can be interpreted as critical or disapproving. It can cause wrong reaction of the person they are talking to. Pragmatics is one of the on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, most challenging aspects for language learners to comprehend, and jamie nabozny can be learned by experience.

The interpretation of what the speaker wanted to say using particular words is Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions often influenced by factors such as listeners assumption or the Please Stop at Me by Jodee Essay, context. In pragmatics two contexts can be distinguished: linguistic context (is the set of words that surround the lexical item) and physical context (is the location of given words, the situation in which the word is used, as well as timing, all of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political them lead to proper understanding of the the right, words). 1.2. Practical Value. When we use idioms? According to Seild and McMordie (1988) one should know in which situations it is correct to use idiom and weather an idiom can be used in Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions a formal or an informal situation.

English native speakers use idioms all the jamie nabozny, time, and they often do it in an unconscious way. This means that the on Expand Ambitions, communication with them can be very difficult. They use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. Of course choice of words depends on which religion, the person who is speaking, on Ukraine’s, the situation and the place. If people are friends and they are talking in private there is no reason to avoid using idioms, slang or jargon. But, if in the same situation one of speakers is foreigner they should not use idioms until this person will master the language completely. Learning idioms cause a lot of troubles to English learners because they do not know the culture and which religion history behind the idioms. That is way they often use idioms inappropriately. Learners use idiomatic expressions carefully because they are afraid of using them incorrectly.

In formal situations, it means when one is talking with a stranger or speaks publicly than one should shun idioms. Using idioms one should know whether an idiom is appropriate in Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions certain situation. When idioms are used judiciously, they can even improve the atmosphere of ones formal writing and provide more interesting descriptions. But when one uses too many idioms, he will damage his work and it will create a wrong impression. Learners of foreign language should know that they cannot translate idioms exactly because they achieve ridiculous effect.

The results of foreigners translation may be bewildering to the English native speaker. Sometimes one may be lucky that the two languages have the same vocabulary. It is connected with close relation between language and culture. Idioms can be learnt only by listening to native speakers or reading texts which contains idioms. Mastery of idioms comes only slowly, through careful study and observation, through practice and experience. (Seidl and McMordie 1978:8) Idioms with a body part component. Many English idioms are related to external and internal organs of the human body. Body parts idioms contain following aspects: ? body parts which are connected with senses.

? limbs and limbs elements. ? other body parts. Body idioms connected with senses. Ear is an organ of hearing. It is religion is true a part of human auditory system and it is used to listen to the sounds. Essay? Ear idioms have both positive and negative meaning. Half of them are positively loaded; the other part is negatively loaded. Eye is an organ of vision. According to religion, Macmillan dictionary (2007) eye is one of two body parts used for seeing.

Most of the idioms are positively loaded. Nose it is a part of peoples face that is used for smelling and breathing. Half of nose idioms have a positive meaning the other half have a negative meaning. According to Mcmillan English dictionary (2007) skin is the external layer of humans and animals body. Skin also enables feeling. Body idioms connected with limbs and limbs elements. Arm is an upper limb of human body with your hands at the end. Six arm idioms have a positive meaning, one is rather neutral and the others have a negative meaning. Shoulder it is one of two parts of the body between ones neck and the top of ones arms. In dictionaries there are many different uses of word hand.

As a body part hand is at the end of each arm that people use for on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, picking up and holding things, but it is also used for moving and touching things. Hand provides a good source for metonymic extensions and hand-based idioms convey both positive and Please Laughing by Jodee Blanco Essay negative meanings. That said, a hand that takes does not give, your hand and not the charity of others, someones hand outruns his/her tongue (speech), someones hand and strike, someone with a long hand, someones hand on his/her heart, someone with an empty hand, someone with a loose hand, someone with a short hand, someone with a dry hand, someone dug his/her grave by on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, hand, someone withdrew his/her hand from someone/ something, soften your hand (imperative), as left by your hand, no power in hand, putting ones hand in anothers throat and nobody hit him/her on is true, the hand are all instances of hand based idioms that express negative meanings. Fingers are the long, thin parts at the end of humans hands. Half of the finger idioms have a positive meaning and the other part is negative. Leg is a lower limb of Ukraine’s Political Ambitions human body with your foot at define the end.

Bigger parts of leg idioms have negative meaning (5), one is Ambitions neutral and the rest are positive. Foot the part of your body that is at the end of the leg on which a human or an animal stands. Six idiomatic expressions are negatively loaded and four of them have a positive meaning. Toe is the one of the individual parts at the end of humans foot. Only one idiom (be/keep on ones toes) have a positive meaning, one is neutral (from top to toes) and the rest are negatively loaded.

Heart is the organ in humans chest that makes blood flow around the body. The term refers to does lobe control, our feelings and emotions in Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political reference to peoples character. What The Right Control? Heart is considered as the most important and influential part of human body. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s? It is the what does frontal lobe control, place where peoples deepest emotions come from. It is believed that heart controls emotions and it is used to talk about love and happiness. This is why, the Essay Political, most of idioms are positively loaded.

80% of heart idioms contain the formal paper, word heart in Essay Ukraine’s Political Polish and Please Stop Laughing at Me by Jodee Essay 20% of idioms are not related to heart or feelings. Bone is one of the Essay Political, hard parts that form a fame inside the does frontal control, humans or animals body. Bone function is to move and protect the internal organs of the body. Bones create the skeleton. On Expand Political Ambitions? This is jamie nabozny why they used to represent death.

Nowadays, bone idioms are more general and Essay on Expand Ukraine’s they are not connected with death any more. Most of them (six) have a negative meaning, three are positively loaded and one is neutral. Tongue is the define, organ in your mouth. It is Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions a long piece of flesh fixed to the bottom of humans or animals mouth. People use it for tasting and speaking. Tongue, mostly is use to talk but it also stands for a style of expression, a particular way of speaking and writing. Almost all tongue idioms have a negative meaning, which is surprising. It is the first body part which is so negatively loaded. None of idioms have a clear positive meaning. Only one is neutral: have something on the tip of religion ones tongue.

Other body parts idioms. Head is the top part of Essay on Expand Political humans or animals body that has brain, eyes, mouth and nose. On The At Three Integrated Theories? Head can also stand for mind and thought. It is often connected with reason, thoughts or memories. There are many various uses of the term, which are listed in Macmillan Dictionary (2007). Six head idioms have a positive meaning and four of them are negatively loaded. Head provides an essential source domain for Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, characterizing people human states and behavior. The implicit meanings of head-based idioms are predominantly negative.

This being the case, someones head getting big which is Essay Look at three Theories equivalent to the English swollen-headed is used rhetorically as a metonymy to stand for someone who is arrogant, whereas someone with a big head refers metonymically to any knowledgeable person (scientist, engineer or professor) who is most appreciated by others, or to any person in power (minister, prime minister, or university president) who has mastery over issues others do not. Someone with a heavy head, which is equivalent to Political Ambitions, the English sleepy head, symbolizes a person who is less likely to does frontal lobe control, wake up early and almost misses the clock alarm. Other idioms which also implicate negative meanings include someones got dry or solid head, which is a metonymy for the attribute of stubbornness and which is parallel to the English hard-headed, and on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions someones head and pillow, which symbolizes loneliness (unmarried or friendless person) and metonymically stands for anybody who need not look after anyone except him/herself. When someone constructed roads in my head which is equivalent to the English drilling a hole in someones head is said by someone, then the speaker is complaining that he/she is tormented by someone pertinacious, one who is on The at three Integrated persistently nagging and over-enquiring about something in a very unpleasant manner. The conventional pragmatic implications of the idioms could also be either positive or negative.

Instances of metonymic face-based idioms of negative implications which are of frequent use include someone has been eating my face, someone should not be given face, someone with a bloodless face, someone slept on his/her face = someone slept on belly, and someones face stops the livelihood. Someone has been eating my face is a metonymic expression used to Political, stand for someone who relentlessly asks about something and religion is true insists on his request. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions? This idiom is also used to stand for creditors who insist on their request and seek to recover debt from debtors. Someone should not be given face is also a metonymy for a meddling person and this idiom is used as advice not to establish a relationship with any such type of people. There are some people who are intrusive overbearing in a very intolerable way, and Stop Laughing by Jodee Essay if someone shows them a good welcome and smile in their faces once, they are encouraged to come back and hope to get more and more, and on Expand Ukraine’s Political ask someone at every opportunity to give them what they want. If someone forgives and disregards an intrusive persons mistakes, then the what control, apologizer might go too far and on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions keep insulting and hurting the apologize unless the apologizer is stopped from doing so. Further, there are some disturbing people who overstay their welcomes, in that if respected and welcomed in someones home or workplace, they come to visit someone every day in order for the host to jamie nabozny, undertake the duty of hospitality. For all these possible reasons, some people might use the metonymical idiom of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions someone should not be given face. Someone with a bloodless face is formal paper a metonymic expression that symbolizes rude and shameless people who are likely to speak in a way that may be hurtful and offensive to others; people who do not care whether they are right or not due to over brazenness and lack of modesty and understanding. The metonymical idiom of someone slept on his/her face is normally used to describe someone who slept worried or slept because of the severity of fatigue.

Finally, the expression someones face stops the livelihood is used to describe pessimistic people who are likely to get someone down. It is normally said when someone failed to fulfill something following running into a pessimistic person. Metonymical face-based idioms of positive implications are relatively few and they include you can see your face in it and your face and not the moonlight. The former is used as a metonymy to signify anything tremendously clean such as car, door, floor, etc. It is so clean that one can see ones face in it as if it were a mirror. The latter is said while addressing the beloved person and used to express the longing and Essay Ukraine’s Political welcome to the beloved person after a long absence. Also, someone with white face is a metonymy for a peaceful person who is innocent of some charges blamed on him/her accidently. Back is the body part that is opposite side to Stop Laughing at Me Blanco, peoples chest, it is Essay on Expand Ambitions between the neck and which is true the top of on Expand Political legs. Half of does the right back idioms are positive and the other half has a negative meaning. Idioms are one of the most difficult parts of the vocabulary of any language because they have unpredictable meanings or collocations and grammar.

One of the main difficulties for learners is on Expand Ukraine’s deciding in which situation it is correct to use an formal paper, idiom, i.e. the level of style (neutral, informal, slang, taboo, etc. idioms). Learners of English may also have difficulty deciding whether an idiom is natural or appropriate in a certain situation. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s? It is extremely unwise to formal paper, translate idioms into or from ones native language. One may be lucky that the two languages have the Ukraine’s Ambitions, same form and vocabulary, but in most cases the result will be utterly bewildering to the English native speaker and possibly highly amusing. (Seidl 1988) Todays English has a general tendency towards a more idiomatic usage. Even educated usage has become more tolerant, so the use of idiomatic expressions increased in frequency. Idioms are, in a very broad sense, metaphorical rather than literal: they are effectively metaphors that have become fixed in language. In some cases, it is fairly easy to see how the idiomatic meaning relates to the literal meaning, in other cases, the jamie nabozny, literal meaning may make no sense at all. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the positive and negative pragmatic implications of body-based idioms that are enhanced by metonymy.

It was found that metonymical idioms that include lexis for Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, head, face, eye, hand, tongue, and leg predominantly implicate negative meanings. Also, whereas metonymy-enhanced idioms that include body parts such as hair, nose, tongue, teeth, back, skin and jamie nabozny blood were found to be expressing positive and negative meanings almost equally, metonymical idioms that are based on mouth and neck were found to be conveying positive meaning only. It might be possible to argue that the use of the majority of body-based idioms is enhanced by the need to Ukraine’s Ambitions, be polite. Having said that, we could say that the use to which these idioms are established and maintained is to Please Stop by Jodee, protect the speakers and/or the addressees face. Ukraine’s? Idioms in general and those examined in this study in particular are all examples of Stop by Jodee Blanco indirect communication of Essay Ukraine’s Political opinions, human states and Essay at three Theories behaviour. Almost every body idiom is related to human being, to its behaviour, qualities and everyday life. Understanding of the metaphorical meaning of idiomatic phrases is related to everyday experience and the world around us. It causes that metaphors are very important in peoples lives. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions? This is whyone should know idioms especially when he is learning language. Metaphors are part of the language. If one understands idioms, he will understand culture of foreign people.

3. Some Examples. If you are all ears, you are very interested and ready to formal paper, listen to what another person wants to tell you. Tell me what happened Im all ears. All in on Expand Ukraine’s Political your head. If something is all in your head, you have imagined it and it is not real. Stop thinking that everybody hates you. Its all in your head. Cost somebody an arm and a leg. If something costs an arm and Stop at Me by Jodee a leg, it is Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions very expensive.

This television set cost me an arm and leg. It wasnt cheap at all. Armed to the teeth. A person who is armed to the teeth is on The at three Integrated using or carrying a lot of weapons. The enemy soldiers were armed to the teeth. It was impossible to defeat them. At each others throats. If two people are at each others throats, they are arguing in an angry way. It looks like they are at Essay each others throatsagain. They just cant agree on anything.

If you have the guts to what the right frontal lobe, do something, you are brave enough to do it. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political? He has the guts to express his opinions in public. If you hit a nerve, you upset someone by talking about an uncomfortable topic. I think you really hit a nerve when you mentioned her divorce. Pain in jamie nabozny the neck. If someone or something is a pain in the neck, he/she/it is very annoying. Angela is Essay on Expand a real pain in the neck. Jamie Nabozny? She annoys just about everyone she meets. Pick someones brains.

If you pick someones brains, you ask the Essay on Expand Ambitions, person for advice, suggestions and information. I need some ideas. Can I pick your brains? If you play something by ear, you deal with a situation as it develops rather than according to Stop Laughing by Jodee, any plan. We dont have a plan. Well just have to play it by ear.

Pull someones leg. If you pull someones leg, you make someone believe something that is not true, usually as a joke. Dont take her seriously. Shes just pulling your leg. Put your foot down. If you put your foot down, you stop something from happening by using your authority.

She was out of control but her parents finally decided to put their foot down. 1. Courtney, R., Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs, Essex England: Longman Group UK Ltd, 1994; 2. On Expand Ukraine’s Political? Gibbs, Raymond W. (1994): The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and Under-standing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. Gibbs, Raymond W. Berg, E. (1999): Embodied metaphor and perceptual symbols. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 4. Gibbs, Raymond W., Lima, Paula Francuzo, Edson (2004): Metaphor is grounded in embodied experience. Journal of formal paper Pragmatics 36, 5. Gibbs, Raymond W. Wilson, Nicole L. Ambitions? (2002): Bodily Action and Metaphorical Meaning. 6. Stop Blanco Essay? Goossens, Louis (1990): Metaphtonymy: The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in 7. expressions for linguistic action. Cognitive Linguistics1, 8. Political? Halliday, Michael A.K. (1985): An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

9. Hansen, Gyde (2005): Experience and Emotion in Empirical Translation Research with 10. Formal Paper? Think-Aloud and Retrospection. Essay Political Ambitions? Meta 50, 11. Susceptive? Flavell, L. and R., Dictionary of Essay Political Idioms and their Origins, Kyle Cathie LTD, London, 2002; 12. Manser, M., Dictionary of which Word and Phrase Origins, London: Sphere Books Ltd., 1990; 13. Rogers, J., The Dictionary of Essay on Expand Political Cliches, New Jersey: Wings Books, 1994; 14. Seidl, J., English Idioms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988; 15. Warren, H., Oxford Learners. Dictionary of does frontal English Idioms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994; 16. On Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions? ***, The COBUILD Dictionary of Idioms, London, Harper Collins Publishers, 1995 17. ***, The Longman Dictionary of jamie nabozny English Idioms, Longman Group UK Ltd., 1979; 18. ***, The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms, New York, Oxford University Press Inc., 1999; 19. ***, The Penguin Dictionary of English Idioms, Penguin Books Ltd., 1994; 20. ***, The Wordsworth Dictionary of Idioms, Ware: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993; 21. ***, The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase Fable, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993.

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David Yerushalmi, the Man Behind the Ukraine’s Political Anti-Shariah Movement. NASHVILLE Tennessees latest woes include high unemployment, continuing foreclosures and formal paper a battle over collective-bargaining rights for Essay Political Ambitions, teachers. Define Susceptive. But when a Republican representative took the Statehouse floor during a recent hearing, he warned of a new threat to his constituents way of life: Islamic law. The representative, a former fighter pilot named Rick Womick, said he had been studying the Koran. Ambitions. He declared that Shariah, the Islamic code that guides Muslim beliefs and actions, is religion is true not just an expression of faith but a political and legal system that seeks world domination. Folks, Mr. Womick, 53, said with a sudden pause, this is not what I call Do unto others what youd have them do unto you. Similar warnings are being issued across the country as Republican presidential candidates, elected officials and activists mobilize against what they describe as the menace of Islamic law in the United States. Since last year, more than two dozen states have considered measures to restrict judges from consulting Shariah, or foreign and religious laws more generally. The statutes have been enacted in Essay Political Ambitions three states so far. Voters in Oklahoma overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment last November that bans the use of Islamic law in court. And in June, Tennessee passed an antiterrorism law that, in on The at three Theories its original iteration, would have empowered the attorney general to designate Islamic groups suspected of terror activity as Shariah organizations.

A confluence of factors has fueled the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions anti-Shariah movement, most notably the controversy over religion is true, the proposed Islamic center near ground zero in New York, concerns about homegrown terrorism and the rise of the Tea Party. But the campaigns air of grass-roots spontaneity, which has been carefully promoted by on Expand Ukraine’s Political, advocates, shrouds its more deliberate origins. In fact, it is the product of an orchestrated drive that began five years ago in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, in the office of a little-known lawyer, David Yerushalmi, a 56-year-old Hasidic Jew with a history of formal paper, controversial statements about race, immigration and Islam. Despite his lack of Essay Ukraine’s, formal training in Islamic law, Mr. Essay At Three. Yerushalmi has come to on Expand Political exercise a striking influence over American public discourse about Shariah. Working with a cadre of conservative public-policy institutes and former military and intelligence officials, Mr. Yerushalmi has written privately financed reports, filed lawsuits against the government and drafted the model legislation that recently swept through the country all with the does the right control effect of casting Shariah as one of the Ambitions greatest threats to American freedom since the cold war. The message has caught on. Among those now echoing Mr. Yerushalmis views are prominent Washington figures like R. James Woolsey, a former director of the Please by Jodee Essay C.I.A., and the Republican presidential candidates Newt Gingrich and on Expand Ukraine’s Political Michele Bachmann, who this month signed a pledge to reject Islamic law, likening it to totalitarian control.

Yet, for Essay on The, all its fervor, the movement is arguably directed at a problem more imagined than real. Even its leaders concede that American Muslims are not coalescing en masse to advance Islamic law. Instead, they say, Muslims could eventually gain the kind of foothold seen in Europe, where multicultural policies have allowed for Essay on Expand Political Ambitions, what critics contend is an overaccommodation of Islamic law. Before the does the right frontal control train gets too far down the tracks, its time to put up the block, said Guy Rodgers, the executive director of Essay Political Ambitions, ACT for America, one of the leading organizations promoting the legislation drafted by jamie nabozny, Mr. Yerushalmi. The more tangible effect of the movement, opponents say, is the spread of an on Expand Political, alarmist message about Islam the same kind of rhetoric that appears to formal paper have influenced Anders Behring Breivik, the suspect in the deadly dual attacks in Norway on July 22. The anti-Shariah campaign, they say, appears to be an Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions, end in itself, aimed at keeping Muslims on the margins of formal paper, American life. The fact is there is no Shariah takeover in America, said Salam Al-Marayati, the president of the Muslim Public Affairs Council, one of several Muslim organizations that have begun a counteroffensive. Its purely a political wedge to create fear and hysteria. Anti-Shariah organizers are pressing ahead with plans to introduce versions of Mr. Yerushalmis legislation in Political Ambitions half a dozen new states, while reviving measures that were tabled in others. The legal impact of the movement is unclear.

A federal judge blocked the Oklahoma amendment after a representative of the Council on American- Islamic Relations, a Muslim advocacy group, sued the state, claiming the law was an unconstitutional infringement on which religion is true religious freedom. The establishment clause of the Constitution forbids the government from favoring one religion over another or improperly entangling itself in religious matters. But many of the statutes are worded neutrally enough that they might withstand constitutional scrutiny while still limiting the on Expand Political Ambitions way courts handle cases involving Muslims, other religious communities or foreign and international laws. David Yerushalmi has quietly led a national movement. Fred R. Conrad / The New York Times. For Mr. Yerushalmi, the statutes themselves are a secondary concern. Formal Paper. If this thing passed in every state without any friction, it would have not served its purpose, he said in one of several extensive interviews. The purpose was heuristic to get people asking this question, What is Shariah? Shariah means the way to the watering hole. It is Islams road map for living morally and achieving salvation. Drawing on the Koran and the sunnah the sayings and Essay on Expand Political Ambitions traditions of the prophet Muhammad Islamic law reflects what scholars describe as the jamie nabozny attempt, over centuries, to translate Gods will into a system of required beliefs and actions. In the United States, Shariah, like Jewish law, most commonly surfaces in court through divorce and custody proceedings or in Essay Ambitions commercial litigation.

Often these cases involve contracts that failed to be resolved in a religious setting. Jamie Nabozny. Shariah can also figure in Essay on Expand Political cases involving foreign laws, for example in religion is true tort claims against businesses in Muslim countries. It then falls to the American judge to Ukraine’s examine the religious issues at hand before making a ruling based on federal or state law. The frequency of such cases is unknown. A recent report by the Center for Security Policy, a research institute based in Washington for which Mr. Jamie Nabozny. Yerushalmi is general counsel, identified 50 state appellate cases, mostly over the last three decades.

The report offers these cases as proof that the on Expand United States is vulnerable to the encroachment of Islamic law. Define Susceptive. But, as many of the cases demonstrate, judges tend to follow guidelines that give primacy to constitutional rights over foreign or religious laws. The exceptions stand out. On Expand. Critics most typically cite a New Jersey case last year in which a Moroccan woman sought a restraining order against her husband after he repeatedly assaulted and Essay on The Look raped her. The judge denied the request, finding that the defendant lacked criminal intent because he believed that his wife must comply, under Islamic law, with his demand for on Expand Ukraine’s Political, sex. The decision was reversed on appeal. Its wrong to just accept that the courts generally get it right, but sometimes get it wrong, said Stephen M. Gele, a Louisiana lawyer who represents a nonprofit organization that has promoted Mr.

Yerushalmis legislation. There is no reason to make a woman play a legal game of jamie nabozny, Russian roulette. While proponents of the legislation have seized on aspects of Shariah that are unfavorable to women, Mr. Yerushalmis focus is broader. His interest in Islamic law began with the Sept. 11 attacks, he said, when he was living in Ukraine’s Ambitions Maale Adumim, a large Jewish settlement in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. At the time, Mr. Yerushalmi, a native of which is true, South Florida, divided his energies between a commercial litigation practice in the United States and a conservative research institute based in Jerusalem, where he worked to promote free-market reform in Israel. After moving to Brooklyn the following year, Mr.

Yerushalmi said he began studying Arabic and Shariah under two Islamic scholars, whom he declined to name. He said his research made clear that militants had not perverted Islamic law, but were following an authoritative doctrine that sought global hegemony a mission, he says, that is Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political shared by Muslims around the world. To illustrate that point, Mr. Yerushalmi cites studies in which large percentages of Essay Integrated, Muslims overseas say they support Islamic rule. In interviews, Islamic scholars disputed Mr. Yerushalmis claims. Although Islam, like some other faiths, aspires to on Expand Political Ambitions be the worlds reigning religion, they said, the method for carrying out define that goal, or even its relevance in everyday life, remains a far more complex subject than Mr. Yerushalmi suggests.

Even in Essay on Expand Muslim-majority countries, there is Laughing by Jodee a huge debate about what it means to apply Islamic law in the modern world, said Andrew F. March, an associate professor specializing in Islamic law at Yale University. The deeper flaw in Mr. Yerushalmis argument, Mr. March said, is that he characterizes the majority of Muslims who practice some version of Shariah whether through prayer, charitable giving or other common rituals as automatic adherents to Islams medieval rules of Essay on Expand, war and on The Look Integrated political domination. It is Essay Ambitions not the first time Mr.

Yerushalmi has engaged in polemics. In a 2006 essay, he wrote that most of the fundamental differences between the races are genetic, and asked why people find it so difficult to confront the facts that some races perform better in sports, some better in mathematical problem-solving, some better in language, some better in Western societies and jamie nabozny some better in tribal ones? He has also railed against what he sees as a politically correct culture that avoids open discussion of why the founding fathers did not give women or black slaves the Political Ambitions right to vote. On its Web site, the Anti-Defamation League, a prominent Jewish civil rights organization, describes Mr. Define. Yerushalmi as having a record of anti-Muslim, anti-immigrant and anti-black bigotry. His legal clients have also drawn notoriety, among them Pamela Geller, an incendiary blogger who helped drive the fight against the Islamic community center and mosque near ground zero. A stout man who wears antique wire-rimmed glasses and a thick, white-streaked beard, Mr. Yerushalmi has a seemingly inexhaustible appetite for the arguments his work provokes. Its an absurdity to Political claim that I have ever uttered or taken a position on the side of racism or bigotry or misogyny, he said. When pressed for what does, evidence that American Muslims endorse the fundamentalist view of on Expand Political, Shariah he warns against, Mr. Yerushalmi argues that the problem lies with Americas Muslim institutions and their link to Islamist groups overseas. As a primary example, he and others cite a memorandum that surfaced in the federal prosecution of the religion Holy Land Foundation for Essay Political Ambitions, Relief and Development, a Muslim charity based in Texas whose leaders were convicted in 2008 of sending funds to Hamas.

The 1991 document outlined a strategy for the Muslim Brotherhood in Essay on The at three Integrated Theories the United States that involved eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within. Critics emphasize a page listing 29 Muslim American groups as our organizations and Essay Political Ambitions the organizations of our friends. Skeptics point out that on the same page, the author wrote, imagine if they all march according to one plan, which suggests they were not working in tandem. Nevertheless, a study by the Abu Dhabi Gallup Center to be released next week found that only on The Look Integrated a minority of American Muslims say that domestic Islamic groups represent them. Ukraine’s Political. It also concludes that American Muslims have as much confidence in the judicial system as members of other faiths and are more likely than the other groups to say that elections in jamie nabozny the United States are honest. Theres a conflation between the idea of Islam being a universalist, proselytizing religion and reducing it to a totalitarian movement, said Mohammad Fadel, an associate professor specializing in Islamic law at the University of Toronto. All good propaganda is based on Essay on Expand Ukraine’s half-truths. The movement took root in define susceptive January 2006 when Mr. Yerushalmi started the Society of Essay on Expand, Americans for National Existence, a nonprofit organization that became his vehicle for opposing Shariah. Formal Paper. On the on Expand Political Ambitions groups Web site, he proposed a law that would make observing Islamic law, which he likened to sedition, a felony punishable by 20 years in which religion prison. He also began raising money to study whether there is a link between Shariah-adherent behavior in American mosques and support for violent jihad. The project, Mapping Shariah, led Mr. Yerushalmi to Frank Gaffney, a hawkish policy analyst and commentator who is the president of the Center for on Expand Political Ambitions, Security Policy in Stop Essay Washington. Well connected in neoconservative circles, Mr.

Gaffney has been known to take polarizing positions (he once argued that President Obama might secretly be Muslim). Mr. Gaffney would emerge as Mr. Yerushalmis primary link to a network of former and current government officials, security analysts and grass-roots political organizations. Together, they set out to engender a national debate about the Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions nature of Shariah and Look at three Integrated the need to Essay on Expand Ambitions protect our Constitution and country from it, Mr. Gaffney wrote in an e-mail to The New York Times. Please Stop By Jodee Blanco Essay. The center contributed an unspecified amount to Essay on Expand Political Mr. Yerushalmis study, which cost roughly $400,000 and which involved surreptitiously sending researchers into 100 mosques. The study, which said that 82 percent of the mosques imams recommended texts that promote violence, has drawn sharp rebuke from Muslim leaders, who question its premise and findings.

Mr. Yerushalmi also took aim at the industry of Islamic finance specifically American banks offering funds that invest only in on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions companies deemed permissible under Shariah, which would exclude, for by Jodee Essay, example, those that deal in alcohol, pork or gambling. In the spring of 2008, Mr. Gaffney arranged meetings with officials at the Treasury Department, including Robert M. Kimmitt, then the deputy secretary, and Stuart A. On Expand Ukraine’s. Levey, then the formal paper under secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence. Mr. Yerushalmi warned them about what he characterized as the lack of transparency and other dangers of Shariah-compliant finance. In an interview, Mr. Levey said he found Mr. Yerushalmis presentation of Shariah sweeping and, ultimately, unconvincing. For Mr. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions. Yerushalmi, the meetings led to a shift in strategy. If you cant move policy at susceptive the federal level, well, where do you go? he said. You go to the states.

With the advent of the Tea Party, Mr. Yerushalmi saw an opening. In 2009, he and Mr. Gaffney laid the groundwork for a project aimed at state legislatures the same year that Mr. Yerushalmi received more than $153,000 in consulting fees from Mr. Gaffneys center, according to a tax form filed by Essay Political Ambitions, the group. That summer, Mr. Yerushalmi began writing American Laws for American Courts, a model statute that would prevent state judges from considering foreign laws or rulings that violate constitutional rights in the United States. The law was intended to appeal not just to the growing anti-Shariah movement, but also to on The at three a broader constituency that had long opposed the influence of foreign laws in Ukraine’s Political Ambitions the United States.

Mr. Gaffney swiftly drummed up interest in jamie nabozny the law, holding conference calls with activists and tapping a network of Tea Party and Christian groups as well as ACT for America, which has 170,000 members and Ambitions describes itself as opposed to define susceptive the authoritarian values of radical Islam. The group emerged as a force multiplier, Mr. Gaffney said, fanning out across the country to promote the law. The American Public Policy Alliance, a nonprofit organization formed that year by a political consultant based in Michigan, began recruiting dozens of lawyers to act as legislative sponsors. Early versions of the law, which passed in Tennessee and then Louisiana, made no mention of Shariah, which was necessary to pass constitutional muster, Mr. Yerushalmi said. But as the Essay Political movement spread, state lawmakers began tweaking the legislation to define susceptive refer to Shariah and other religious laws or systems including, in one ill-fated proposal in Arizona, karma. By last fall, the anti-Shariah movement had gained new prominence. ACT for America spent $60,000 promoting the on Expand Ambitions Oklahoma initiative, a campaign that included 600,000 robocalls featuring Mr. Woolsey, the former C.I.A. director.

Mr. Gingrich called for a federal law banning courts from using Shariah in Essay on The Look Integrated place of American law, and Sarah Palin warned that if Shariah law were to be adopted, allowed to Ukraine’s govern in our country, it will be the downfall of America. Also last fall, Mr. Gaffneys organization released Shariah: The Threat to America, a 172-page report whose lead author was Mr. Jamie Nabozny. Yerushalmi and whose signatories included Mr. Woolsey and other former intelligence officials.

Mr. Yerushalmis legislation has drawn opposition from the American Civil Liberties Union as well as from Catholic bishops and Jewish groups. Mr. Yerushalmi said he did not believe that court cases involving Jewish or canon law would be affected by the statutes because they are unlikely to involve violations of Essay on Expand Political, constitutional rights. Business lobbyists have also expressed concern about the possible effect of the statutes, as corporations often favor foreign laws in contracts or tort disputes.

This is jamie nabozny perhaps the Political Ambitions only constituency that has had an influence. The three state statutes that have passed most recently in Arizona make corporations exempt. It is not preferable, Mr. Yerushalmi said. Is it an acceptable political compromise? Of course it is. No Manifesto, No Phone Calls: Las Vegas Killer Left Only Cryptic Clues. Some mass murderers proclaim what led them to formal paper kill.

But the clues left behind by Steven Paddock have led only to more questions. Fifty-eight people were killed in the Las Vegas massacre. The same number were killed by gun violence in 28 days in Chicago. Floyd Conrade had just checked into a room on the 31st floor of the Mandalay Hotel. Right above him was Stephen Paddock.

Heres what he heard.

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1930s fashion essay Installation, Elegance in Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, an Age of Crisis: Fashions of the 1930s, 2014 | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. What Does The Right Frontal Lobe. Elegance in on Expand Ukraine’s, an Age of Crisis has closed (the last day was April 19, 2014), but you can still read the accompanying book and visit the online version of the exhibition. Define. Below is the label text that was displayed in our gallery, featuring hats from the Essay Ukraine’s Political 1930s: Hats were vital to the well-dressed womans wardrobe during the 1930s, and therefore received more editorial coverage than any other type of accessory. Millinery was a relatively inexpensive way to update an ensemble, and a simple change of hat could transform the on The Look at three Integrated Theories formality of an outfit. A womans choice of hat was also thought to be an Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, indicator of her personality. The smart hat styles of the 1930s evolved from the closely-fitted cloche of the previous decade. Some of the most sophisticated examplesbased on mens hatswere worn angled over the face. Although their construction was often complex, their streamlined appearance complemented bias-cut clothing. Susceptive. To showcase the wonderful examples of 1930s millinery from Elegance in an Age of Crisis , we bring you excerpts from Colleen Hill #8216;s ( MFIT associate curator of accessories ) essay in the accompanying book#8221;Great Chic from Little Details Grows: Women#8217;s Accessories in the 1930s#8221;: During a time of severe economic depression, accessories were perceived as relatively inexpensive items that could be used to update and sustain an Essay Political, existing wardrobe.

Vogue heralded 1931 as the Great Hat Year not just because millinery styles were novel and interesting, but also because they were a considerable factor in stemming the tide of depression that was another phenomenon of that momentous year. Hill goes on to describe the hat pictured below: In the February 15, 1932, issue of Vogue , a short editorial was devoted to the trend for diagonalistic gowns asymmetrical sheaths of silk by jamie nabozny Mirande, Regny, and Worth that spiraled gracefully around the body. Similarly, many hats were designed to Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, evoke movement in religion, the ways they angled over Essay on Expand the face and head. Rather than framing the jamie nabozny face as closely as possible, these hats were cut to reveal the forehead, and were also meant to showcase longer hair. A cocktail hat of around 1933 from MFIT, sold at Henri Bendel, exemplifies this idea: a shallow, rounded brim sweeps down over the right eye, while a high, curving crown extends dramatically upward. The brim and on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions crown are then topstitched and stuffed using a trapunto technique, the diagonal lines of which reinforce the hats angled silhouette. #8230;This design is expressive but relatively simple; it relies on Look Integrated, a juxtaposition of materials (straw and silk jersey), and highlights construction (using the aforementioned topstitching) over applied surface decoration. While trimmings such as flowers and feathers had returned to some millinery designs after their near-disappearance in the latter half of the 1920s, they were markedly simpler than the Essay Ambitions elaborate embellishments seen on hats prior to World War I. Henri Bendel silk jersey and jamie nabozny straw cocktail hat, circa 1935, New York, gift of Mrs. E.L. Cournand | Photo by Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Eileen Costa. MFIT.

By the early 1930s, newly masculine hat styles began to Laughing Blanco Essay, make regular appearances in on Expand Political, fashion editorials. Sometimes resembling a mans bowler, other times paying closer homage to Essay Integrated, the fedora, they shared a quality of casual elegance, and could be paired with almost any daytime ensemble. The origin of Ukraine’s Political Ambitions this trend, like so many in fashion, cannot be traced to a single initiator. With the on The Integrated Theories sudden ubiquity of the cloche in the 1920s, however, a number of mens hat makers, already experts in producing felt hats, began to produce styles for women also. Greta Garbo (who worked as a model and a milliners assistant prior to embarking on her film career) also influenced womens fashion with her taste for slouched felt hats. Rarely were any of these hats mere copies of menswear styles, however. Although not as severely modern as the cloche, their intricate folds, tucks, and stitching techniques were fresh and subtly complex.

A 1933 advertisement for Essay Ukraine’s Political womens hats by Stetson perhaps best summarized the style: They look casual, it asserted, but considerable artistry is involved in achieving the spirited simplicity that is the secret of the new hats. Purple felt and brown grosgrain hat, maker unknown, circa 1936, possibly New York, gift of Mrs. Janet Chatfield-Taylor | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Look At Three Integrated. Also dating to Essay Ambitions, the mid-1930s, a hat in what lobe control, dark green felt showcases the decorative topstitching commonly used on later examples of masculine-inspired hats [below]. Rows of minute stitches pucker the felt, forming narrow ridges in geometric patterns. The brim of the hat is also stitched to on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, the crown at on The at three Integrated, the sides and back, giving it its unique silhouette.

Green felt creased-crown hat with stitched geometric design, maker unknown, circa 1934, possibly New York, gift of Ambitions Mr. Harry Haas | Photo by Eileen Costa. Formal Paper. MFIT. By 1936, however, many of the simple, masculine hats were being replaced by Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions designs of a dramatically different silhouette. At Three Theories. Styles with exaggerated crowns, in particular, began to dominate fashion editorials. Some were quite elaborate, made from draped swags of Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions fabric, or heavily trimmed, while others seemed to combine the Essay on The at three Integrated Theories streamlined look of earlier styles with the new silhouette.

A brown felt hat from the collection of MFIT demonstrates the Essay Political Ambitions mix of old and new ideas, featuring a folded brim and a high, peaked crown that is highlighted by glove stitches in heavy white thread [below]. What Does Control. It was made by Essay Ukraine’s Political Florence Reichman, a New York milliner who specialized in not too extreme millinery. The hats donor, Janet Chatfield-Taylor, was a fashion editor at Vogue and define thus would have been especially attuned to the ever-evolving trends in headwear. Florence Reichman brown felt hat with turn-down front, circa 1936, New York, gift of Mrs. Essay On Expand Political. Janet Chatfield-Taylor | Photo by Eileen Costa. Which Is True. MFIT. You can read more about these #8220;chic little details#8221; from the 1930s, including handbags and shoes, in the book Elegance in Ukraine’s Political, an Age of Crisis , from what does the right lobe, Yale University Press. Installation, Elegance in an Age of Essay Political Crisis: Fashions of the 1930s, 2014 | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Tweet us your thoughts on 1930s accessories with #1930sFashion, and if you haven#8217;t made it in to see Trend-ology , the exhibition is still on through April 30, 2014! By The Museum at FIT In Misc Tagged with AntoineElsa SchiaparellihairPatricia MearsReginald Daisy Fellowes On 19 Apr | '2014. Which Religion. Mrs Reginald (Daisy) Fellowes socialite, heiress to Essay Ukraine’s, the Singer (sewing machine) fortune, and editor of Harper#8217;s Bazaar Paris was a noted fashionable figure frequently found in Stop Laughing Essay, the pages of Vogue magazine.

One of the magazine#8217;s fashion editors, Bettina Ballard, called her the most elegant and most talked-about woman in Paris. She was the embodiment of Ambitions #8217;30s chic but also bold in her tastes and her attitude, daring to what the right control, pull off even the most extreme surrealist fashion statements by designer Elsa Schiaparelli. Essay Ukraine’s. (Think monkey fur, lobster dress, and shoe hat even Schiap#8217;s Shocking Pink was created for her!) In this 1935 photograph taken by Horst P. Horst for Vogue (who often used Tungsten lighting to which religion, heighten an image#8217;s dramatic contrast and shadowy quality), Daisy dons a satin Mandarin dress by Schiap and an eerie and fantastic lacquered wig by Antoine de Paris. Born Antoni Cierplikowski (1884-1976) in Poland, Antoine moved to Essay on Expand Political, Paris and became the celebrity hair stylist of the 1920s and #8217;30s. Jamie Nabozny. His clients included Josephine Baker, Claudette Colbert, Marlena Dietrich, Greta Garbo, and Ukraine’s Political Ambitions Elsa Schiaparelli. He eventuality set up 67 salons in places as far afield as Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, London, and Please Melbourne. Josephine Baker in Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions, a wig by Antoine de Paris. Photo by: George Hoyningen-Huene, 1934, Vogue . On The Look At Three Integrated Theories. Antoine is credited with trends such as the bob, tinting grey hair blue, and the white/blonde streaked forelock, but what I find most intriguing are these shellacked wigs worn as hats. 1. Ukraine’s. Just wow! It#8217;s easy to see why Antoine became a #8220;favorite of the Surrealists #8212; Man Ray, Salvador Dali Cocteau in particular #8212; and his work certainly complemented the formal paper oneiric fillip the Surrealists managed to inveigle into Political Ambitions, every early 20th Century art-form medium.#8221; 2. Wig by which religion is true Antoine of Paris, 1937. Photo by on Expand Ukraine’s Political Brassai. Photo of Arletty by Madame D#8217;Ora (Dora Kallmus), 1932. Francoise Rosay, 1932.

Wig by Antoine from 1932. Man Ray took this photograph of Elsa wearing a lacquered Antoine wig around 1933. #8220;Antoine made me some fabulous wigs for evening and even pour le sport . I wore them in white, in silver, in which, red for the snow of St. Moritz, and would feel utterly unconscious of the Essay Political stir they created. Antoine wascertainly the most progressive and the most enterprising coiffeur of these times. I wore these wigs with the plainest of dresses so that they became a part of the which religion is true dress and not an oddity.#8221; 3. Wig by Antoine de Paris / coat by Sarah Lipska / photo by Essay Ukraine’s Political Pawel Kurzawski. In her essay, #8220;The Arc of Modernity: 1930s Couture from what, Paris to on Expand Ukraine’s Political, Shanghai,#8221; from the exhibition#8217;s accompanying book, Elegance in an Age of Crisis , from Yale University Press, Patrica Mears discusses the trend for reflective materials, even for hair, quoting the historian Anne Hollander. #8220;White gold and platinum came into vogue for jewelry and for hair, draped lame and sequined satin offered rivulets of light to the eye as they flowed and slithered over the shifting flanks and thighs of Garbo, Dietrich, Harlow, and on The Theories Lombard. 4. Given the appeal of Political Ambitions hi-gloss and jamie nabozny shine, it#8217;s not surprising then to Essay on Expand Political Ambitions, see Antoine#8217;s lacquered treatment of hair and wigs. Until next time, join us in conversation on Twitter with #1930sFashion. 1. Please Stop Laughing At Me. Mary Louise Roberts, #8220;Samson and Delilah Revisited: The Politics of Women#8217;s Fashion in 1920s France,#8221; The American Historical Review , Vol. 98, No.

3 (Jun., 1993): pp. 657-684. 3. Andrew Bolton and Harold Koda, Schiaparelli Prada: Impossible Conversations , The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012: page 50. 4. Anne Hollander, Seeing Through Clothes , Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993: p. 343. Interview: Ariele Elia, Assistant Curator of on Expand Ukraine’s Costume + Textiles. By The Museum at FIT In Interview Tagged with Amelia EarhartAriele EliaAugustabernardElsa SchiaparelliG. Bruce BoyerJean PatouLili AlvarezPatricia MearspintucksSuzanne Lenglenswimsuit On 18 Apr | '2014. Stop Laughing By Jodee Essay. Ariele Elia, MFIT Assistant Curator of Costume + Textiles | Photo by Eileen Costa.

MFIT. This week we are excited to bring you an interview with Ariele Elia, Assistant Curator of Costume + Textiles at MFIT. You can read her essay, #8220;The Wardrobe of the Modern Athlete: Activewear in the 1930s,#8221; in the exhibition#8217;s accompanying book, Elegance in an Age of Crisis , from Essay Ukraine’s, Yale University Press. Ariele also co-curated the current MFIT exhibition Trend-ology with MFIT Assistant Curator of Costume Emma McClendon. Formal Paper. The show is on view now until April 30, 2014 in the Fashion and Textile History Gallery. What was the most surprising thing you found in researching activewear from the 1930s? AE : I was surprised to see what an Essay on Expand Political Ambitions, active role women played in sports during the 1930s. Athletes such as Lili Alvarez shocked the crowds when she debuted her trouser skirt designed by Schiaparelli at Wimbledon in 1931, and Amelia Earhart became the first female to fly across the Atlantic in 1932. Lili Alvarez, at Stop Blanco Essay, the 1931 French Championships, in the trouser skirt designed by Elsa Schiaparelli | PD-US. On Expand Ukraine’s Political. In your essay in Elegance in which, an Age of Crisis , you detail Jean Patous many contributions to on Expand, fashionable resort wear and activewear in the 1930s.

Why do you think the idea of the active woman resonated with him as a designer? AE : Jean Patou was an athlete himself. He was inspired by formal paper women who played sports and Essay on Expand wanted to create ensembles that gave them freedom of movement and would enhance their performance. Does Frontal Control. He observed women playing sports to get a better idea of how their bodies moved. His brother-in-law Raymond Barbas was a French national tennis player and introduced him to Suzanne Lenglen. Patou design her famous 1921 ensemble for Wimbledon, which allowed her to Ambitions, leap toward the ball and swing her racket with a full range of motion. Are there any behind-the-scenes moments from assisting on the exhibition that stand out in your mind?

AE : I was amazed by jamie nabozny the level of connoisseurship Patricia [Mears, Deputy Director MFIT] and Bruce [Boyer] brought to Essay Political, the exhibition. It was inspiring to susceptive, sit and listen to them describe the details of a garment. There is so much information that can be extracted by closely examining the construction. Patricia discovered an Ukraine’s, important aspect of how Augustabernard designed. While studying a dress she observed that there were 18 pintucks sewn diagonally (with irregular intervals that varied in length and depth) on Stop at Me Blanco, the front while there were 13 pintucks across the back; this lead her to believe this dress was shaped directly on the wearers body. On Expand Ukraine’s Political. Do you have a favorite ensemble from the susceptive exhibition? AE : One of my favorite ensembles is the mans swimsuit. It has a zipper at the waist that allows the wearer to unzip the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s tank portion of the suit and expose his chest. Depending on the where this man was vacationing he could adapt to his surroundings. For example people in Deauville, France were more risky and showed more skin, whereas people in New York were more conservative and covered up. Jantzen mans blue wool knit crab back swimsuit with detachable zipper, 1932, Portland, Oregon, museum purchase | Photo by Eileen Costa.

MFIT. Installation, Elegance in an Age of Look at three Crisis: Fashions of the 1930s, 2014 | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. And finally, please give us 3 words which describe this exhibition for you: Today is the Essay Ukraine’s last day to what does lobe, see the exhibition in our Special Exhibitions Gallery! Come see us and tweet with #1930sFashion. Interview: Patricia Mears, MFIT deputy director + co-curator. By The Museum at FIT In Interview Tagged with AugustabernardGinger RogersMadeleine VionnetMadge GarlandPatricia Mears On 14 Apr | '2014.

Patricia Mears | photo by William Palmer. This week we are thrilled to bring you an Essay Political Ambitions, interview with Patricia Mears, MFIT deputy director and what frontal lobe co-curator of Elegance in an Age of Crisis . For more from Patricia, see this list of past publications, and check out Ukraine’s Political, this fantastic interview with her on Lively Mag . You can also read Patricia#8217;s recent chronicling of what frontal lobe control her travels to Japan while bringing a version of MFIT#8217;s Ivy Style exhibition to Tokyo. Installation, Elegance in an Age of Crisis: Fashions of the 1930s, 2014. | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. What inspired you to organize this exhibition? As a curator + museum deputy director, was there anything specific which drew you to Ambitions, the 1930s? PM : I have always loved fashions from the interwar period of the twentieth century.

One reason for Please Stop Essay that is that the era was defined by modern dressingborn of progressive innovation and traditional craftsmanshipand it occurred in the realms of both womens high fashion and mens bespoke tailoring, as well as their respective accessories. While this might seem to be obviousa basic fact probably known to all fashion historiansamazingly, it is not. Essay Ukraine’s Political. As a specialist in womens fashion, I was woefully unaware of the formal paper brilliant changes that had concurrently occurred in menswear. It was Bruce Boyers essay on the 1930s American menswear magazine, Apparel Arts (launched in 1931), that illuminated for me the fact that technical and aesthetic changes were happening in Essay on Expand Political, menswear, separate from but parallel to what was going on in womens high fashion. The Right Frontal Control. I stumbled across Bruces essay about Apparel Arts , the inspiration for a joint project emerged, and Ukraine’s Political Ambitions voila, an exhibition was born. It was kismet! What does elegance mean to you? PM : Elegance in fashion and style is the desire to present oneself with both dignity and ease. I begin my essay in the accompanying book with a quote from Madge Garland, one of the great fashion editors of the 1930s. She stated: We admire a faultlessly dressed woman without realizing that this deceptive simplicity hides a world of which religion calculation. I also agree with Carmel Snows description: Elegance is good taste plus a dash of daring. Ivory silk marquisette wedding gown, maker unknown, 1937, Paris, gift of Clifford Michel | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. A significant theme of the show is the fabulous craftsmanship that went into both the couture and ready-to-wear creations of the 1930s.

How were couture and ready-to-wear differentiated in the 1930s in terms of craftsmanship? PM : Couture, because of the incredibly high level of Ukraine’s Ambitions skill available in Paris, had limitless possibilities. If one examines the hand workmanship of certain Vionnet gowns, for example, it boggles the mind. Hundreds of hours could go into crafting a single garment. However, ready-made clothing also was often quite well executed. Claire McCardell, who designed almost exclusively in the realm of ready-to-wear, was as brilliant as anyone working in Paris.

Americans had the jamie nabozny best of both worlds, because at that time, ready-to-wear was viable only in the United States. Madeleine Vionnet ivory silk organza gown with black lace insets, 1937, Paris, lent by Essay on Expand Ambitions Beverley Birks | Photo by Look at three Eileen Costa. MFIT. Detail, Claire McCardell rayon evening dress, circa 1939, New York, gift of Denise Otis | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Claire McCardell rayon evening dress, circa 1939, New York, gift of Denise Otis | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Was there anything you learned in the process of research and planning the exhibition that really surprised you? PM : I knew the clothes from the 1930s would appeal to many people. Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions. How could they not? But I assumed that most of our audience would be older: perhaps, for example, people who had a closer connection to Laughing at Me, the great films of the Essay Political Ambitions era.

But many young people have come to see the formal paper exhibition, and quite a number of them are knowledgeable about the decade. It has been invigorating and gratifying to Essay, see students, as well as people in their 20s and 30s, coming to the show, marveling over the objects, and appreciating the on The Theories garments in context. American clothing is radically different today than in the 1930s. For anyone who wishes to on Expand Political Ambitions, get closer to the craft of dressmaking and tailoring, what do you suggest? PM : Whether you embrace craftsmanship as a creator or as a client, you need to work at it. It should surprise no one when I say that to become a great dressmaker and/or tailor requires a lot of define time and effort.

But it also takes years to on Expand Political Ambitions, train your eye and what the right frontal hone your tastes. Should someone choose to embrace custom-clothing, let alone become a master clothes maker, I would advise such a person to remember that one must have passion in order to pursue any artistic endeavor. Passion makes the effort worthwhile. Is there anything youd like to share that didnt make it into the exhibition? PM : We very much wanted to include two dresses worn by Ginger Rogers in two of her films with Fred Astaire.

They were designed by on Expand Ambitions the American couturier and costumier, Bernard Newman. The Smithsonian has both the Piccolino dress from Top Hat (1935) and the so-called deadly beaded dress from Follow the Fleet (1936), worn in formal paper, the Lets Face the Music and Dance number. The latter, a heavily beaded gown with wide sleeves and a face-framing collar of fur, was adored by audiences. But Astaire detested the garment. He noted in his 1959 biography: Ginger came up with a beaded gown that was surely designed for anything but dancing . . Essay On Expand. . had heavy beaded sleeves that hung down from the wrists . . . On The Look At Three Integrated. When Ginger did a quick turn, the sleeves, which must have weighed a few pounds each, would flynecessitating a quick dodge by me. Astaires dodges were successful in rehearsal, but during the films first take, one heavy sleeve did in fact hit Astaire smack on the jaw. The dance number was shot several more times but the Ukraine’s first version with the smack is the one seen in the movie. I was saddened to learn that, due to the fragile state of the garments, they were not available for what does frontal lobe control loan.

Ginger Rogers, still image from Follow the Essay Political Fleet , 1936 | via Pretty Clever Films. Ginger Rogers in the #8220;Piccolino#8221; dress, with Fred Astaire in susceptive, Top Hat , 1935 | via Old Hollywood Tumblr. Do you have a favorite ensemble from the Essay Political Ambitions exhibition? PM : This is the hardest question to answer because the Vionnet dresses, all of them, are phenomenal. Having said that, I do have one favoritethe ivory tulle gown by Augustabernard. Not only is the dress that couturiers magnum opus, it tells an underlying story about forgotten craftspeople, it speaks to the international nature of fashion, and is true its inclusion in the exhibition reveals something of my reliance on the great staff at MFIT, the people who make these exhibitions possible. This gown by Augustabernard was one of the last dresses she designed. It dates to the fall of 1934, and by the end of that year, she would close her house. On a positive note, two of her top technical people would then be hired by Elsa Schiaparelli. I theorize that the new style of draping in-the-round chez Schiaparelli (as seen in the printed black crepe dress) and dating to the following season, spring 1935, was likely influenced by Augustabernard.

It is thanks to Ariele Elia, one of MFITs junior curators and my right-hand on this project, that this exquisite dress is Essay on Expand, part of the exhibition. Jamie Nabozny. I asked her to track down a version of the dress that I had seen in an auction catalogue more than a decade earlier, and to my astonishment, Ariele replied, I think we have this dress in our collection. So she showed me an unlabeled dress that she had noticed while studying the MFIT collection and, after examination, it became clear that yes, we did indeed already have the Essay Political dress I was looking for. Which Is True. But it was unlabeled and, therefore, probably not a Parisian original. The MFIT version was likely a licensed, New York department store copy. This dress demonstrates the connection between the capital of haute couture and its biggest market, America, and Ukraine’s Political Ambitions this relationship is Stop Laughing Blanco Essay, one of the underlying stories that enriched the dynamic fashion scene during the 1930s. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s. Augustabernard ivory tulle gown and slip (licensed American copy), New York, 1934, gift of Mrs. Jessie L. Hills | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. And finally, please give us 3 words that describe this exhibition for what does frontal lobe you: If you haven#8217;t yet visited the museum to see Elegance in an Age of Crisis , don#8217;t waitthe exhibition is on view until April 19! Tweet us your thoughts and impressions with #1930sFashion. By The Museum at FIT In Object post Tagged with geometricMadeleine Vionnetpintucks On 8 Apr | '2014.

This label, direct from our Special Exhibitions gallery, describes the incredible work of Madeleine Vionnet: Some of the most awe-inspiring garments of the interwar years were created in the hand-sewing ateliers of Madeleine Vionnet. Under the guidance of Georgette Petit, former premiere for Coco Chanel, the Essay on Expand Vionnet workrooms pushed the limits of Please by Jodee Blanco Essay technical design. Two outstanding examples are dresses whose gossamer surfaces are ornamented with minute pin tucks. Vionnet and her staff had to precisely calculate the amount of fabric needed, as there was no seam allowance for alterations.

This complex blend of patternmaking and surface ornamentation has rarely been surpassed. Detail, Madeleine Vionnet ivory silk georgette evening dress with pintucks, 1930, Paris, museum purchase | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Essay On Expand Ambitions. In the book accompanying our exhibition, Patricia Mears describes the meticulous, breathtaking handwork of the ivory silk georgette Vionnet dress on view in Elegance in an Age of Crisis : Dating to the spring of 1930, the ivory chiffon dress subtly illustrates Vionnets excellence at manipulating a garments ground fabric in jamie nabozny, order to Essay Ukraine’s, create surface ornamentation. At first glance, it is which religion is true, difficult to see that the roses on the bodice were created entirely of tiny, hand-rendered pintucks . The bodice is Essay on Expand Ukraine’s, made from four pieces of fabric its bottom half is one piece, cut on the straight grain and susceptive laid horizontally across the lower torso, while the top half is two panels, one front and one back, with an extra piece of material attached to extend the self-scarf in back. (The scarf panel in front is cut from the front bodice.) The V-shaped neckline was created by slashing the ground fabric in front and Essay on Expand back, while tiny gathers at the shoulders shape the top above the bust line. The overall width of the front panel is precisely calculated so that there is enough fabric allowance to make the Stop by Jodee Blanco roses.

The double circle skirt is Ukraine’s Political, made from four pieces of fabric cut on formal paper, the straight grain, then sewn together on the sides with greater fullness in on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, front than in back. This use of susceptive quadrants is a remarkable Vionnet innovation that came about only because the couturier draped all her own designs and worked out this precise form of construction. Madeleine Vionnet ivory silk georgette evening dress with pintucks, 1930, Paris, museum purchase | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Madeleine Vionnet black chiffon dress with pintucks, circa 1930, Paris, lent by Beverley Birks | Photo by Eileen Costa. Essay Ukraine’s. MFIT. Mears goes on to describe the formal paper Vionnet dress pictured above: Like the ivory version, the black chiffon dress, circa 1930 is a mind-boggling example of how a garments ground fabric can be engineered to create ornamentation. Essay Ukraine’s. However, unlike the lyrical rose pattern on the ivory dress, the minuscule pintucks of the susceptive black dress are lined up in long, parallel rows along the straight grain.

The fabric is Essay Ukraine’s, draped on the bias so that the rows encase the torso in a diagonal swirl. The rows then turn at sharp angles across the grain. The resulting linear pattern is mitered, but quite unlike the bold and graphic look used by other designers, Vionnets mitering has the ephemeral quality of cobwebs. Betty Kirke, a costume historian who, from 1979-1991, served as senior conservator at jamie nabozny, the Museum at FIT and professor in the FIT graduate fashion textile studies program, published an extraordinary study of Vionnet#8217;s work, including patterns constructed from detailed studies of actual dresses from the couturier#8217;s collections. In this article for Threads Magazine , Ms. Kirke recounts part of her journey to know Vionnet#8217;s designs on Essay on Expand, a fundamental level, a dedication that spans over twenty years. Kirke sought to which religion is true, understand Vionnet from the very basis of her craft: innovative patternmaking and sewing techniques. Rather than seeing geometry as an Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, escape into abstraction, Vionnet used geometric principles to enhance and elevate the human body. Her geometric lines do not deny, or seek to formal paper, dictate or curb, the curvilinear form of the human body; rather they coalesce in dresses which comfortably envelop the body in elegantly flowing tracery. On Expand Political Ambitions. As Kirke notes, Vionnet united principles of shape, fit, cut, design, and decoration into #8220;one cohesive unit.#8221; As [Vionnet] said, #8216;the body doesn#8217;t have seams.#8217; #8230; Vionnet thought more of concave and is true convex areas rather than sides and parts.

For example, she switched fronts with backs, inserted gussets for fit, and extended one part to on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, the next at a common side. This gave her much freedom in draping. The result for the wearer of a Vionnet dress was that the dress fit well, moved well, and possessed aesthetic elegance beyond its two-dimensional form. Detail, Madeleine Vionnet orange cotton cutwork dress, circa 1932, Paris, gift of Genia Graves | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. In the exhibition#8217;s accompanying book, Patricia Mears details the magnificent crafting of this cutwork dress by Vionnet, on view now in our exhibition: The simplicity of jamie nabozny this dresss square neckline, papillon sleeves, and full skirt belie its complexity. Political Ambitions. It seems likely that Vionnet would have cut the simple skirt two half circles in which the bottoms of both halves have had extra material added for length from a single piece of fabric had the material been wide enough.

Vionnets co-designer, Chaumont did not always use extraordinarily wide widths of fabric because they were not readily available (although some silk crepes, such as Bianchini-Ferier#8217;s celebrated crepe romain , were available in widths of one-point-four and two meters). Each tiny ovoid hole is overcast with minuscule, evenly calibrated stitches. Even though the dress is refreshingly modern, the scope of workmanship in this single garment is Please Stop, almost unthinkable today. While the on Expand Ambitions lace-like fabric, rendered completely by Essay Look at three hand, makes this garment a tour de force , its construction has a breezy restraint similar to Political Ambitions, that of the gowns by Chanel and define Mainbocher. Madeleine Vionnet orange cotton cutwork dress, circa 1932, Paris, gift of Genia Graves | Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. And with that, we#8217;ll conclude with words from the beloved virtuoso herself:

#8220;The couturier should be a geometrician, for Essay Political Ambitions the human body makes. geometrical figures to formal paper, which the materials should correspond.#8221; #8220;If a woman smiles, her dress must also smile.#8221; For more Vionnet at MFIT, visit our online collections. Until next time, tweet about the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political exhibition with #1930sFashion. Interview: G. Bruce Boyer, co-curator, author + editor. Does Lobe Control. By The Museum at FIT In Interview Tagged with G. Bruce Boyertailoringvideo On 3 Apr | '2014. G. Essay Political. Bruce Boyer.

Co-curator, writer, and editor. This week we#8217;re delighted to bring you an interview with the co-curator of Elegance in by Jodee Essay, an Age of Crisis , G. Bruce Boyer. Bruce has been a writer and editor for over 30 years. He began his writing career in 1971, when he submitted a story on the Duke of Windsor to Town Country , soon after becoming the magazine#8217;s men#8217;s fashion editor for 15 years. Bruce has published several books on menswear, including Elegance: A Guide to Quality in Menswear (Norton, 1985), Eminently Suitable , (Nortion, 1990), Fred Astaire Style (Assouline, 2006), and Political Gary Cooper: Enduring Style (Powerhouse Books, 2011). Feature articles by Bruce have appeared in jamie nabozny, several national and international magazines: Esquire , Harpers Bazaar , Forbes , The New York Times , The New Yorker , Departures , and many more. For more Bruce, take a look at these fabulous interviews with him on Ivy Style and on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions Keikari. Your essay on men#8217;s tailoring in on The at three Theories, the book [ Elegance in an Age of Crisis ] talks about concurrent movements in London and Naples. Was there a cultural #8220;need#8221; for these two movements or were they isolated in Essay on Expand Political Ambitions, their concerns? BB: The years after 1914 produced a perhaps unparalleled shift in people#8217;s lives. Over ten million were killed in what was called The Great War, another estimated fifty million died in the so-called Spanish Influenza pandemic following the war; and then of course came The Great Depression starting in 1929.

It#8217;s no wonder that incredible change and experimentation were in the very marrow of the 1930s zeitgeist. There were new concerns in hygiene and aesthetics, travel and sport, family life, work, and education. Virtually no aspect of life was left unaltered. Formal Paper. We look to the men#8217;s clothing experiments in London and Naples because they were the ones that bore the most fruit and are still with us today. The drape style of English tailoring and Ukraine’s Ambitions the deconstructed style of the Neapolitan school have, over the ensuing years, been the jamie nabozny most successful. At the moment it#8217;s the Neapolitan style which seems to Political, hold the lion#8217;s share of fashion in which is true, menswear, but there are many aficionados of the on Expand Ambitions London drape cut as well. Between them, they make up the majority of the tailored clothing seen on the street today. Savile Row Tailoring at Henry Poole and Co., London, England, UK, 1944 | CC Wiki / IWM Non-Commercial. #8220;A view of the workroom at Henry Poole and Co., showing tailors at work on various types of jacket, including a naval officer#8217;s jacket, second from jamie nabozny, right on the rear row. Essay On Expand Ambitions. The men are all sitting on the workbenches, some cross-legged, the Essay Look Theories garments resting in their laps as they work.#8221; IWM via CC Wiki. What advice do you have for anyone who wants to learn more about men#8217;s tailoring? BB: There are today a number of well-written books available on on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, the history and formal paper direction of men#8217;s clothing.

Books by Alan Flusser, Michael Anton, Farid Chenoune, Bernhard Roetzel, andmodesty no virtueme, among them. Can you tell us a bit more about the music featured in the videos? BB: The musical score accompanying the exhibition is comprised mainly of hit songs from the American songbook, songs that were considered beautiful at the time and that have stood the test of on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions time. Which Religion Is True. There is an emphasis on Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions, American jazz and jazz musicians simply because it was the popular music of the day: the most lively, innovative, and which influential. I continue to believe that jazz is one of America#8217;s greatest gifts to the world. Do you have a favorite ensemble from the exhibition? BB: I have two favorite ensembles from the exhibit. One would be the tweed plus-four suit made by Peter Sheppard for himself. The other would be the cream silk double-breasted dinner jacket from the atelier of Rubinacci. Both, to Essay on Expand Political Ambitions, my mind, have a timeless elegance, and I would wear them both today.

Anderson Sheppard wool tweed three-piece sport suit, 1935, London, lent by Steven Hitchcock. Define. Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions. London House tussah silk classic Neapolitan jacket, 1930s, Naples, lent by the Rubinacci Museum. Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. And finally, please give us 3 words which describe this exhibition for you. Stay tuned for more behind-the-scenes interviews, and be sure to tweet us with #1930sFashion. By The Museum at FIT In Object post Tagged with Aimee de HereenAna de PomboAugustabernardBalenciagaKnizePaquinPatricia Mears On 30 Mar | '2014.

A woman can be overdressed, never over-elegant . At Me Blanco Essay. Women dominated the modern Parisian couture industry from World War I to the onset of World War IIa phenomenon not seen before, or since. Political Ambitions. One such example is Ana de Pombo, who was hired in 1937 as the define susceptive chief designer at Paquin, the venerated maison de couture that flourished during the Ukraine’s Belle Epoque. A native of does frontal lobe control Spain, de Pombo studied the piano and Essay Ukraine’s danced flamenco before becoming a clothing designer. Susceptive. Her theatrical style is reflected in Essay Political, this richly embroidered linen gown with corselet and bolero. Ana de Pombo for Paquin, ivory linen evening dress and bolero, 1939, Paris.

MFIT, Gift of Mr. Define Susceptive. Rodman A. Heeren. Of note is that this ensemble was made for one of the eras best dressed women of style, Aimee de Heeren (1903-2006). Brazilian-born Mrs. De Heeren was among an elite group of Latin American women who inspired fashion trends around the world. Patricia Mears discusses in her essay The Arc of Modernity: Part Two (from the exhibition#8217;s accompanying publication) that Latin America was one of a number of important fashion localities that existed outside of Paris.

Others included London, New York, Hollywood, and Shanghai. Aimee de Sa Sottomaior wears Christian Dior for Piguet, spring 1939, at on Expand Ukraine’s Political, the Circus Ball reception for Lady Mendl (Elsie de Wolfe) at Villa Trianon. The Brazilian Aimee de Heeren moved to what lobe control, New York in the late 1930s and quickly became a fixture in on Expand Political, the citys high-society circles. Patricia Mears elaborates: Noted for her charm and beauty, she married Rodman Arturo de Heeren, an heir to the Wanamaker department store fortune, in 1941, the same year she was named on the International Best Dressed List. Even before attaining such recognition, Aimee de Heeren had been a leading couture client of Vionnet, Alix, and Augustabernard. Elegance in an Age of Crisis features a number of garments owned by De Heeren. Augustabernard, black crepe and Please Stop Laughing at Me by Jodee Blanco lame V-back gown, 1933, France, The Museum at FIT, 70.57.65, gift of Mr. Rodman A. Heeren. Balenciaga, full-length dress, ivory and black pinstriped cotton dress, 1938, France, The Museum at FIT, 72.112.144, gift of Mr. Rodman A. Heeren.

Monsieur Dobias for Knize, red and cream wool checked tweed jacket and culottes, 1936, France, The Museum at FIT, 68.151.5, gift of Mr. Rodman A. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions. Heeren. Mrs. de Heeren also patronized the at three Theories noted Viennese tailoring house of Knize, which had a branch in Paris. Her Knize suit (above), made of tweed, is not only a rare example from this noted firm, it is also an extremely fine example of sports clothing (the culottes are made for hiking) that, with its scalloped collar and pockets, is also feminine and charming. Until next time, join us in conversation on Twitter with #1930sFashion. On Expand Political. The original sketch of this evening dress, designed by Ana de Pombo for the house of jamie nabozny Paquin, is in the collection of the Victoria Albert Museum. Thank you to Daniel Milford-Cottam for sharing the sketch with us! Left: Ana de Pombo for Paquin, ivory linen evening dress and Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions bolero, 1939, Paris. MFIT, Gift of Mr.

Rodman A. Jamie Nabozny. Heeren, 70.57.50A-B. Right: Madeleine Vionnet orange cotton cutwork dress, circa 1932, Paris, 69.159.2, gift of Genia Graves, 69.159.2. Interview: Kimberly Ackert, exhibition designer + architect. By The Museum at FIT In Interview Tagged with Augustabernarddreamyexhibition designinstallationinterviewKimberly Ackertsophisticatedtimeless On 24 Mar | '2014. Installation, Elegance in an Age of Essay Ukraine’s Political Crisis: Fashions of the 1930s. Exhibition design, Kimberly Ackert, 2014. Photo by formal paper Eileen Costa.

MFIT. This week we had the pleasure of interviewing architect Kimberly Ackert, the exhibition designer for Elegance in an Age of Crisis: Fashions of the 1930s . Essay Ukraine’s Political. Kimberly Ackert was born and Stop Laughing Essay raised in Southern California and has a Professional Degree in Architecture from California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. She has worked in France, Switzerland and Australia and won the Essay on Expand Political Ambitions Mercedes T. Bass Rome Prize for formal paper Architecture. Her work has been internationally published and is known for its sensitivity to natural environments and use of naturally lit spaces. Essay. She has taught Architecture at Harvard, Cornell and Yale and is currently on faculty in formal paper, both the Graduate School of Architecture and the Lighting Program at Parsons, the New School University. She lives in New York and heads her own design firm Ackert Architecture.

KA: I had done several installation pieces over the years but never connected to fashion. I was working on an off-campus interiors project with Patricia Mears, the Deputy Director of the Museum, who invited me to see her previous show Ivy [Style] , which I liked very much. After that, I was invited to submit a proposal for the 1930s show. Essay Ukraine’s. Can you speak a bit about how you conceptualized the space and how you chose to reflect the themes of the showinnovation, modernity, classicism, austerity, and elegancethrough design? KA: The concept for define susceptive the show was directly inspired by the clothing and the desire to create a tasteful but contemporary environment to reinforce the timeless quality of the styles. When I first began working with FIT, I saw a few of the key pieces selected for the exhibition and was particularly impressed by the evening gowns and their simplicity of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political line, impeccable craftsmanship, and use of flowing translucent and rich fabrics. I especially admired how the backs of the formal paper ensembles were equally if not more moving than the fronts. Keeping this in Essay, mind, I worked to create a show where the pieces could be viewed from a variety of locations and angles across the gallery to expose different profiles. I also thought to exaggerate the long line of the gowns by jamie nabozny reflecting them into a shiny water like surface. This resulted in a composition of floating, glossy and Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions rectangularly shaped platforms divided by floor to ceiling translucent veils or curtains. The combination of reflective and translucent elements enables long sight lines and close ups of both the backs and fronts of almost every ensemble in the show.

As the scheme developed further, the space began to feel like a secret garden party on a summer evening. An initial concept sketch. Kimberly Ackert. Collage investigation, Kimberly Ackert. There is one word at the forefront of this exhibitionit#8217;s something you sense immediately in the galleryelegance. What does elegance mean to you? KA: Elegance is a quality and a specific kind of energy that operates on us when basic design elements work powerfully with each other.

Upon entering the space, I hoped people would feel that kind of mysterious energy and perhaps for a few minutes, be transformed by a calm, serene and refined environment. Installation, Elegance in an Age of Crisis: Fashions of the on The Look at three Integrated Theories 1930s. Exhibition design, Kimberly Ackert, 2014. Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Are there any connections to 1930s architecture that you employed in Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, the exhibition design? KA: One of my favorite buildings of jamie nabozny all time is the Political forward thinking Barcelona pavilion built in 1929 by Essay on The Look the German Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In this project one finds a similar use of free flowing open spaces, reflecting pools of water, and translucent partitions.

The Barcelona pavilion, Mies van der Rohe, 1929. Do you have a favorite ensemble from the exhibition? KA: Yes in fact two Augustabernard#8217;s double helix dress for its amazing geometry and the sleek Nirvana flight suit. Augustabernard ivory tulle gown and slip (licensed American copy), New York, 1934, gift of Mrs. Essay On Expand Political. Jessie L. Hills.

Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Ivory rayon shantung aviatrix suit and hood, maker unknown, c. 1939, possibly New York. Photo by what the right frontal control Eileen Costa. MFIT. And finally, please give us 3 words which describe this exhibition for you.

Photo courtesy of Linda Pollack. Stay tuned for more behind-the-scenes interviews, and be sure to on Expand, tweet us with #1930sFashion. By The Museum at FIT In Object post Tagged with activewearfemme moderneJean PatouSuzanne Lenglentennis On 21 Mar | '2014. Jean Patou brown cotton tulle evening gown, circa 1932, Paris, lent by Beverley Birks. Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Straight from our Special Exhibitions gallery, here is the define susceptive object label text displayed next to Essay on Expand, this stunning Jean Patou evening dress: Jean Patou was one of the great innovators of the interwar years.

He is formal paper, credited with leading the seismic shift from the short and boxy 1920s chemise to the long and languorous gowns of the 1930s. Like his rivals, Chanel and Lucien Lelong, Patou was a master stylist who successfully pioneered sportif clothing for women. On Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions. Although Chanel is often viewed as fashions great modernist, Patou may have been better as both a designer and an innovator. Jean Patou is formal paper, not as well-known today as many of his contemporaries, such as Chanel. In the book Elegance in an Age of Crisis Patricia Mears, MFIT Deputy Director and co-curator of the exhibition, writes: [Patou] was among the great talents of the inter-war years, but he is not well remembered today.

An obsessively private man, Patou was a notorious womanizer and gambler who had the misfortune to Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, die in 1936 at Look at three Theories, a relatively early age. He likely suffered from devastating psychological issues that arose after his military service during World War I#8230;Despite his personal challenges, he also designed evening wear that synthesized the elegance of the era. #8230;Meredith Etherington-Smith stated succinctly that Patou was likely the more innovative creator when compared to Chanel as #8220;every time a striped V-necked sweater is pulled down over a pleated skirt, every time real sports clothes are used as an inspiration for fashion design, Patou survives. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political. It is no bad legacy.#8221; Detail, Jean Patou brown cotton tulle evening gown, circa 1932, Paris, lent by Beverley Birks. Photo by Eileen Costa. Define. MFIT. Essay On Expand. Patou also created a line of activewear, discussed in MFIT Assistant Curator Ariele Elia#8217;s essay in jamie nabozny, the book: Inspired by the active woman, the French couturier Jean Patou was compelled to. On Expand Political. create collections for this emerging new lifestyle. Formal Paper. He debuted his first sport collection. in Essay on Expand, the summer of 1922.

Meredith Etherington-Smith said that Patous clients. were always adventurous with notations of being sporty or at Look at three Integrated Theories, least looked like they. played tennis or golf, even if they didnt. Patou, an athlete himself, understood the. needs of an activewear garment. He carefully studied sports and built construction. details into his garments designed to aid the athlete in on Expand, her performance. Patou designed a strikingly new athletic ensemble for French tennis star Suzanne Lenglen, known as #8220;La Divine#8221; in the French press. Ariele Elia: In 1921, [Lenglen] shocked the Please at Me by Jodee Blanco Wimbledon crowds when she debuted her custom ensemble by Patou, complete with a white, pleated, knee-length skirt, a white, sleeveless cardigan, and a vibrant orange headband. The length of the skirt alone was considered socially unacceptable; it was not until 1924 that skirts in general rose to on Expand Political Ambitions, the knee.

In addition, replacing a hat with a headband (to have a better line of vision) and exposing her arms were both seen as quite radical. Suzanne Lenglen in a Patou tennis ensemble, circa 1920 | PD-US. Suzanne Lenglen was an entirely different kind of tennis player. Does Frontal Control. One of the first players to openly show personality and passion on the court, her presence was charismatic and ran counter to prior #8220;feminine#8221; values of on Expand Political Ambitions restraint and does the right lobe control propriety. Ukraine’s Political. As style.com notes: #8220;She#8217;d sip brandy between sets, break down in tears during a bad game and take to her bed with various illnesses in the off season. But before her death from pernicious anemia at 39, Lenglen not only changed the game for every woman who followed her; she won Wimbledon and the French Open six times eachrecords that remained untouched for define susceptive almost fifty years.#8221; Lenglen fully embodied the idea of the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions liberated, active woman, and her fashion choices were a visible extension of her spirit and tenacity, on and off the court.

And who better to Stop at Me by Jodee Essay, design for her than Jean Patou? The designer was particularly attuned to the idea of the femme moderne and Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions committed himself to crafting clothes which were not only Essay on The Look elegant but true to this newly realized athleticism and sport. In striking accord with our last post on 1930s athletic and Olympic style, here is a photo of Essay on Expand Ambitions Suzanne Lenglen and Sonja Henie, gold medalist in singles#8217; figure skating at does frontal lobe, Lake Placid Winter Olympics III, together in Paris, 1932. French tennis player Suzanne Lenglen with Norwegian figure skater and film star Sonja Henie in Paris in on Expand Political, 1932. Bibliotheque nationale de France, PD / PD-US. Until next time, join us in Please Stop Laughing at Me by Jodee Essay, conversation on Twitter with #1930sFashion. Winter Olympics III: Activewear and Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions Style. By The Museum at FIT In Object post Tagged with activewearbobsledLake Placidolympicsskiingvideo On 10 Mar | '2014.

The streamlined silhouettes of the 1930s form much of the foundation of modern dressing as we view it today. Guided by resurgent classical ideals of proportion and the art moderne aesthetic, designers embraced harmony and grace, creating clothes that ran sinuously along the Look curves of the body. Ukraine’s Political. In addition to the long, lean lines created in the form of languorous couture evening gowns, activewear in jamie nabozny, the 1930s marked a new attitude toward sporting, movement, and the body. While the scale and scope of the Lake Placid Olympics in 1932 may seem quaint by todays standards of hyper-performance gearwith teams actively emphasizing the role their attire plays in competitionnew technology in the form of Ukraine’s Ambitions synthetic fibers such as Lastex in 1931 invoked its own emphasis on movement and performance in 1930s sport. The Ski Togs ensemble from Essay on The Look Theories, Saks Fifth Avenue, on view in Elegance in an Age of Crisis , has ease of movement embedded in its design: vertical darts on the jacket and an elastic band at the waist promote both fit and on Expand comfort, principles which, in a marked break from the turn of the century, were no longer antithetical. The 1930s woman was fit and fashionable; she participated in sports such as swimming, skiing, tennis, and golf, often in international competition alongside men. As Assistant Curator of Costume Textiles Ariele Elia notes in Stop at Me, her essay in the book accompanying our exhibition, the Chamonix style ski pant, a straight leg trouser with a stirrup, was so-named after the first Winter Olympics held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. The purpose here was to invigorate and celebrate the active body, and nowhere is this purpose more evident than in on Expand Ukraine’s Political, Olympic competition. Womans ski ensemble, Ski Togs, Saks Fifth Avenue. The Right Control. circa 1935, New York, 96.69.38, gift of The Dorothea Stephens Wiman Collection.

Photo by Eileen Costa. MFIT. Lake Placid 1932, opening ceremony | Olympic.org. Ukraine’s Ambitions. The gold medalist USA bobsled team | via Raleigh DeGeer Amyx Collection. The USA mens bobsled team, pictured above, certainly look dapper in their woolen, double-breasted ski jackets, worn at the Lake Placid Winter Olympics in which, 1932. One of the 105 originals made is housed in the collection of Raleigh DeGeer Amyx. These jackets bear a striking resemblance to pea coats you might see on the street today, and in 2010 Ralph Lauren cited them as his inspiration for designing the US teams official opening ceremony uniforms at the 21st Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver.

Ironically, the much-discussed speed skating uniforms of 2014 have perhaps more in common with the bodysuit donned by on Expand Ambitions the charming, stilt-skated performer at the 1932 Lake Placid opening ceremony than they do the what the right lobe control speed skaters of 32. The sweaters worn by gold medalist skaters Sonja Henie (Norway) and on Expand Ambitions Karl Schafer (Austria) embody a brisk combination of sport and define susceptive design: ribbed knit and modernist Art Deco graphics. Political. Sonja Henie (Norway) and Karl Schafer (Austria), gold medalists in ladies#8217; and men#8217;s singles figure skating at the 1932 Olympic Games | Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-13104 | CC-BY-SA. Gold medalist Sonja Henie on the podium at the Lake Placid 1932 Olympic Games | Copyright Press Association Ltd. And back to our ski jacketthe practical, even stolid, navy blue of the ski ensemble belies a form of ebullience not visible when worn: a bold color print lining on the inside of the Stop at Me jacket. As a form of intimacy known only to the wearer, the lining is Essay Political, a fitting metaphor for the ethos of the 1930s: if the outer appearance served almost to efface, to show quiet dignity in times of crisis, the at Me Essay lining exudes dynamism and panachethe combination of wit and whimsy required to survive in the face of uncertain times. Interior of womans ski jacket, Ski Togs, Saks Fifth Avenue, circa 1935, New York, 96.69.38, gift of The Dorothea Stephens Wiman Collection. Photo by Eileen Costa.

MFIT. Until next time, tweet us with #1930sFashion with your thoughts and Essay Political Ambitions impressions on the exhibition. 2017 The Museum at FIT 1930s Fashion Blog.

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Eubanks 2 Privateer to Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions pirate: Born in Stop Laughing at Me by Jodee, 1680 in Bristol, England Edward Teach, also known as Black . Essay Ukraine’s Political. Beard was the most feared pirate known to susceptive man. Boarding a ship in Jamaica as a privateer Edward Teach soon became bored of the privateer life and Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, turned to a life of piracy. When stalking Ships Black Beard would first determine the ethnicity of the prey ship and raise that nations flag in order to seem friendly. As he would close in at the very last. A General History of the Pyrates , Blackbeard , Ocracoke Inlet 990 Words | 3 Pages. for tribute Charles Pinckney was born in Charleston, South Carolina. He was born into a very wealthy family. The Pinckney family is define susceptive one of . the oldest and Ukraine’s, most known families of SC. Theyve had success for generations and have made a significant contribution to the development of the new nation. Charles started practicing law at the age of 29; soon after he enlisted in the military. He became lieutenant and was then captured by the British.

After seven months in captivity, Charles was released. Federal government of the United States , Political philosophy , Slavery in the United States 934 Words | 3 Pages. ? Charles Dickens Quick Facts NAME:Charles Dickens OCCUPATION:Author BIRTH DATE:February 07, 1812 DEATH DATE:June 09, 1870 PLACE OF . BIRTH: Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom PLACE OF DEATH: Higham, Kent, United Kingdom Spouse: Catherine Dickens (m. 18361858) Children: Charles Dickens, Jr, Mary Dickens, Kate Perugini, Edward Dickens, More Movies: A Christmas Carol, Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, Scrooged, Best Known For Charles Dickens was the well-loved and prolific British. A Christmas Carol , Catherine Dickens , Charles Dickens 1593 Words | 5 Pages. Danielle Carkin Charles Ng . When you first hear the news about an offender committing numerous crimes, you assume he or she might have been . abused at some point in define, their life or that they have had a long criminal record.

Most repeat offenders come from a string of Ambitions, a bad life, parental abuse such as abandonment, neglect, and/ or physical abuse to name a few. Susceptive. At an Essay Political early age they show signs of Essay Theories, being cold hearted, fearless and possibly thrill-seeking behavior. This wasn't the Essay Ukraine’s Political, case for Charles Ng. Born. Charles Ng , Leonard Lake , Rape 1988 Words | 6 Pages. Charles Darwins Ideas After reading the book Origin of define susceptive, Species by Political, Charles Darwin, I would place Darwin halfway between . creative genius and Please Stop Laughing at Me Blanco Essay, spin doctor if there was a spectrum. The way he thinks and examines a theory was really outstanding, even the extraneous amount of Ambitions, research he has accomplished was there to back his theories up. Reading the book made me realized that he did borrow the ideas from does the right frontal control other people, such as Charles Lyell, Jean-Baptist Lamarck, William Paley and Thomas Malthus.

Biology , Charles Darwin , Charles Lyell 1003 Words | 3 Pages. ?A FEW MORE TOPICS THESIS EXAMPLES TOPIC: body piercing BAD: Body piercing is popular among kids nowadays. BETTER: Body piercing among . contemporary youth represents the latest form of rebelling against authority that previous generations manifested in smoking, getting tattoos, and wearing mini-skirts. TOPIC: female musicians BAD: Female musicians are getting more popular. BETTER: During the Essay on Expand Ambitions, past five years, musical artists like Sheryl Crow, Alanis Morisette, and which religion, Jewel have solidified a place. Extended family , Family , Kinship 749 Words | 3 Pages. Charles Manson Charles Manson assembles a destructive, doomsday cult around himself. They call themselves The Family.

It had . On Expand Ukraine’s. people in excess of one hundred individuals of the Spahn Ranch some thirty miles northwest of jamie nabozny, Los Angeles, CA. As the family's guru, he claimed to be a reincarnation of Essay on Expand Ambitions, Jesus Christ. Manson was concerned about damage to the environment and pollution. He once commented: Your waters dying. Your life is in that cup. Your trees are dying. Your wildlife is locked up in formal paper, zoos.

Charles Tex Watson , Charles Manson , Helter Skelter 1652 Words | 4 Pages. 28 September, 2013 Charles Babbage ?Technology within the past couple of years has grown so rapidly that it is often hard to on Expand Ambitions keep up with. Please Laughing At Me By Jodee. . The computer industry is Essay Ukraine’s Political thriving and the right lobe, advancing more and more each year. Even though this industry is just starting out, its products are in such high demand that the fast advancement of technology is Essay on Expand Political Ambitions necessary. Surprisingly, however, it took the industry a second invention and over one hundred years before the power of computers was finally acknowledged. Analytical engine , Charles Babbage , Computer 825 Words | 3 Pages.

Charles Manson was birthed by on The Look at three, a 16 year old alcoholic, prostitute. Mansons last name changed when his mother Kathleen married William . Essay Political. Manson. Charles mother would always be drinking too much and spent a lot of time in jail. In 1939, his mother went to prison for armed robbery. Due to her always going to jail and what does the right frontal, prison, Manson moved in with his grandma and uncle. His grandma would subject him to the fanatic religious morals.

His mother tried to send him to a foster home because she chose her boyfriend. Abigail Folger , Charles Tex Watson , Charles Manson 1078 Words | 4 Pages. Charles Lee: General in Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, the American Revolutionary War Charles Lee, a general in the American Revolutionary war, is a . Define. historic figure in American history. Serving under George Washington, Charles Lee participated in a number of Essay Political Ambitions, battles. However, history says Charles Lee was treacherous to the cause, all the while that he was in command during that time; he was acting in bad faith toward the Please at Me by Jodee Blanco, Americans.

His influence in on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, the army was, at all times, mischievous (General Charles Lee: Traitor of Integrated, the. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Battle of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, Monmouth 1554 Words | 4 Pages. Charles Drew: An Inspiration Charles Richard Drew was . born on formal paper, June 3, 1904 in Washington D. C. He was born to a middle- class family. His father, Richard Drew was a carpet layer, and his mother Nora Burrell was a grade school teacher. Drews family lived in on Expand Political Ambitions, Foggy Bottom, a neighborhood in D. C., after relocating from jamie nabozny Pompano Beach, Florida, where he attended elementary and Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions, junior high.

As a child Drew was showed to be quite. Blood , Blood bank , Blood transfusion 1045 Words | 3 Pages.

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IMAP support and the method table. The next step was IMAP support. I initially wrote the IMAP code as a generic query driver and a method table. The idea was to have all the protocol-independent setup logic and flow of control in the driver, and the protocol-specific stuff in the method table. Once this worked, I rewrote the POP3 code to on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, use the same organization. The POP2 code kept its own driver for jamie nabozny a couple more releases, until I found sources of a POP2 server to test against (the breed seems to on Expand Political, be nearly extinct). The purpose of this reorganization, of course, is to Please Stop Laughing at Me by Jodee Blanco, trivialize the Essay on Expand, development of support for future protocols as much as possible. All mail-retrieval protocols have to have pretty similar logical design by the nature of the Stop by Jodee Blanco Essay, task. By abstracting out that common logic and its interface to the rest of the Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, program, both the common and protocol-specific parts become easier to jamie nabozny, understand. Furthermore, many kinds of new features can instantly be supported across all protocols by modifying the one driver module. The direction of the project changed radically when Harry Hochheiser sent me his scratch code for forwarding fetched mail to the SMTP port.

I realized almost immediately that a reliable implementation of Ambitions this feature would make all the other delivery modes obsolete. Why mess with all the formal paper, complexity of Essay Ukraine’s configuring an MDA or setting up lock-and-append on a mailbox when port 25 is guaranteed to be there on any platform with TCP/IP support in the first place? Especially when this means retrieved mail is guaranteed to Essay Look, look like normal sender- initiated SMTP mail, which is really what we want anyway. Clearly, the right thing to do was (1) hack SMTP forwarding support into Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, the generic driver, (2) make it the Look at three Integrated, default mode, and (3) eventually throw out all the other delivery modes. I hesitated over step 3 for some time, fearing to upset long-time popclient users dependent on the alternate delivery mechanisms. In theory, they could immediately switch to .forward files or their non-sendmail equivalents to get the Essay, same effects. In practice the transition might have been messy. But when I did it (see the NEWS note on the great options massacre) the define susceptive, benefits proved huge. Essay Ukraine’s! The cruftiest parts of the driver code vanished. Configuration got radically simpler -- no more grovelling around for the system MDA and user's mailbox, no more worries about whether the underlying OS supports file locking. Also, the only way to lose mail vanished.

If you specified localfolder and the disk got full, your mail got lost. This can't happen with SMTP forwarding because your SMTP listener won't return OK unless the message can be spooled or processed. Also, performance improved (though not so you'd notice it in a single run). Another not insignificant benefit of this change was that the manual page got a lot simpler. Later, I had to bring --mda back in order to formal paper, allow handling of on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions some obscure situations involving dynamic SLIP. But I found a much simpler way to jamie nabozny, do it. The moral? Don't hesitate to throw away superannuated features when you can do it without loss of effectiveness. I tanked a couple I'd added myself and have no regrets at all. As Saint-Exupery said, Perfection [in design] is achieved not when there is Ukraine’s Ambitions, nothing more to add, but rather when there is nothing more to jamie nabozny, take away.

This program isn't perfect, but it's trying. The most-requested features that I will never add, and Essay on Expand why not: Password encryption in religion, .fetchmailrc. The reason there's no facility to store passwords encrypted in the .fetchmailrc file is because this doesn't actually add protection. Anyone who's acquired the 0600 permissions needed to Ukraine’s, read your .fetchmailrc file will be able to run fetchmail as you anyway -- and if it's your password they're after, they'd be able to rip the necessary decoder out of the fetchmail code itself to which, get it. All .fetchmailrc encryption would do is give a false sense of security to people who don't think very hard. Truly concurrent queries to multiple hosts.

Occasionally I get a request for this on efficiency grounds. These people aren't thinking either. True concurrency would do nothing to lessen fetchmail's total IP volume. The best it could possibly do is change the usage profile to shorten the duration of the active part of a poll cycle at the cost of increasing its demand on IP volume per Ukraine’s Political unit time. If one could thread the protocol code so that fetchmail didn't block on waiting for a protocol response, but rather switched to trying to process another host query, one might get an efficiency gain (close to constant loading at the single-host level). Fortunately, I've only seldom seen a server that incurred significant wait time on an individual response. I judge the gain from by Jodee Essay, this not worth the hideous complexity increase it would require in the code. Multiple concurrent instances of fetchmail. Fetchmail locking is on a per-invoking-user because finer-grained locks would be really hard to implement in Essay Ukraine’s Ambitions, a portable way.

The problem is that you don't want two fetchmails querying the same site for the same remote user at the same time. To handle this optimally, multiple fetchmails would have to does frontal lobe control, associate a system-wide semaphore with each active pair of on Expand Ukraine’s a remote user and host canonical address. A fetchmail would have to block until getting this semaphore at susceptive the start of a query, and release it at the end of a query. This would be way too complicated to do just for an it might be nice feature. Instead, you can run a single root fetchmail polling for multiple users in either single-drop or multidrop mode.

The fundamental problem here is on Expand, how an instance of fetchmail polling host foo can assert that it's doing so in a way visible to all other fetchmails. System V semaphores would be ideal for this purpose, but they're not portable. I've thought about this a lot and at Me roughed up several designs. All are complicated and fragile, with a bunch of the standard problems (what happens if a fetchmail aborts before clearing its semaphore, and how do we recover reliably?). I'm just not satisfied that there's enough functional gain here to pay for the large increase in complexity that adding these semaphores would entail. I decided to add the multidrop support partly because some users were clamoring for Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions it, but mostly because I thought it would shake bugs out of the single-drop code by forcing me to religion is true, deal with addressing in full generality. On Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions! And so it proved. There are two important aspects of the features for handling multiple-drop aliases and Stop at Me by Jodee mailing lists which future hackers should be careful to preserve. The logic path for single-recipient mailboxes doesn't involve header parsing or DNS lookups at all.

This is important -- it means the Essay on Expand Ambitions, code for the most common case can be much simpler and more robust. The multidrop handing does not rely on doing the equivalent of passing the message to sendmail -t. Instead, it explicitly mines members of jamie nabozny a specified set of Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions local usernames out of the header. We do not attempt delivery to multidrop mailboxes in the presence of DNS errors. Before each multidrop poll we probe DNS to see if we have a nameserver handy. If not, the poll is skipped. If DNS crashes during a poll, the error return from the next nameserver lookup aborts message delivery and susceptive ends the poll. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political Ambitions! The daemon mode will then quietly spin until DNS comes up again, at what does the right lobe control which point it will resume delivering mail. When I designed this support, I was terrified of doing anything that could conceivably cause a mail loop (you should be too).

That's why the code as written can only append local names (never @-addresses) to the recipients list. The code in Essay Ambitions, mxget.c is nasty, no two ways about it. But it's utterly necessary, there are a lot of MX pointers out there. It really ought to which is true, be a (documented!) entry point in on Expand Political, the bind library. Fetchmail's behavior on DNS errors is to suppress forwarding and Please Stop Laughing by Jodee Blanco Essay deletion of the individual message that each occurs in, leaving it queued on the server for retrieval on a subsequent poll.

The assumption is Essay, that DNS errors are transient, due to temporary server outages. Unfortunately this means that if a DNS error is permanent a message can be perpetually stuck in the server mailbox. We've had a couple bug reports of this kind due to subtle RFC822 parsing errors in the fetchmail code that resulted in impossible things getting passed to the DNS lookup routines. Alternative ways to which religion is true, handle the problem: ignore DNS errors (treating them as a non-match on the mailserver domain), or forward messages with errors to fetchmail's invoking user in addition to any other recipients. These would fit an Essay on Expand Ambitions, assumption that DNS lookup errors are likely to be permanent problems associated with an Integrated Theories, address.

The IPv6 support patches are really more protocol-family independence patches. Political! Because of this, in most places, ports (numbers) have been replaced with services (strings, that may be digits). This allows us to run with certain protocols that use strings as service names where we in the IP world think of port numbers. Someday we'll plumb strings all over and then, if inet6 is not enabled, do a getservbyname() down in SocketOpen. The IPv6 support patches use getaddrinfo(), which is a POSIX p1003.1g mandated function. So, in define, the not too distant future, we'll zap the ifdefs and on Expand just let autoconf check for getaddrinfo. IPv6 support comes pretty much automatically once you have protocol family independence.

Internationalization is define, handled using GNU gettext (see the file ABOUT_NLS in the source distribution). This places some minor constraints on Essay Political Ambitions, the code. Strings that must be subject to what frontal lobe, translation should be wrapped with GT_() or N_() -- the former in function arguments, the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Ambitions, latter in static initializers and other non-function-argument contexts. Adding a control option is not complicated in principle, but there are a lot of fiddly details in the process. Which Religion Is True! You'll need to do the following minimum steps.

Add a field to represent the control in struct run , struct query , or struct hostdata . Essay Ukraine’s! Go to rcfile_y.y . Add the token to the grammar. Don't forget the formal paper, %token declaration. Essay On Expand Political Ambitions! Pick an actual string to declare the Theories, option in the .fetchmailrc file. Add the token to rcfile_l . Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions! Pick a long-form option name, and a one-letter short option if any are left. Which Religion Is True! Go to options.c . Pick a new LA_ value. On Expand Political! Hack the longoptions table to set up the Please Stop at Me Essay, association.

Hack the big switch statement to set the Ukraine’s Ambitions, option. Hack the `?' message to describe it. If the Essay Look at three Theories, default is nonzero, set it in on Expand, def_opts near the top of load_params in fetchmail.c . Formal Paper! Add code to dump the option value in fetchmail.c:dump_params . For a per-site or per-user option, add proper FLAG_MERGE actions in fetchmail.c's optmerge() function. Essay On Expand Ukraine’s Political! For a global option, add an override at the end of load_params; this will involve copying a cmd_run. field to a corresponding run. Essay Look Theories! field, see the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political, existing code for models. Document the option in fetchmail.man. This will require at least two changes; one to the collected table of options, and one full text description of the option. Hack fetchmailconf to configure it. Formal Paper! Bump the Essay, fetchmailconf version. Hack conf.c to dump the option so we won't have a version-skew problem.

Add an entry to formal paper, NEWS. If the option implements a new feature, add a note to the feature list. There may be other things you have to do in the way of logic, of course. Before you implement an Ukraine’s, option, though, think hard. Is there any way to make fetchmail automatically detect the circumstances under which it should change its behavior?

If so, don't write an option. Define Susceptive! Just do the check! The person(s) responsible for Essay on Expand Ambitions removing LAST from define susceptive, POP3 deserve to suffer. Essay Political! Without it, a client has no way to jamie nabozny, know which messages in a box have been read by Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions other means, such as an MUA running on Essay Look, the server. The POP3 UID feature described in RFC1725 to replace LAST is insufficient. The only problem it solves is tracking which messages have been read by this client -- and even that requires tricky, fragile implementation.

The underlying lesson is that maintaining accessible server-side `seen' state bits associated with Status headers is indispensible in Essay Ukraine’s Political Ambitions, a Unix/RFC822 mail server protocol. IMAP gets this right. 2. Readable text protocol transactions are a Good Thing. A nice thing about the which is true, general class of text-based protocols that SMTP, POP2, POP3, and IMAP belongs to is that client/server transactions are easy to watch and Essay Ukraine’s Political transaction code correspondingly easy to debug. Given a decent layer of socket utility functions (which Carl provided) it's easy to write protocol engines and not hard to jamie nabozny, show that they're working correctly. This is an Political, advantage not to be despised! Because of it, this project has been interesting and fun -- no serious or persistent bugs, no long hours spent looking for subtle pathologies. Now that there is a standard IMAP equivalent of the POP3 APOP validation in CRAM-MD5, POP3 is completely obsolete. In retrospect it seems clear that this program (and others like it) should have been designed to forward via SMTP from the susceptive, beginning.

This lesson may be applicable to other Unix programs that now call the local MDA/MTA as a program. 5. Essay On Expand Ambitions! Syntactic noise can be your friend. The optional `noise' keywords in jamie nabozny, the rc file syntax started out as a late-night experiment. The English-like syntax they allow is Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Political, considerably more readable than the traditional terse keyword-value pairs you get when you strip them all out. I think there may be a wider lesson here. It is Look Theories, truly written: the best hacks start out Essay on Expand Political as personal solutions to the author's everyday problems, and spread because the problem turns out to be typical for formal paper a large class of users. So it was with Carl Harris and the ancestral popclient, and so with me and fetchmail. It's gratifying that fetchmail has become so popular.

Until just before 1.9 I was designing strictly to my own taste. The multi-drop mailbox support and the new --limit option were the first features to go in that I didn't need myself. By 1.9, four months after I started hacking on Essay Political Ambitions, popclient and a month after the first fetchmail release, there were literally a hundred people on the fetchmail-friends contact list. That's pretty powerful motivation. Which Religion Is True! And they were a good crowd, too, sending fixes and intelligent bug reports in volume. A user population like that is a gift from the gods, and this is my expression of gratitude.

The beta testers didn't know it at the time, but they were also the subjects of a sociological experiment. The results are described in my paper, The Cathedral And The Bazaar. Special thanks go to Carl Harris, who built a good solid code base and then tolerated me hacking it out of recognition. And to Harry Hochheiser, who gave me the Essay on Expand Ukraine’s, idea of the SMTP-forwarding delivery mode. Other significant contributors to the code have included Dave Bodenstab (error.c code and susceptive --syslog), George Sipe (--monitor and --interface), Gordon Matzigkeit (netrc.c), Al Longyear (UIDL support), Chris Hanson (Kerberos V4 support), and Craig Metz (OPIE, IPv6, IPSEC).

At this point, the fetchmail code appears to be pretty stable. Ukraine’s Political Ambitions! It will probably undergo substantial change only if and when support for a new retrieval protocol or authentication method is added. Not all of does these describe standards explicitly used in fetchmail, but they all shaped the Essay Ukraine’s, design in one way or another. RFC821 SMTP protocol RFC822 Mail header format RFC937 Post Office Protocol - Version 2 RFC974 MX routing RFC976 UUCP mail format RFC1081 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1123 Host requirements (modifies 821, 822, and 974) RFC1176 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 2 RFC1203 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 3 RFC1225 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1344 Implications of MIME for Internet Mail Gateways RFC1413 Identification server RFC1428 Transition of formal paper Internet Mail from on Expand Ukraine’s, Just-Send-8 to 8-bit SMTP/MIME RFC1460 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1508 Generic Security Service Application Program Interface RFC1521 MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions RFC1869 SMTP Service Extensions (ESMTP spec) RFC1652 SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIMEtransport RFC1725 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1730 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 4 RFC1731 IMAP4 Authentication Mechanisms RFC1732 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2 And IMAP2bis RFC1734 POP3 AUTHentication command RFC1870 SMTP Service Extension for Message Size Declaration RFC1891 SMTP Service Extension for Theories Delivery Status Notifications RFC1892 The Multipart/Report Content Type for the Reporting of Mail System Administrative Messages RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1893 Enhanced Mail System Status Codes RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1938 A One-Time Password System RFC1939 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1957 Some Observations on Implementations of the Post Office Protocol (POP3) RFC1985 SMTP Service Extension for Remote Message Queue Starting RFC2033 Local Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2060 Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4rev1 RFC2061 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2bis RFC2062 Internet Message Access Protocol - Obsolete Syntax RFC2195 IMAP/POP AUTHorize Extension for Essay on Expand Ukraine’s Simple Challenge/Response RFC2177 IMAP IDLE command RFC2449 POP3 Extension Mechanism RFC2554 SMTP Service Extension for Authentication RFC2595 Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and ACAP RFC2645 On-Demand Mail Relay: SMTP with Dynamic IP Addresses RFC2683 IMAP4 Implementation Recommendations RFC2821 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2822 Internet Message Format.