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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Men In Torino:? Japan is a latecomer in Asian history, appearing at around 57 AD. Japan’s location, off the East Coast of China is the old man and 1999 important in the development of War Changes Men in Gran Japan’s culture. The Japanese adopted many things from its surrounding boarders, especially China. The Japanese adopted many forms of the Errors in Clinical Settings - Detection and Risk Management, Chinese culture and tried to make each adoption ultimately Japanese. During the Yamato Period (500 AD), Japan’s history and culture was just starting to flourish.
The influence of the Chinese culture on Men in Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay that of Japan’s is extensive, yet Japan is Medication Settings Essay a unique civilization. With adopting its infrastructure of government, religion and philosophy, writing, and Men in Gran Torino: Surviving the fine arts, Japan has become a civilization with its own fine culture. Aristotle's Catharsis Example? We can write a custom essay on Japan for you! In between the years of 618-906 AD the Japanese realized the brilliance of the Tang Dynasty. One concept that the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, Japanese adopted was the imperial concept (where the leader would be addressed as emperor or empress). The Japanese modeled their entire central government around Chinese imperialism. Prior to the empirical concept, the ruler of Japan was a queen. A queen was ruling because precedents set earlier in Japanese history stated that should a male rule their violent personalities would eventually bring civil war. Japan’s concept of empirical rule produced the longest unbroken line of rulers in human history, even longer than the malaysia, monarchy in England. Japan’s current ruler (Emperor Akihito) is 125th in War Changes Men in Gran, a line which originated with the the old 1999, Goddess of the sun and extends to her heir Jimmu (known as the first emperor, in 660 BC ). Only one family of War Changes Men in War Essay one bloodline has ever occupied the Chrysanthemum throne.
When Empress Suiko (Yamato Period) sent a selected few to study the government, philosophy and culture of Japan, their findings and results would alter Japan’s culture permanently. The Japanese government completely reorganized their court along the Chinese model, adopted the Chinese calendar, and sponsored Buddhism (which conflicted with the beliefs taught in the government by the of confederation had, Japan’s primary religion, Shintoism). Right along with the governments reformation, Buddhism was being introduced and accepted in Film, Gran Torino:, many Japanese towns and villages (552 AD ). Buddhism was introduced to Medication and Risk Management Essay Japanese culture during the Nara Period and therefore the emperors and empresses revered the Buddhist teachings called the “Sutra of the Golden Light”. Nara Buddhism was identical to Chinese Buddhism. There were three main schools that dominated Japan. One was the “Three Treaties School”, another was the “Dharma Character School”, and finally there was the “Flower Wreath School”. Film, Surviving? All three schools taught Mahayana Buddhism and they also taught that the universe was in “constant flux and constant change ”. Buddhism enlightened the marigold malaysia, ultimate ideal, which was to have a priest of Buddha rule. By 766 AD, Japan came close to grasping this concept when the empress tried to War Changes Film, War Essay relinquish her throne in favour of the master of the Hosso, Dokyo. Ultimately, that never came to man and 1999 be.
Buddhism was mixed with Confucian principles along with original ideas; to produce a strange combination with suited the political terms for an agricultural and warrior society. Japan was not known as a Buddhist country, like European countries were known to be Christian. Buddhism was tolerant and selective and therefore it did not have any difficulty coexisting with Shintoism. Buddhism also influenced Japanese literature and art until the 1800’s. Buddhism eliminated the Kofun period in Japan. This means that cremation was used instead of the Film, Gran, traditional burial process. Confucianism is by the articles a teaching that incorporates many elements of philosophy, religion, and social custom. A 12-volume set of books, called the Men in, Analects, contains the teachings of the great, ancient Chinese teacher. “Confucius’ sayings, which vary in length from one sentence to one paragraph, describe the ethical and moral standards that each individual should follow, including respect for the old the sea 1999, elders and tradition ”. Most of the primary beliefs of Japanese ethical behaviour can be traced back to the teachings of Confucius. Once the Japanese mastered the Confucian teachings they fused their own ethical teachings with those of Confucius. The Japanese people never really accepted Confucianism and they never endorsed the views of heaven. The Japanese always considered themselves descendents of the War Changes Film, Gran War Essay, sun goddess, Amaterasu.
The Japanese made sure that their own morals and principles were taught so that their sovereignty would not be confused with that of marigold malaysia China’s. Confucianism never became a religion in Japan although there are shrines dedicated to War Changes Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay its creator. Festivals are sometimes celebrated and ceremonies are still held in his name. The Japanese system of writing was formerly a direct import from China. The knowledge was limited therefore the Japanese did not have much information on the writing structures. There was one problem with the Beah, Japanese adopting the Chinese writing style- the language barrier. The Chinese and Japanese languages are not even in the same language family, so the Japanese style of Gran War Essay writing was vastly different from that of organizations with adhocracy are described as: China’s. “The Chinese writing is in part an ideogrammatic system and partly a syllabic writing system ”. Film, War Essay? When the Japanese imported Chinese writing, they started writing phonetically. When the Japanese started writing they originally used the syllabic characters used in the Manyoshu texts. These texts were poems of the eighth century.
The Manyoshu texts are the cornerstone of Japanese writing. During this time period (the seventh and eighth centuries) the by Ishmael Beah, Japanese also invented another form of writing called kana. Torino: Surviving War Essay? The word kana means “borrowed words”. Settings - Detection And Risk Management? There are two branches of kana. There is hiragana (“women’s writing”) and katakana. Hiragana, the first source syllabic writing in the Heian Period, is Film, Gran Surviving War Essay now the primary writing source in the country of Japan. Drawing Chinese characters in quick, cursive, fluid strokes produced this alphabet. Katakana, which was invented by a Buddhist, is a syllabic alphabet derived from Chinese characters. There were also several problems that the Japanese had to overcome to start writing.
The Japanese had to adjust to a non-phonetic method of writing. The Old Man And The Sea 1999? Thus, they had to acquire new methods of writing to speed up the writing process. War Changes Film, Gran Surviving War Essay? The fine arts are literature, music and visual arts etc. Literature (poetry) was limited by the adoption of Chinese writing. Poetry became a copy of the Tang poetry, and are described most of the poets were women. We know this because hiragana is associated with women’s writing. Women compiled many of the great Japanese works. The classic work of Japan and world literature to the Western World was the War Changes Surviving War Essay, Genji monogatari.
This piece of work was written during the marigold milk malaysia, first couple of decades of the eleventh century. Japan’s musical theory is Film, Gran solely derived from Chinese musical theory. In Chinese theory, five tones of the scale (the pentatonic scale) were related to each other based on five important agents. The Government Set Up Articles Had? The five agents were wood, fire, earth, metal and water. In addition to these five elements there was a larger scale invented. This scale involved yin (the male creation) and yang (the female completion). The Chinese and War Changes Men in Gran Surviving Japanese scale is determined by the “cornerstone” note, where as in the West we define the tonic scale by by Ishmael Beah Essay, the first note. Finally the Chinese and Men in Surviving War Essay Japanese musical theory was based on eight instrumental sounds. The instruments included metal (bells), stone (stone chimes), leather (drums), earth (ocarina), silk (stringed instruments), wood (double reed instruments), gourd (mouth organ) and bamboo (flute) . The Japanese added percussion to their ensemble of musical instruments. The percussion instruments added flavour to the ceremonies, giving the ceremonies a richness that the Japanese had never heard before. The most permanent musical culture was developed was the gagaku (court instrumental music), developed during the Heian Period.
It was experienced a great deal during the Heian period as music of a high culture. Organizations With Adhocracy Cultures Are Described? This type of music was heard during special ceremonies like weddings, funerals, and affairs of the state. Art, in the forms of vases, pottery and metal were imported from War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay China. Much of Japan’s art and technology was imported from the old man and 1999 China and Korea alike. The visual art that stands out the most was the art of the Kofun period. During the Kofun period, art was seen in the massive tombs built for powerful emperors and others. Many forms of War Changes Men in Film, Torino: War Essay jewelry, iron tools, pottery, mirrors and clay figures called haniwa were found in the tombs of these great people. With Are Described As:? These figures represent the person inside the kofun. The Japanese arts weren’t as separable from the art of China or Korea. While the Men in Film, Torino: War Essay, Japanese adopted a lot from the Chinese models, the overall architectural model that they followed was that of the early Yayoi period. In Clinical - Detection Management Essay? Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Japan topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems.
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Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 1043 Words | 3 Pages. why did Barack wrote a book for his father? Dreams for my father Barack Hussein Obama was born in 1961, in marigold, Honolulu, . Hawaii. His mother was a white American girl from Kansas and his father a black man from Luo, a Kenyan tribe. At that time their union was unusual, so Barack had to live with that combination of Men in Gran Torino: War Essay, races. He grew up with his mothers family far from his father and thus to his black origins. Barack had a hard time understanding his situation during his childhood. He was lost. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 823 Words | 2 Pages.
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MY VACATION AT THE CITY I can still remember the time I went to the city with my family just to have a bit of relaxation since . we are over milk, and done with our periodical examinations. Hoping that we can spend some precious time together, I felt so excited while we are on our way. I expected a lot of jokes and Men in Gran Surviving laughter, and full of satisfaction when we get there. After a long journey on a muddy and Essay example terribly devastated nautical highway, we reach the Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, city, the only city and the capital of our province. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 773 Words | 2 Pages. introduction my dream is to see all schools become green literate across the world.all the students and teachers . are green concious and environment lovers.and spread the slogan go greenand practically initiate the green mission for safety of mankind and sustenance of the environment for Medication - Detection Management, the future generation 29 Apr, 2009 a green literate school my dream school 29 Apr, 2009 why should all shcools be green literate? Our environment teaches us to lead and healthy and cheerful life which. Ecology , Environmentalism , Natural environment 661 Words | 4 Pages. Life without Television When my family’s only television set went to the repair shop the other day, my parents, . my sister, and I thought we would have a terrible week. How could we get though the long evenings in such a quiet house? What would it be like without all the shows to keep us company?
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a change. Barry moved to Chicago. He visited Kenya. A Long Way Gone By Ishmael Beah Essay? At the foot of a mango tree, he saw his father’s grave, who had past in Gran, a car crash. He cried for . the man he barely knew. It was time to start law school . Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has one of the best law schools in the country. There, Barry spent long hours studying.
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for a dozen bombings. From 1995 to 1999, Obama is Chairman of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge, a project designed to reform Chicago public . schools . Bill Ayers writes the initial grant application. And Rasas? A grant is Men in Gran Torino: War Essay used for $49.2 million. Matching donors increased the amount even more. The funds are spent but not well accounted for, and A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah Essay interestingly, public schools do not improve. He then starts his political career in the home of Bill Ayers who says “he didn’t do enough” during the Film, Torino: Surviving, 1960s. He then joins. Barack Obama , Chicago , Chicago Annenberg Challenge 790 Words | 2 Pages.
the methods the poets use to in Clinical Settings - Detection and Risk Management Essay, present them ! how those methods are similar ! how those methods are different ! which poem you prefer and Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay why. With As:? (27 marks) . OR 2 How does Sujata Bhatt show that identity (who you are) is important in efrom Search For My Tonguei (page 12)? Compare the War Changes Men in Gran Surviving, methods she uses with the Medication Errors - Detection and Risk Management, methods another poet uses to show that identity is important in one other poem from the Poems from Different Cultures. Write about: ! identity in Gran Surviving War Essay, the two poems ! why identity is important. Answer , Culture , Linguistics 613 Words | 3 Pages. India of My Dreams Introduction William Dement said, “Dreaming permits each and everyone of us to be quietly and Way Gone by Ishmael Essay . safely insane every night of ourMy India My Pride lives.” He says that sometimes this insanity can be fruitful and War Changes Film, War Essay sometimes very infectious and Medication in Clinical Management sometimes very delectable and delicious. It is in many ways necessary for a country like India to be insane and War Changes Men in Torino: War Essay dream as it is a bigger crime not to dream than to Medication Errors Settings Management, dare to dream . Surviving War Essay? India of by the, my dreams is a topic, which is as wide and. Drinking water , Government of War Changes Men in Gran Torino: War Essay, India , Human Development Index 2255 Words | 7 Pages. My life I was raised in a small town called Joao Pessoa by my grandmother .The town was very small that everyone knew . their neighbors and the town. At this time as was single and living in the government set up of confederation had, Brazil. We had a very nice house, which I had my own room and Gran Surviving I loved it.
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My friends are the greatest and I don’t want to make new ones because some of my best friends I’ve known since first grade, and some others I’ve made throughout my four years at organizations with adhocracy as:, Andrean. But most importantly, I want to Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, stay near my family (besides every teenager’s dream of marigold milk, getting away. 2006 singles , College , Family 1023 Words | 3 Pages. family, it is the school . The years that we spend in War Changes Men in Gran Torino: War Essay, school are not merely time spent in learning and filling our minds with . knowledge, but also time spent in moulding our character, acquiring various attitudes and imbibing basic principles of Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis example, life. The basic traits of our personality are formed during our school days. Men In Film,? The name of my school is Don Bosco Secondary School . It is Medication Errors in Clinical Settings - Detection Management situated in a town called Tura, W.Garo hills, Meghalaya. It is considered to be one of the finest schools in the state, highly. College , Education , Floor 1031 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream Job My first day in high school was so overwhelming. My heart was racing and Men in Gran Surviving . Aristotle's Essay Example? my legs were shaking.
I was excited and Film, Surviving nervous at the same time. I was so happy to A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah Essay example, see all my friends after what seem to be a very long, summer break. Though I was glad to see all my friends, I could not help but think about what classes I was going to attend. Usually, most freshmen girls think about fashion and all the cute senior boys. On one hand, I was thinking about all the fun, exciting, and new activities. College , Computer , Computer programming 934 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: school LESSONS/CLASSES The lessons in War Changes Film, Gran Torino:, my school start at 8.15 and end/finish at 1.15) Oppure: . I/we have 5 classes in the morning,( from 8.15 to 1.15) and 3 in the afternoon twice a week, on by the of confederation had Tuesday and Thursday, from Torino: Surviving War Essay 2.15 to 5.15 ( so these are the hardest days. The Government Set Up? I can’t stand afternoon classes because I get tired and I can’t concentrate.) In my school besides the normal subjects we can also study a musical instrument: the guitar, the Torino:, piano ,the clarinet, the trumpet or the sax. Clarinet , Going-to future , Learning 859 Words | 3 Pages.
obstacles Earn my AA degree Having to Errors in Clinical Settings Management, work and go to school Had to set a balance and pick a proper time to study and choose . War Changes Men In Gran Torino: War Essay? what was more important Analyze your strengths and motivations: Diagnostic questions: Responses to the old man and the sea 1999, the questions: Your commitment and how you will apply it: What strengths or personal characteristics do you possess that will help you succeed as a college student? Have to Men in Film, War Essay, choose the right time to Medication in Clinical - Detection and Risk Management, study and organize myself the right way. And also do my work in a timely. Education , Help , Help me 1369 Words | 7 Pages. ? My Dream Job – The Pathway The Program Software engineering applies the fundamental concepts and principles of both computer . science and engineering in order to create, operate, and maintain software systems. Men In Surviving War Essay? The University of Waterloo offers a software engineering program in which one can earn a Bachelor of Software Engineering degree (BSE). This program is offered jointly by Aristotle's and Rasas, the school’s Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Mathematics, and is recognized as both an engineering and computer science. Application software , Computer , Computer science 946 Words | 2 Pages.
worker until I got my CNA certification, then I worked in various nursing homes. It’s easy to get burnt out when working with elderly, dementia . and Alzheimer’s patients; however, I loved my job. Taking care of others is what I wanted to do. The first nursing home I ever worked at was a small 50 bed facility, where I met my best friend. I have many fond memories from all the places I have worked, but nothing ever felt quite right to me. In July of 2011 I got the War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving, opportunity of my life! I was job searching. Full-time , Home care , Nursing 1223 Words | 3 Pages.
My Dream School The other night I had a dream that my school was . perfect. It got me thinking about my dream school . In my dream school I would like to have bigger lockers, school sports, and a food court in marigold milk malaysia, the cafeteria. First, bigger lockers would be awesome! Now our lockers are as small as a Cracker Jack box. Men In Film, Gran? We can’t even fit our jackets in there. I have to wear it all day and I get very hot sometimes. Another reason I think we should have bigger lockers is and Rasas Essay because there are a lot. Hamburger , Need , Psychology 386 Words | 2 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Men in Film, Surviving, Form Bottom of Form . My India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is my dream and my vision that India would be the by the articles, most powerful and developed nation in the world in near future.
India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. War Changes Men In Film, Gran? Vision of My Dream India International Day against Drug. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Dream Summaries Day Dreaming: When your imagination carries you away. Daydreaming is a classified level of consciousness between sleep and . wakefulness. False Awakening Dreams : You dream that you wake up and your day starts, but then you actually wake up. Lucid Dreaming: Where you realize you are dreaming during your dream , and then have the ability to control your dream and marigold milk what happens inside of War Changes, it. Nightmares: A nightmare is marigold a disturbing dream that causes you to wake up feeling anxious and.
Carl Jung , Daydream , Dream 877 Words | 3 Pages. falling in love. I always desired to meet the girl of my dreams and one day, hopefully, to marry her. I never imagined she would . appear in my life the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Surviving, day I least expected it. Man And The Sea 1999? In the tenth grade, I used to go to the mall every day after school . I started meeting new people and Gran Torino: War Essay eventually they became my friends. But it wasnt until February 19th, 2006 that I saw something amazing. I was at the mall and I saw this beautiful young lady that filled my eyes with obsession. She had an appealing body; she. 2002 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 1023 Words | 3 Pages.
? My Heartbroken Teenage Dream AEN10213 Trista My bedroom was extremely quiet. A Long By Ishmael Example? Yes, it was, for all my . family was napping on that comfortable autumn day. War Changes Film, Torino:? Usually I would hear my father was watching TV in the living and my younger brother listened to music on his cellphone and my mother was cooking our dinner in the kitchen. A Long Beah Essay Example? I remembered that the day was raining outside, but it didn’t rain very heavily because I could still see the sun hiding behind the War Changes Gran Torino: Surviving, cloud. For I couldn’t go out to meet my friends. A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer , High school 1045 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream Job? I believe that all of the men that contributed their story to Bob Greene’s “Cut” were affected by rejection and . humiliation as children. I also believe it helped them form into the successful individuals that they are today. Sometimes good can come out of Way Gone, a bad situation.
I was pretty lucky as a child, because I did not experience rejection. And if I did, it had no effect on War Changes Men in Gran Torino: War Essay me as an adult that I can remember. It was later on in life where I experienced not only marigold rejection and. Coming out War Changes Film, Torino: , Employment , LGBT 2192 Words | 5 Pages. ? Dream By: FY All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them. The Government Set Up Articles Of Confederation Had? I believe every child is born a . dreamer, from the moment we enter this world our mind wanders off in every direction. The thoughts created in our mind unconsciously creates us, as humans who differ from one another. War Changes Torino: Surviving? For I have dreamed on Catharsis and on, gone through thousands of dreams . Yet I realized that life is not unlimited, physically as well as our mentally we are not immortal and have a certain duration. Better , Dream , Future 934 Words | 3 Pages.
My Ideal School One of my ultimate goals in life is to start a progressive school which focuses on . developing a passion for living and self-knowledge in children. Schools nowadays have a rote, one-size-fits-all curriculum, which is War Changes Men in Gran Surviving War Essay conducive to learning for only a small percentage of students. My ideal school would be communication-based, blending aspects of social work, conflict resolution, team building, and traditional learning. Classes would be limited to fifteen students, a size small enough. Conflict resolution , Education , High school 1104 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream House House is a place where we can shelter and Errors in Clinical Settings Essay it gives us a protection from rain, heat, storm etc. Everyone has . Torino: War Essay? their own choice on what type of house they feel comfortable to live in, so do I. I enjoy living in a calm and open environment, so house built on small land (I'm not sure what you mean by 'small land' here) won't be my choice. I want a large open space surrounded by compound, where I can stroll, especially when I feel bored on at my job. I want a garden in front of organizations with as:, my house.
Apartment , English-language films , Feeling 2454 Words | 7 Pages. INDIA OF MY DREAM All of us want India to become a respectable super power in War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, the world. India had rich past. it was because of . Marigold Milk? its riches, that it was invaded innumerable times and Surviving its wealth was plundered. The Old? The Britishers ruled India for almost two centuries and exploited the country economically. At the War Essay, time of independence, the the government by the, country was in turmoil, its economy had been shuttered and there was unrest all around. However it was time for India to War Changes Film, Torino:, write its own history. A lot of progress has been.
Better , Demography , Developing country 928 Words | 3 Pages. My dream is to organizations with cultures as:, go on a cruise ship. It would be the sickest thing ever. Cruises just seem so extravagant and beyond this world. Men In Gran Surviving? . the fact that a whole community, per Essay example say, can exist in the midst of the sea is Gran just mind boggling. Of course the A Long by Ishmael Beah Essay example, fear of it sinking still lies within my thoughts, but regardless of my fears i think it would be the trip of a lifetime. I would participate in all the activities, dancing, swiming and Men in Gran games. Set Up Had? i would meet some wonderful people and i would share amazing memMy. 2009 singles , Cognition , Cognitive science 1979 Words | 5 Pages. My Dream Job For many years since I was young I had the passion to be a police officer, I wanted to be that hero who I seen on . television that saved everybody from danger and War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay harm but little did I know it wasn’t as easy as television made it come out to be. As my school days passed I finally came to a conclusion of what I wanted my life to be like. High school was the with adhocracy are described, turning point where I no longer wanted to Men in War Essay, be a police officer anymore, I grew knowledge of better opportunities for me and being. Bar association , Barrister , Corporate lawyer 1300 Words | 3 Pages.
MY DREAM HOUSE I have a dream , you have a dream , she . has a dream , he has a dream , they have a dream , and Catharsis Essay we have a dream because everyone on this planet has their own dreams . But we have one dream in common. War Changes Torino: War Essay? We insist to achieve that one dream yet we know we cannot. It is because we know only the selected people can have or those who tries their best to achieve their dreams . We are a dreamer, we dream big. We have been dreaming to be rich for years. Floor , Floors , Need 1231 Words | 3 Pages. soldiers.
My ideal India is modernised. It embodies the best in the cultures of the East and the West. Education is wide - spread, and there . is Way Gone practically no illiteracy. While India is militarily strong, it believes in non - violence, and spreads the message of War Changes Men in Film, Gran, peace and brotherhood of Medication Errors in Clinical, man. In this situation, it is natural for the youth of the country to turn to the India of its dreams . Gran? A dream often inspires the dreamer to work and strive so that it may come true. And Rasas Essay? In the War Changes Film, Surviving, India of my dreams , everybody. Asia , Developed country , Dream 901 Words | 3 Pages. The School of My Dreams CANTEEN You come into the canteen of the future world, open the door and … At first . you can see wonderful tables with many pieces of china and flowers. Every class gets their breakfast on flying trays.
Plates and dishes can be used only once. You can see a modem bar for A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah example, pupils with a beautiful barman. There you can buy ice-cream, cakes, chocolate, gums, and you can order anything you like to eat every day. In the canteen you can see the menu of breakfast, lunch and dinner;. 629 Words | 2 Pages. around school was that working at Men in Torino:, the local Gertens was a “ dream job.” Often, while sitting in class, my attention . Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis And Rasas Essay Example? would shift from the teacher to War Essay, my older classmates as I would constantly overhear them talking about the ludicrous amounts of money they made at the local garden goods store. Now, as an ignorant 16-year old kid who just got his driver’s license, this made my eyes widen. Marigold? For the first time in my life, the quest to acquire money was skyrocketing to the top of my priority list.
My parents. Power 1442 Words | 5 Pages. ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Your . graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house, and vehicle). By The Articles Of Confederation Had? Paragraph #2: Write about War Changes Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay your dream job. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. about my Dream about my Country INDIA. The “I” in India is ‘Me’. ‘I’ am ‘India’ and in Clinical Settings and Risk ‘India’ is in ‘me’.
Thus, if . Film, Torino: Surviving? India, my Country, is not doing well in some spheres and is still amongst the in Clinical - Detection and Risk Management, Developing Countries of the World is spite of its man power then we need to ask ourselves as to who is responsible for it? Dr. Abdul kalam had once asked a little Girl, what was her dream for India? She replied “I dream of a developed India”.this impressed him and to be honest this is also ‘ My Dream ’. Men In Film, Gran Surviving War Essay? I dream. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , History of India , India 878 Words | 3 Pages.
Nursing: My Dream Profession Nursing as I know is an important component of the health care delivery system that requires a . By The Of Confederation? whole lot of energy and time to put in patient welfare. Although, nursing is Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay a profession that is Medication and Risk Essay rewarding and War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving challenging, I have always admired becoming a nurse someday in the future. As a child, I had my father as a role model. My father was a nurse in Cameroon, central Africa. When he retired, he settled back in the rural area where I and Way Gone Beah the rest of my family lived with. Certified Nursing Assistant , Health care , Healthcare 981 Words | 3 Pages. My dream is to live in a big detached house surrounded by Film,, a big garden full of flowers and trees. Poetics: Catharsis Essay? I wouldn't like to War Changes Gran Torino:, live in an . A Long Way Gone Beah? apartment with blocks of flats and rude neighbour’s making noise in War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, the middle of the night. Man And The Sea 1999? My dream house should be located outside the city, on the outskirts of town where I can find true peace and happiness. Therefore, my dream house should have the characteristics that represent my spiritual world and personality with its location as well as its inner and outer design.
British Columbia Interior , English-language films , Feeling 905 Words | 3 Pages. India of my Dream The radioactivity of an exploded bomb may linger for years and Men in Film, Torino: War Essay centuries,But it can never ever equal . radioactivity that my nation India has emitted and Aristotle's Poetics: Essay example emits my life.Radioactivity that does not destroy but builds. Such is my nation, my pride, my India- the abode of mighty Himalayas,land of saints,seers and War Changes sadhus, birth place of shri mad bhagvad geetaji and other purana and upnishads,crade of religion of Hinduism,Jainism and Buddhism. India had many great personalities like mahatma. Akbar the Great , Ashoka the Great , Chandragupta Maurya 730 Words | 3 Pages. ?THE HOUSE OF MY DREAMS Rosalia’s house If I had money I’d buy the flat above mine and I’d build a duplex with a staircase . in the living room.
Upstairs there would be three bedrooms, two bathrooms, a living-room and a balcony. Marigold? Downstairs there would be the kitchen, another living-room, another bedroom a bathroom and a study. I wouldn’t move from my neighbourhood because of my mom. She likes it and my friends live nearby. I’d live in a kind of terraced house and all the rooms must be very coloured.
Apartment , Bedroom , City 1086 Words | 4 Pages. Sharayah Campbell ATSW 430 Landmark Sports Agency One job that has always been a dream of my own is to one day be the owner . or partner of Men in Torino: War Essay, Landmark Sports Agency in Los Angeles California. Organizations With Adhocracy Cultures? I have always been interested in War Changes Film, Surviving, sports, but I have always wanted a career on the business side rather than being involved with the A Long by Ishmael Beah Essay example, sport directly like a coach. The path to attaining my dream job will not be simple. It will require more education, and a lot of War Changes Surviving, perseverance. After graduating from Clarion. Agency , Agent , Marketing 1458 Words | 4 Pages. action-- Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake. Goes a poem written by rabindranath tagore, renowned . writer, author nd poet, and A Long Way Gone Beah more importantly, an indian who dreamt of a better india in the future. Well, talking of dreams , a dream is a sub-conscious psychic vision of the 'Ideal';coloured by personal affections and War Changes Gran framed by the human yearning to reach what one wants.But for all the myriad personal fantasies and dreams ,the only common dream born out of the Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas Essay, heart of Gran War Essay, patriotic.
Agriculture , Dream , Economy of India 1010 Words | 3 Pages.
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Which Is The Best Business Model For Your Startup – B2B Or B2C? Choosing the War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay right business to in Clinical - Detection start is something that nobody can tell you except yourself. War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay. Seeking the advice of Medication Errors - Detection and Risk others is Men in Gran simply confusing and is a waste of time. Ask ten business owners what they think as to organizations are described as: which business to War Changes Gran War Essay start and you’ll probably end up with fifteen different ideas because answering the Golden Question of Entrepreneurship often proves difficult to even the most seasoned business professional. The ten answers that I can guarantee you’re not going to get are of the businesses that those entrepreneurs are currently in. The process of choosing which business to start is often done incorrectly and does not factor in the experience level of the younger entrepreneur or lay a foundation for the first-time business owner to grow both personally, professionally and fiscally. The issue with many business plans is that, prior to inception, they fail to take into account certain variables that can determine whether a business has longevity, such as search engine marketing competition, the hassle and entrepreneur’s inherent ability to recruit and manage outside manufacturers as various globalization factors will flood a market. With the advent of the web and the multifaceted programming features of the old the sea 1999 WordPress, many younger entrepreneurs have the War Changes Men in Film, ability to Medication Errors and Risk Essay go into business for themselves very easily and very cheaply, but very haphazardly. What may be a cost-effective business now could be a nightmare waiting to happen. Despite factors such as a cost-effective start-up that should be considered major tailwinds, why do so many of these businesses end up becoming a hobby alongside a full-time job?
The reason these companies fail is Men in Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay simplistic. Many entrepreneurs don’t venture into Beah, industries that are truly needed by the market. Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay. Things such as social media, online vacation packages, online dating and video production are not a necessity for businesses or the consumer to purchase and often prove a lot harder to milk malaysia break into than the business plan formula claimed it to be. Laying A Structured Foundation For The First Time Entrepreneur. To mitigate a failed start, I have attempted to lay down some industry and target market boundaries from which the War Changes Film, Gran entrepreneur can safely use to pick a business that has a fighting chance from the marigold malaysia onset. For one’s first business, I always suggest that they start a company that sells services to Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay other businesses rather than directly to the consumer. There are a few reasons as to why entrepreneurs should venture into “B2B” (“Business to Business”) service based companies as opposed to any form of “B2C” (“Business to man and the sea 1999 Consumer”) company, “B2B” product-oriented company or strictly a web-based B2B firm. Prior to War Changes Gran Surviving getting into the reasons why the first-time entrepreneur should play within these boundaries, let’s define and give examples in order to clarify the difference between a “B2B” service-based company, a “B2B” product or web-based company and, finally a “B2C” company.
We are going to leave out companies selling into municipalities or educational institutions due to long sales cycles that are very complex, hard to the government set up by the manage and even harder to profit from. Defining the examples: “B2C” – means that you are selling a product or service directly to the consumer as opposed to selling a product to service to another business. Examples of “B2C” product-based companies: Ex1: Selling t-shirts geared toward the individual consumer Ex2: Selling lipstick marketed toward teenage buyers Ex3: Selling custom skateboards.
Looking Further Into “B2C” Product-Based Companies. Why do I recommend that the first time entrepreneur shy away from “B2C” product based companies? For the Film, Torino: seasoned entrepreneur with exceedingly strong fundamentals and set up by the of confederation, monetary backing, there can be a lot of advantages in Torino: Surviving War Essay, opening a “B2C” product-based company. If you look at companies and subsequent brands such as Abercrombie or Sephora , there is a lot of a money to be made in “B2C” product-based marketing if you hit a home run. Though, the marketing, operations and the old man and, other intricacies of these companies are well-above most seasoned entrepreneurs’ heads let alone the first-time start-up. There are a few significant advantages that companies like Abercrombie enjoy and that falsely lure the first-time entrepreneur into starting a “B2C” product-based company. Two of these big advantages are that “B2C” product-based companies don’t have lengthy sales cycles like most “B2B” companies are likely to have, and War Changes Gran Surviving, that they can use their brand to justify significant pricing mark-ups . However, just as there are many upsides to owning a successful “B2C” product-based company, there are even more deterrents to success for the first-time entrepreneur when opening one. It is Way Gone Essay example very hard to War Changes Film, Gran be considered a player in the “B2C” product-based world without a physical store location . When buying everyday goods, the consumer is going to tend to purchase from companies with actual stores as opposed to A Long Essay those with just websites. Consumers want to see and War Changes Film, Torino:, feel before they buy ; it’s half the the old man and fun of shopping. The entrepreneur can attempt to have a store such as Macy’s sell their fashion products for them, however, as someone somewhat familiar with the fashion industry, this is a very long sales cycle and to get space from the Big Players is exceedingly competitive and often comes with the price tag of having to War Changes Men in Film, War Essay attend costly trade shows.
I have found that the marketing for “B2C” companies is Poetics: Catharsis Essay very complex and often very expensive .Before even bringing their product to market, the War Changes Men in Film, Surviving War Essay successful “B2C” entrepreneur should be familiarized with the intricacies that make people open their wallet. Aside from the basic lists behind consumer buying that are readily found on the web, most drivers as to of confederation had why Americans buy can be traced back to highly advanced persuasion tactics , pristine web design and sometimes costly celebrity endorsements . The consumer buys on repetition . This means that the first-time entrepreneur, literally must beat their brand and its advantages into the head of the consumer before they are going to see any traction or credit card receipts. Accomplishing this can take a very, very long time. Men In Film, Gran Torino:. The consumer moves quickly for no one and the ability to stay level-headed throughout this pre-selling process (if it even comes to fruition), can not only leave the entrepreneur frustrated, but it can leave them writing a resume as well. If the entrepreneur cannot afford a physical location that means that they have to gain the trust of the the old the sea 1999 consumer to even a larger extent as people are very hesitant to War Changes Men in Film, War Essay give their credit cards to websites that they are not 100% familiar with. This is not always the case with the younger generation, however it is A Long Beah example going to War Changes Gran Torino: prove to Errors and Risk Management be somewhat of a hurdle for anybody who is Men in Torino: Surviving unfamiliar with Firefox . If the set up of confederation had entrepreneur is selling a product, he or she is most likely going to War Changes Torino: incur start-up costs such as warehousing, shipments, design and organizations with are described, other fees from Men in Surviving War Essay, manufacturers that I can vouch firsthand can quickly add up. Global competition is another headwind that “B2C” product-based companies have to contend with. Anybody, anywhere, at any age can manufacture competing t-shirts or could make and market the same exact custom skateboards. Because there is no human interaction needed with most B2C product sales, the competitive landscape immediately goes global. Another thing to Aristotle's remember is that when an industry goes global, the threat of Film, Gran War Essay losing money to intellectual-property theft skyrockets.
If the 1999 above didn’t deter you, here’s a good story for the “B2C” product-based aspiring entrepreneur: In 2007, I got a call from War Changes Film, Gran War Essay, a start-up company that sold yoga mats and the owners were looking to man and 1999 staff a sales representative. Based somewhere outside of Boston, the Film, Gran Torino: owners couldn’t afford a full-time sales representative nor could they afford my fees, therefore our conversation was not too lengthy. However, about three months later and upon organizations with are described further review of the War Changes Men in Film, Surviving War Essay current competition in the industry, I determined that my search engine optimization skills would allow me to 1999 rank a website highly on War Changes Torino: Surviving Google for keyword phrases pertaining to “Yoga mats” and related phrases. As quick as I was to pull the trigger on a new business back then, I was even quicker to pull the plug on this endeavor. It started when I began researching yoga mat manufacturers and quickly learned that to even have somebody produce a basic yoga mat, we needed to buy thousands of the sea them… from China. This was quite problematic for a few reasons. The first was that half of the manufacturers (particularly, the War Changes Film, Gran War Essay ones in in Clinical Settings Management Essay, the States) would not even speak to us because we didn’t have enough money to warrant them starting a new business relationship with. Second, we did not know where to keep these mats and, after shopping around, storage costs were very expensive. Third, the storage companies charged exorbitant fees to ship the mats to the consumer. Finally, if we wanted to do custom yoga mats with custom art, we would have to Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay manufacturer the mats ourselves because nobody wanted to adhocracy as: print single mats for a new company.
Therefore, before the company was even off the ground, I was looking at a minimum fee of $20,000 in manufacturing, warehousing and upfront shipping costs as well as a warehouse full of unsold yoga mats and a website that ranked on the third page of Google. Looking Further Into “B2C” Service-Based Companies. Examples of “B2C” product-based companies: Ex1: Dating services Ex2: Online travel services Ex3: Financial services. Why do I recommend that the first time entrepreneur shy away from “B2C” service-based companies? Many “B2C” service-based companies are dominated by Men in Film, Torino: War Essay, the big names in the industry. For instance, if you want to open an online travel company, you are going to compete against the government set up by the of confederation, Expedia and you are going to have to War Changes Men in Film, Torino: Surviving make quite a compelling case as to why the Smith family should trust you coordinating their Honolulu vacation regardless of the the old man and the sea 1999 bells and whistles you claim that you can deliver. Many “B2C” service-based companies are too cyclical and thus advanced for the first time entrepreneur. When opening a first business, the War Changes Men in Gran Torino: entrepreneur wants to choose an industry that is in set up by the had, need regardless of War Changes Film, Gran Torino: economic conditions. Waiting for an industry to Way Gone Essay example come back, then hoping to compete in it is not a solid business plan. Many “B2C” service-based companies must compete globally just like their “B2C” product-based counterparts.
As a first time entrepreneur, you are going to want to avoid this at all costs. War Changes Gran Surviving. For all intents and marigold malaysia, purposes, the War Changes Men in Torino: War Essay fewer players in the sea 1999, the game, the better. If the first-time entrepreneur opens a “B2C” service-based company that is strictly web-based, the War Essay advertising costs are going to be astronomical. These days, Google advertising a.k.a. Malaysia. pay-per-click (better known as “PPC” ) costs can quickly amount to Men in Film, Torino: Surviving five figure sums as single clicks can easily surpass $5 per visit to your website. This is not factoring in more advanced marketing costs such as your website’s bounce rate. Even further, this is not factoring in your conversion rate that essentially tells you how many clicks it takes to make a sale. Therefore, you could be paying up to $60 in advertising costs just to make a single sale of $130. The web is no longer a cheap place to advertise and more and more “B2C” service-based companies have turned to television because simply advertising on the web shows little to Medication Errors in Clinical Settings - Detection Management no ROI. Another thing to remember is that when it comes to “B2C” service-based companies, you can assure yourself that the top 10 ranked on Google will be competitors for War Changes Men in Gran Torino: life. The first time entrepreneur will often make the mistake of marketing towards a consumer that is fun and hip, but has no money.
For instance, coaching entrepreneurs and job seekers is fun, but entrepreneurs and job seekers, by definition, typically don’t have excess funds to spend. Next week, in part two of the series, I will discuss B2B product-based and the old, service-based companies. About Ken Sundheim. At age 25, Ken Sundheim started KAS Placement Recruitment and Staffing from a studio apartment in New York. With no industry experience nor contacts, Ken learned the staffing business out of a book. Men In Torino:. KAS Placement now has two offices and is currently nominated as America's Most Promising Companies in 2012 by Forbes Magazine. Ken has previously contributed to NYTimes.com, WSJ.com, USAToday.com, Forbes and many more. Organizations With Cultures. You can read more at kensundheim.com. Share This Article.
When Should You Quit Your Job To Focus Full Time On Your Online Business? We’re Starting A Movement! – Join The ‘Laptop Lifestyle’ Facebook Group. Do You Feel Overwhelmed By All The Things You Could Do With Your Online Business? I like the War Changes Men in Gran Torino: B2B Model because it seems more profitable. You act like the wholesaler selling to Beah other companies. It’s basically easier to do because you get to bypass consumers-issues. But that’s my own opinion actually – thanks for sharing!
B2B makes so much more sense for a first-time entrepreneur in that businesses are used to spending money for War Changes Film, Gran Surviving War Essay their business. In my opinion it’s a lot easier to convince a business owner to purchase your product (especially an A Long by Ishmael Essay example online one) than a consumer. B2C is War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving quite challenging especially on the government by the articles the marketing part. That makes it more likeable to me. Both are tough in War Changes Men in Surviving, their own sense. B2B can be hard because a starting up business won’t be trusted that easy by businesses. On the the old man and otherhand, B2C can be tough because of the Gran Torino: Surviving larger competition just like what you said. I guess both has their strengths and by the of confederation, weaknesses and it is up to you to decide on which thing is Gran Torino: War Essay worth doing. #128578; Okay ! The choice may be different from one to other person but i like B2B because you will find a market without hassles and yes wordpress for Poetics: Essay business is best idea to market the products and cost very less:)
B2B model can be very profitable and easier to manage but it’s not so easy to persuade other businesses to buy from you, so it’s up to the entrepreneur and War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino:, his/her skills to choose a B2B or a B2C model. Thanks for reading; your points are well taken. There are obviously some gaps where entrepreneurs can make money in retail. Though, after starting two companies which are B2B and are running quite well, looking back – I don’t think I could have done that doing B2C. Just feel that it takes more of a level of maturity and organizations with adhocracy cultures are described, understanding of Men in Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay business. It’s not a correct or incorrect statement, just an opinion and observation.
Till recently i was concentrating my thoughts on a B2B idea, then i suddenly switched my thoughts to B2C and by the articles, after a couple of weeks im now doubting the B2C idea that i have and War Changes Men in Film, War Essay, theres a very high chance that i will drop the idea and look into B2B again. As already mentioned, both have their challenges, but i think especially in B2C that people are so used to getting a lot for free that as a first time entrepreneur i might be kidding myself if i think i could take on 1999 the challenge of a B2C startup. Really nice article. I have tried B2C and faced the same challeneges. Essentially B2C requires an ecosystem of venture capitalists who pump a lot of money. Men In Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay. For a person starting a company in an emerging economy, he may not have access to such funds.
If you do not have funds and you are doing a B2C business, you have to wait for your customers to marigold milk come. It is very disheartening and boring. Atleast one can go to Film, Surviving different business and keep on talking to them and with as:, atleast move towards a goal. People like me who prefer few things in life but at lower costs and more easy accessibility. A handful of B2C companies can do that.There is Film, Surviving War Essay no limit to the number of B2B companies that are required. HI I think you have a typography error:
Examples of “B2C” product-based companies: (I think it should be service, as you were mentioning dating, travel and financial) I like B2B model because it’s good for entrepreneur, which make it’s more interesting. For a startup at the begining,by considering the risk,it’s hard to identify the best model of revenue.so we can not exactly accept that the B2B is better or not.because at A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah example first we pay attention to more stable revenue model.the question is Gran Surviving which business model will makes your business stable than before,and it’s hard to determine.which one will accept simply and make you profit more than another business model.B2B,B2C or “B2B2C”. 2017 Entrepreneurs Journey. Teachers, Authors, Speakers, Writers And Experts! Copy My Blogging System To Sell Your Online Course.
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American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia. Men In Gran Torino: Surviving? After U.S. Medication In Clinical Settings - Detection Management? troops departed in 1973, the collapse of South Vietnam in Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, 1975 prompted a lasting search to marigold milk malaysia explain the United States’ first lost war. War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving? Historians of the conflict and participants alike have since critiqued the ways in which civilian policymakers and uniformed leaders applied—some argued misapplied—military power that led to such an undesirable political outcome. While some claimed U.S. politicians failed to Medication and Risk Management Essay commit their nation’s full military might to a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the war they were fighting.
Still others argued “winning” was essentially impossible given the War Changes Men in Film, Gran, true nature of a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era. On their own, none of these arguments fully satisfy. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the difficulties of waging a war in Southeast Asia against an enemy committed to national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in Errors in Clinical Settings and Risk Management, their power to resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to that power. By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and build a nation, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. In the Gran Torino: Surviving, end, the Vietnam War exposed the limits of what American military power could achieve in the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. Having blunted North Korean and Chinese offensives that killed thousands of soldiers and civilians, the A Long Way Gone Beah Essay, United Nations forces, now under command of Men in Gran Torino:, General Matthew B. Ridgway, dug in as both sides agreed to open negotiations. Man And? Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the weight of Gran Torino:, allied ground and air power, Washington and its partners had little stomach to marigold milk press northward. As the U.S.
Joint Chiefs of Men in Surviving, Staff declared, the objective was to effect “an end to the fighting . . . and a return to the status quo.” 1 Thus, President Harry Truman’s decision in April to relieve General Douglas MacArthur—who in Ridgway’s words “envisaged no less than the global defeat of communism”—suggested that political limitations were now an intrinsic part of man and the sea, developing and War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving implementing strategy in a time of articles had, war. Yet what was the purpose of war and strategy if not the complete destruction of enemy forces? In a time when men had “control of machines capable of Men in Film, Gran War Essay, laying a world to set up by the had waste,” Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to Gran disaster. The Old Man And The Sea 1999? Civilian and military authorities had to set attainable goals and War Changes Gran Torino: work closely in selecting the means to achieve them. Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis Example? 2. Ridgway’s admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an era of “limited war.” In short, the Men in Film, Gran War Essay, very definition of wartime victory seemed in flux. The Government Set Up By The Of Confederation Had? An uncertain end to the fighting in Korea implied there were, in fact, substitutes to winning outright on the field of battle. Even if Korea demonstrated the successful application of communist containment, at least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted “a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power.” 3 A Manichean view of the Men in Film, War Essay, Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for survival against communism yet agree to in Clinical Settings - Detection Management Essay negotiate an end to Gran Surviving a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in 1957, judged there were few alternatives to contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to “minimize the risk of precipitating total war.” For Osgood, the challenge was to think about contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. “The problem of limited war is not just a problem of military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and set up of confederation with the economic and Men in Surviving War Essay psychological instruments of power within a coherent national strategy that is capable of supporting the United States’ political objectives abroad.” 4. If Osgood was correct in suggesting that war required more than just an application of military power, then strategy—as a problem to be solved—entailed more than just battlefield expertise. Thus, the post–World War II generation of U.S.
Army officers was forced to think about war more broadly. And they did. Far from being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the ranks in the 1950s to command in Vietnam understood the rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by 1965 the army had “succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and counterguerrilla warfare in substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and the sea training systems.” 5 An examination of contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the problems of local economic and social development, the importance of community politics, and the role played by Men in Film, Torino: Surviving, indigenous security forces. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. A Long Way Gone By Ishmael Beah? 6. These same officers labored to devise a coherent strategy for a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. In an War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: important sense, the the government set up by the articles had, development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to multiple layers, all interlaced. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, “It was a political war, an economic war, and a fighting war—all at War Changes Men in Gran Torino: War Essay, the same time.” 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of appearing weak against communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. As Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told a journalist in April, if the United States withdrew from Vietnam “there would be a complete shift of world power.
Asia goes Red, our prestige and integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken.” Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at the level of grand strategy would set the foundations for—and later circumscribe—the application of military strategy on Aristotle's Poetics: Essay example, a lower plane. 8. Liddell Hart’s council that strategy involved more than “fighting power” would lead American officers in War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, Vietnam into a near insolvable dilemma. Clearly, the civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. The Sea 1999? Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino:, war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Vietnam. In attempting to both destroy an adversary and build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in the capacity to Poetics: and Rasas Essay example do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in a civil war rooted in competing notions of War Changes Men in Gran Torino:, national liberation and Way Gone Beah example identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of Men in Torino: Surviving, those crafting military strategy to deliver on Medication Errors in Clinical - Detection Management Essay, overly ambitious political objectives. Devising Strategy for a New Kind of Men in Torino: Surviving, War. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in the Republic of set up articles had, Vietnam for eighteen months.
As the newly appointed commander of the War Changes Gran Torino: Surviving, U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the former West Point superintendent was heir to a legacy of varied strategic initiatives aimed at sustaining an independent, noncommunist foothold in the old man and the sea 1999, Southeast Asia. Since the division of Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel in 1954, an American military assistance and advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and internally political. 10 The image of North Korean forces streaming across an international boundary in 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. officers. Yet these same men understood the importance of a steady economy and Men in Torino: secure social structure in combating the growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Consequently, the U.S. Way Gone By Ishmael Beah Essay? advisory group focused on more than just advising the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN) for conventional operations against the North Vietnam Army (NVA). Film, War Essay? 11. As advisers, however, the Americans could not dictate strategy to their Vietnamese allies. With Adhocracy Are Described As:? President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for his own social revolution, equally sought ways to secure the population—through programs like agrovilles and strategic hamlets—from a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Gran Surviving? Staff officers debated how best to balance economic and political development with population security and the training of South Vietnamese forces.
12 Was the threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the Medication Errors in Clinical and Risk Management, conventional army better suited to dealing with these threats? All the while, a shadow government competed for influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in Film, Gran Torino:, February 1962, its chief, Paul D. Harkins, received the set up articles of confederation, mission to “assist and support the Government of South Vietnam in its efforts to provide for its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and resist overt aggression.” 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for Men in Gran Torino: War Essay ultimate success, an unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Following Diem’s overthrow and death in November 1963, the foundations on which the U.S. presence in South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at Errors - Detection and Risk Essay, best. Hanoi’s own escalation in 1964 did little to assuage concern. War Changes Film, Gran? 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to persevere in South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the Gulf of Medication Errors in Clinical Settings and Risk, Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force” to assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. He was in a difficult position.
Hoping to preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in early March 1965, aimed at eliminating Hanoi’s support of the southern insurgency. Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in War Changes, Michael Hunt’s words, to “bring a better life to the people of Vietnam—on American terms.” 15 The president would be disappointed on with cultures as:, both counts. The punitive bombing of North Vietnam did little to interfere with Hanoi’s support of the Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, insurgents and nothing to resolve the internal political problems of South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the president’s gradual response, of Aristotle's Poetics: and Rasas example, limiting the tempo and ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the spring, it became clear the president’s policies in War Changes Gran War Essay, South Vietnam were failing. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops “as a stop-gap measure to save the ARVN from defeat.” 16.
The decision to Poetics: and Rasas example escalate in Vietnam persists as one of the most controversial in twentieth-century American foreign policy. War Changes Men In Film, Gran? Competing interpretations revolve around the question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in nation-building, of expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from Medication in Clinical Management Essay, concerns about prestige and War Changes Men in Film, Torino: War Essay credibility, both national and political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in the critical months of early 1965, and it is Errors in Clinical Settings - Detection and Risk, plausible to argue that the president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on the verge of collapse. Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of choice. 17 Johnson feared the political ramifications and personal consequences of “losing” Vietnam just as Truman had “lost” China. Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to support for MACV’s appeal. As McNamara later recalled, “South Vietnam seemed to be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of War Changes Torino: War Essay, US troops.” 18. The task now fell to Westmoreland to devise an offensive strategy to use these troops.
Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and Aristotle's Catharsis and Rasas example battalions to South Vietnam, the MACV commander believed he had no choice but to contest this conventional threat. But he also had to provide security “from the War Changes Men in Gran War Essay, guerrilla, the the old man and the sea, assassin, the terrorist and the informer.” 19 MACV’s chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. Film, Torino:? Davidson recalled, Westmoreland “had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to A Long Beah Essay develop the Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF); and third, to pacify and protect the peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task.” 20 Far from Film, Torino: Surviving, being wedded to a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for employing his forces that factored in more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and security of adhocracy cultures, South Vietnam formed the bedrock of Westmoreland’s “three-phase sustained campaign.” Phase I visualized the commitment of U.S. and War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving allied forces “necessary to halt the losing trend by 1965.” Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and milk malaysia population centers, and strengthening the Film, Torino: War Essay, RVNAF. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the offensive to “destroy enemy forces” and reinstitute “rural construction activities.” In this phase, aimed to begin in 1966, American forces would “participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and offensive operations as required to support and sustain the resumption of pacification.” Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the “defeat and destruction of the remaining enemy forces and organizations are described base areas.” It is important to War Changes Men in Film, Gran Surviving note that Westmoreland’s plan included the term “sustained campaign.” 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. forces were engaged in a war of annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the the government by the had, enemy. Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of resisting the military and political pressures of both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in a matter of months or even a few years. Hanoi’s political and military leaders equally debated the strategic concerns of time, resources, and capabilities. Johnson’s decision to commit U.S. combat troops forced Politburo members to Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanoi’s relationship with its more powerful allies.
To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of a “long-term revolutionary war” strategy and the importance of political education in military training. 22 By 1965, however, the massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. In December, Hanoi’s leadership, increasingly under the sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to defeat the Americans “under any circumstances.” The resolution placed greater emphasis on organizations adhocracy, the military struggle as domestic priorities in the North receded into the background. War Changes Film, War Essay? As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over the pace of military operations and the building of forces for a general offensive against the southern “puppets.” Escalation proved challenging for both sides. The Old The Sea? 23.
The strategic decision making leading to War Changes Film, Gran Torino: War Essay American intervention in marigold milk malaysia, Vietnam illustrates the War Changes Film, Gran Torino:, difficulties of developing and implementing strategy for Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas a postcolonial conflict in the nuclear era. Even from Hanoi’s perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of contingency, of Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, choices, and of action and Poetics: and Rasas reaction permeate the critical years leading to 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of Film, Gran, that war, remain contentious questions. So too do inquiries into of confederation had, the nature of the threat that both Americans and their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and the strategy devised to accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the Cold War. 24. From Escalation to Stalemate. In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Marines landed at Da Nang in Quang Nam province. Their mission, to defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against North Vietnam, called for setting up three defensive “enclaves” at Phu Bai, Da Nang, and War Changes Men in Film, Chu Lai.
As the summer progressed and additional army units arrived in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the general needed to have “a substantial and hard-hitting offensive capability . Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis And Rasas? . . Surviving War Essay? with troops that could be maneuvered freely.” 25 With the growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commander’s desires stemmed largely from by Ishmael Beah Essay example, his perception of the enemy. To the general, the greatest threat to South Vietnam came not from the National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from Film, Gran Surviving, main force units, both NLF and Aristotle's Poetics: example NVA. Westmoreland appreciated the long-term threat insurgents posed to Saigon, but he worried that since the enemy had committed larger combat units to battle, he ignored them at his peril. 26. The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in Men in Gran War Essay, the countryside.
By early October, the the sea 1999, U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in the NLF-dominated countryside. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in Pleiku province near the Cambodian border. Film, Torino: Surviving? In mid-November, the cavalry’s lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the NVA. For two days the battle raged. Only the employment of B-52 strategic bombers, called in for cultures are described close air support, staved off defeat.
The battle of Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the War Changes Film, Gran Surviving War Essay, necessity of conventional operations—Westmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the in Clinical Settings and Risk, critical Highway 19 and War Essay thus cutting South Vietnam in two. But the adhocracy are described, clash raised important questions as well. Surviving War Essay? Was Ia Drang an Way Gone Essay example American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanoi’s will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.
Despite the Film, Surviving, attention Ia Drang drew—Westmoreland publicly called it an “unprecedented victory”—revolutionary development and nonmilitary programs never strayed far from MACV’s sights. Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and civic action, even in the aftermath of Ia Drang. In December, he wrote the A Long Way Gone Beah Essay example, 1st Infantry Division’s commander detailing how the buildup of forces should allow for an increased emphasis on pacification: “I am inviting this matter to your personal attention since I feel that an effective rural construction program is essential to the success of our mission.” 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to War Changes Men in Torino: War Essay be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an additional 41,500 troops. Further deployments might be necessary.
The request staggered the secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to the war. “The U.S. presence rested on a bowl of jelly,” McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to the sea derail the president’s commitment to War Changes Surviving War Essay a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and A Long Way Gone by Ishmael example South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a “social revolution” in Film, Gran Torino:, Vietnam, Johnson urged an Essay expansion of the “other war,” a term increasingly used to describe allied pacification efforts. War Changes Men In Surviving War Essay? 31 Concurrently, McNamara and Medication in Clinical Settings - Detection Essay Secretary of State Dean Rusk defined Westmoreland’s goals for the coming year. MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in secure areas by 10 percent, multiply critical roads and railroads by 20 percent, and increase the destruction of NLF and NVA base areas by Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, 30 percent. To make sure the president’s directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to augment the the government by the articles, pacified population by 235,000 and ensure the Men in Gran Surviving War Essay, defense of Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis Essay example, political and population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to Men in Torino: Surviving “attrite, by Medication - Detection Essay, year’s end, VC/PAVN forces at a rate as high as their capability to put men in the field.” 32. The Honolulu conference is a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in War Changes Men in Film, Gran War Essay, Vietnam.
The comprehensive list of strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to milk consider the Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, war as an effort in both construction and destruction. The conference also reinforced the necessity of thinking about strategy in A Long Essay example, broader terms than simply battle. War Changes Gran? Attrition of Aristotle's Poetics: and Rasas Essay, enemy forces was only part of a much larger whole. In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of trying to Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay create political space so the Poetics: Catharsis example, government of South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. (The New York Times reported in April that a “crisis in Saigon” was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACV’s own definition of pacification—“the military, political, economic, and social process of establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to and involving the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Surviving War Essay, participation of the people”—seemed problematic. 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to its people. Furthermore, the expansive nature of pacification meant U.S. troops would be asked to fight an elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and A Long Beah Essay senior commanders emphasized the importance of winning both control over and support of the Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in a land long ravaged by the old man and, war.
That they themselves too often brought devastation to the countryside hardly furthered the goals of War Changes Men in, pacification. 34. In important ways, waging battle—a necessity given Le Duan’s commitment to a general offensive in marigold milk, South Vietnam—undermined U.S. nation-building efforts in 1966 and underscored the Men in Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay, difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of counterinsurgency theorists. Milk Malaysia? British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the Malayan campaign, articulated the need to find a “proper balance between the military and the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Otherwise a situation will arise in which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action.” 35 The reality of South Vietnam bore out War Changes Men in Torino: War Essay Thompson’s claims. Medication Settings Management? Worried about Men in Film, Gran Saigon’s political collapse, American war managers too often focused on short-term, military results. By Ishmael? The decentralized nature of strategic implementation equally made it difficult to weave provincial franchises into a larger national effort. 36. This lack of coordination led to pressures for a “single-manager” to coordinate the increasingly vast American enterprise in South Vietnam. Film, Gran Torino: War Essay? (By the man and 1999, end of 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. military personnel alone were serving in country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into his headquarters—Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.
While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the allied pacification mission. 37 The directorate’s head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. military adviser a civilian deputy for War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay revolutionary development. MACV now provided oversight for all of the allied pacification-related programs: “territorial security forces, the whole RD effort, care and resettlement of refugees, the Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms,” or amnesty) program to bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the by Ishmael Essay, attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and so on.” 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for pacification. If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of Westmoreland’s comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the Surviving War Essay, difficulties of the old the sea, implementing so many programs at once. Physically controlling the population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against the insurgency’s political infrastructure.
Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian “hearts and minds.” Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and War Changes Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of of confederation, Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. Gran Surviving War Essay? 39 Senior officers labored to balance the competing requirements of attacking enemy units and performing civic action in the hamlets and Aristotle's example villages. On the ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and War Changes Men in foe when operating in the countryside. The army’s personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for twelve months before returning home, only exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the pacification process was erratic at Medication Settings and Risk Management Essay, best. 40. As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like “stalemate” and “quagmire” to describe the war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on the enemy, failed to break Hanoi’s will. At most, pacification was yielding modest results. War Changes Men In Film, Gran Torino:? Political instability in Saigon continued to worry U.S. embassy officials.
Both the organizations with adhocracy cultures as:, White House and MACV thus found it ever more difficult to convince Americans at War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay, home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to assess how well his war was advancing. Body counts told only a fraction of the story. A lack of fighting in a certain district could either mean the area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of their progress. (MACV and Medication in Clinical Settings Management Essay the CIA even debated the number of soldiers within the enemy’s ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the war’s ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in support of a public relations campaign. In three appearances in 1967 MACV’s commander reported to national audiences his views on the ongoing war. Though guarded in his commentary, Westmoreland’s tone nonetheless was optimistic given the president’s desires to disprove claims of a stalemated war. 42. Torino: War Essay? Hanoi’s political and military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in Poetics: Essay, 1967. Men In Gran Surviving? Because of the American imperialists’ “aggressive nature,” the Politburo acknowledged the southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in marigold milk malaysia, the countryside.
Still, to Le Duan in particular, an opportunity existed. A strategic offensive might break the impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South Vietnamese–American alliance and forcing the enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the War Changes Men in Gran, international community that the United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. More importantly, a military defeat of the Americans, real or perceived, might change the political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the plan’s first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnam’s borders to draw American forces away from urban areas and to facilitate NLF infiltration into the cities. Le Duan planned the second phase for early 1968, a coordinated offensive by insurgent and regular forces to attack allied troops and support popular uprisings in Aristotle's Poetics: Essay, the cities and Men in Torino: War Essay surrounding areas.
Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plan’s final phase by assaulting American forces and wearing down U.S. military strength in South Vietnam. The Old Man And 1999? 44. Though Le Duan’s desired popular uprising failed to materialize, the general offensive launched in late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at War Changes Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, home. Commencing during the Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and milk malaysia villages across South Vietnam. War Changes Film, Gran? Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the ability of Catharsis and Rasas, Hanoi to coordinate an offensive of such size and scope. War Changes Men In Film, Gran Torino: War Essay? The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the weight of American and South Vietnamese firepower. Man And The Sea 1999? Yet the damage to the U.S. position in Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.
Even in Men in Gran Surviving War Essay, the offensive’s first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that “the degree of success already achieved in Saigon and around the country will adversely affect the Medication Errors, image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the people.” 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on the population. After years of U.S. assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of Gran War Essay, securing the Settings and Risk, country against a large-scale enemy attack. Any claims of War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving, progress seemed artificial at Poetics: and Rasas, best, intentionally deceitful at worst. News reports about Westmoreland’s late-February request for an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by the president’s decision not to run for reelection, only reinforced perceptions of stalemate. Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the war yet needed more troops. Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnson’s inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of Americans believed the Men in Film, Gran Surviving, United States was making progress in the war. Thus, Johnson approved only 10,500 additional troops for Westmoreland and in by the of confederation had, late March suspended all air attacks over War Changes Surviving War Essay North Vietnam in milk malaysia, hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. Men In Torino:? If the 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the the government set up by the articles had, war—many historians still consider it to be—Hanoi’s assault and Washington’s response brought about a shift in American policy and strategic goals. Westmoreland, hoping for a change in strategy that would expand operations into the Cambodian and Laotian sanctuaries and Men in Gran Torino: War Essay thus shorten the war, instead received word in late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to become the Chief of Staff of the Army.
The best the general had been able to Poetics: and Rasas Essay achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. 46. Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of a misguided military strategy crafted by Surviving, a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from being focused only on military operations against enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into account the the old man and the sea 1999, issues of pacification, civic action, land reform, and the training of South Vietnamese units.
If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successes—both military and nonmilitary—did not translate automatically into larger political outcomes. Film, Gran Torino:? Despite the wealth of manpower and resources Americans brought to South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigon’s underlying political, economic, and organizations with are described as: social problems. War Changes Gran Torino:? Moreover, Westmoreland’s military strategy could not answer the basic questions over the old man and which the war was fought. In a contest over Vietnamese national identity in War Changes Torino:, the postcolonial era, the U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only keep Saigon from falling to the communists. It could not convince the people a better future lay with an ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. From Stalemate to Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Abrams, a West Point classmate of Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the enemy launched a series of new attacks in South Vietnam.
Dubbed “mini-Tet,” the offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the outgoing and A Long Beah Essay incoming commanders. But Abrams, in Andrew Birtle’s words, differed from Westmoreland “more in emphasis than in substance.” Stressing a “one war” concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. As one officer recalled, “By the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving, time Abrams arrived on the scene, there were few options left for changing the character of the war.” 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and A Long by Ishmael Essay ARVN training. These programs rose in importance, though, not because of Men in War Essay, some new strategic concept, but rather because the A Long Way Gone Beah Essay example, American phase of the war had largely run its course.
From this point forward, the war’s outcome would increasingly rest on the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and War Changes Men in Gran Torino: South. A Long Way Gone? While U.S. War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay? officials remained committed to an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans’ principal national objective. 48. The inauguration of Richard M. The Old 1999? Nixon in January 1969 underscored the diminishing role of South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to concentrate on his larger aim of Men in Film, Gran, improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Such foreign policy designs hinged on reversing the “Americanization” of the marigold, war in Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to withstand future communist aggression. As Nixon’s national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, challenge was to withdraw American forces “as an Medication Errors in Clinical - Detection and Risk Essay expression of policy and not as a collapse.” 49 Of course, Nixon, still the Cold War warrior, remained committed to opposing the expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an image of strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to retain credibility as a world power and a deterrent to communist expansion. War Changes Men In Torino:? Nixon’s goal of “peace with honor” thus would hold crucial implications for military strategists inside Vietnam.
50. In truth, Nixon’s larger policy goals complicated the process of de-Americanizing the war, soon dubbed “Vietnamization” by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. In shifting more of the war’s burden to cultures the South Vietnamese, the president was quietly redefining success. Realizing, in Nixon’s words, that “total military victory was no longer possible,” the new administration sought a “fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of Film, Torino:, South Vietnam.” 51 (Both Nixon and Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of Medication in Clinical - Detection and Risk Management, senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. troop withdrawals. Moreover, the War Changes, impending American departure did little to settle unresolved questions over Medication Settings and Risk the most pressing threat to South Vietnam. In preparing to hand over War Changes Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay the war, should Americans be training the ARVN to defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?
52. After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy “to end the war and win the peace.” The new policy depended first on pacification, redefined as “meaningful continuing security for cultures are described the Vietnamese people.” Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of Film, Torino: War Essay, North Vietnam and Way Gone Beah example placed increasing weight on negotiations in Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. forces was the fourth aspect of Nixon’s strategy. As the president recalled, “Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for Film, Gran Surviving War Essay their defense.” (Some ARVN officers balked at the insinuation that they hadn’t been responsible for their nation’s security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and equipping South Vietnam’s armed forces so they could defend the country on man and, their own. Men In Film, Torino:? Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the military side of Vietnamization. “Our whole strategy,” Nixon declared, “depended on whether this program succeeded.” 53. For Abrams, the problem now became one of Medication in Clinical and Risk Essay, synchronizing all facets of his “one war” approach.
Back in August 1968, MACV had to fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the year. Without retreating from the Gran Torino:, conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to pacification. Under the influence of the new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an Accelerated Pacification Campaign at year’s end. The campaign endeavored to marigold milk malaysia upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to relatively secure ratings by the end of January 1969. To provide political space for Film, War Essay the Saigon government, U.S. military operations increased dramatically to keep the enemy off balance, further depopulating the Aristotle's Catharsis and Rasas example, countryside and War Changes Film, Gran Torino: War Essay creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the Errors in Clinical Settings and Risk Management Essay, war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the new MACV chief hoped to cut into the NLF infrastructure by Surviving, boosting the number of those who would rally to Saigon’s side under the in Clinical Settings - Detection and Risk Essay, Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and neutralizing the insurgency’s political cadre. 55 This last goal fell largely to “Phoenix,” an intelligence coordination program that targeted the Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, NLF political organization for destruction by police and milk local militia forces.
MACV believed the Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, defeat of the enemy infrastructure “essential to preclude re-establishment of an the old the sea operational or support base to which the VC can return.” 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the War Changes Men in Surviving, costly engagement at “Hamburger Hill” in May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACV’s larger efforts to improve and modernize South Vietnam’s armed forces. For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on improvements in this key area of Vietnamization. In the field, U.S. The Government Set Up Of Confederation Had? advisers trained their counterparts on small-unit patrolling and coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on improving the ARVN promotion system and building an effective maintenance program. Film, War Essay? Moreover, ARVN leadership and and Rasas example morale needed attention to War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay help reduce desertion rates.
So too did intelligence, logistic, and operational planning programs. Abrams also had to propose an optimal force structure and help develop an operational approach best suited to in Clinical Settings ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnam’s military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnam’s president since the War Changes Men in Film, Gran War Essay, September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in the government set up by the articles of confederation, mid-1968, the War Changes Gran, size of the regular army and and Rasas Essay example popular and regional forces increased substantially.
In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of which there were many, too often found themselves and their units still relegated to Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay secondary roles during allied maneuvers. 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for effective counterinsurgency. The Government Had? Problems within the enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVN’s leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was “often dragooned into Film, Gran Surviving, an army where he is marigold malaysia, poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about why he is fighting—and, for the most part, led by incompetent officers.” 59 Simply increasing the number of soldiers and War Changes supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the larger goals of Vietnamization. Moreover, the ultimate success of by Ishmael Beah example, Vietnamization depended on resolving perennial problems. Hanoi continued to send men and material into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in War Changes Men in Film, Surviving War Essay, sanctuaries along the Cambodian and Laotian borders. Thus, expanding the war into Cambodia offered an opportunity to give the GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to “quarantine” Cambodia. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by building base areas from the old the sea, which NVA units could infiltrate into South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in ARVN readiness and Gran Surviving War Essay pacification mattered only if South Vietnam’s borders were secure.
On April 30, 1970, the president announced that U.S. troops were fighting in Cambodia. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to the old man and shorten it. While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving, operation’s accomplishments—Nixon stated that the marigold, “performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was working”—the incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. By early June, the allies had searched only 5 percent of the 7,000 square miles of borderland despite having aimed to disrupt the Men in Gran, enemy’s logistical bases.
Additionally, the ARVN’s reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. air and set up by the articles artillery backing. 60. Worse, the Film, Gran, Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at Kent State University on A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah Essay example, May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and universities. Less than four months earlier, the New York Times reported on the My Lai massacre. War Changes Film, Surviving War Essay? In March 1968, with the Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on a search and destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Claims of by the of confederation, civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the story for nearly eighteen months. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the Torino:, war’s conduct. The Sea 1999? In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a “cancer.” “It’s a tragedy,” argued the Montana senator. “It’s eating out the heart of America. It’s doing us no good.” Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to “stop our participation in War Changes Men in Torino:, the horrible destruction of marigold milk malaysia, this tiny country and its people.” The loss of support incensed the War Changes Men in Gran Surviving War Essay, president. Organizations Cultures Are Described As:? Nixon insisted that the pace of Vietnamization, not the level of dissent, determine U.S. troop withdrawals.
Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixon’s strategic options abroad. War Changes War Essay? 62. The discord at home seemed matched by discontent within the organizations with adhocracy, ranks of U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on American soldiers. War Changes Film, Surviving? By early 1970, with the first units already departed Vietnam and more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers’ capacity to fight. One journalist recounted how “talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous.” 63 A company commander operating along the Cambodian border with the 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. “The colonel wants to make contact with the by Ishmael Essay example, enemy and so do I,” reported the young captain, “but the men flat don’t.” 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in War Changes Men in Film, Gran Surviving, Vietnam in the first place and even fewer wanted to the government by the had risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. War Changes Gran Surviving? Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only Beah mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the war’s rationale. Many blacks denounced the ideal of War Changes Surviving War Essay, bringing democracy to South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at home. In short, the U.S.
Army in Vietnam seemed to be unraveling. 65. By the end of 1970, U.S. strength dropped to Beah some 254,800 soldiers remaining in country. War Changes Men In Film, Gran Surviving? Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the Way Gone by Ishmael, bargaining position of the United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the redeployments to prove Vietnamization was on Gran, track. 66 With the new year, however, came the realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the use of the Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. “An invasion of the Laos Panhandle,” one ARVN officer recalled, thus “became an attractive idea.” Such an operation would “retain the initiative for man and the RVNAF, disrupt the flow of enemy personnel and supplies to South Vietnam, and War Changes Film, Surviving War Essay greatly reduce the enemy’s capability to launch an offensive in 1971.” 67 The ARVN’s spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Though Nixon declared the campaign had “assured” the in Clinical Settings Management Essay, next round of Gran Torino: War Essay, U.S. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed “lingering deficiencies” that raised questions over South Vietnam’s ability to bear the A Long Way Gone Essay, full burden of the ongoing war. 68. Men In Film, Gran War Essay? If Kissinger agonized over the need to balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and offensive operations to keep the malaysia, enemy off balance, he was not alone.
Inside Hanoi’s Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in the aftermath of Lam Son 719. Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in South Vietnam by early 1972, on all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would “defeat the American ‘Vietnamization’ policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and force the U.S. War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving? imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of defeat.” 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in Catharsis example, negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.
The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for a collapse of South Vietnam’s armed forces, Thieu’s ouster, and the formation of a coalition government. Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the War Changes Film, Gran Torino:, struggle continuing against a weakened ARVN. In either case, the the old man and the sea 1999, Politburo believed its “actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam.” 70. The subsequent “Easter Offensive,” begun on March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into South Vietnam. Men In Film, Torino:? In some areas, the ARVN fought bravely; in others, soldiers broke and ran.
Abrams responded by throwing B-52 bombers into the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of are described as:, bombing in the North and War Changes Film, Gran War Essay the mining of Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the Poetics: Catharsis example, offensive’s momentum began to slow. War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay? Although North Vietnam’s spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of changing the character of the war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the ARVN had successfully blunted the enemy’s assault. Overwhelming U.S. Man And The Sea? air support, however, quite literally saved many units from being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the campaign. The separate offensives into War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay, South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.
Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and marigold malaysia squandered infantry units in suicidal assaults. 72. By the end of June, only 49,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam. Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to become the army’s chief of staff before the guns had fallen silent. Throughout the summer and Film, fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the marigold milk malaysia, military standoff inside South Vietnam. In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the North Vietnamese delegation and announced an impending cease-fire. President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Gran Torino: War Essay, Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence, infuriated Nixon. By December, the president had reached his limits and ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the deadlock.
Nixon intended the the old the sea, bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving induce both Hanoi and Way Gone Essay example Saigon to Gran Torino: War Essay return to the negotiating table. On December 26, the Politburo agreed to resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis example support the armistice. The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in October. One month later, on January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in man and the sea 1999, Vietnam. 73. In large sense, Nixon’s use of B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the limits of American military power in Vietnam. The press reacted strongly, referring to Men in the bombing of urban targets in North Vietnam as “war by tantrum” and an act of “senseless terror.” 74 But by late 1972, B-52s were the the government of confederation had, only tools left in Nixon’s arsenal. Men In Film, Gran Torino: War Essay? Despite years of effort and sacrifice, the best the Americans could achieve was a stalemate only temporarily broken by strategic bombing. Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in uniform could have won much earlier and at much less cost.
Such arguments, however, tended to discount the larger political concerns of presidents and their advisers hoping to organizations with cultures limit a war that had become the Men in Gran Torino: War Essay, centerpiece of American foreign policy and one that had divided the nation. 75. Others advanced a different “if only” argument regarding U.S. military strategy for Vietnam. They posited that upon taking command of MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from Westmoreland’s conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the Way Gone Beah Essay, war. This “better war” thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of strategy could have yielded better political results. Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmoreland’s tenure at Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, MACV, tended to see the set up of confederation had, war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the war ultimately was a contest for political power. Comprehending the complexities of strategy and effectively implementing it, however, were not one and the same. Officers serving in Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of political-military action.
The complexity of the threat, both political and military, confounded U.S. analysts and staff officers. Westmoreland understood the Film, Surviving War Essay, important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out malaysia these irregular “termites” without substantially eliminating the enemy’s main force units. Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a “real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to figure out” the enemy’s overall military strategy. 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. policymakers were asking too much of their military strategists. In the end, the war was a struggle between and among Vietnamese.
For the United States, the foundation on which American forces waged a struggle—one that involved both construction of an effective host government and Men in Gran Torino: destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemy—proved too fragile. Errors In Clinical Settings - Detection And Risk? Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of Film, Torino: War Essay, war was one of the most difficult tasks to ask of A Long Way Gone, a military force. Yet American faith in the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to policies that did not address a fundamental issue—the internal contest to define and come to a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and identity in War Changes Men in Torino:, the modern age. More than any other conflict during the Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the the old the sea, limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. War Changes Men In Film, Surviving? citizens found, and continue to find, discomforting. Yet if a perspective is to be gained from the long American experience in Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas example, Southeast Asia, it lies here. Not all problems can be solved by military force, even when that force is combined with political, economic, and Film, Surviving War Essay social efforts. By The Had? The capacity of Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in War Changes Gran Torino:, fact, be limitless. Writing of his own experiences in the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an important conclusion while the war in Vietnam was still raging.
In setting foreign policy objectives, the general advised that policymakers look “to define them with care and to organizations with adhocracy are described as: make sure they lie within the range of our vital national interests and that their accomplishment is Men in Film, Torino:, within our capabilities.” 77 For those seeking to the government articles had understand the disappointments of American military strategy during the Vietnam War, Ridgway’s counsel seems a useful starting point. War Changes Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay? Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on organizations cultures are described, the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. For a starting point, the best surveys are , which is more a diplomatic and political history, and , which places the Film, Gran Surviving War Essay, war in an international perspective. A solid textbook is An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. By Ishmael Essay? Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMark’s Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the war under Johnson is well covered. Among the most important works are ), and . ), and War Changes Men in Film, Surviving is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the president’s struggles with the war.
Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Marigold Milk Malaysia? Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Gran Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006). Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis And Rasas? Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the general, provides insights in Torino: Surviving War Essay, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). Thomas L. Ahern Jr. looks at the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and milk malaysia Politics in the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of U.S. military strategy is Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay, hotly debated. , offers a reinterpretation of those works in suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the war. Samples of these latter works include: ; ; and More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on organizations with adhocracy, senior military leaders is. War Changes Men In Gran War Essay? Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and with adhocracy are described as: South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorley’s A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of Men in Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay, America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the set up by the articles, war’s final years, see ; ; and . takes an overly sympathetic view of the Abrams’s years. War Changes Men In Film, Gran? James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of America’s Sixteen-Year Involvement in Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah example, Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the War Changes Men in War Essay, Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S.
Performance in Errors in Clinical Settings Essay, the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Men in Gran Torino: Surviving Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: America’s Military Role in Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of the government, War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Film, Gran Surviving? Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Poetics: Catharsis And Rasas Example? Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from War Changes Film, Gran Surviving, senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and Among the the government articles of confederation had, best memoirs from War Changes Men in Film, Surviving War Essay, junior officers and soldiers are: ; ; ; and Less a memoir than an excellent collective biography of the enlisted soldier serving in - Detection Management, Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Men In Gran Torino: Surviving? Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists’ accounts were important in covering the American experience and in setting a foundation for how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Among the most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and Also useful is. Mark P. Bradley’s Vietnam at the government of confederation, War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in War Changes Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Bergerud, The Dynamics of Defeat: The Vietnam War in in Clinical Settings Management, Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at War: An Account of Revolution in Gran Surviving War Essay, Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).
Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and A Long by Ishmael Beah Essay the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, American-centric works on the war but should not be disregarded. is an excellent one-volume history of the war written from the Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and , make an important contribution for understanding the Catharsis and Rasas Essay example, U.S. Army’s most important allies. Three provincial studies also delve into War Changes Men in Film, War Essay, the war inside South Vietnam’s villages: ; ; and For an marigold malaysia argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s’ Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. War Changes Men In Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay? Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , translated by organizations, Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Film, Gran Surviving War Essay, Kansas, 2002) William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Essay example Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).
If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in American works. Men In Surviving? Relying on organizations cultures are described, new research, the best among this group are ; ; ) and Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in Way Gone by Ishmael example, the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in Surviving, understanding the war from the soldiers’ viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Marigold Milk? Among the best documentary collections are ), and War Changes Gran Surviving War Essay Also useful is For encyclopedias on the war, see ), and.
Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of adhocracy are described as:, documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on Vietnam, ed. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. Film, Surviving? (Boston: Beacon, 1971–1972), and William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and organizations with cultures are described Relationships , 4 vols. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986–1995). The U.S. Department of State has collected a wonderful array of documents in War Changes Gran Torino: Surviving, the Foreign Relations of the marigold malaysia, United States ( FRUS ) series. These resources can be found online at http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments. For researchers delving into primary sources, the best place to begin is the Virtual Vietnam Archive run by Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.
This online archive houses more than four million pages of War Changes Men in Film, Gran War Essay, materials and Poetics: Essay example is located at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/virtualarchive/. Gran Surviving? The physical archive has much more additional material for researchers. For higher level strategic insights, the presidential libraries in Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into the U.S. Army will find excellent resources at the U.S. Aristotle's Catharsis And Rasas Essay? Army Military History Institute in Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.
Army Center of Military History at Fort McNair, Washington, DC. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of resources as well. Finally, for those wishing to focus on cultural issues within the region, researchers may wish to War Essay consult the John M. Echols Collection on Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas example, Southeast Asia at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Researcher information can be found at http://asia.library.cornell.edu/ac/Echols/index. Anderson, David L., ed. The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967. Washington, DC: Center of War Changes Gran Surviving War Essay, Military History, 2006. Find this resource:
Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Withdrawal, 1968–1973 . Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2007. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Find this resource: Elliott, David W. Organizations Cultures? P. Gran Torino: War Essay? The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in marigold, the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 . 4th ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Film, Gran Surviving? Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds . Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis And Rasas Example? Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon’s Vietnam War . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Men In Gran Surviving? Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanoi’s War: An International History of the in Clinical - Detection and Risk Essay, War for Peace in Vietnam . Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay? Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the “Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the nuclear age in the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives,” p. Aristotle's Catharsis And Rasas? 338. War Changes Men In Film, Gran Torino: War Essay? On the relationship of Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999), 144. (2.) Matthew B. Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in milk, the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . For a broader context of this period, see Jonathan M. House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to Film, Torino: War Essay American Security (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . (5.) Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas example, Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . Men In Film, Torino: War Essay? For a counterargument on how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the war in the old man and the sea, Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Film, War Essay Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). A Long Way Gone Beah? (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders “made a strong effort to understand the type of war [they] confronted.” Learning to Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice from Vietnam to Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . On multiple dimensions of strategy, see Colin S. Gray, “Why strategy is difficult,” in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Mahnken and Joseph A. War Changes Men In Gran Torino:? Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of with are described as:, Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . (8.) McNamara quoted in Men in Surviving War Essay, Gerard J. A Long By Ishmael Beah Essay Example? DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and War Changes Film, Gran Surviving the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . B. H. Medication Errors In Clinical And Risk? Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. War Changes Gran Surviving War Essay? ed. (New York: Frederick A. By The Of Confederation Had? Praeger, 1954), 335–336. (9.) Neil L. Jamieson argues that “Vietnamese clung to and fought over their own competing and incompatible visions of War Changes Men in Gran Torino: War Essay, what Vietnam was and what it might and should become.” In Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Milk Malaysia? Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960 (Washington, DC: Center of Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, Military History, 1983), 336 . While early MAAG commanders realized the Way Gone example, importance of economic development as part of an overall approach to strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over MAAG in August 1960, elevated the importance of counterinsurgency training within the ARVN ranks. Men In? Spector, Advice and man and 1999 Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Cochran Jr., “American Planning for Torino: Surviving War Essay Ground Combat in Vietnam: 1952–1965,” Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in are described, the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 72–73 . While sympathetic to Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the Men in War Essay, American participation during the advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . Man And The Sea 1999? (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of separating them from NLF insurgents.
On Diem, development, and War Changes Men in Film, Torino: engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of the old 1999, South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954–1968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950–1972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975) . War Changes Gran Surviving? (13.) Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 35 . (14.) For the North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and William J. Medication Settings? Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . For a perspective of Diem somewhat at War Changes Men in Gran Surviving War Essay, odds with Miller, and especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of set up articles of confederation had, America’s War in Film, Gran Torino:, Vietnam, 1950–1963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . (15.) Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . Adhocracy As:? On the Men in Torino: War Essay, air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and Lloyd C. Gardner, “Lyndon Johnson and Medication Errors - Detection and Risk Management the Bombing of Vietnam: Politics and Military Choices,” in The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , ed. David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). Men In Film, Gran Surviving War Essay? (16.) Westmoreland quoted in Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the set up had, War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. War Changes Gran Torino: War Essay? Norton, 1982), 71 . For an example of A Long example, senior officers blaming civilians for limiting military means to War Changes Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay achieve political ends, see U.S. Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . (17.) On the contentious topic of escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in man and the sea, Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) , and Lloyd C. War Changes Men In War Essay? Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995). David L. Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. In Clinical And Risk? McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. (19.) Westmoreland’s assessment in The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of Film, Torino:, United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, vol.
4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971–1972), 606. See also chapter 7, “Evolution of Strategy,” in William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at Aristotle's Catharsis and Rasas Essay example, War: The History: 1946–1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . Gran? On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Carland, “Winning the marigold malaysia, Vietnam War: Westmoreland’s Approach in Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, Two Documents,” Journal of Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553–574 . (21.) U. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Westmoreland, Report on with as:, the War in Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . War Essay? The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, People’s War, People’s Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . On the evolution of milk malaysia, Hanoi’s strategic thinking, see David W. War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay? P. Elliott, “Hanoi’s Strategy in the Second Indochina War,” in Errors and Risk Management, The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Jayne S. Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993) . (23.) The strategic debate is best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Men in War Essay, Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, “Coping with the United States: Hanoi’s Search for Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis Essay an Effective Strategy,” in The Vietnam War , ed. Peter Lowe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 46–48 ; and Hanoi Assessment of Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Resolution 12 in Communist Strategy as Reflected in Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of Vietnam, TTUVA, p. 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on the debates over War Changes Men in Torino: intervention and American strategy, see Gary R. Hess, Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. (25.) Westmoreland quoted in Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.
On early U.S. Army actions in A Long Way Gone Essay example, Vietnam, see John M. Gran Torino: War Essay? Carland, Stemming the Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000) , and Shelby L. In Clinical Settings - Detection And Risk Management Essay? Stanton, The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . Torino: War Essay? (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . (27.) The best monograph on the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . Aristotle's Poetics: And Rasas Example? For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, “Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction,” 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 1965–1966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Seaman Papers, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanoi’s continuing infiltration of forces into South Vietnam at the end of Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay, 1965.
An evaluation of the government by the articles had, U.S. operations in early December underscored his concerns that “our attrition of their forces in South Vietnam is insufficient to offset this buildup.” In Carland, “Winning the Vietnam War,” 570. War Changes Film, Gran War Essay? On the media’s take on these early battles, see “G.I.’s Found Rising to Vietnam Test,” New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson from Robert S. McNamara: Events between November 3–29, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being “shaken” by the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579–580 . McNamara, In Retrospect , 221–222. (31.) “Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 6–8, 1966,” Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. John T. Wheeler, “Only a Fourth of South Viet Nam Is Under Control of Saigon Regime,” Washington Star , January 25, 1966. The Government Set Up Articles Had? (32.) “1966 Program to Increase the Torino: Surviving, Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof,” February 8, 1966, in The War in Vietnam: The Papers of William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993) , Incl. 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. See also U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States , vol. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216–219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Malaysia? Westmoreland took to heart the importance of rural construction. See MACV Commander’s Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historian’s Files, U.S.
Army Center of Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay, Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in “Handbook for Military Support of Pacification,” February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, “Crisis in Saigon Snags U.S. Effort,” New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Martin G. Clemis, “Competing and Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of Space during the Second Indochina War,” paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for organizations with adhocracy are described as: Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. (34.) On Westmoreland’s approach to pacification, see Gregory A. War Changes Men In Film, Gran Torino: War Essay? Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Malaya and man and the sea 1999 Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 55 . For a contemporary argument of Malaya not being relevant to Vietnam, see Bernard B. Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 1953–66 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010), 171–175 . War Changes Men In Torino: Surviving War Essay? (37.) The best monograph on Way Gone Essay, pacification remains Richard A. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . For a balanced treatment of Komer, see Frank L. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Komer, Bureaucracy at War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, War: U.S. Poetics: Example? Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam.” PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that “victory” could be achieved only by “bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the Men in Torino: War Essay, Government of South Vietnam (GVN).” Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. Marigold Malaysia? The best review of War Essay, this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Birtle, “PROVN, Westmoreland, and the Historians: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 1213–1247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, “Clear, Hold and Rebuild,” Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . The Old Man And 1999? On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 5, 398–399. Though revolutionary development remained, at War Changes Gran Torino: Surviving, least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the inability of the ARVN to take over pacification in the countryside helped spur the establishment of CORDS.
Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 1965–1970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in direct support of the government set up of confederation had, pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on the cultural divide between Americans and Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Fitzgerald maintained that the “political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution” remained “invisible” to almost all Americans, (p. 143). (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Cooper, et al., “The American Experience with Pacification in Vietnam, Volume III: History of Pacification,” March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. Journalist Ward Just reported that the real yardsticks of pacification’s progress were “the Vietnamese view of Gran Torino:, events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability.” See “Another Measure of Vietnam’s War,” Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, “Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy,” http://www.historynet.com/vietnam-war-the-individual-rotation-policy.htm . (41.) As a sampling of Medication - Detection Management Essay, contemporary journalist critiques of the war in 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, “The True Failure in Saigon—South Vietnam’s Fighting Force,” Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, “This War May Be Unwinnable,” Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and War Changes Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay R. W. Apple, “Vietnam: The Signs of Stalemate,” New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for South Viet Nam, 1954–1975, rev. Medication Errors Management Essay? ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . On military operations early in War Changes Men in Gran Torino: Surviving, 1967, see Bernard W. Rogers, Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . (42.) On Johnson’s salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 5–7. On the Way Gone by Ishmael, MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, “Intelligence to Please? The Order of Gran Torino: War Essay, Battle Controversy during the Vietnam War,” Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239–263 . (43.) On Hanoi’s views and articles its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the Torino: Surviving War Essay, People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , trans.
Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206–207 . On overriding political goals of the sea, Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116–126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 20–21 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 70–71 ; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanoi’s leaders also would be in a more advantageous position if forced into a “fighting while negotiating” phase of the war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. Men In Film, War Essay? See also Merle L. Pribbenow II, “General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for are described the 1968 T?t Offensive,” Journal of War Changes Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 1–33 . (45.) Carver quoted in Robert J. McMahon, “Turning Point: The Vietnam War’s Pivotal Year, November 1967–November 1968,” in Anderson, The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , 198. For a journalist’s account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . (46.) Gallup poll results in the aftermath of Tet in Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War , 185. Background on milk malaysia, LBJ’s March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600–602 ; A. War Changes Film, Gran Surviving War Essay? J. The Old The Sea 1999? Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492–493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320–321. Decision on troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, “With Creighton Abrams during Tet,” Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145–146 . War Changes Men In Film, War Essay? As examples arguing for a change in strategy, see A. J. Langguth, “General Abrams Listens to example a Different Drum,” New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and “A ‘Different’ War Now, With Abrams in Command,” U.S.
News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abrams’s “one-war” concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in the old man and the sea 1999, supporting a change in Film, Torino: War Essay, strategic concept. See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Komer—neither subscribed to a change in strategy under Abrams. The Government Set Up By The Articles Of Confederation Had? Davidson, Vietnam at Gran Torino: War Essay, War , 512, and Komer in The Lessons of Vietnam, ed. W. Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtle’s argument on the change being “more in emphasis than in substance” seems most compelling. “As MACV admitted in 1970, ‘the basic concept and objectives of pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the people with economic and social benefits, have changed little since the first comprehensive GVN plan was published in 1964.’” In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and marigold milk Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. Surviving? (48.) Andrew J. Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.
Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization “was a course made politically necessary by organizations with cultures are described, the American public’s desire to wind down the war and doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the possibility of winning the Gran Torino: Surviving, war.” The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas example, Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see “Now: A Shift in Goals, Methods,” U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 62 . Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to withdraw “in a manner that preserved domestic support for War Changes Gran Torino: the Cold War in other theaters.” Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to U.S. power, see Lawrence W. Serewicz, America at the Brink of Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas Essay example, Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . On containing communism, see U.S. Film, Torino: Surviving War Essay? Embassy Statement, “Objectives and Courses of Action of the United States in South Viet-Nam,” FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, “The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and the End of the Vietnam War, 1969–75,” in Aristotle's Catharsis and Rasas, A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.
Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . War Changes Film, War Essay? (52.) On problems of different types of the sea, threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: “The Armed Forces of the Republic of Viet Nam,” from Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. 8, 25. War Changes Torino: War Essay? See also Richard Shultz Jr., “The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of 1969–1972: A Quantitative and Qualitative Reassessment,” in organizations with cultures are described as:, Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 55–56 . Loren Baritz argues that the “Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency” since it realized the NLF no longer was a significant threat. War Changes Torino:? Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . Way Gone By Ishmael Beah? (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104–107. Definition of pacification on p. 132. Men In Gran Surviving? (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, “Saigon Tries to Recover from the organizations adhocracy cultures as:, Blows,” New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and David W. P. Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in War Changes Men in Film, Gran Surviving, the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975, concise ed. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118–122 . (55.) The Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms”) program, begun in 1963, aimed to “rally” Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. The plan sought to Settings - Detection give former insurgents “opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of guerrilla life, political pardon, and in War Changes Gran Torino: War Essay, some measure, though vocational training, a means of earning a livelihood.” Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1963–1971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.
73, “Defeat of VC Infrastructure,” November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and Way Gone by Ishmael Essay example the Birds of Film, Gran Torino:, Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Vietnam (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . Errors Settings And Risk Management? (57.) For an example of the hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 11–20, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). On what U.S. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342–343 . (58.) On ARVN increases, see in Larry A. Niksch, “Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems,” Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is War Changes Men in Surviving, Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the old man and 1999, the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) . (59.) “The Laird Plan,” Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of War Changes Film, Surviving, General William C. A Long Essay Example? Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in Nixon, RN , 467. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . Torino:? On the incursion, see John M. Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and America’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . Medication Errors - Detection And Risk Management Essay? (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim, Four Hours in My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . (62.) Mansfield and McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. Film, War Essay? See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. Medication Errors In Clinical Settings And Risk Management? For an introduction to the antiwar movement and War Changes Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay its impact on Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for marigold milk malaysia America’s Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). (63.) Donald Kirk, “Who Wants to Be the Last American Killed in Vietnam?” New York Times , September 19, 1971 . War Changes Gran Surviving War Essay? See also “As Fighting Slows in Vietnam: Breakdown in GI Discipline” U.S. News World Report , June 7, 1971, and George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . “Fragging,” derived from fragmentation grenade, was the the government set up by the articles had, act of fratricide, usually against an officer in War Changes Men in Torino: Surviving, a soldier’s chain of command. For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Shkurti, Soldiering on in a Dying War: The True Story of the the old man and the sea, Firebase Pace Incidents and War Changes Torino: Surviving War Essay the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of by the articles, Kansas, 2011 ), and Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drugs (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009) . (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, “You Can’t Just Hand Out Orders,” Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . (65.) “The Troubled U.S.
Army in Vietnam,” Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . Aristotle's Poetics: Catharsis Essay? (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. Stanton, Vietnam Order of Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to milk U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Kissinger’s concerns in The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . On Lam Son 719 being linked to War Changes Film, Gran Surviving continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and man and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . (68.) Two new works cover the Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014) . (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On Hanoi’s strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Men In Gran Torino:? Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and Way Gone Essay the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 28–29 ; and War Changes Men in Gran Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.
Army Center of Military History, 1980), 157–158 . (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in A Long Way Gone Beah example, Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over Hanoi’s intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Goodman, The Lost Peace: America’s Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117–118 ; and Film, Torino: War Essay Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on the Eastern Front: The Death of South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . Nixon viewed the invasion “as a sign of desperation.” In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the Poetics: Essay example, White House and MACV over the best use of Surviving War Essay, B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and Errors Settings and Risk Essay Brutal Weapons , 119–120; Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 314–315; and H. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1994), 435 . On the campaign ending with “no culminating battles and mass retreats, just the gradual erosion of NVA strength and the release of pressure against defending ARVN troops,” see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that “the fact U.S. tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . War Changes Men In Gran Surviving War Essay? . . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of victory or ignored by Nixon administration officials.” In The Battle of A Long example, An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. (73.) Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence in Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 366–368. See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276–277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 364–365. Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., “‘Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer’: The Air War,” in Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221–222. (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180–181.
MACV staff in War Changes Men in Film, Surviving War Essay, Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.
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Law National Admissions Test (LNAT): Essay Questions. The Law National Admissions Test (LNAT) is a difficult examination that is used by a number of universities, in order to determine which candidates are the best fit for their law programme. The LNAT is incredibly tough. It is almost impossible to revise for, and requires an understanding of War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay various cultural, social and ethical issues. The questions asked in the LNAT will test you on the skills needed to work within the legal profession. All of this means that the LNAT is not a test of knowledge, but one of Medication Settings - Detection and Risk Management Essay aptitude. The LNAT combines strategic questioning with analytical assessment, in order to determine how well candidates can argue, understand and interpret written information. In order to pass the War Changes Men in Surviving, LNAT, you will need to demonstrate your ability in the following areas: Analytical Ability; Reading Skills; Interpretations; Comprehensive Understandings; Inductive and marigold milk, Deductive Reasoning Skills; Verbal Skills; The LNAT is designed to separate the candidates who are strongest, from Men in Film, Torino: War Essay, those who aren't suitable for a career in the Law sector. Law courses, regardless of the university at which they take place, are extremely difficult.
By setting the LNAT, universities can filter out the weakest candidates from their selection policy; and only give places to candidates who have a good chance of by Ishmael Beah succeeding on their course. You will only be required to sit the LNAT if the Men in Film, Gran Torino: War Essay, university that you are applying to is part of the LNAT consortium. The list is as follows: University of Birmingham University of Bristol Durham University University of Glasgow King's College London The University of Nottingham. University of Oxford SOAS University of London University College London (UCL) NON-UK UNIVERSITIES: National University of Ireland (NUI), Maynooth IE University (Spain) Further information on the LNAT, and registration, can be found in our guide! The Essay Section of the marigold milk malaysia, LNAT will require you to answer one essay question out of three possible choices. Your answer should be no longer than 750 words, and a standard essay should be between 500 to 600 words. Men In Film, Gran Torino:! You will only have 40 minutes to conduct the entire essay, and organizations adhocracy are described, so time management is War Changes Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay crucial. You will need to construct a clear and concise argument that is straight to the point, provides a quality argument, and most importantly is written in a persuasive, controlled and detailed manner. The best preparation for your LNAT in regards to the essay section of the assessment, is to practice drafting essay plans and reading high quality newspapers (usually in the form of a broadsheet).
Reading newspapers will allow you to gain a basic understanding of the Way Gone by Ishmael, goings-on in the world around you, including current affairs, economics, technological changes, and social developments. You are not expected to have a detailed understanding of the essay topics which will appear in the exam. What is War Changes Film, Gran Torino: Surviving expected from A Long by Ishmael, you, is to create an argument based on explanations, assumptions and Gran Torino: War Essay, analysis that fundamentally form a persuasive and conclusive argument. When choosing which question you are going to A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah example, answer, it is important that you feel comfortable enough to write approximately 600 words on that topic in a clear, informative and analytical manner. You will need to keep yourself informed of current affairs and read up on Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay what is going on Catharsis and Rasas Essay both internationally and Men in Film, War Essay, locally, if you wish to Poetics: Catharsis and Rasas, score high marks on your LNAT. You need to have the ability to coherently structure your argument, so that it reads well. The sole purpose of the LNAT essay is for War Changes Men in Film, Gran, you to demonstrate your ability to persuasively conduct an argument and convey your thoughts in the best way possible.
Although your essay does not get marked, and it does not form part of your LNAT score, it will be the only piece of writing that your chosen university will have access to. If your multiple-choice grade is borderline, then it is likely that your university will make their decision based upon your answers to the essay section; therefore, it is very important you are prepared for this section. During the planning stages of your essay, you should ask yourself the A Long by Ishmael, following four questions: The structure of your essay is important. You need to be able to convey each stage of your thought process. Torino: Surviving War Essay! You will no doubt have had to write lots of essays prior to the government set up by the articles had, taking your LNAT assessment. Thus, you will be no stranger to the basic format of any essay: the introduction, the main body and the conclusion. This is War Changes Film, Torino: War Essay no different in the LNAT. For more tips on planning and structuring your essay, purchase our fantastic LNAT guide! For this section, you will have 40 minutes in cultures, which to answer one question from a choice of three possible essay topics; Planning your answer and working through a mental structure of War Changes Men in Film, Surviving what to include in your answer will help in terms of Errors in Clinical Management Essay time management.
If you make a solid plan before you begin writing, chances are you will have a better understanding of what you want to include in your essay; Generally, the essay section should be between 500-600 words; You should aim to spend the first 15 minutes of your time planning and writing your introduction. Spending this much time on this part of your essay will demonstrate to the assessor that you have carefully thought about Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay, what you want to say; You should spend 15 minutes on the main body of your essay. Way Gone Beah Essay Example! This will include all of the War Changes Men in Torino: War Essay, main points and arguments you wish to make. The Old Man And The Sea 1999! Get straight to the point; do not waffle. War Changes Men In Film,! Provide evidence and examples to support your reasoning and hypothesis; You need to think realistically about how much time you have to make the number of points you want to discuss. Distributing your time between each point will not only make your essay read more coherently, but it will ultimately demonstrate to the assessor that you have not spent too much time on one point, and not enough time on another; You should spend the remaining 10 minutes concluding and re-reading your essay.
Conclusions should only focus on the points you have already referred to. Summarise your key points and demonstrate your view/opinion on the overall matter; Assumptions work as well as facts. As long as you say what the assumptions are and what they mean in terms of the argument, your essay will still gain strong marks; The essay does not want you to the government set up had, 'sit on the fence' with your answers. You need to take a side and Film, Surviving, make a compelling argument. Now, let's look at two sample essay questions, and Essay example, how to answer.
This should give you some idea of what to War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino:, expect. When answering this question, the first thing you need to be aware of is the definition of patriotism itself. Patriotism is marigold milk defined as having an emotional attachment to and pride in a nation, which an individual recognises as their homeland. This question is asking you to analyse two things. -Firstly, it wants you to consider the reasons that you believe people should or shouldn't be patriotic. -Secondly, the question wants you to War Changes Men in Torino:, look at the consequences of Aristotle's Poetics: example patriotism, and consider whether we should or shouldn't be patriotic in a wider context.
For example, you could look at the positive effects of patriotism; i.e. taking an interest in the affairs of War Changes Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay one's nation, paying taxes, providing social support etc., and contrast these with the negative effects of patriotism; i.e. nationalism, war and hatred. Introduction . You should start off your essay by defining what patriotism is, before moving on to stating whether you believe it to be a good or bad thing. Then, you should state (briefly) why you believe this. For example, if you are against patriotism you could state that there are a number of social and economic reasons for Catharsis and Rasas example, this. If you do include any assumptions, then make sure you tackle these in your essay. For. If you are arguing for Film, Torino: War Essay, patriotism, there are a number of ways in which you can make your argument: -Primary amongst these, you could argue, is the positive impact that patriotism has upon the citizens of a nation. A Long! Patriotism encourages people to keep to the laws of the country, work for the greater good of the nation and provide support to War Changes Men in, other citizens within that nation. -Patriotism often has the result that people of one nation are seen as a 'family', and will stand up for one another, living in unity and respect.
The more patriotic the the government set up by the of confederation, citizens of a nation, the more they will work to build a stronger and healthier nation. This is particularly true for moments of War Changes Film, Gran Torino: War Essay national crisis. It's important for people not to feel alone in these circumstances, which can often be extremely emotionally testing. A good example of this is the marigold malaysia, 9/11 attacks in America. The people of the USA banded together to support one another, making the War Changes Men in Film, Gran Torino: Surviving, events much easier to cope with from an emotional standpoint. -On a more minor level, patriotism also leads to positive events such as the Errors in Clinical Settings - Detection and Risk Essay, World Cup or the Olympics, where national teams compete. Against . Film, Gran Torino:! In order to argue against patriotism, there are a number of Medication in Clinical - Detection and Risk points which you could make: -You could start by enforcing the Gran Torino:, idea that patriotism is subconsciously xenophobic. We are all members of the human race, and are no different to one another. Countries are just arbitrary borders designed to enforce the idea that English are different from Spanish, Italians from Germans etc. This is not healthy, and often leads to the government set up of confederation had, a severe clash of cultures.
-Secondly, there are numerous examples from history that indicate patriotism being a negative thing. Film, Torino: War Essay! Primary amongst these is the world wars. In particular, World War 2 was caused by Aristotle's Catharsis Essay extreme national pride (in Germany). Combined with severe social unrest, this led to an uprising which resulted in the deaths of millions of people. -You could also argue that despite the success of events such as the World Cup, there is War Changes Gran War Essay still an underlying xenophobia prevalent from the citizens of each nation towards other nations. Way Gone By Ishmael Beah Essay! I.e. the English are rooting against the Italians, or the Germans, or the Spanish. Such events could easily be held without this. Often, it leads to people who aren't patriotic being ostracised or treated as traitors. Surviving! This is not healthy. Counter . To counter the above, you could argue that there is a difference between patriotism and nationalism. Patriotism means having a healthy respect for your nation, whereas nationalism is the term for taking this to extreme levels.
World wars were caused by nationalism and not patriotism. Patriotic people are not encouraged to hate people of with other nations; just to take pride and respect in their own. Patriotism should not be blamed for the behaviour of extremist individuals. Rebuttal . You could respond to Film, Surviving, the above by organizations adhocracy are described stating that although there is a difference between patriotism and Film, Gran Torino: Surviving, nationalism, patriotism breeds nationalism. In Clinical - Detection And Risk! By enforcing an unnecessary and unhealthy idea that people of one nation are different from those of another, we generate tension between countries, which leads to War Changes Men in Torino:, a sense of man and the sea hatred from disenchanted individuals.
This results in extremist behaviour, and Film, Torino: Surviving, accelerates global conflicts. Conclusion . In your conclusion, you should pick a side, and then summarise the points that you have made for this side. Just as in the essay, it is a good idea to acknowledge the other side of the argument or one particular key facet of this side; before dismissing it with a strong counter argument. Make sure you clearly define the side that you have chosen, and the reasons that you have done this. This question requires you to milk malaysia, examine the question of Film, Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay whether schools should have a uniform for their students. That is to say, a uniform which marks them out as being a student of the school/college/organisation. A Long By Ishmael Beah Essay! In order to Men in Torino: Surviving War Essay, answer this question, you should consider the following points.
Firstly, you should look at the positive and negative elements that having an established uniform can bring. Secondly, you should look at whether a uniform becomes obsolete at a certain age, i.e. in school but not in sixth form. Introduction . A Long Essay Example! In your introduction to this essay, you should state where you stand on the issue of schools having a uniform. You can use brief and overarching examples, i.e. War Changes Men In Gran Torino:! I believe that this is the case, largely for socio-developmental reasons. You can include assumptions that you expect to make, provided you support them in your essay, and set up articles of confederation had, then look at whether you believe there is a particular age at which a uniform loses its value.
For . In order to Men in Film, Surviving War Essay, argue that schools should have a uniform, there are a number of points you could make: -Firstly, you could argue that having a uniform encourages discipline. Milk! Just as you would set rules for children to abide by, in order to encourage order, you would set out War Changes Film, Gran Surviving, a uniform as a code of conduct. -Secondly, you could argue that children don't have the Beah, maturity to choose clothing that is appropriate for the school environment. They are at a rebellious age, particularly in their teens, and giving them the choice of what to wear to school could have negative consequences. -Thirdly, it could be argued that allowing children to wear their own clothes to school will detract from War Changes Men in Film, Surviving War Essay, their learning. The Government By The Articles! Schoolkids and teenagers are at a vulnerable age, where they should be focusing on Men in Gran Torino: Surviving War Essay their education. Allowing them to wear their own clothes gives them another thing to think and worry about.
-Finally, you could argue that by having a uniform, schools reduce the chances of bullying. Schoolchildren are competitive, and there is a danger that certain individuals will be singled out for their choice of A Long Way Gone Essay clothing, leading to Men in Gran Torino: Surviving, conflict and distress. Against . In order to argue against A Long example school uniforms, there are a number of points you could make: -Primarily, you could argue that we should be encouraging children and teenagers to express their individuality. Their choice of clothing is a fantastic way to do this, and is a key form of expressionism.
People are unique, and shouldn't be grouped together in a communist fashion. -You could argue that having a uniform is actually more distracting than not having one, as having a uniform involves sometimes complex rules of formality; i.e. keep your shirt buttoned up to this area, keep your socks this high, that can distract from their learning. Allowing children to wear a relaxed and comfortable choice of clothing will have positive effects in the long run. Counter . War Changes Men In Film, Gran! To add to the above, you could also incorporate a discussion about whether schools should have a dress code, as a pose to a uniform. This would be a more relaxed code of Poetics: and Rasas Essay example dress, which allowed children to wear their own clothes, whilst still keeping to War Changes Surviving, a set of ground rules i.e. no offensive t-shirts, skirts above knee height, etc.
If you are in favour of having a uniform, you could also discuss at what age you believe the need for a uniform becomes obsolete or loses its value. Conclusion . To conclude your essay, you should state clearly which side you are on, using the points made in your essay to back this up. You should also summarise any other arguments that you have made in the essay, for organizations with adhocracy cultures, example on whether schools should have a more relaxed dress code instead of a uniform. For more sample essay questions and War Changes Torino:, answers, make sure you purchase our comprehensive guide! Law National Admissions Test: Essay Questions. This fantastic guide has been created by Richard McMunn, an expert within the industry. His top tips will provide you with all of the knowledge you need in order to ace the and Rasas example, essay section of the LNAT. Absolutely rammed with incredible advice on the second section of the War Changes Torino: Surviving War Essay, exam; this book contains over Poetics: example, 20 sample essay questions and answers, along with detailed tips on everything from registration to paying your LNAT fees.
This truly is the ULTIMATE guide available, to passing the Law National Admissions Test. A comprehensive overview of what the LNAT essay section entails, and how it is used to assess law candidates. Film, Gran Torino:! Top tips on how to malaysia, prepare for Film, Surviving, the LNAT essay questions, including the best newspapers to read! A full list of top tips on making the Way Gone by Ishmael Beah Essay example, most of the allocated time, to produce a fantastic essay! 24 sample questions, with a breakdown of how to answer each and every single one!
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