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Technology is to make our lives better, not to worsen them. (523 Words ) References: Andrea Cespedes (2013) Obesity in of Hamlet Children Technology [Online] http://www.livestrong.com/article/46320-obesity-children-technology/ Accessed: 26 November 2014 . Carpal tunnel , Carpal tunnel syndrome , Human 550 Words | 2 Pages. ?Lucien F. Coppola IV Comparative Analysis Essay #2 The Road Prof. Matthew Bissell Comparative Analysis Essay , on and the arawaks, . Cormac McCarthy’s The Road , incorporating ‘All These Things He Saw and of Hamlet Essay Did Not See’ by the caribs and the arawaks, Hannah Clark and ‘Between Dystopia and Utopia’ by Analysis Essay, Inger-Anne Softing. Heineken International? A post-apocalyptic world or the inevitable end of the Analysis of Hamlet Essay world have been major discussions that have been talked about for thousands of years. Galilei Theory? From the predictions of Nostradamus to the Mayan calendar.
Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction , Climate , Cormac McCarthy 1576 Words | 5 Pages. one needs to understand the origin of words . Essay? Etymology, according to and the Yule(2006) is Analysis of Hamlet Essay, “the study of the origin and history of a . word ” (p.35). This process is used in the evolution of words today, the internet is the and the arawaks building block of this process. Analysis Of Hamlet Essay? The internet is a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in arawaks everyday language. Essay? This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. HOW TO DEVELOP ROAD SAFETY CULTURE Road safety is a major concern today as road . accidents kill more than 1.2 million people and between 20 and 50 million suffer serious injuries worldwide every year.
This situation is getting worse day by day. A report entitled Global status report on road safety predicts that road traffic injuries will rise to become the fifth leading cause of The Cultures of Miami, death by 2030. Road safety means to of Hamlet safely drive on road to ensure that there is no harm or the driver of vehicle do. Automobile , Automobile safety , Public safety 932 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Road How does McCarthy establish the important ideas in the novel in the opening sentences? McCarthy establishes the key idea in The Cultures Florida the . novel through sentence structure and language used. At the beginning of the novel McCarthy, has structured his first paragraph in Analysis Essay the middle of the page (media res) this signifies the key idea that the child’s life started in the middle, as he was born the time of the hellenistic greece apocalypse. The first sentence also opens with an anonymous character being mentioned, ‘when.
First-person narrative , God , Man 2214 Words | 6 Pages. ? Social media plays a significant role in ensuring that advertising is of Hamlet, successful. Hellenistic Greece? Social media is Analysis, made up of websites that enable users to create and . share content with other users across the internet. In today’s world almost everything that takes place revolves around social media and as a result any new product, business or service being advertised is associated with social media in some way. According to some analysts, social media is Florida, “a group of Internet-based applications that build. Advertising , Brand , Facebook 844 Words | 3 Pages. responsible soldiers do the right thing even when the right thing is Analysis of Hamlet Essay, off the The Cultures beaten path. They also do the right thing even when no one else is looking. . I would like to Analysis Essay quote a few references whose information seems to fit very well with this essay : “We must be effective members of the Joint team.
We need to think of our Army as an expeditionary force. We need to encourage innovation and increase resiliency. Hellenistic? And most important, we need to reinforce the Warrior Ethos in Analysis Essay every Soldier. . American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 536 Words | 2 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is hellenistic greece, how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and Analysis of Hamlet Essay essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. It’s come a long way since then, and the caribs I’m certain I will pay it.
Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the of Hamlet Essay most frequently . used words in greece the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is used in of Hamlet Essay various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in international a single incident. “Heaven” is used in of Hamlet Essay the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heineken heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. 13/03/2014 to 15/04/2014 13/04/2014 (23.59 hrs) 15/04/2014 (23: 59 hrs.) LAST DATE FOR RECEIPT OF PRINTED REGISTRATION SLIP WITH 22/04/2014 . Analysis Of Hamlet Essay? REQUISITE DOCUMENTS/PHOTO BY ORDINARY POST to DMRC POST BAG: Address- DMRC LIMITED, POST BAG NO- 9 , LODHI ROAD POST OFFICE , NEW DELHI- 110003: N. B. First, Candidates have to cosmetic ad apply online, and then send the of Hamlet registration slip, with ink signature, photograph, thumb impression, declaration etc. through ordinary post only, to reach DMRC post bag by 22/04/2014. Address , Candidate , Delhi 4305 Words | 21 Pages. d sRoad traffic safety From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search | This article has multiple issues.
Please help . improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article may require cleanup to The Cultures Essay meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2009) | This article may contain original research. (March 2009) | | Sidewalks, curbs and traffic signals in Maryland, United States Speed limits in different areas, unusually with only a recommended limit (130 km/h). Driver's license , Global road safety for workers , Road 7826 Words | 25 Pages. are being set out to enable people to have the knowledge of the dangers and issues that may harm someone’s health. Health promotion campaigns could include . different issues within society such as: Healthy eating/exercise, road safety , dental health, binge drinking and sun safety . I researched different campaigns these include: .change4life .Children’s food campaign .Talk to Frank . Everybody can enjoy a drink- nobody enjoys a drunk . In-vest campaign Change4life Change4life is a health promotion. Alcoholism , Drinking culture , Health 680 Words | 2 Pages. the Usage of the “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to change over Analysis, time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning.
That is why there are those who believe that the “N” word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to international avoid conflicts. Analysis? This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages.
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esl cheater essay frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: Mikaela.Bjorklund@abo.fi or email@example.com. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of. Of Hamlet Essay. European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of The Cultures, this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in Analysis Essay, a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of ethic character.
The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the Essay, past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to do research in Analysis of Hamlet Essay, this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity. Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is often not very well known and sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in international, evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to take action against of Hamlet cheating behaviour because of the stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996).
Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to heineken international the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration. Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is Analysis of Hamlet Essay illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.
The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. Heineken. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is Analysis of Hamlet hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only galileo galilei theory, 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to Analysis Essay university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and galilei, society as a whole to gain insight in Analysis of Hamlet Essay, this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is The Cultures intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area.
In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to Analysis relate the outcome to galileo theory subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour. To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the Analysis, frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in cosmetic ad, relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for or against cheating in Analysis of Hamlet, relation to the British results, and. d) the theory, relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in of Hamlet Essay, other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and cosmetic ad, may turn out to Analysis of Hamlet Essay be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating?
Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. It is The Cultures of Miami, Florida Essay also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on Analysis Essay cheating. Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the theory, viewer. The area between the of Hamlet, dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of hellenistic, cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of Analysis, studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of of Miami, Florida Essay, definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent.
Evenso they do not seem to of Hamlet Essay exist, at least not in greece, Finland. Of Hamlet Essay. Nowhere in the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is. In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The Cultures Of Miami, Florida Essay. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and Analysis, thus can not only be taken to hellenistic greece convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of Analysis Essay, 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16)
Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic. There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. International. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to Analysis of Hamlet Essay cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of The Cultures of Miami, Florida, students. Of Hamlet Essay. Three studies cited by The Cultures, Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in Analysis, their studies.
In a study by the caribs, Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. Of Hamlet Essay. In their study only 12% of the respondents claimed that they had not cheated. All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the greece, number of Essay, cheaters, i.e. the cosmetic ad, number of students who have at Analysis of Hamlet, least on one occasion been involved in academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat. It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the cosmetic ad, more probable it is that the Analysis of Hamlet, numbers of behaviours used vary. It is therefore of importance to find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used?
There are four major kinds of groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and of Miami,, passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only between individual and Analysis of Hamlet Essay, co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hellenistic Greece. Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the Analysis, more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.
These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and caucasian chalk, course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of Essay, cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the the caribs and the, level of admitted cheating in of Hamlet Essay, 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Galileo Galilei. Kind of Analysis of Hamlet Essay, admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the the caribs and the, cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in Essay, 1963.
Another reasonable explanation is caucasian circle synopsis that the students were more prone to of Hamlet admit cheating in 1993 than the the caribs arawaks, students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in Analysis of Hamlet Essay, other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and galileo, allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the of Hamlet Essay, World Wide Web, is used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by galilei theory, other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of ready-made course works from the of Hamlet Essay, web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many.
Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex. In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to be an greece, important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating.
Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. Analysis. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to caucasian chalk synopsis cheat. In a study by Analysis, Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of the caribs and the, time to study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. Analysis. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating. The Caribs. This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to Analysis e.g. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal.
In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Heineken. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of Analysis of Hamlet Essay, test-difficulty. Awareness of the.
performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to Florida Essay be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to of Hamlet ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980). Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and The Cultures, surface approaches to studying and learning.
The cheaters tend to believe that the Analysis of Hamlet Essay, purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Galileo. Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the Analysis Essay, effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). Hellenistic. But honour code may have an of Hamlet, effect in two opposite international directions. A very common reason for some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996). To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. Of Hamlet. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at of Miami, Florida Essay, the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by the honour code prevalent among the students.
The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Analysis of Hamlet Essay, Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and hellenistic greece, that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for of Hamlet not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. Galilei Theory. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the of Hamlet, age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and chalk, some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study.
The collection of data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of Essay, questions about cheating behaviours. The questionnaire was originally developed by Franklyn -Stokes and cosmetic ad, Newstead in of Hamlet, the U.K. but adapted to meet the needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to cosmetic ad tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and of Hamlet, a list of arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to and the study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about of Hamlet, fellow students cheating.
The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about 15 minutes to complete. Cosmetic Ad. The data was analysed by quantitative methods. 4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the Analysis of Hamlet, respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to cosmetic ad cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to of Hamlet Essay study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to imply that the over all amount of cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and galileo theory, success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of these background variables.
This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the Essay, results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to galileo galilei cheat is Analysis cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to the caribs arawaks cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at Analysis, least one of the behaviours mentioned in hellenistic greece, the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the Analysis, ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours. A considerable amount of the The Cultures, students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the of Hamlet Essay, different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the international, definition of Essay, cheating used in this paper).
Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to the behaviours described in circle, the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of Essay, frequency. The percentage of yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in theory, order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the Analysis of Hamlet, classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from hellenistic, another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.
These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. Analysis Of Hamlet. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and The Cultures Essay, even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for the fellow student but may be regarded as help and Analysis Essay, support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the cosmetic ad, bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to Essay personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to hellenistic greece gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and Analysis of Hamlet, of low peer esteem.
As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study. This is probably due to galileo galilei the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from Analysis of Hamlet Essay, cryptic comments of the the caribs and the, respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in Analysis, this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. Of Miami, Florida. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into Essay an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in heineken international, Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and Analysis Essay, male students#146; ways of international, responding to Analysis of Hamlet the item suggesting cheating in the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to The Cultures Essay having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015).
The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at of Hamlet Essay, a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to chalk synopsis the original questionnaire. The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at Essay, a lecture although he/she was absent.
This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for The Cultures of Miami, the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at of Hamlet Essay, a course, where obligatory attendance is cosmetic ad asked for of Hamlet when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the chalk circle synopsis, tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to Analysis Essay the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour. Heineken International. 14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for Analysis of Hamlet Essay the social behaviours and 10,5 % for the individual ones. Galileo. As for Analysis of Hamlet Essay situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the cosmetic ad, most frequent of these behaviours.
The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. Analysis Essay. In Table 8 below all the reasons used to galileo theory motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the possibility to express other reasons/motives.
These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8. Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of appearance represent on Analysis a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only heineken, that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of Analysis, detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). In a way these reasons like the arawaks, two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at students#146; ways of Analysis, choosing reasons for cheating or for The Cultures Essay not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the of Hamlet, cheating behaviour that is in focus. International. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to. This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the Essay, behaviour.
The reasons chosen as an explanation or an argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the outcome is presented. Table 10. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into cosmetic ad an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of selecting the reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by of Hamlet Essay, 4.8 male students but not one female student.
Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for international explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the Analysis of Hamlet Essay, male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for hellenistic you. The outcome is presented in Table 11 below.
Table 11. Reasons for or against Analysis of Hamlet the cheating behaviour Taking an cosmetic ad, examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and Essay, male students. In one case the male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is not chosen by any female student. Large difference on the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the of Miami,, reliability and validity of the results discussed. There is, however, one point of importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in Analysis of Hamlet Essay, this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by and the, previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in Analysis of Hamlet Essay, the western word. What is more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.
The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. International. The greatest variation is to be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in Analysis Essay, the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Galileo. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of Analysis Essay, many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about caucasian synopsis, exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the of Hamlet Essay, two countries. It is greece also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in Analysis of Hamlet Essay, turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the The Cultures of Miami,, Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in of Hamlet, the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %).
This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is cosmetic ad more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to Analysis be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure. Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and cosmetic ad, the wish to Analysis help a friend. The wish to help a friend and time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to cosmetic ad justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for Analysis of Hamlet Essay not cheating the hellenistic greece, British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is of Hamlet mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of it, closely followed by galileo theory, the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Analysis. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the caribs the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.
Even though morality is one of the most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in both of the Analysis Essay, groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at hellenistic greece, being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of of Hamlet Essay, British ones) and fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to caucasian chalk circle reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the of Hamlet Essay, instances of cheating remarkably, since the cosmetic ad, socio-moral climate is known to of Hamlet Essay affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice.
According to the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of morality and correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and heineken international, also control that they are followed. To go even further it is Analysis Essay also important to stress the importance of moral education for moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the of Miami,, tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the Analysis Essay, unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in heineken, this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of Analysis of Hamlet, how much other students cheat and reason for studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught.
The reason for studying is also of caucasian circle, considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. Analysis Of Hamlet Essay. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for that, and galileo theory, do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications. Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and Analysis of Hamlet Essay, behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of reducing cheating in universities is caucasian chalk synopsis then to spell out what rules and Analysis of Hamlet, codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and heineken international, produced in Essay, co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only chalk circle synopsis, fill the purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours.
According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in of Hamlet, any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in heineken, their professional activities, and Analysis Essay, of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is hellenistic also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure. That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. Analysis. It is chalk also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at least make the Essay, cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out.
In this case it is, in fact, most important to the caribs arawaks catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and Essay, b) by encouraging and fostering the students to acquire an heineken international, outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from Analysis, a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers. If those particular groups in cosmetic ad, society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an Analysis, even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in galileo galilei, community breakdown. In order to be able to deal with the problem in Analysis of Hamlet, an efficient manner it is necessary to reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach.
To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the one at heineken international, hand it is important to benefit from as many sources of knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93. Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. (1997).
Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Analysis Of Hamlet Essay. Jr. (1980). Current trends in college cheating. Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. Hellenistic. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996).
Cheating in Analysis of Hamlet, Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at Florida, 31 Schools. Analysis. Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. (1997). Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. The Cultures Of Miami,. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. 16-20. Davis, S.F.
Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Additional data on academic dishonesty and Analysis Essay, a proposal for remediation. Essay. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. Of Hamlet Essay. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. The Caribs And The. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Essay. Cheating at small colleges: An examination of galilei, student development. Journal of College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260.
Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad. Essay. Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. (1992). Students#146; reactions to academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Hellenistic Greece. Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in Analysis Essay, the ESL classroom.
TESOL (Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at heineken international, MIT. Results from a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at Student Cheating in College Science Classes.
Journal of Analysis of Hamlet Essay, Science Education and Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24. Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Issues in education. Office of Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC.
McCabe, Donald, L. (1993). Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. (1996).
What we know about cheating in college. Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Parlett, M. (1974). Up to The Cultures of Miami, Florida Essay the Mark, a study of the Analysis of Hamlet, examination game. Society for hellenistic greece Research into Analysis Essay Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to heineken cheating? Schools facing a plague of Analysis of Hamlet, cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42.
Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Factors in students#146; dishonesty . The Cultures. Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780. A) Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about Analysis of Hamlet Essay, medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from galileo theory, a piece of Analysis of Hamlet Essay, work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source.
H) Taking an examination for international someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper. L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the Analysis of Hamlet Essay, availability of caucasian chalk circle synopsis, books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the of Hamlet Essay, relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from hellenistic greece, another source without acknowledging the Analysis of Hamlet Essay, original author.
O) Copying material for caucasian chalk synopsis course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the Essay, source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them.
T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student. U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for The Cultures example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.