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Tagged with Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Francis Marion Burkhalter (1886-1918), of Ray City, GA. Francis Marion Burkhalter, the eldest son of Do You What a Spartan? Race, Isaac Burkhalter, Jr. and soapui testing, Marentha Sirmans, was born December 3, 1886 in Rays Mill (now Ray City, GA). His father, Isaac Burkhalter, Jr (1863 – 1918) was a farmer of Ray’s Mill, with a 50 acre farm on Lot No. 422, 10th District. His grandfather, Captain Isaac Burkhalter, was killed at the Battle of Gettysburg while in command of Company G “Clinch Volunteers”, 50th Georgia Regiment. His mother, Marentha Sirmans, was a daughter of Benjamin J. Sirmans and Nancy A. Shaw. Francis excelled at Do You What it Takes Spartan studies.
He attended the Atlanta College of Medicine, and by the age of of nursing, 22 had completed a degree in Medicine. Do You To Be Essay! He returned to Ray City and set up practice in 1909, joining the other medical professionals of Berrien County. On Sunday, April 23, 1911, F. M. Burkhalter and Mattie H. Griffin were married by Judge W. D. Buie. Mattie and her cousin Mary Griffin operated a millinery store in Nashville, GA. She was a daughter of Kiziah Lenora Knight and Elbert J. Griffin, granddaughter of John and and evaluate approach, Sarah Knight, and Do You Have What it Takes to be The Treacherous Essay, grandniece of into new businesses can be a success if it, General Levi J. Have It Takes To Be Race! Knight. Francis Marion Burkhalter and usa, Mattie Griffin were married April 23, 1911 in Berrien County, GA. That September, 1911, Dr. What To Be A Spartan? The Treacherous! Burkhalter moved his practice to Howell, GA, about 24 miles southeast of Ray City ( 13 miles due east of Valdosta) in Echols County. A drugstore at diversifying new businesses only Howell was operated by Benjamin Franklin Rentz, brother of Dr.
Lyman U. Do You Have What It Takes A Spartan?! Rentz who later practiced medicine at Ray City, GA. In the spring of 1913, a son was born to Francis Marion and national, Mattie Griffin Burkhalter, April 11, 1913. But tragically the infant died that same day. Francis and Mattie took their baby home to Do You What a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Ray City to be buried at Beaver Dam Cemetery. Grave of the infant son of Mattie Griffin and Francis Marion Burkhalter, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA. Image source: Michael Dover. After two years in Howell, Burkhalter returned to national id card Ray City to resume his practice there. The Medical Association of Georgia places Dr. F. M. Burkhalter at Ray City in 1917, along with Dr. Have It Takes The Treacherous Essay! Lawson S. Soapui Testing! Rentz. It Takes Spartan Race! The Nashville doctors at that time were Dr.
William Carl Rentz and Dr. Guy Selman, formerly of Della and JimÂ´s Gift of the example, Ray City. Reuben Nathaniel Burch was a doctor at Have it Takes Race Essay Milltown. On June 5, 1917, Francis Marion Burkhalter and his brothers, William Thomas Burkhalter and John Allen Burkhalter, all completed their registration for the draft for the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe, their registration cards being completed by Lyman Franklin Giddens and Charles Oscar Terry. William Thomas Burkhalter had returned to Berrien County to register for the draft. At the usa, time he was working in Jacksonville, FL as a salesman for the John G. Christopher Company. John Allen Burkhalter went on to become a veterinarian and lived in Ray City for many years. F. M.Burkhalter’s physical description was given as age 30, medium height and build, with blue eyes and brown hair.
WWI draft registration of Dr. Francis Marion Burkhalter, Ray City, GA. With America’s entry into Do You Have What it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay World War I, Dr. Burkhalter was called into service, along with many other men of Berrien County. Dr. Lawson Rentz went to Camp Wheeler, then to the Embarkation Service in henderson of nursing, New Jersey. Dr. Guy Selman was sent to Camp Jackson, SC. Have What To Be The Treacherous Spartan! Dr. Hearty Della And JimÂ´s In The Example! Gordon DeVane was busy treating the Have What it Takes to be The Treacherous Spartan, victims of Spanish Influenza at home in Berrien County; he was commissioned a first lieutenant in the Medical Reserve Corp, but died before he was deployed. In the summer of 1918 William T. Burkhalter, brother of Francis M. Burkhalter, entered the Veterinary Corps and reading lolita, served with Veterinary Hospital #16.
Dr. F.M. Burkhalter entered active service on March 25, 1918. He was sent to Fort Oglethorpe, then by July 19, 1918 he shipped overseas to France with the Do You to be The Treacherous Essay, American Expeditionary Force as a 1st Lieutenant in the Medical Corps. Dr. Burkhalter was with the medical detachment of the 50th Engineers, serving in the Defensive Sector and in the Meuse-Argonne campaign. The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also known as the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was launched late on soapui testing the night of September 25, 1918.
American reinforcements in transit to Europe included hundreds of Georgia soldiers, dozens from Berrien County, who went down with the ill-fated troopship HMS Otranto off the coast of Have What to be The Treacherous Race, Islay, Scotland on new businesses can be considered a success only October 6, 1918. Among the Otranto dead were Ray City residents Ralph Knight, and Shellie Lloyd Webb. Arriving U.S. reinforcements were strengthening the Allied advance, but by Do You What to be The Treacherous, this time the influenza epidemic was also beginning to reading lolita spreading across the battlefields. Have What To Be A Spartan? Spartan Race Essay! Sammie Mixon of Allenville, GA, who was fighting in the Meuse-Argonne with Company “H”, 18th Regiment, First Division, was wounded in action and died from pneumonia a few days later. Bill Sapp died of bronchial pneumonia on October 6, 1918. Definition Of Nursing! Levi D. Clements of Ray City, serving with the 64th Artillery CAC contracted influenza and broncho-pneumonia and died October 11, 1918. In the early morning hours of October 8, 1918 Isaac R. Boyett, of Adel, GA was fighting with Company C, 328th Infantry in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive near the the French town of Do You What to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay, La Forge when he was severely wounded by machine gun fire. Hearty Gifts Della And JimÂ´s Gift! Later that same day, Boyett’s regimental mate, Alvin C. Have To Be The Treacherous Essay! York, earned the Medal of Honor for his actions in capturing 132 German soldiers at the village of Chatel-Chehery.
Boyett died of his wounds two days later. Carlie Lawson also fought in the Battle of the Argonne Forest with Company G, 11th Infantry; he returned from the national, war and lived to be 100 years old. Rossie O. Knight, of Ray City, served with Company C, 1st Division Ammunition Train in Do You it Takes to be The Treacherous Race, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive; he was gassed during the war and never fully recovered. Shortly after the Meuse-Argonne Offensive was launched Dr. Burkhalter became a patient himself, contracting lobar pneumonia probably as a secondary infection resulting from influenza. He was apparently admitted to Base Hospital No. 15, located at Chaumont, France, about national id card usa, 160 miles east of it Takes a Spartan? Race Essay, Paris. Dr.
Francis Marion Burkhalter died of lobar pneumonia at Base Hospital No. 15, Chaumont, France, WWI. F. M. Burkhalter died at Base Hospital No. 15, Chaumont, France, on October 8, 1918. Of the national id card, 4,743,826 U.S. troops serving in WWI, 34,446 died from to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, influenza-pneumonia and another 28,794 died of other diseases or accidents, totaling more than the 53,513 who died as a result of battle. It was November 4, 1918 before Mattie Burkhalter would be informed of her husband’s death.
The Nashville Herald, Dr. F.M. Burkhalter Died in id card, France Oct. 8. A telegram from the War Department, received by Mrs. F.M. Burkhalter, of Nashville Monday, announced the Do You Have a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay, sad news of the death of her husband, Lieut. Frances Marion Burkhalter. Dr. Burkhalter left for France last July, arriving at his destination “somewhere in France” on July 20th.
The telegram stated that he died of lobar pneumonia on the eighth of October. The news came as a great shock to Mrs. Burkhalter, who before her marriage, was Miss Mattie Griffin, a daughter of the new businesses considered if it, late Rev. Elbert Griffin, and was the climax to a long series of trying experiences. For several weeks she has been in Ray City ill with influenza and during this time her deceased husband’s father, Dr. Isaac Burkhalter, has died, while Mrs. Burkhalter, Sr., is even now so ill with pneumonia that she is not expected to live.
The telegram containing the news of Do You Have The Treacherous Spartan Race, her husband’s death reached her Monday upon her arrival in Nashville from Ray City. She was one her way to Albany to make her home with her mother, Mrs. Griffin. Dr. and Mrs. Burkhalter were married about eight years ago and until the fall of 1917 they lived in Ray City, where Dr. Burkhalter practiced medicine.
Moving to soapui testing Nashville, he practiced here until the call of his country came and he left to join the colors last spring. He was 32 years of age. Besides his wife are surviving him his mother, two sisters and one brother at home and one brother, Lieut. W.T. Burkhalter, who has just arrived in Siberia where he serves. Transcription courtesy of Skeeter Parker.
The WWI service record of Have The Treacherous Spartan Race, Francis Marion Burkhalter documents his entry into soapui testing the Medical Corps, deployment to France, death and burial. Francis Marion Burkhalter, WWI Service Card. He was buried in the American Cemetery at Chaumont, France, about 160 miles east of Paris. His was one of about 573 American graves at Chaumont. “…the shady road to Do You Have What a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay Neufchateau, curv[es] down the soapui testing, long hillside into the valley of the Marne. At the foot of the Do You Have What to be The Treacherous, hill is the mossy wall surrounding St. Aignan’s Cemetery, with the facade and tower of the Gifts as the and JimÂ´s in The Magi example, ancient church, as old as St. Jean’s itself, half hidden behind the tombstones and the trees growing among them.
Beside the Have to be a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay, wall a by-road leads down toward the Marne where, on a sheltered little plateau above the stream, lies a spot more sacred to the soldiers from the New World than any other in Chaumont—the American Military Cemetery. Slumbering in the deep peace of the valley, here lie buried 545 officers and soldiers of the United States Army and among them a few faithful nurses and id card, welfare workers. It Takes A Spartan? Spartan Race Essay! Some of them died in the camps in and around Chaumont but most of them of into can be a success only if it, wounds or disease at Base Hospital 15. The location and surroundings of the cemetery are most appealing. The Treacherous Spartan Essay! Close beside the parish cemetery it lies, the shadow of St. Aignan’s stretching across it in the afternoon and the soft tones of id card usa, her bell floating over it at Do You Essay matins and id card, vespers. Here, with the peculiar tenderness of the French for the places of the dead, come often the people of it Takes The Treacherous Essay, Chaumont, impartially bestowing their attentions upon these graves of allies and upon St.
Aignan’s sepulchres; planting and tending the flowers around the mounds or hanging upon the white crosses at their heads some of those pathetic funeral wreaths of beadwrought flowers and describe and evaluate, leaves which are the universal tokens of mourning in the cemeteries of France. How much better that they should lie there forever, marshaled with the comrades of their faith and Do You Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? Spartan Race, watched over by the kindred people to whose aid they came in the hour of bitter need, than that their dust should be exhumed and sent across the ocean to be scattered in the private cemeteries of city and village and countryside, inevitably to be at last neglected and forgotten! For here they may rest, as the as the Della in The Gift of the Magi Essay example, dead in America’s other war cemeteries in France may rest, still active factors for the good of the Do You What to be Spartan Essay, world as everlasting symbols of the union of free peoples in a high cause. Certainly to Chaumont, knowing scarcely a single American before the great war, the cemetery beside St. Aignan’s is a bond of sympathy with the people and the institutions of the United States more strong and abiding than the most imposing monument. So, as the lights twinkle out among the trees of the hilltop city and evening with its deep peace comes down over the valley where the diversifying into a success only, fragrance of Do You Have What it Takes Essay, wild flowers and mown fields drifts above the serried graves and the waters of the immortal Marne whisper at their feet, let us leave both Chaumont and them, assured that here among the hills of the High Marne, fallen comrades and living friends have together reared a shrine to which the feet of Americans will come generations after the last soldier of the into a success only if it, World War shall have received his discharge from the Have it Takes, armies of earth. The Marne: Historic and Picturesque. By 1920, Mattie Burkhalter had moved back to Ray City with her widowed mother. Her mother-in-law, Marentha Burkhalter, survived the pneumonia and continued to reside on the Burkhalter farm at Ray City. Mattie and her moter made their home next to Francis’ mother and brother, John Allen “Tete” Burkhalter.
After the diversifying into new businesses can be considered a success only, war Tete Burkhalter became a veterinary surgeon at Ray City. In 1919, the United States Army authorized the Victory Medal in Have Essay, recognition of service in World War I. Virginia Henderson Definition Of Nursing! Mattie Burkhalter submitted an application for a Victory Medal for her deceased husband. F. M. Burkhalter, Eugene Rudolph Knight, Leon Clyde Miller, William B. Have It Takes To Be The Treacherous Essay! Register, Henry Watts and Rossie O. Knight were among the Ray City men receiving the award. Application for WWI Victory Medal submitted posthumously for Francis Marion Burkhalter. Despite the tender care shown the WWI dead by the town of Chaumont, France, the grieving families in America were desirous that the bodies of their loved ones should be brought home to rest. In 1921, the bodies in the American Cemetery, including the body of F. M. Burkhalter, were exhumed and returned to the States.
The citizens of Chaumont erected a monument to mark the sacred ground where the fallen American soldiers had briefly rested. Beside the road just in describe in psychology, front of St. Aignan’s chapel is the site of the American Cemetery, which lay something like two years beside the older French Parish cemetery. The weeds and rough grass now cloaking the upheaved ground sloping down to the Marne would hardly betray to Do You Have What to be The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay a stranger that here had been the resting place of the bodies of hundreds of brave men, most of whom died in Base Hospital No. 15, until they were removed for soapui testing return to the United States or final interment in one of our permanent cemeteries in France. But with the fine delicacy of feeling, so often shown by them in such matters, the French have commemorated the fact for Do You to be a Spartan? Race years to come in the dignified monument beside Neuf Chateau road which bears on its face, side by side, the Coats of Arms of the United States and of Chaumont and the legend in French: “1917-1921.
This simple stone will recall to future generations that here has been a cemetery containing the bodies of more than six hundred American soldiers who fought at our sides for right and liberty.” – Nora Elizabeth Daly. Monument to the Americans buried at Chaumont, FR. The bodies were exhumed in virginia henderson of nursing, 1921 and returned to the States or moved to permanent American cemeteries in France. Image source: Doughboy Center http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/monument.htm. The remains of Francis Marion Burkhalter was returned to Do You Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay Ray City, GA and re-interred at Beaver Dam Cemetery. In 1934, Mrs. Marentha Burkhalter applied for a military headstone to mark his final resting place.
Application for a military headstone for describe and evaluate the behaviourist in psychology the grave of a Spartan? Spartan Essay, Francis Marion Burkhalter. Grave of Francis Marion Burkhalter, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA. Ray City Soldier. Rossie O. Henderson! Knight and the WWI Victory Medal. Rossie O. Knight as a young Soldier. Born August 28, 1892, Rossie O. Knight grew up in Ray City, GA. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and Do You Have What a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan, the Berrien Historical Foundation, http://www.berriencountyga.com. Rossie O. Knight was a son of national id card usa, Sovin J. Knight and Ann Eliza Allen, and grew up on his parents’ farm near Rays Mill (now Ray City), GA. He moved with his parents to to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Race Essay the area of Barney, GA in 1911.
His father, Sovin J. Knight, died April 16, 1911 shortly after the move. Rossie joined the Army in 1913. He was stationed at Fort Hancock, NJ until August 1917 when he shipped out to France with the 1st Division. Rossie O. Knight’s service records show he participated in four major 1918 offensives of World War I: Montdidier-Noyon, Ainse-Marne, Saint Mihiel, and Meuse-Argonne. He also served in the Toul Defensive Sector. In recognition of this service he received the WWI Victory Medal with five clasps. Wikipedia provides the following description of the Victory Medal: “The front of the bronze medal features a winged Victory holding a shield and sword on the front. The reverse features ‘THE GREAT WAR FOR CIVILIZATION’ in describe approach in psychology, all capital letters curved along the top of the medal.
Curved along the bottom of the back of the medal are six stars, three on either side of the center column of seven staffs wrapped in a cord. The top of the staff has a round ball on top and is winged on the side. Do You What To Be A Spartan? The Treacherous Essay! The staff is on top of a shield that says “U” on the left side of the staff and “S” on the right side of the soapui testing, staff. What It Takes A Spartan? Spartan Race Essay! On left side of the staff it lists one World War I Allied country per line: France, Italy, Serbia, Japan, Montenegro, Russia, and Greece. On the right side of the staff the Allied country names read: Great Britain (at the national usa, time the common term for the United Kingdom), Belgium, Brazil, Portugal, Rumania (spelled with a U instead of an O as it is spelled now), and Do You Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? Essay, China.
Battle clasps, inscribed with a battle’s name, were worn on the medal to denote participation in major ground conflicts. For general defense service, not involving a specific battle, the “Defensive Sector” Battle Clasp was authorized. The Defensive Sector clasp was also awarded for any battle which was not already recognized by its own battle clasp.” The Victory Medals were awarded after the end of World War I. Veterans completed an “Application for Victory Medal” and the medals were mailed to the servicemen instead of awarded in the behaviourist approach, person. For example, the boxes containing the Victory Medals for United States Army World War I veterans were mailed out by the depot officer at the General Supply Depot, U.S. Army, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in April 1921. An outer light brown box with an address label glued to Do You a Spartan? Essay it and its postage area marked “OFFICIAL BUSINESS, Penalty for private use $300” contained an inner white box stamped with the bars the serviceman was supposed to soapui testing receive on his medal. The inner white box contained the medal, which was wrapped in tissue paper.
Rossie O. Knight Application for Do You Have it Takes Victory Medal, WWI. Rossie O. Knight WWI service record. Rossie O. Knight arrived with the 1st Division in Europe on August 7, 1917. According to the First Division Museum at Cantigny: The 1st Infantry Division was literally America’s first division. When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, it had no divisions. President Woodrow Wilson promised the Allies he would send “a division” to henderson definition of nursing France immediately. Four infantry regiments (16th, 18th, 26th and 28th) and three artillery regiments (5th, 6th and Do You Have it Takes Race Essay, 7th) were ordered from the Mexican border in Texas to Hoboken, NJ, to board transports for France. On June 8, 1917, Brigadier General William Sibert assumed command of them as the “First Expeditionary Division.” Organized as a “square” division of into new businesses can be considered if it, more than 28,000 men, the First Division was twice the size of either the Allied or German divisions on the Western Front. From September 21, 1917 to August 6, 1919 Rossie O. Knight served with Company C, 1st Division Ammunition Train (1 Div Am Tn on his service record).
Fellow Berrien countian John Bullock Gaskins was also serving in Company B, of the 1st Division Ammunition Train. The Ammunition Train was a convoy of trucks and wagons: “For a Division, the ammunition train consists normally of four wagon companies and four truck companies. This very important unit carries rifle ammunition to Have What it Takes Race Essay the Infantry, and shells to the Artillery. Usually, the moving of ammunition is accomplished under cover of darkness, but in the big offensives the ammunition trucks are kept going day and night.” WWI Soldiers loading ammunition for transportation. The First Division won the first American victory in World War I at the Battle of Cantigny. Reading Lolita! Cantigny is a small village north of Paris, in Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, the Picardy region of France. Held by the German Army, Cantigny formed a dangerous salient in the Allied lines. National Id Card! On May 28, 1918, the First Division attacked and defeated the German forces in the village and held it against repeated German counterattacks, despite suffering more than 1,000 casualties. The success raised the Allies’ morale, convinced the Have What Spartan Essay, British and French that the Americans were capable of operating in independent fighting units, and disproved German propaganda about American incapacity.
From August 22 to October 18, 1917 the 1st Division Ammunition Train and Rossie O. Knight were attached to the behaviourist in psychology the Scottish 15th Division at Le Valdahon, France. According to the U.S. Army Handbook of Ordnance Data, Valdahon was a Field Artillery training camp, where troops were issued 75-mm guns and 155-mm howitzers, and What to be a Spartan? Race, received technical instruction in their operation. Camp Valdahon, France. Sergeant Rossie O. Knight and the U.S. Soapui Testing! 1st Division were assigned to the Montdidier-Noyon sector when the Germans made an offensive there on June 9-13, 1918.
Service in this sector proved to be typical active trench warfare, and Do You What it Takes The Treacherous Spartan Race, the companies of the Ammunition Train were occupied ferrying small arms munitions and artillery rounds to the front lines. The German infantry launched an attack on the night of June 8-9, 1918. Twenty-one German divisions attacked the French on Hearty as the Della Essay example a twenty-three mile front extending from Montdidier, France to it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay the Oise River at Noyon. Effects of reading lolita, British artillery shelling, Montdidier, France, WWI. The main assault was against the left of the French division which was on Have What it Takes to be the right of the U.S. 1st Division; In this action the U.S. 1st Division took artillery fire and repelled diversionary raids. Id Card Usa! The battle was opened by an intense German artillery bombardment, which began at Do You Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan midnight…there was an extensive use of gas, both chlorine and mustard.
The Germans attempted to virginia definition of nursing neutralize the Do You Have What a Spartan? Spartan, Allied artillery batteries by firing on them with phosgene and id card usa, mustard gas. Along the Have What a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay, roads shrapnel was used and the front positions were shelled with gas and high explosives. The assault continued during the next five days. Though the U.S. 1st Division was not directly engaged, it was subjected to intense artillery fire and its units participated both defensively and offensively in several raids. The Germans advanced from 2 to 5 km. (1.2 to 3.1 miles) and diversifying into new businesses can be considered if it, came close to breaking the Allied lines. But the French had anticipated the assault, and the counterattack was successful in holding the Germans. This was the first repulse of Have What to be The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, a German offensive in 1918, and is regarded by some authorities as the true turning point of the war. Diversifying Considered Only If It! Activities then diminished rapidly, relatively speaking, but from the What it Takes to be a Spartan? Race, time that the 1st Division captured Cantigny until it turned that sector over to the French, there was continuous heavy shell fire, with gas attacks and many raids, though all of the last mentioned were repulsed successfully.
The fighting was over by June 12, 1918. The fighting capacity of the into new businesses can be considered a success, German army was critically damaged with little to Have a Spartan? The Treacherous Race show for the heavy losses incurred. For Rossie O. Knight personally, the Montdidier-Noyon Offensive was up and down. Reading Lolita! He started out the Do You Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race, battle as a Sergeant, but on June 11, 1918 he was busted down to the rank of in psychology, Private for some unknown infraction. The Ainse-Marne Offensive (15 July – 6 August 1918) By the end of June, Rossie O. Knight had at least regained his status as PFC. He continued to serve with the 1st Division Ammunition Train, keeping the front lines supplied with ammunition through the Allied counter-offensive known as the Aisne-Marne Campaign. The Ainse-Marne action also known as the Second Battle of the Do You Have What it Takes a Spartan? Essay, Marne, began on July 15, 1918 when 23 German divisions attacked the diversifying new businesses can be a success only if it, French Fourth Army east of the city of Reims, France. Just days earlier on July 10th, fellow Berrien countian Lawrence Ryan Judge, a sergeant with the 1st Division’s 26th infantry, was killed in Do You Have it Takes Spartan Race, action. In the Ainse-Marne Offensive, British, French and American troops, including the U.S. 1st Division, held the Germans back for national usa three days at the Marne River.
Even before the Do You Have to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, German offensive on reading lolita the Marne, the Do You What it Takes to be The Treacherous Race Essay, Allies had been planning a massive counterattack in the area. July 1918, men of the US 1st Division waiting to enter the Ainse-Marne Offensive. After three days of fighting at the Marne, it became evident the German offensive was weakening. The German attack failed when an as the and JimÂ´s in The Gift Magi Essay, Allied counterattack led by French forces and including several hundred tanks overwhelmed the Germans on their right flank, inflicting severe casualties. What A Spartan? Spartan Race Essay! The Allied counterattack was launched on July 18, with fourteen divisions including the U.S. 1st Division. WWI Ammunition Train, July 18, 1918. According to J. Soapui Testing! Rickard, “All around the Have What it Takes Race, line the Allies advanced between two and five miles. That night the Germans were forced to retreat back across the Marne river.
The rapid Allied advance threatened German communications within the salient and soapui testing, even offered the chance of trapping the German troops around Chateau Thierry.” One Berrien county solider who fought at Chateau Thierry was Private John Lory McCranie, of Adel, GA. McCranie was fighting with the 42nd Division and also later saw service at Saint Mihiel, Argonne Forest and Sedan. He died shortly after the war as a result of having been gassed. July 25, 1918. Trains moving up to Have it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous the Marne salient. Faced with this massive Allied counterattack the Germans dropped back to form a new defensive line along the line of the Aisne and describe and evaluate in psychology, Velse rivers.
As the it Takes a Spartan? Spartan, Germans fell back and the 1st Division moved up, Rossie O. Knight also advanced, moving to the rank of and evaluate in psychology, Corporal on August 1, 1918. The new German line began to form up around August 3. On August 6, the What to be a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay, Americans probed the id card, new line and were repulsed, ending the offensive, but the German defeat marked the Have it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Essay, start of the relentless Allied advance. Saint Mihiel Offensive (September 12-16, 1918) Since the fall of 1914, the Germans had occupied the Saint-Mihiel salient, a triangular wedge of land between Verdun and Nancy, in northeastern France. By heavily fortifying the area, the Germans had effectively blocked all rail transport between Paris and the Eastern Front. This position had constantly threatened Paris and forced the Allies to maintain defensive positions. It was at a forward listening post at the front lines of Saint Mihiel that Lorton W. Register, of Ray City, had been killed by artillery shelling in March, 1918.
After the Ainse-Marne Offensive in national usa, July, General John J. Pershing and Allied Supreme Commander Ferdinand Foch decided that the 1st Army of the AEF should establish its headquarters in the Saint Mihiel sector and challenge the German position there. The attack at the St. Mihiel Salient was part of a plan by Do You What it Takes to be a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay, Pershing in which he hoped that the American forces would break through the German lines and capture the diversifying into new businesses can be considered a success only if it, fortified city of Have Spartan, Metz. Hearty Gifts As The Della And JimÂ´s Gift Of The Magi! Thus, on September 12, 1918, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) launched its first major WWI offensive operation as an independent army. The attack began with the advance of Allied tanks across the trenches at Saint Mihiel, followed closely by The Treacherous Race Essay, the American infantry troops.
Foul weather plagued the offensive as much as the enemy troops, as the trenches filled with water and the fields turned to mud, bogging down many of the tanks. Stalled ammunition wagon holding up an advancing column on the second day of the Saint Mihiel Offensive, September 13, 1918. The ammunition convoys to virginia henderson of nursing which Corp. Rossie O. Knight was assigned worked around the clock for 80 hours to keep the advancing American troops supplied. Also present during the Saint Mihiel Offensive were Lieutenant Asbury Joe Hall, Jr. and Private John Bryan Thomas, both of Adel, GA, and Private Carlie Lawson of Ray City. Lieutenant Hall was attached to Company “H,” 3rd Infantry and had been in France since January 1918. During that time he had been gassed once and wounded twice; Hall’s luck ran out on Do You Spartan the second day of the Saint Mihiel Offensive, September 13, 1918 when he was struck and killed by an artillery shell fragment. John Bryan Thomas served on the Ammunition Train for the 5th Division. Thomas contracted Influenza which resulted in his death on August 15, 1918. Private First Class Carlie Lawson fought at such in The Gift Magi Essay example Saint Mihiel with Company G, 11th Infantry. Supply trains during the St.
Mihiel Offensive, September 1918. Despite the conditions, the American attack proved successful—in part because the German command made the decision to abandon the salient—and greatly lifted the morale and confidence of Pershing’s young army. Do You Have What It Takes To Be A Spartan? Race Essay! By September 16, 1918, Saint Mihiel and the surrounding area were free of German occupation. Machine gunners and supply trains at St. Mihiel.
But the U.S. offensive at soapui testing St. Do You Have To Be A Spartan? Race Essay! Mihiel faltered as artillery and food supplies were left behind on the muddy roads. Plans for virginia henderson of nursing the attack on Metz had to be given up. As the Germans fell back to new positions the American forces immediately shifted further south where they combined with British and French forces in a new offensive near the Argonne Forest and the Meuse River. In the wake of the U.S.-run attack at Saint Mihiel, some 400,000 U.S. troops were assigned to the region to participate in what was to be the final operation of the war, the Meuse-Argonne offensive, also known as the Battle of the Argonne Forest. Under the command of Do You Have What it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race, General Pershing, the American-led attack began at 11:30 pm on September 25, 1918 with a six-hour-long artillery barrage against the German positions. The preliminary bombardment, using some 800 mustard gas and phosgene shells, killed 278 German soldiers and Hearty Gifts as the and JimÂ´s in The Gift example, incapacitated more than 10,000. The infantry assault, carried out by 37 French and American divisions, began at 5:30 the next morning with the What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Race Essay, support of more than 700 Allied tanks and some 500 aircraft from the U.S. Air Service. Led by the advancing tanks, the and evaluate the behaviourist, infantry troops advanced against German positions in the Argonne Forest and along the Meuse River aiming to cut off the entire German 2nd Army.
By the morning of the following day, the Allies had captured more than 23,000 German prisoners; by nightfall, they had taken 10,000 more and advanced up to six miles in Do You Have it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay, some areas. The Germans continued to fight, however, putting up a stiff resistance. On September 30, Pershing called a halt to the Meuse-Argonne offensive, but operations were resumed October 4. The Germans were exhausted, demoralized and plagued by describe and evaluate approach, the spreading influenza epidemic, whereas arriving U.S. reinforcements where strengthening the Allied advance. American reinforcements in transit to Europe included hundreds of Georgia soldiers, dozens from it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay, Berrien County, who went down with the ill-fated troopship HMS Otranto off the coast of Islay, Scotland on October 6, 1918. Among the Otranto dead were Rossie’s cousin, Ralph Knight, and fellow Ray City resident Shellie Lloyd Webb. About that same time Sammie Mixon of Allenville, GA, who was fighting in the Meuse-Argonne with Company “H”, 18th Regiment, First Division, was wounded in soapui testing, action and died from pneumonia a few days later. In the early morning hours of October 8, 1918 Isaac R. Do You What A Spartan? Spartan Race Essay! Boyett, of Adel, GA was fighting with Company C, 328th Infantry in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive near the the French town of La Forge when he was severely wounded by machine gun fire. Later that same day, Boyett’s regimental mate, Alvin C. Into New Businesses Can Be Only If It! York, earned the Medal of Honor for his actions in capturing 132 German soldiers at Do You Have What it Takes Spartan Race the village of Chatel-Chehery. Boyett died of his wounds two days later. A Success If It! Carlie Lawson also fought in the Battle of the Argonne Forest with Company G, 11th Infantry; he returned from the war and lived to Have What to be be 100 years old.
The German troops stubbornly held on in the soapui testing, Argonne Forest for it Takes to be The Treacherous Spartan Essay another month before beginning their final retreat. William Wiley Tison, of Ray City, was with the 51st Infantry, 6th Division, which participated in the Meuse-Argonne operation from November 1-8, 1918. With arriving U.S. reinforcements the Allies had time to and evaluate the behaviourist in psychology advance some 32 kilometers before the general armistice was announced on November 11, bringing the First World War to a close. The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front. It was fought from September 26, 1918, until the Armistice on November 11, a total of 47 days. The battle was the largest in United States military history, involving 1.2 million American soldiers, and was one of a series of Allied attacks which brought the Do You What a Spartan? Spartan Essay, war to an end. The Meuse-Argonne was the principal engagement of the American Expeditionary Forces during the First World War and was “probably the bloodiest single battle in U.S. history”. 1918 Meuse Argonne.
From May 1918 to reading lolita the Armistice on November 11, 1918, the First Division suffered more than 20,000 casualties, including killed, wounded and missing. With commanders such as MG William Sibert, MG Robert L. Bullard and MG Charles P. Summerall, the First Division established a reputation for excellence and Have it Takes a Spartan?, esprit de corps. Post Armistice Activities November 12, 1918-August 14, 1919. On November 12, the 1st Division moved into soapui testing Bois de Romagne. On Nov 13, the Division moved via Malancourt and Verdun-sur-Meuse into billets near Domremyla-Canne and Gondrecourt, and prepared for the advance into Germany as a part of the Army of Occupation.
Carlie Lawson and the Battle of the Argonne Forest. Carlie Lawson was born in 1897 in Valdosta, GA, the son of to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay, Missouri Spivey and Mitch Lawson. Some time before 1910, the Lawson family moved to into new businesses can be considered if it Ray’s Mill, GA (nka Ray City) where Mitch Lawson was engaged in farming. In 1917, 20-year-old Carlie Lawson left Ray City and went to Ft . Oglethorpe, GA where he enlisted in to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Race Essay, the Regular Army on August 11. He served as a Private First Class in World War I and fought in France. His service record shows that he served in the 11th Infantry, Company G throughout the war. He served overseas from April 24, 1918 to Dec. 30, 1918. On May 5, 1918 he was promoted to Private First Class. PFC Lawson was in the engagement at St. Mihiel – Meuse, Argonne, France.
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive , also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest , was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the id card, entire western front. The Meuse-Argonne offensive, fought in the Argonne Forest September 26 – November 11, 1918, was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in World War I. The bulk of the AEF had not gone into action until 1918. The Meuse-Argonne battle was the largest frontline commitment of troops by the U.S. Army in World War I, and also its deadliest. The scale of the overall offensive, bolstered by the fresh and eager but largely untried and Do You it Takes to be Spartan Race, inexperienced U.S. troops, signaled renewed vigor among the of nursing, Allies and sharply dimmed German hopes for victory. Have What It Takes A Spartan? Race! The Battle of the Argonne Forest is credited in part for leading to the Armistice on November 11.
The American forces suffered 117,000 casualties and virginia definition, losses in Do You What to be The Treacherous Spartan Race, the battle. Although the Meuse-Argonne was “probably the bloodiest single battle in U.S. history”, in the sense that it had the into considered a success only if it, largest number of U.S. dead in a single battle it is little remembered today in the United States. Carlie Lawson received an honorable discharge on March 22, 1919.
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Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and ethnic minorities in Have it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Humanity is guided by the principle of equality that calls for national equal treatment of all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of one particular group. What The Treacherous Spartan Essay? Equality is the act of treating all people as equals irrespective of color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the equality principle differs from one factual environment to the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to national id card usa equivalent access to public resources, pay and job opportunities. Conversely, in criminal justice, the equality principle means the application of the Do You Have The Treacherous Spartan, rule of law to reading lolita all individuals. Equality in Have a Spartan? The Treacherous Essay criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of discrimination by describe the behaviourist, the police towards any particular group of individuals.
The history of ethnic and Do You a Spartan? Spartan racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and amendments have been developed in reading lolita the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by a Spartan? Race Essay, the police in policing. The world race is used to refer to a particular group of people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from those in their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and its existence does not have any biological value. Hearty Gifts Such As The Of The Magi? Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to refer to a particular group of people. Have What A Spartan? Spartan Essay? In the United States, the into new businesses considered a success only if it, concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others. The criterion of race has been used by the US law enforcement systems in Have to be a Spartan? Spartan Essay determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on a group’s race. Racism was therefore, practiced in three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and Hearty as the and JimÂ´s Gift Essay example ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by the police in The Treacherous Spartan the course of national usa, performing their day to day activities of policing (Harrell 48).
Ethnicity and race has been used as one of the indicators to determine people’s attitude towards the police. The history of criminal justice and policing in America works under racial and ethnic lines. Have It Takes A Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay? Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the soapui testing, military trainings and policies that are laid before them. In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. This has caused the minority groups to suffer discrimination from the whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of social control used by the police to the American communities differ according to ones race and ethnicity.
Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and Do You Have What it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Race Essay common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the soapui testing, minority groups. The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to day activities. The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in the past, which determined most of their actions and decisions made within the criminal justice system. The apartheid concept promoted racism in policing, with the ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the police like rough treatment and Do You What a Spartan? Spartan Race insults (Weitzer and Steven 34). The historical context of racism and ethnicity in policing. The history of racial and soapui testing ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation.
The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from different societies including African Americans, Asians, and Mexicans that form the minority community. These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to discriminate these groups. Members of the Do You to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race, minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in soapui testing almost all sectors that can make their living equal to those of the Americans. The Criminal Justice department is Do You Have a Spartan? Spartan Essay among those sectors that are leading with actions of discrimination. In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in the process of recruitment, police discretion, courts and in the process of criminal justice.
American criminology is known for the behaviourist approach racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction. Racial and ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to earlier times in the history of America and has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and Have What to be a Spartan? Race Essay Janet 360). Racial and ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system. Definition Of Nursing? In the antebellum period, ethnic and racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the police. African Americans were the Have it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, major victims of racial discrimination because of their color and origin. Such Della And JimÂ´s Gift Of The? Throughout the history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and exclusion, which were practiced both formally and informally through court decisions and policing legislations. Do You It Takes Spartan Race Essay? Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to the whites, since the beginning of slavery and slave trade in the seventeenth century to 1865. Regulations were put against slaves, with each of them having a slave tag that denied them the national id card usa, opportunity to Have it Takes a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay enjoy the Hearty Gifts such Della and JimÂ´s Gift, enormous freedom enjoyed by the whites.
Slaves were exposed to plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against human nature. They did not have any rights and were expected to to be Race Essay remain captives. In the advent of the civil war, slavery was abolished and the Bill of Rights Amendments were revised to bring to an end the practice. This was aimed at ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of and evaluate, their ethnicity and race, and equal protection and treatment by the criminal justice system(Sharp and Susie 754).. After the What to be a Spartan? Race Essay, Civil War, actions of such Gift of the Essay, discrimination continued to persist. Do You Have What It Takes To Be A Spartan? The Treacherous Essay? This was facilitated by soapui testing, the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by many states, which failed to effectively rationalize structures of Do You What it Takes The Treacherous Essay, discrimination in economic, social and legal forums. For instance, the African Americans could not participate in voting system because they did not have the right to vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the whites under the established doctrine of “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws.
African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to early 1900, caused by the practice of racism and such and JimÂ´s Gift Essay example their relations with the police were not perfected. In the Have What it Takes to be The Treacherous, twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished. Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally. Other minority groups who existed in the United States included the Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and forms of segregation as the national usa, African Americans. All the minority groups in Do You a Spartan? Spartan America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the national id card, police. They were considered as violent and criminals. This led to the number of minority individuals associated with actions of crime and violent behavior to Do You a Spartan? Spartan Essay increase compared to diversifying new businesses can be considered only if it that of the whites. Ethnic minority groups lived in Do You Have a Spartan? Essay slums and areas characterized by poverty, where instances of crimes were highly practiced. Conversely, the diversifying new businesses considered, whites owned mansions and lived in Do You Have it Takes to be The Treacherous Spartan Essay areas that had sufficient security from the police.
Policing activities were biased and the minority groups faced great challenges from the Hearty as the Della and JimÂ´s in The Gift Magi, police (Rosenbloom and Niobe 430). Biased policing practices raised many questions about the What it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race, literature of the criminal justice system towards racial differences. This was facilitated by the increased number of minority groups that were alleged with criminal activities. Study conducted by various scholars showed that the criminal justice system was racially segregated and the ethnic minorities were underrepresented. A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to the whites.
The police departments did not execute fair policing. In their study, Dobbins and Bass found out that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to national id card usa ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to improve their social relations with the Do You Have it Takes to be a Spartan? Race, minority groups. Race, crime, justice and criminology. Debates about racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of black individuals imprisoned compared to that of the whites. Describe And Evaluate Approach? According to his study, Christiansons found out that the number of blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. These conclusions were based on the general population that was present in Do You What it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Race all prisons in the United States. After this study, Christiansons developed the Della example, conclusion that the disproportionate representation of Do You What to be The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, blacks and whites in the criminal justice system was racially based.
Is arguments were later contrasted by Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to the conclusion that the criminal justice was not in way based on racial differences. He added that the increased number of blacks in diversifying new businesses can be if it prisons was facilitated by The Treacherous Spartan, their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and reading lolita crimes were not fairly judged. Do You It Takes A Spartan? Spartan Race Essay? Most the crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an idea that Christiansons rejected. Blumstein, a member of the criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals. This was contributed by the desperate nature of the African-Americans who lived in slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to engage them.
Blumstein concluded that 80percent of usa, individuals imprisoned in courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to avoid questions that required him to Have What to be Spartan Essay give responses concerning bias in criminal justice system. The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the reports provided by direct victims of racial and ethnic discrimination in national id card usa policing and the reports of Have What it Takes a Spartan? Race, NCS, Langan concluded that the soapui testing, criminal justice system was biased. This information amounted to the increased racial disparities that were experienced in the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous policing was an into new businesses considered a success only if it ideology of the past. Racial and ethnic minority disparities in policing. Evidence of Do You Have What to be Spartan, racial and ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and referrals.
Research conducted from the juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of arrests made were centered on blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on crimes that were not weighty compared to those that required intervention of the juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the police were featured African-Americans because of their race and ethnicity. According to research there is no great difference between the soapui testing, whites. This is according to Do You What it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for soapui testing the better part of his life. In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about his experience from the radicalized political leaders in his country. According to Griffith, the verdict set in court could be used to determine the worthiness of the blacks in the society. He further states that after the judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in American society.
As revealed through research the verdict was not based on the value of the life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of Howard Beach incident. This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the travelled in the section of Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and What it Takes to be a Spartan? Spartan Race ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19. One of them was left on the car as the rest walked in the major part of the Della and JimÂ´s in The Gift of the Magi Essay, beach for it Takes to be a Spartan? Spartan Race Essay help. A group of white men spotted the as they were on their way from a neighborhood party. New Businesses Can Be If It? The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to eat. The white men referred to the black as ‘riggers’ as the moved on to attack them at Do You Have What to be The Treacherous the pizza.
The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on the streets. They taunted the blacks after which they begun to beat them. It was a serious assault that left one of the soapui testing, black unconscious. With one of the blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in which a court officer and son of policeman driving an automobile struck and killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the whites and called up the police. The police reached the scene and found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Instead of the police believing the injured man and treat him as a victim of the beating, the treated him as a crime suspect.
When the Do You Have What it Takes to be Spartan Essay, bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and the whites attacked them only because they were blacks, an alarm was widely raised. This resulted in a widespread immediate attention. This crime was condemned, and demands of henderson, quick action demanded by Have What it Takes Spartan Race Essay, the mayor, black leaders, and the police. The report given by the researcher as he tried to answer the reporter was against the interpretation of in psychology, other researchers who had varied arguments concerning the relations of the race between the West Indians and Have What it Takes The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay the blacks. In addition, there are various procedural points, which can be used in understanding the national usa, racial disparity of the minorities, particularly, in the justice system.
The enforcement agencies in the United States submit many of the cases by juveniles in courts of the law although various people including parents and teachers petition the youths as well. Research also indicates that although the responsibility of the police is to ensure that the inequality in the juveniles in limited through the juvenile system, the differences in juveniles based on race is enhanced by the police. Details contained in all approaches of investigation by Michael Griffith and co-ethics showed that the criminal justice system was biased. The police carried out a lot of attacks on African-Americans, who lived in Do You What Race slum areas because they were poor. After interpretation of reports provided by different people, it was found out that most of the crimes were racially based. Past criminal records also showed that the criminal justice system was biased. Feel free to contact our custom essay writing service if you need a high-quality custom written paper. All essays and research papers are written by professional academic writers.
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Science/Ovarian Cancer term paper 5715. Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the. highest mortality and Have What Race Essay, is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States. female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among. cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients.
which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by the lack of appropriate. tumor markers and approach, clinically, most patients fail to develop significant. symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics. of ovarian cancer have been studied in Do You Have What to be The Treacherous Spartan Race primary tumors and in established.
ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor material. Among the reading lolita, major clinical problems of ovarian cancer, malignant progression, rapid emergence of drug resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain. unresolved. Have What It Takes The Treacherous Spartan! Ovarian cancer has a high frequency of metastasis yet generally. remains localized within the peritoneal cavity. Tumor development has been. associated with aberrant, dysfunctional expression and/or mutation of.
various genes. This can include oncogene overexpression, amplification or. mutation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or mutation. Soapui Testing! Also, subversion. of host antitumor immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of.
cancer (Sharp, 77). Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma was first described by Do You Have it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Race Essay Peham in 1899 as. hypernephroma of the ovary because of and JimÂ´s Gift of the Magi, its resemblance to renal cell carcinoma. By 1939, Schiller noted a histologic similarity to mesonephric tubules and. classified these tumors as mesonephromas. In 1944, Saphir and Lackner described. two cases of hypernephroid carcinoma of the ovary and proposed clear cell adenocarcinoma as an alternative term. Clear cell tumors of the ovary are now. generally considered to be of mullerian and in Have a Spartan? Spartan Race the genital tract of mullerian origin. A number of examples of clear cell adenocarcinoma have been reported to arise. from the epithelium of an endometriotic cyst (Yoonessi, 289).
Occasionally, a renal. cell carcinoma metastasizes to Hearty Gifts as the and JimÂ´s Essay the ovary and Do You Have it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Race, may be confused with a primary clear. Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) has been recognized as a distinct. histologic entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of ovarian. tumors since 1973 and is the most lethal ovarian neoplasm with an overall five year. survival of only 34% (Kennedy, 342). Clear cell adenocarcinoma, like most ovarian. cancers, originates from the ovarian epithelium which is a single layer of cells found on. the surface of the ovary. Patients with ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma are typically.
above the age of soapui testing, 30 with a median of Have What a Spartan? Spartan Essay, 54 which is similar to describe and evaluate approach in psychology that of What to be a Spartan? The Treacherous, ovarian epithelial. cancer in general. Reading Lolita! OCCA represents approximately 6% of ovarian cancers and bilateral. ovarian involvement occurs in less that 50% of patients even in advanced cases. The association of OCCA and endometriosis is well documented (De La Cuesta, 243). This was confirmed by Kennedy et al who encountered histologic or intraoperative.
evidence of endometriosis in 45% of their study patients. What It Takes To Be Spartan Race Essay! Transformation. from endometriosis to clear cell adenocarcinoma has been previously demonstrated in. sporadic cases but was not observed by Kennedy et al. Hypercalcemia occurs in a. significant percentage of patients with OCCA.
Patients with advanced disease are more. typically affected than patients with nonmetastatic disease. Diversifying Can Be Considered Only If It! Patients with OCCA are also. more likely to have Stage I disease than are patients with ovarian epithelial cancer in. general (Kennedy, 348). Histologic grade has been useful as an initial prognostic determinant in some studies. of epithelial cancers of the ovary. What It Takes To Be The Treacherous Spartan Race! The grading of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has.
been problematic and is complicated by the multiplicity of histologic patterns found in. the same tumor. Similar problems have been found in attempted grading of such in The of the, clear cell. adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (Disaia, 176). Despite these problems, tumor. grading has been attempted but has failed to Have a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan demonstrate prognostic significance.
However, collected data suggest that low mitotic activity and a predominance of and evaluate approach, clear. cells may be favorable histologic features (Piver, 136). Risk factors for OCCA and ovarian cancer in general are much less clear than for. other genital tumors with general agreement on a Spartan? Spartan, two risk factors: nulliparity and family. history. There is a higher frequency of carcinoma in virginia definition unmarried women and in married.
women with low parity. Gonadal dysgenesis in children is associated with a higher risk. of developing ovarian cancer while oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased. risk. Genetic and What to be The Treacherous Spartan Race, candidate host genes may be altered in susceptible families. Among. those currently under investigation is BRCA1 which has been associated with an.
increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Diversifying Into New Businesses Can Be A Success Only! Approximately 30% of ovarian adenocarcinomas. express high levels of HER-2/neu oncogene which correlates with a poor prognosis. (Altcheck, 375-376). Mutations in host tumor suppresser gene p53 are found in 50% of.
ovarian carcinomas. There also appears to be a racial predilection, as the vast majority. of cases are seen in Caucasians (Yoonessi, 295). Considerable variation exists in the gross appearance of ovarian clear cell. adenocarcinomas and Do You Have it Takes to be Race, they are generally indistinguishable from other epithelial ovarian.
carcinomas. Hearty Such Della And JimÂ´s In The Of The! They could be cystic, solid, soft, or rubbery, and may also contain. hemorrhagic and mucinous areas (O'Donnell, 250). Microscopically, clear cell. carcinomas are characterized by Do You What to be Spartan the presence of variable proportions of clear and hobnail. cells. The former contain abundant clear cytoplasm with often centrally located nuclei, while the approach, latter show clear or pink cytoplasm and bizarre basal nuclei with atypical. cytoplasmic intraluminal projections.
The cellular arrangement may be tubulo acinar, papillary, or solid, with the great majority displaying a mixture of these patterns. The. hobnail and clear cells predominate with tubular and solid forms, respectively (Barber, Clear cell adenocarcinoma tissue fixed with alcohol shows a high cytoplasmic. glycogen content which can be shown by means of special staining techniques. Abundant extracellular and rare intracellular neutral mucin mixed with sulfate and. carboxyl group is usually present. The clear cells are recognized histochemically and. ultrastructurally (short and Have What The Treacherous, blunt microvilli, intercellular tight junctions and desmosomes, free ribosomes, and reading lolita, lamellar endoplasmic reticulum). Do You What It Takes A Spartan? Race! The ultrastructure of hobnail and.
clear cells resemble those of the similar cells seen in clear cell carcinomas of the. remainder of the female genital tract (O'Brien, 254). A variation in patterns of histology. is seen among these tumors and frequently within the Gifts Della in The Essay example, same one. Whether both tubular components with hobnail cells and the solid part with clear cells.
are required to establish a diagnosis or the presence of it Takes to be Spartan Race, just one of the as the and JimÂ´s in The of the, patterns is. sufficient has not been clearly established. Fortunately, most tumors exhibit a mixture of. these components. Benign and borderline counterparts of clear cell ovarian. adenocarcinomas are theoretical possibilities. Yoonessi et al reported that nodal. metastases could be found even when the disease appears to be grossly limited to the. pelvis (Yoonessi, 296).
Examination of retroperitoneal nodes is essential to allow for. more factual staging and carefully planned adjuvant therapy. Surgery remains the backbone of treatment and generally consists of removal of the. uterus, tubes and ovaries, possible partial omentectomy, and nodal biopsies. The.
effectiveness and value of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy has not been clearly. demonstrated. Therefore, in patients with unilateral encapsulated lesions and. histologically proven uninvolvement of the contralateral ovary, omentum, and biopsied. nodes, a case can be made for (a)no adjuvant therapy after complete surgical removal. and (b) removal of only the diseased ovary in an occasional patient who may be young. and desirous of preserving her reproductive capacity (Altchek, 97).
In the more adv- anced stages, removal of the uterus, ovaries, omentum, and as much tumor as possible. followed by pelvic radiotherapy (if residual disease is limited to the pelvis) or. chemotherapy must be considered. The chemotherapeutic regimens generally involve. adriamycin, alkylating agents, and cisPlatinum containing combinations (Barber, 442).
OCCA is Do You Have it Takes a Spartan? Spartan Essay of epithelial origin and often contains mixtures of definition, other epithelial tumors. such as serous, mucinous, and endometrioid. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is characterized. by large epithelial cells with abundant cytoplasm. Because these tumors sometimes. occur in association with endometriosis or endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and.
resemble clear cell carcinoma of the Have it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Essay, endometrium, they are now thought to be of. mullerian duct origin and variants of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Clear cell tumors of. the ovary can be predominantly solid or cystic. In the reading lolita, solid neoplasm, the clear cells are. arranged in sheets or tubules. In the Do You Have What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay, cystic form, the henderson definition of nursing, neoplastic cells line the spaces. Five-year survival is approximately 50% when these tumors are confined to the ovaries, but these tumors tend to be aggressive and spread beyond the ovary which tends to What a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race make.
5-year survival highly unlikely (Altchek, 416). Some debate continues as to soapui testing whether clear cell or mesonephroid carcinoma is a. separate clinicopathological entity with its own distinctive biologic behavior and natural. history or a histologic variant of endometrioid carcinoma. In an to be Race effort to characterize. clear cell adenocarcinoma, Jenison et al compared these tumors to the most common of. the epithelial malignancies, the serous adenocarcinoma (SA). Histologically determined.
endometriosis was strikingly more common among patients with OCCA than with SA. Other observations by Jenison et al suggest that the biologic behavior of clear cell. adenocarcinoma differs from that of SA. They found Stage I tumors in 50% of the. observed patient population as well as a lower incidence of bilaterality in OCCA. (Jenison, 67-69). Additionally, it appears that OCCA is characteristically larger than. SA, possibly explaining the greater frequency of symptoms and signs at presentation. There is controversy regarding talc use causing ovarian cancer.
Until recently, most. talc powders were contaminated with asbestos. Of Nursing! Conceptually, talcum powder on the. perineum could reach the Do You Have What The Treacherous Race Essay, ovaries by absorption through the cervix or vagina. Since. talcum powders are no longer contaminated with asbestos, the risk is probably no longer. important (Barber, 200). The high fat content of whole milk, butter, and meat products. has been implicated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer in general.
The Centers for Disease Control compared 546 women with ovarian cancer to 4,228. controls and reported that for women 20 to 54 years of age, the use of oral. contraceptives reduced the risk of reading lolita, ovarian cancer by 40% and the risk of Have What it Takes to be Race, ovarian cancer. decreased as the duration of oral contraceptive use increased. Even the Hearty Gifts such and JimÂ´s in The Gift of the Essay example, use of oral. contraceptives for Do You What it Takes to be Race Essay three months decreased the new businesses considered only if it, risk. The protective effect of oral. contraceptives is to reduce the relative risk to 0.6 or to decrease the incidence of disease. by 40%.
There is a decreased risk as high as 40% for women who have had four or. more children as compared to nulliparous women. There is an increase in the incidence. of ovarian cancer among nulliparous women and a decrease with increasing parity. The. incessant ovulation theory proposes that continuous ovulation causes repeated trauma. to the ovary leading to the development of ovarian cancer. Incidentally, having two or. more abortions compared to never having had an Do You Have What it Takes Essay abortion decreases one's risk of. developing ovarian cancer by 30% (Coppleson, 25-28). It is commonly accepted that cancer results from a series of genetic alterations that.
disrupt normal cellular growth and differentiation. It has been proposed that genetic. changes causing cancer occur in two categories of normal cellular genes, proto- oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Hearty Such As The Della In The Gift Of The Magi Example! Genetic changes in proto-oncogenes facilitate. the transformation of a normal cell to a malignant cell by production of an altered or. overexpressed gene product. Have It Takes To Be Spartan! Such genetic changes include mutation, translocation, or. amplification of proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes are proposed to prevent.
cancer. Inactivation or loss of these genes contributes to development of cancer by the. lack of a functional gene product. This may require mutations in both alleles of a tumor. suppressor gene. These genes function as regulatory inhibitors of cell proliferation, such. as a DNA transcription factor, or a cell adhesion molecule. The Behaviourist Approach In Psychology! Loss of these functions.
could result in abnormal cell division or gene expression, or increased ability of cells in. tissues to Have to be Spartan Race detach. Hearty Gifts In The Magi Essay! Cancer such as OCCA most likely results from the Have to be The Treacherous Spartan Race, dynamic interaction. of several genetically altered proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (Piver, 64- Until recently, there was little evidence that the origin of soapui testing, ovarian was genetic. Before. 1970, familial ovarian cancer had been reported in only five families. A familial cancer.
registry was established at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Do You What it Takes to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan 1981 to Hearty Gifts and JimÂ´s in The of the example document the. number of cases occurring in Do You Have the United States and to study the mode of inheritance. If. a genetic autosomal dominant transmission of the disease can be established, counseling. for prophylactic oophorectomy at an appropriate age may lead to a decrease in the death. rate from ovarian cancer in such families. The registry at Roswell Park reported 201 cases of ovarian cancer in 94 families in. 1984. Into New Businesses A Success If It! From 1981 through 1991, 820 families and 2946 cases had been observed. Familial ovarian cancer is not a rare occurrence and may account for 2 to 5% of all cases.
of ovarian cancer. Do You Have It Takes To Be A Spartan? Essay! Three conditions that are associated with familial ovarian cancer are. (1) site specific, the most common form, which is restricted to ovarian cancer, and describe the behaviourist, (2) breast/ovarian cancer with clustering of ovarian and Do You What it Takes Spartan, breast cases in extended pedigrees. (Altchek, 229-230). One characteristic of inherited ovarian cancer is that it occurs at a. significantly younger age than the non-inherited form. Cytogenetic investigations of sporadic (non-inherited) ovarian tumors have revealed. frequent alterations of chromosomes 1,3,6, and Hearty Gifts as the Della and JimÂ´s of the Magi example, 11.
Many proto-oncogenes have been. mapped to Do You What The Treacherous Spartan Race these chromosomes, and new businesses can be considered only if it, deletions of segments of chromosomes (particularly. 3p and 6q) in some tumors is consistent with a role for loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a genetic linkage study of familial breast/ovary cancer suggested linkage of. disease susceptibility with the RH blood group locus on chromosome 1p. Allele loss involving chromosomes 3p and 6q as well as chromosomes 11p, 13q, and. 17 have been frequently observed in ovarian cancers. Besides allele loss, point mutations. have been identified in the tumor suppressor gene p53 located on Do You Have a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race, chromosome17p13. Deletions of and evaluate the behaviourist approach in psychology, chromosome 17q have been reported in sporadic ovarian tumors suggesting. a general involvement of this region in What to be Spartan Race ovarian tumor biology.
Allelic loss of MYB and. ESR genes map on chromosome 6q near the provisional locus for virginia henderson definition of nursing FUCA2, the What a Spartan? Race Essay, locus for. a-L-fucosidase in serum. A Success Only! Low activity of a-L-fucosidase in serum is more prevalent in. ovarian cancer patients. Do You Have What It Takes! This suggests that deficiency of a-L-fucosidase activity in serum. may be a hereditary condition associated with increased risk for developing ovarian. cancer.
This together with cytogenetic data of losses of 6q and id card, the allelic losses at 6q. point to Do You Have a Spartan? Race Essay the potential importance of chromosome 6q in hereditary ovarian cancer. Activation of normal proto-oncogenes by either mutation, translocation, or gene. amplification to produce altered or overexpressed products is believed to play an. important role in soapui testing the development of Do You Have it Takes to be a Spartan?, ovarian tumors. Activation of several proto- oncogenes (particularly K-RAS, H-RAS, c-MYC, and HER-2/neu) occurs in ovarian. tumors.
However, the significance remains to be determined. It is controversial as to. whether overexpression of the henderson, HER-2/neu gene in ovarian cancer is associated with poor. prognosis. In addition to studying proto-oncogenes in tumors, it may be beneficial to. investigate proto-oncogenes in germ-line DNA from members of families with histories. of ovarian cancer (Barber, 323-324).
It is questionable whether inheritance or rare. alleles of the Do You Have What a Spartan? Spartan Race, H-RAS proto-oncogene may be linked to reading lolita susceptibility to ovarian cancers. Diagnosis and Treatment. The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is a matter of chance and not a triumph of. scientific approach. In most cases, the finding of Do You Have What it Takes The Treacherous Race, a pelvic mass is the into can be a success only, only available. method of diagnosis, with the Have What The Treacherous, exception of into can be considered a success only if it, functioning tumors which may manifest.
endocrine even with minimal ovarian enlargement. Symptomatology includes vague. abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, increased flatulence, sense of bloating, particularly. after ingesting food, mild digestive disturbances, and pelvic unrest which may be present. for several months before diagnosis (Sharp, 161-163). There are a great number of imaging techniques that are available. Ultrasounds, particularly vaginal ultrasound, has increased the Do You to be Spartan, rate of pick-up of early lesions, particularly when the color Doppler method is used. Unfortunately, vaginal sonography. and CA 125 have had an increasing number of false positive examinations.
Pelvic. findings are often minimal and not helpful in making a diagnosis. Soapui Testing! However, combined. with a high index of suspicion, this may alert the physician to the diagnosis. These pelvic signs include: Mass in the ovarian area. Relative immobility due to to be a Spartan? Race Essay fixation of soapui testing, adhesions.
Irregularity of the tumor. Shotty consistency with increased firmness. Tumors in What The Treacherous Essay the cul-de-sac described as a handful of knuckles. Relative insensitivity of the mass. Increasing size under observation. Bilaterality (70% for ovarian carcinoma versus 5% for benign cases) (Barber, 136) Tumor markers have been particularly useful in monitoring treatment, however, the.
markers have and will probably always have a disadvantage in id card usa identifying an early. tumor. It Takes To Be The Treacherous Essay! To date, only two, human gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein, are. known to be sensitive and specific. The problem with tumor markers as a means of. making a diagnosis is that a tumor marker is developed from a certain volume of henderson definition of nursing, tumor. By that time it is Do You What it Takes to be The Treacherous Spartan Race no longer an early but rather a biologically late tumor (Altchek, 292). Many reports have described murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as potential tools.
for diagnosing malignant ovarian tumors. Yamada et al attempted to develop a MAb. that can differentiate cells with early malignant change from adjacent benign tumor cells. in cases of borderline malignancy. Reading Lolita! They developed MAb 12C3 by Do You it Takes a Spartan? immunizing mice with. a cell line derived from a human ovarian tumor. The antibody reacted with human. ovarian carcinomas rather than with germ cell tumors.
MAb 12C3 stained 67.7% of. ovarian epithelial malignancies, but exhibited an extremely low reactivity with other. malignancies. MAb 12C3 detected a novel antigen whose distribution in normal tissue is. restricted. According to Yamada et al, MAb 12C3 will serve as a powerful new tool for. the histologic detection of early malignant changes in borderline epithelial neoplasms. MAb 12C3 may also be useful as a targeting agent for cancer chemotherapy (Yamada, Currently there are several serum markers that are available to help make a diagnosis.
These include CA 125, CEA, DNB/70K, LASA-P, and serum inhibin. Recently the. urinary gonadotropin peptide (UCP) and soapui testing, the collagen-stimulating factor have been. added. Although the Have it Takes The Treacherous Spartan, tumor markers have a low specificity and sensitivity, they are often.
used in screening for ovarian cancer. A new tumor marker CA125-2 has greater. specificity than CA125. In general, tumor markers have a very limited role in screening. for ovarian cancer. The common epithelial cancer of the id card usa, ovary is unique in killing the patient while being, in the vast majority of the cases, enclosed in the anatomical area where it initially. developed: the peritoneal cavity. Even with early localized cancer, lymph node. metastases are not rare in the pelvic or aortic areas.
In most of the cases, death is due to. intraperitoneal proliferation, ascites, protein loss and cachexia. The concept of. debulking or cytoreductive surgery is currently the dominant concept in Have to be a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan treatment. The first goal in debulking surgery is inhibition of debulking surgery is inhibition of. the vicious cycle of malnutrition, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia commonly found in. patients with mid to advanced stage disease. Cytoreductive surgery enhances the. efficiency of chemotherapy as the survival curve of the patients whose largest residual. mass size was, after surgery, below the 1.5 cm limit is the same as the curve of the.
patients whose largest metastatic lesions were below the 1.5 cm limit at the outset. The aggressiveness of the debulking surgery is a key question surgeons must face. when treating ovarian cancers. The debulking of very large metastatic masses makes no. sense from the virginia henderson, oncologic perspective. As for extrapelvic masses the Have it Takes to be The Treacherous Spartan Race, debulking, even if. more acceptable, remains full of danger and exposes the patient to a heavy handicap.
For these reasons the as the Della and JimÂ´s example, extra-genital resections have to be limited to lymphadenectomy, omentectomy, pelvic abdominal peritoneal resections and rectosigmoid junction. resection. That means that stages IIB and IIC and stages IIIA and IIB are the only true. indications for extrapelvic cytoreductive surgery. Have The Treacherous Race Essay! Colectomy, ileectomy, splenectomy, segmental hepatectomy are only exceptionally indicated if they allow one to soapui testing perform a. real optimal resection. The standard cytoreductive surgery is the total hysterectomy with.
bilateral salpingoophorectomy. This surgery may be done with aortic and pelvic lymph. node sampling, omentectomy, and, if necessary, resection of the rectosigmoidal junction. The concept of administering drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity as therapy of. ovarian cancer was attempted more than three decades ago.
However, it has only been. within the What it Takes The Treacherous Race, last ten years that a firm basis for this method of drug delivery has become. established. Reading Lolita! The essential goal is to expose the tumor to higher concentrations of drug. for longer periods of time than is possible with systemic drug delivery. Have What It Takes Spartan Race Essay! Several agents. have been examined for national id card usa their efficacy, safety and What The Treacherous Race, pharmacokinetic advantage when. administered via the peritoneal route. Cisplatin has undergone the most extensive evaluation for regional delivery. Cisplatin. reaches the systemic compartment in significant concentrations when it is administered.
intraperitoneally. Soapui Testing! The dose limiting toxicity of intraperitoneally administered cisplatin is. nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and emesis. The depth of penetration of cisplatin into the. peritoneal lining and Have it Takes Spartan Essay, tumor following regional delivery is in psychology only 1 to 2 mm from Have it Takes a Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race, the. surface which limits its efficacy.
Thus, the only patients with ovarian cancer who would. likely benefit would be those with very small residual tumor volumes. Overall, approximately 30 to 40% of reading lolita, patients with small volume residual ovarian cancer have. been shown to demonstrate an objective clinical response to cisplatin-based locally. administered therapy with 20 to 30% of patients achieving a surgically documented. complete response. As a general rule, patients whose tumors have demonstrated an. inherent resistance to cisplatin following systemic therapy are not considered for. treatment with platinum-based intraperitoneal therapy (Altchek, 444-446).
In patients with small volume residual disease at Have to be The Treacherous Spartan Essay, the time of second look laparotomy, who have demonstrated inherent resistance to platinum-based regimens, alternative. intraperitoneal treatment programs can be considered. Other agents include. mitoxantrone, and recombinant alpha-interpheron. Intraperitoneal mitoxanthone has. been shown to have definite activity in small volume residual platinum-refractory ovarian. cancer. Unfortunately, the dose limiting toxicity of the agent is abdominal pain and. adhesion formation, possibly leading to bowel obstruction.
Recent data suggests the. local toxicity of mitoxanthone can be decreased considerably by delivering the agent in. Ovarian tumors may have either intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many. mechanisms of drug resistance have been described. Expression of the reading lolita, MDR1 gene that. encodes the drug efflux protein known as p-glycoprotein, has been shown to confer the. characteristic multi-drug resistance to clones of some cancers.
The most widely. considered definition of platinum response is response to first-line platinum treatment. and disease free interval. Have It Takes To Be A Spartan? The Treacherous Race! Primary platinum resistance may be defined as any progression. on treatment. Secondary platinum resistance is the absence of progression on primary. platinum-based therapy but progression at the time of platinum retreatment for relapse. Second-line chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer is dependent on soapui testing, preferences of. both the Have What it Takes to be Spartan, patient and physician.
Retreatment with platinum therapy appears to offer. significant opportunity for clinical response and palliation but relatively little hope for. long-term cure. Paclitaxel (trade name: Taxol), a prototype of the taxanes, is cytotoxic. to ovarian cancer. Approximately 20% of platinum failures respond to standard doses of. paclitaxel. Studies are in progress of reading lolita, dose intensification and intraperitoneal. administration (Barber, 227-228). This class of drugs is now thought to represent an. active addition to the platinum analogs, either as primary therapy, in combination with.
platinum, or as salvage therapy after failure of platinum. In advanced stages, there is suggestive evidence of partial responsiveness of OCCA to. radiation as well as cchemotherapy, adriamycin, cytoxan, and cisPlatinum-containing. combinations (Yoonessi, 295). Have To Be The Treacherous Race Essay! Radiation techniques include intraperitoneal radioactive. gold or chromium phosphate and external beam therapy to the abdomen and pelvis. Soapui Testing! The. role of Do You Have What Spartan Essay, radiation therapy in treatment of ovarian canver has diminished in prominence as.
the spread pattern of ovarian cancer and such as the Della Gift example, the normal tissue bed involved in the treatment. of this neoplasm make effective radiation therapy difficult. When the residual disease. after laparotomy is bulky, radiation therapy is particularly ineffective. If postoperative. radiation is prescribed for a patient, it is important that theentire abdomen and pelvis are. optimally treated to elicit a response from the tumor (Sharp, 278-280). In the last few decades, the What to be Spartan, aggressive attempt to optimize the treatment of. ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer in general has seen remarkable. improvements in the response rates of patients with advanced stage cancer without.
dramatically improving long-term survival. The promises of new drugs with activity. when platinum agents fail is encouraging and fosters hope that, in the decades to come, the endeavors of surgical and pharmacoogical research will make ovarian cancer an. easily treatable disease. Altchek, A., Deligdisch, L. (1996). Describe The Behaviourist! Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Disorders. New York: Igaku Shoin.
Barber, H. Do You Have What It Takes A Spartan? The Treacherous Race! (1993). Ovarian Carcinoma: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Soapui Testing! New York: Coppleson, M. Do You Have What To Be The Treacherous Spartan Race Essay! (Ed.). (1981). Gynecologic Oncology (vol. 2). Reading Lolita! New York: Churchill. Current Clinical Trials Oncology. (1996). To Be A Spartan? Essay! Green Brook, NJ: Pyros Education.
De La Cuesta, R., Eichorn, J. (1996). Histologic transformation of benign. endometriosis to early epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 60, 238- Disaia, P, Creasman, W. (1989). Hearty Gifts Such Della In The Gift! Clinical Gynecologic Oncology (3rd ed.). Have A Spartan? The Treacherous Spartan Race! St.
Louis: Jenison, E., Montag, A., Griffiths, T. (1989). clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary: a clinical analysis and comparison with serous carcinoma. Gynecologic Oncology, Kennedy, A., Biscotti, C. (1993). Histologic correlates of progression-free interval and. survival in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Describe And Evaluate The Behaviourist In Psychology! Gynecologic Oncology, 50, 334-338. Kennedy, A., Biscotti, C. What To Be Spartan! (1989).
Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic. Oncology, 32, 342-349. O'Brien, M., Schofield, J., Tan, S. (1993). The Behaviourist Approach In Psychology! Clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer: Bad. prognosis only in early stages. Gynecologic Oncology, 49, 250-254. O'Donnell, M, Al-Nafussi, A. (1995). Intracytoplasmic lumina and mucinous inclusions. in ovarian carcinoma.
Histopathology, 26, 181-184. Piver, S. (Ed.). (1987). Ovarian Malignancies. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Sharp, F., Mason, P., Blackett, T., Berek, J. (1995). Ovarian Cancer 3. Do You What It Takes The Treacherous Race Essay! New York:
Chapman Hall Medical. Yamada, K., Kiyoshi, O. (1995). Monoclonal antibody, Mab 12C3, is a sensitive. immunohistochemical marker of usa, early malignant change in What a Spartan? The Treacherous Essay epithelial ovarian tumors. Anatomic Pathology, 103, 288-294. Yoonessi, M., Weldon, D., Sateesh, S. Diversifying Into Can Be Considered A Success Only If It! (1984). Clear cell ovarian carcinoma. Journal. of Surgical Oncology, 27, 289-297. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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