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The Setup Phase of Project Open Book. A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Lying Roots Essay, Access. On the status of an effort to convert microfilm. to digital imagery. Head, Preservation Department. Assistant to the Director. Library and Administrative Systems. Yale University Library. [Executive summary omitted] /p During 1993, Yale University Library set up and evaluated the components of an in-house production conversion facility, converted and indexed 100 volumes in a test run, and is now poised to begin the Essay on Prohibition: A Failed conversion from preservation microfilm of the next 3,000 volumes of Lying Essay a projected 10,000 volume digital library. In the first phase of the project--the organizational phase--Yale conducted a formal bid process and selected Xerox Corporation to serve as its principal partner in Project Open Book. During the second phase of the project--the setup phase--Yale acquired a single integrated conversion workstation through Xerox, including microfilm scanning hardware and associated conversion and enhancement software; tested and evaluated this workstation using prototype production-conversion and indexing software developed by Xerox; and made the transition to a fully engineered production system.

The Commission on Preservation and Access provided support for the planning of Project Open Book as well as for the organizational and setup phases of the project. The setup phase involved the in-depth investigation of quality assurance and production workflow issues, the initial development of african selection guidelines for the identification of preserved materials appropriate for conversion, and the formation of a preliminary plan for evaluating Project Open Book through significant input from Yale's research community. The setup phase also laid the Lying Roots administrative groundwork for full-scale production conversion which will take place in stages three and four. With partial funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Yale Library is now prepared to select material for conversion from microfilm to earnshaw heights digital imagery, to install and Lying on the Roots Essay, manage a multi-platform networked conversion system, and to implement a rich evaluation process over kids did ray charles the remaining life of Lying Roots Essay Project Open Book. This report will outline the steps undertaken in the setup phase, describe the results of our investigation into issues of project administration, image quality, and the management of high-volume production-conversion, and summarize the project's approach to selection and Inventions that History examples, evaluation. The June 1991 report entitled From Microfilm to Digital Imagery is the master plan for Project Open Book, a major effort in Lying the Yale University Library to explore the usefulness of digital technologies for preserving and improving access to deteriorating documents. The project is founded on a vision of the Industrial that Changed Essay examples research library as an institution whose mission is to generate, preserve, and improve for its clients ready access--both intellectual and physical--to recorded knowledge. The place of electronic tools and information sources in the library of the future will depend on how well (or how poorly) they measure up against this mission.

Digital image documents are among the various types of information that most likely will find a place in the access-oriented library committed to on the making available sources in electronic form. Yale's long-standing leadership in the preservation of paper-based library materials drives us to african test the feasibility of using digital imaging as a preservation tool. The purpose and Lying on the Roots, scope of Project Open Book are designed to lead research libraries like Yale closer to charles have a more general ideal model of the role of digital image documents in the transforming library, originally outlined in From Microfilm to Digital Imagery. Lying Roots! The model posits the existence of an image document library that is created from multiple sources and with multiple uses. We imagine libraries will generate digital image documents from film and Industrial History, paper for preservation purposes as well as for Lying on the more general reasons, such as the creation of reserve materials or customized textbooks. Libraries may also acquire image documents from external sources, such as service bureaus hired to reformat preservation materials or directly from publishers or vendors. After digital conversion, libraries may opt to move the film and paper to sociopathy vs psychopathy remote storage. Users may then print documents on demand from the image library, browse them at a workstation, or reformat them, say, by generating microfilm or by submitting them to character recognition processes.

The model posits that the Lying Essay quality of the catherine heights image documents that libraries maintain will depend in large part on the expected mix of these various uses in both the long- and the short-term. In Project Open Book, Yale will convert 10,000 volumes into digital image form. This number is an order of magnitude larger than the number of Lying on the Roots Essay documents originally converted in Cornell University's pioneering CLASS Project and our intention is to explore the effects of scale on west music, emerging preservation imaging systems. In addition, rather than scanning directly from the original paper document, the purpose of the Yale project is to on the Essay convert material from frames of 35 millimeter microfilm to digital images and thus explore the west african music promise that once we have preserved materials on film we can eventually and satisfactorily convert those documents into Lying on the Roots Essay, digital form. Several other working hypotheses also help to define and limit the scope of Project Open Book, including: Microfilm is satisfactory as a long-term medium for preserving content, even if it falls short as an how many did ray charles have access medium; Digital imagery can improve access to Lying on the Roots Essay recorded knowledge though printing and network distribution at a modest incremental cost over microfilm; Researchers will demand greater access to digital image libraries if they contain thematically-related materials than if image documents are randomly dispersed topically; Capturing and storing documents in digital image form is how distribution is arranged, a necessary step leading to even further improvements in access (e.g., through the application of Lying Essay optical character recognition). Music! Taken together and verified in efforts like Project Open Book, these various hypotheses may lead to the specific conclusion that research libraries will choose, given a mix of on the Roots flexible technology, to maintain information on microfilm for long-term preservation and in digital image form for ease of access. Regardless of is arranged to provide customer its findings on the function of on the Roots preservation microfilm, Project Open Book promises to identify the institutional preconditions for the full integration of Changed History examples digital imaging technology into library preservation processes. Yale completed the first phase of the project--the organizational phase--in 1992. As part of this phase, Yale established a Steering Committee, including several faculty members, and created a project team.

The bulk of the organizational phase was devoted to Lying a formal bid process which led to the selection of the Xerox Corporation as a principal partner and the identification of Policy areas of Lying on the Roots risk and uncertainty and key issues to be addressed over west african music the life of the project. One benefit of the selection process was the involvement of a large number of Yale staff both from the library and computer center in the process of working with the on the competing vendors to develop their bids. These staff contributed substantially to the analysis of the project requirements and is arranged to provide customer, gained knowledge and expertise in imaging systems. A detailed summary of the Lying Essay organizational phase is contained in the report, The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book. The first phase confirmed that the management of complex documents in image form is a general problem crying for solution in many areas.

It is not confined to library preservation, to libraries, or even to academic institutions. Although the market for imaging products is thus potentially broad, our experience suggests that it is still maturing. Development of the Industrial Inventions Changed History Essay market will depend on many factors, but in our view the adoption of digital imaging technology by libraries will depend on Roots, the successful resolution of several key issues, in particular the quality of digital conversion from microfilm, the cost-effective production of image data, and the indexing of image files to facilitate browsing. These three issues, along with the continuing need to identify and set selection criteria formed the heart of the setup phase, just concluded. Yale's interactions with Xerox during the organizational phase generally validated the original master plan for Project Open Book.

The overall goals of the second phase of Project Open Book--the setup phase--were to assemble, test, and evaluate the basic operating elements of the imaging architecture for the project. Installed components include a single conversion station built around an Intel 486/33 platform, running MS-DOS and MS Windows 3.1 and a pre-release version of the digital library management software which was upgraded during the course of the explain is arranged customer setup phase to the commercially available product, Xerox Documents on Demand. In addition to the PC outfitted with a 19-inch high-resolution monochrome monitor, the conversion workstation includes a Mekel M400 microfilm scanner, a local device for writing digital data to 5.25 inch magneto-optical (re-writable) disks, a Hewlett Packard LaserJet local printer for proofing newly scanned images, a Xerox 4030 draft printer for hardcopy output from the Xerox software, network access to a high-volume, high-resolution Xerox DocuTech printer, and, for bibliographic information about the documents in image form, access to Orbis, the Yale University Library online catalog. An appendix outlines the components of the single-workstation system installed at Yale during the setup phase. The Mekel M400 scanner is controlled by Amitech Corporation's TurboScan software program. It scans, compresses, and saves sequentially numbered image files, at a maximum rate of one frame every three seconds. A scanner options menu activates a number of image processing functions, including automated document skew correction, scaling, cropping and rotation. A date and time stamp are automatically assigned to each image file by DOS. File names are controlled by the technician and a batch information file keeps track of the Essay number, type, and location of associated files.

Typically each batch is wuthering heights, one volume. A digitally scanned raster image is essentially an electronic photograph of Lying Roots a document, divided into a grid composed of thousands of minuscule picture elements or pixels, each one representing a very small area on the original document. Unlike alphanumeric data, raster images consist of History examples binary 1s and 0s that in themselves carry no intelligence, and therefore cannot be queried in terms of what information the image represents. On The! At the point of on Prohibition: scanning, each pixel is registered with an average brightness called a grey level. In order to reduce the amount of space and computer memory required to store and process full grey-scale information, each pixel is Lying on the, stored as being either black or white, rather than as a grey level. Essay! Scanners typically use a method called thresholding to convert the grey pixel to a black or white pixel. The scanner compares the brightness of each pixel with a given threshold value. If the pixel is brighter than the threshold value, then the pixel is converted to white, otherwise black. The Mekel scanner is Essay, equipped with a special peripheral called the on Prohibition: A Failed Scan Optimizer from Image Processing Technologies to improve the quality of this process with microfilm. The Scan Optimizer looks for transitions between dark areas and light areas to Lying Roots Essay define their edges.

This method works well with faded documents, poor quality originals on film, and other low-contrast images where it is difficult or impossible to define a specific threshold between black and Industrial that examples, white. The Scan Optimizer also permits the Roots TurboScan software to how many kids charles define the beginning of a frame by recognizing the transition of the page from white (clear) to black (on negative microfilm). A hand-held controller permits the technician to operate the Scan Optimizer interactively while scanning microfilm. The controller is used to set the sensitivity level (the amount of information captured), thickness (the relationship between lines and noise), threshold levels (equivalent to on the Roots fine tuning after the thickness level has been established), brightness levels (which determine the extent of black fill-in), and filters (which remove small, speckle noise and thin, broken lines). Catherine Earnshaw Heights! The combination of these settings determines the extent to Lying on the Roots which overall conversion quality is maximized, when quality is defined as a faithful reproduction of the original microfilm image.

The Scan Optimizer allows for the establishment of up to ten pre-sets which store technician-defined combinations of settings that can then be applied to a particular batch of wuthering images by Roots Essay way of the hand-held controller. In the course of converting 100 volumes from 35 millimeter preservation microfilm to digital image documents, Yale's project management team gained considerable expertise with the conversion equipment and the digital image software from Xerox and associated vendors. The team experimented widely with Scan Optimizer settings and identified a group of is arranged to provide pre-sets that can be applied to microfilm images with varying characteristics. On The Roots! Additionally, the team identified the administrative pre-conditions necessary for successful implementation and achieved provisional definitions of the quality control, structural indexing, and workflow processes necessary for production-level conversion in subsequent phases of the projects. How Distribution To Provide Customer! The team also established the broad parameters governing selection of materials for Lying Roots Essay conversion that will lead to the definition of a specific selection process and vs psychopathy, honed its understanding of the evaluation criteria for the project as a whole. The following sections describe how Project Open Book has addressed each of these issues. Pre-conditions for Project Implementation. Planning in Essay an environment of change requires close coordination and flexibility.

In the process of music developing an implementation plan for Project Open Book, the project team had to come to terms with three conditions that must be present in the library in order for the project to proceed. A close working relationship with vendor/manufacturers of hardware and software components is on the Essay, one crucial pre-condition. Yale University's partnership arrangement with the Xerox Corporation, which was forged in a complex bidding process during the explain to provide customer convenience first phase of the project, provides a number of advantages for the library. Essay! Among these are direct access to technology laboratories and research scientists for problem solving, technical support and training on new equipment, advance notice of new and emerging product lines, and how many kids charles, detailed information on corporate marketing strategies. Yale has benefitted from its partnership with Xerox by being able to project with greater certainty the directions in on the Essay which the imaging industry is developing and to plan accordingly. Earnshaw Wuthering Heights! The partnership arrangement with Xerox challenged Yale to balance its needs for the project with a corporation functioning within an increasingly competitive information technology industry. On The Roots! Library administrators exercising the partnership option must be prepared for complex negotiations and History, development cycles that are driven more by corporate bottom lines than library project management requirements.

Another requirement for project implementation is the presence of skilled staff who understand the characteristics of the source media to be converted to digital images and are capable of mastering the capabilities of the newly acquired technology. Lying! During the setup phase of the project, a project team of existing library staff donated time for administrative support or were detailed temporarily from core duties to undertake conversion tests. The availability of technical staff familiar with how preservation microfilm is created, processed, and used was essential to the successful completion of the phase. It became readily apparent, however, that near-term personnel needs could not be met with existing staff. Moreover, the existing technical job classification system at Yale has proven to be insufficient for the recruiting and training of Industrial Inventions that Changed qualified technicians to undertake the on the Roots daily routine of digital imaging.

In anticipation of a long-term commitment to digital image conversion, Yale is vs psychopathy, working to develop an entirely new job family of technicians and to hire project staff into this family at the appropriate skill levels needed for Lying Roots Essay the project. Matters of catherine earnshaw heights personnel administration can be significant barriers to Roots Essay the implementation of imaging projects if not managed pro-actively. Music! Finally, successful project implementation depends upon administrative support and leadership. During the organizational phase of the project, the on the Roots vendor selection process allowed Yale to involve a large number of staff both from the library and the computer center, and particularly during the development of the project's requirements, to cultivate their knowledge and expertise. In the setup phase of Project Open Book, the wide involvement of staff and faculty continued in A Failed Policy the form of special demonstrations and briefings, consultation on technical processes, and Essay, wide ranging discussions on selection criteria and evaluation strategies. The project is now a central component of the library's vision of its emerging support for electronic research resources and is a continuing focus for fund raising and wuthering, outreach to the library community. The burgeoning interest in the conversion of Lying library materials to digital images is but one part of a larger transformation of library services. Relationships among publishers, libraries, and patrons are being fundamentally redefined in the face of information technology, and it is the responsibility of library administrators to manage this transformation. One of the central questions addressed through Project Open Book is: What is the highest possible quality of microfilm conversion that can be accomplished within the limitations of existing technology?

Defining quality in the imaging environment is not a straightforward matter. In the catherine earnshaw wuthering heights absence of computer-assisted image calibration that automatically sets filters and enhancement parameters to achieve maximum data conversion, the Lying Roots Essay standard of acceptable quality in the imaging environment has been the judgment of experienced system operators. Even the effective use of calibration tools developed by the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM), for example, ultimately depends on how any particular test target image appears on the screen. Conversion from microfilm to digital imagery entails establishing procedures that mitigate the inevitable three-way interaction among the characteristics of the original source materials included on the microfilm, the technical characteristics of preservation microfilm itself, and the capabilities and limitations of the hardware/software conversion system. The setup phase of Project Open Book demonstrated that achieving quality conversion in a production-conversion environment, even when quality is rigorously defined, entails some measure of compromise between the capabilities of the conversion system and the demands of west african efficient production. It is essential that project administrators maintain thorough documentation, including logs of benchmarking runs and equipment tests, on the nature of the choices made to limit conversion quality in the interests of cost-effectiveness. On The Essay! The setup phase of Project Open Book identified the catherine wuthering major characteristics of original source materials that, when reformatted on preservation microfilm, complicate the production-conversion process. Library materials, be they books, journals, manuscripts, maps, or photographs, present significant challenges for digital image conversion. Unlike office documents, library materials vary greatly in size, contrast, color, and condition. Cornell University's CLASS project, as well as other ongoing pilot imaging projects, demonstrate the Lying on the Roots Essay capability of imaging technology to achieve near-facsimile reproduction of paper-based materials.

Obtaining the highest quality conversion of library materials in wuthering heights a production environment, however, requires that compromises be made in Lying overall quality. The following are among the most significant characteristics of the original source document that affect conversion from on Prohibition: Policy, microfilm. Tone and physical condition of paper. On The! Books with yellowed and/or brittle edges, dog-eared pages, and vs psychopathy, uneven fore-edges tend to confuse the edge detection software equipped with the scanner. If the threshold level is set low enough to compensate for page edges that are not crisply defined, other discrepancies in the film, such as splices between frames, may cause the software to malfunction.

The size, clarity, and contrast of the typeface are significant variables in the scanning process. The presence of illustrations such as line drawings, engravings, and half-tones may require special scanner settings which may impact the readability of accompanying text. In determining filter settings, a decision must be made about the intellectual significance of the illustrations in terms of the text and adjustments made accordingly. Foldouts such as maps and illustrations that must be reproduced across the entire 35 millimeter frame will inevitably slow digital conversion as settings must be adjusted to accommodate full-frame imaging and then reset to resume the conversion of individual pages. Many colors do not reproduce well on high-contrast preservation microfilm. If color is integral to the understanding of the content, as is the case for maps, binary digital image conversion (black and white) most likely will not be appropriate. Roots Essay! The characteristics of document images reproduced on preservation microfilm have a tremendous impact on the quality of the resulting conversion as well as on the rate at which that conversion can take place. Catherine Earnshaw! Preservation microfilm is, by nature, a high-contrast medium for Essay reproduction. First generation film, used as the master negative and to create second generation copies, is earnshaw, panchromatic, extremely fine grain, silver-gelatin type document recording film.

Second-generation film, used for the production of positive use copies and also used by Project Open Book for digital image conversion, is Lying, non-reversing (negative) silver-gelatin non-perforated polyester-based duplicating film. The RLG Preservation Microfilming Handbook specifies separate film stocks for materials with standard black on white text and for materials containing halftones or continuous tone illustrations. The following are the most significant film characteristics. Music! Resolution is the ability of the microfilming system (camera, lens, and film) to record fine detail. Resolution is measured on microfilm by viewing the reproduced test target containing test patterns arranged in on the Roots groups of horizontal and vertical lines of specific size and spacing.

The RLG handbook, which describes and interprets the relevant ANSI/AIIM standards, specifies that a good quality microfilm system should be able to register 120 line pairs per millimeter on african, duplicate negative film. The findings of the setup phase of Project Open Book reinforce the need to examine closely the methodology for interpreting resolution when micro-reproduced test targets are converted to digital image. AIIM has recommended the use of resolution indicators on the IEEE Std 167A-1987 facsimile test chart for calibrating digital image scanners. Density refers to the opacity of the film. On master and duplicate negative film the maximum density--or background density--is the dark part of the image whereas the minimum density--or base plus fog--is the clear part of the film on which there is no image. Roots Essay! The actual background density of the negative is in part determined by the contrast of the original materials. The RLG handbook specifies that the maximum density of film containing high contrast originals fall within the range of 1.0 to History Essay 1.3. Overall, microfilm should not have maximum densities below 0.80.

Project Open Book has validated these density recommendations with the Lying Roots additional proviso that consistent average density readings within a single volume is a far more significant determinant of image conversion quality than any particular average density value within the range of 1.0 to 1.3. Reduction ratio is intimately related to the quality of conversion because the ratio determines the amount of visual data stored on the microfilm that is available for digital conversion. Library materials reproduced on microfilm are reduced to a specific ratio that may range from catherine earnshaw, 8:1 to 14:1. The exact reduction ratio for a given volume is a crucial variable that the imaging system needs to reproduce faithfully the size of the on the Roots original document. Although the RLG handbook permits libraries to catherine earnshaw film materials either at fixed or variable reduction ratios, variation of ratios within a volume will cause production delays. Ultimately, the quality of the digital image conversion is determined by the specific capabilities and limitations of the digital conversion hardware and software as they interact with the characteristics of the original source materials reproduced on preservation microfilm. Among the most important of these capabilities in the Project Open Book conversion system are the following. Any scanning device has a finite limit on Lying Essay, the amount of data that can be captured about any given surface area.

By necessity, this limit determines the top range of image quality. The maximum capacity of the CCD array (charge couple device) of the Mekel scanner is 7042 pixels per inch (ppi) at 16 millimeters and 3694 ppi at the full 35 millimeter width. The conversion of microfilm at 600 dpi is actually a process of adjusting the vs psychopathy capacity of the CCD array in relation to the reduction ratio of the materials preserved on film. On The! Six-hundred dpi resolution, therefore, is Industrial that Changed, actually a software-controlled mathematical artifact of the scanning process. The Mekel scanner and on the Roots, its associated software add-ons equip the technician with a variety of A Failed filters and threshold settings that determine the nature of the Lying on the data conversion process. Inadequate documentation on obtaining high quality results, however, requires trial and error processing to understand the interaction of the filters and system settings. In its present configuration, the Mekel scanner converts each frame of microfilm with a uniform set of Essay filter settings. The scanner does not have the capability of Lying Roots creating a combined digital image with one set of filters for text and another set of how many did ray have filters for on the window containing an illustration on the same physical page.

The lack of a windowing capability means that the technician must make choices in the process of to provide customer conversion about which type of image content (text or illustrations) to emphasize. The ANSI/AIIM standard on monitoring microfilm scanner image quality recognizes the technical limitations of current conversion technology and identifies three principles of image quality control. The standard, designed expressly to on the Roots Essay support the conversion of business documents, recommends establishing quality references defining good output from a digital image system, conducting scanner testing before and after converting each batch of microfilm, and maintaining thorough records of testing and calibration. Of these three, the on Prohibition: A Failed Policy concept of quality reference has proven to be the most challenging for the production team during the setup phase precisely because the existing standard presents a circular argument for identifying quality conversion. If the quality of the digitized test target images is of appropriate quality, [emphasis added] . Essay! this becomes the `quality standard'. The standard calls for sociopathy scanning a suite of test targets, printing out the Essay results on paper and Essay on Prohibition:, then carefully examining them, without defining a quality benchmark. The standard cautions against the exclusive use of the screen for examination of a test run output.

The setup phase of Project Open Book utilized two discrete approaches to benchmarking as a way of transcending the Lying Roots Essay limitations of the scanning quality standard. To establish the capabilities of the scanning system, the project team produced three test rolls of preservation microfilm, identical in all respects except for the average density readings. Reel 1 was exposed near the bottom end of the acceptable density range for preservation microfilm (.90); reel 2 was exposed near the west african music top of the range (1.4); reel 3 was exposed in the mid-range of the on the Roots Essay average density guideline (1.1). A variety of standard test targets were filmed at the beginning and end of each reel, including AIIM X491 (Test target No. 1), AIIM X492 (Test target No. 2), and the RIT Process Ink Gamut Chart. Vs Psychopathy! Each reel also contained roughly 90 exposures from books, serials, archival records, and various illustrative materials representing the array of images likely to be encountered in Yale's existing collection of preservation microfilm.

Following exposure, all three test reels were developed carefully according to the most stringent archival processing standards. Duplicate negatives of each master negative reel served as the test rolls. The major advantage to the project in creating test reels was the possibility of controlling for the huge variation in the visual characteristics of on the Essay original source materials, as well as controlling for subtle variations in the chemical processing of archival microfilm over time. In order to how many did ray have establish the range of useful system image capture and on the Roots Essay, enhancement pre-sets, the project team developed a second benchmarking system which will be used selectively in african the production conversion phase of the project. In essence, the planned approach seeks to control for the capabilities of Lying on the Roots various display devices (CRT screens and laser printers). The fundamental assumption of this benchmarking process is Industrial that History examples, that visual comparison of hard-copy output from the microfilm imaging system should be made neither against original printed source materials nor against a display screen, but rather against Lying on the Essay, digital images of the original source materials. Kids Did Ray Charles Have! Furthermore, the approach assumes that 100 percent benchmarking of all converted materials is not necessary for establishing a viable quality control system. The following is a summary of the image benchmarking process planned but not fully implemented in the setup phase.

Choose a sample of hard-copy originals, along with print negative counterparts. On The! Digitize portions of the original volume at 600 dpi (title page, table of contents, selected illustrations, indexes) using a calibrated Xerox WG-40 flat-bed scanner with as many of the enhancement features invoked as possible and practical, and following the operational guidelines developed by Cornell University. Industrial Inventions That Changed History Essay! Produce laser prints at 600 dpi on the Xerox DocuTech. Digitize the identical pages from the microfilm print negative version. Produce laser prints at Lying Roots, 600 dpi on the Xerox DocuTech. Compare matching prints under an eye-loupe (10X magnification), paying particular attention to letter fill-in or drop-out or fill in, highlights and shadows in line drawings, etc. Choose one combination of earnshaw heights filter settings for the microfilm scanner that achieves most closely the appearance of the Lying Essay digitized original. Note the characteristics of the film source, once maximum quality has been obtained.

Scan a volume with similar basic characteristics without benchmarking from the original. Compare prints of benchmarked volume with unbenchmarked one; adjust settings accordingly; note sources of discrepancies for how distribution to provide customer future reference. Lying On The! If the major goal of a conversion system is to maximize quality in a production environment, then it is catherine heights, essential to recognize that compromises will be necessary. The next phase of the project will begin to generate systematic information to on the answer the following questions: What is the kids did ray nature of these compromises? Are they acceptable to users, to Lying on the Roots Essay librarians, and to the preservation community? What are the advantages of the alternatives to Essay the choices made for purposes of high-speed production?

What research and development needs to Lying Roots be undertaken to establish parameters for explain how distribution is arranged to provide customer machine-assisted quality control? Benchmarking from original source materials may be an acceptable solution in a pilot project, but in the real world of research, library preservation microfilm may be the Roots ONLY form in which the original source now exists. We anticipate that the experience of converting 10,000 volumes from microfilm with only minimal reference to the original hard-copy published version will provide the library community with significant practical information on image conversion and image enhancement. The project also seeks to address the question: How can digital imaging technology provide enhanced intellectual access effectively and efficiently? Intellectual access, in the context of Project Open Book, is kids did ray, defined simultaneously in Lying Roots Essay two distinct senses.

First, intellectual access is the suite of traditional practices of bibliographic control that organize books, serials, archives series, and other recorded knowledge in standard ways such as title, author, place and date of publication, and subject. When sophisticated database management tools are linked to the capabilities of digital imaging systems, intellectual access has a second meaning, namely, the set of tools and techniques that permits users to grasp and make use of the content structure of the material, often represented through tables of contents, lists of illustrations or tables, and word indices to the full text of the material. In providing direct and ready access inside a published work transformed from the linear format of explain is arranged to provide customer convenience microfilm, digital imaging technology holds great promise of effecting the usefulness and useability of preserved materials. One challenge for Yale in Project Open Book is to identify efficient ways to use existing database technology and standards to develop structural indexes for large, complex, and varied published (and sometimes unpublished) source materials. More pointedly, the project needs to reconcile mid-nineteenth century publishing practices with late 20th century technology. In its current single-platform configuration, the image conversion workstation provides for direct linkage to Yale Library's bibliographic database, Orbis, via a high-speed Ethernet connection.

Library patrons will utilize the on the public access mode of Orbis to search among those portions of Yale's collections described online using the usual searching conventions, such as Boolean logic operators, to locate materials available in image format. The user interface, in its ideal configuration, would permit seamless hyper-linkages between the Orbis searching engine and Industrial Inventions that History Essay examples, the image server, allowing patrons to view image and index data for a title on a single access workstation without leaving the on the core program. The master plan for Project Open Book describes the way bibliographic, image, and index data would display in a distributed computing environment. Currently, viewing of image files is only possible on dedicated access workstations, although the project is proceeding as if the overall goal will be met by the end of Phase IV. In the setup phase, the production team established the mechanism for informing patrons of the existence of image formats and identified the procedures for establishing unique identification numbers for Essay image files to provide the essential links between the Lying on the Roots Essay image database and Orbis. Xerox's document management system is only used to log each item's unique identifier as it appears in the Orbis system and to log brief author and short title information. During the explain how distribution convenience next phase, reformatting technicians will modify the bibliographic record for converted titles to indicate that an image version of the book or serial is available for consultation, using a standard phrase and noting the unique identifier of the image file. Access to the content of an imaged document is Lying Roots, provided by Industrial Changed History examples way of a separate relational database. Using Xerox's Document Structure Editor software, reformatting technicians apply page numbers, establish hierarchical nesting of images, and label the indexing levels as appropriate.

In a volume scheduled for conversion, for example, the technician might identify the title page and associated prefatory materials, label the table of Roots contents and other finding aids in the book, including back-of-the-book indexes and heights, lists of illustrations, and indicate where each discrete chapter begins. A patron can then go directly to any of Lying Roots these structures. Charles! The structural information is contained in an RDO (Raster Document Object) file, which is Xerox's adaption of the proposed international Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format. An RDO file contains information about the structure of an image document, as well as a file location pointer for each page image in that document. Each page in the document is represented by a single TIFF (Tagged Image Format File) file. A TIFF file contains the digital data from the scanned page, along with a TIFF header which describes the characteristics of the image file, including the formula used to compress the digital data. Lying On The! A TIFF header is comparable in scope and function to the fixed field header in a MARC bibliographic record, and is analogous to an envelope that addresses and describes the contents in a structured way. Industrial Inventions Essay! Because the Xerox database system is partially proprietary, however, the on the Essay structure of a complex image document, such as a book, is west, displayable to the patron only with the use of Xerox software.

During the setup phase, the project team experimented with a number of approaches toward applying the document structure editor to a wide variety of mid-nineteenth and early twentieth century published materials. This was a period during which authors and publishers themselves experimented with the structure of the books they produced. Tables of on the Essay contents varied widely in their placement and level of detail. Similarly, word indexes to the content of Industrial a particular work took many forms and served a variety of purposes not commonly seen today. Lying Roots! Special lists of illustrations, glossaries of how many did ray charles terms, and other internal tools aided the reader in using a volume. Lying Roots! As the next phase of the project begins, Yale's production team will seek ways to apply the structural editor consistently, while recognizing the intense inconsistency of the west african music forms and formats of the materials being converted. At the very minimum, the actual page numbers of the volume will be applied and the images for a particular volume will be clustered under the title page, which will display first to on the Roots Essay the reader when the document is retrieved. If resources permit, at on Prohibition: A Failed Policy, least two intermediate levels of Lying indexing will be applied. The first of west music these will involve identifying and tagging each volume's internal finding aids, including tables of contents, word indexes, and special lists. A second level will cluster pages in logical intellectual groups, such as chapters, sub-parts, articles, or issues, based upon the specific structure of the work. Roots Essay! Our report on the next phase of the project will provide more detail on wuthering, indexing structures utilized.

The operational core of Project Open Book is sustained production-conversion of microfilm frames to digital images. The central workflow question of the setup phase was How might quality image conversion and indexing be obtained in a production environment? The project team isolated and investigated a number of independent factors that have a major impact on the rate of Lying Roots Essay conversion. Among the most important of these factors are the technical limitations of the scanning hardware (particularly the mechanics of winding and re-winding film on the scanner); incomplete bibliographic records and technical targets that hinder the preparation stage; the huge variation in the technical characteristics of preservation microfilm; the complex structure of many published materials or the nearly complete absence of structure (including page numbers) for others; weaknesses in Essay A Failed the user interface that complicate quality assurance activities (especially the Lying Roots Essay complexities of the zoom feature and how many kids charles have, the control of default filter settings); and, slow data transmission speeds on the network and within the integrated software system. During the next phase of the project, we anticipate that the networked, multi-workstation environment will produce an additional set of project management issues that will be described in Lying on the Roots Essay subsequent reports. During the setup phase, the project team outlined in some detail the four stages of the Essay conversion process and estimated the productivity rates of each of these stages. The conversion of 35 millimeter microfilm frames to digital images in some ways mirrors the initial creation of preservation microfilm itself.

The Preparation Stage begins with the application of the content selection criteria and ends with the mounting of the film on the conversion hardware equipment. The key preparation steps are: producing a print-out of the on the Roots appropriate bibliographic record for the title; marking the location of the first and final frames of each volume on the reel with removable silver tape; cleaning the film of dust; and, inspecting the microfilm on a light-table and sociopathy, noting a range of characteristics on the workform. Among the most important characteristics of the Lying Roots Essay filmed item that are noted on the workform are: reduction ratio, orientation, contrast, print type and size, condition of original, and the frequency of illustrations. Five density readings are taken for each volume and noted on the form, along with the average of these five readings. Kids Charles! Additionally, any special instructions for the reformatting technicians are noted on the workform, including obviously missing pages (often indicated by special targets inserted in the film sequence), gaps in the filming, excessive splices, and the actual page number of the last frame of the volume. Finally, a simple mock-up of the first and on the Roots, last pair of pages for the item is sketched on the workform. The silver tape and the mock-up are required because the Mekel scanner is not equipped with a mechanism for viewing film that is on Prohibition: A Failed, mounted on on the Roots, the scanner. Once the kids did ray have reel of microfilm has been mounted on the calibrated scanner, the Scanning Stage can begin. The key steps in the scanning process include creating a batch directory for the item with a unique file name, establishing the scanning cropping parameters based upon a test scan, selecting scanning options by entering the on the Roots Essay results of the film inspection from the workform, and beginning scanning in a continuous mode.

At its maximum capture rate of sociopathy vs psychopathy 600 dots-per-inch, the Mekel scanner actually converts one-half of each frame, representing an individual page, in Lying on the Roots a single pass through the vs psychopathy length of the Essay film. At the end of the sociopathy vs psychopathy volume, the technician rewinds the film to the beginning of the volume and on the, resets the scanner so that the second half of the frame, again representing a single page, can be scanned. West African! This technical solution for maximizing the Lying resolution of digital conversion requires that materials on the microfilm be oriented in a two-up cine mode, as opposed to a comic mode. The two-up orientation allows the scanner and how many kids did ray charles, associated software to separate two pages filmed as a single microfilm frame. Even though the conversion software provides for the scanning of individual page images in comic mode, the Roots Essay Mekel scanner can obtain a maximum resolution of only 300 dpi. During the scanning stage, the Essay A Failed Policy reformatting technician may re-scan an unacceptable image at any time and overlay the newly converted image on the old. The major reasons that re-scanning may be necessary include the failure of the edge-detection software, the presence of a particularly complex illustration, a suddenly poor alignment of the original item on the film, or skewing of the original in excess of 10 degrees. Lying On The Roots! The scanned batch must be imported into the Xerox Documents on Demand software system from the TurboScan software associated with the microfilm scanner. West African! The Xerox software converts the batch of discrete image files into a single image document (called a Raster Document Object or RDO) that can be managed as a single object. Once the scanned batch has been successfully imported, the Indexing Stage may begin.

Yale's report on Lying on the Essay, the next phase of catherine earnshaw wuthering Project Open Book will included a more complete description of the indexing process. During the indexing stage, the technician has the best opportunity to undertake image-by-image quality control, including the generation of proof-prints of Lying Essay selected images. Unacceptable images can be re-scanned immediately or flagged for re-scanning at a later stage of the process. The setup phase demonstrated that, given the technical configuration of the system, the most cost effective quality control takes place at the point of conversion, rather than farther down the production line. The final steps in the production-conversion process are those of the Quality Acceptance Stage, in which the quality and completeness of the imaged and indexed document is confirmed and the data saved to optical disk. The major steps in the stage include proof-reading the catherine accuracy of the structural index information and the pagination of the image document, producing selective benchmark printouts to re-check the quality of the image conversion process, re-scanning of highly problematical images, as necessary, transferring image and index data to magneto-optical disk, and the registering of the completed document in the Xerox Document Manager software. During the registration step, the on the technician enters the key descriptive attributes of the completed image document that will be required for searching and retrieval by users until seamless linkages are made with the Library's online catalog.

During the setup phase, the project team developed and west, evaluated two possible workflow models and validated an equipment configuration that supported the team's estimates of the on the Roots best workflow model. The team also compiled statistics on the rate of the overall conversion process, concentrating especially on the time required to Inventions that History Essay convert microfilm frames in continuous mode. Based upon the experience of converting 100 volumes in Lying Essay a production-conversion mode, we estimate that 60 minutes will be required to complete the conversion of a typical 300-page volume from microfilm to digital imagery. This hour-long process breaks down as follows: 8 minutes for preparation activities, including visual inspection, density readings, workform completion, and preset selection; 25 minutes for digital conversion; 15 minutes for content indexing; and 12 minutes for quality assurance. Excluded from these estimates are a variety of document management activities that currently are quite time consuming and, therefore, will most likely be carried out in african music batch mode after hours. These tasks include file transfer from magnetic to optical disk and file backup. The setup phase defined the components of an issue that is critical to the overall success of Project Open Book, namely, a selection process grounded in specific selection criteria. One of the Lying on the Roots Essay four working hypotheses of the project is that scholars will find greater benefits from a cohesive, concentrated, and significant body of digital information. In the abstract, the question What is the virtual library? is far too complex a matter to be addressed meaningfully in a single pilot project at a single research library.

A guiding principle of Project Open Book, therefore, is that the selection issue should be focused, in operational terms, on catherine, an existing corpus of preserved materials whose long-term value has already been determined, and then further defined by identifying cohesive subsets of this corpus that can meet present teaching and scholarship needs of the university. Finally, the field of materials qualified for conversion will be narrowed by applying technical criteria designed to maximize the quality of the converted microfilm image and the productivity of the conversion process. Existing Microfilm: Yale will not create preservation microfilm specifically for Project Open Book. The selection process is Roots Essay, simplified for on Prohibition: A Failed the project, therefore, because Yale will draw on the rich collection of microfilmed monographs and serials that it has created over Roots a decade of large-scale brittle book preservation projects funded in part by that Changed History Essay the National Endowment for the Humanities. In general these collections include items from the period 1830 to 1950 that have already had significant curatorial review and been judged worthy of long-term preservation. Among the microfilmed collections that will be tapped for digital conversion are the 25,000 volume American History monographs collection, the 22,000 volume European History collection (excluding the United Kingdom), the 3,200 volume French History collection, and Lying, the 10,000 volume History of Economics and Political Science collection. This latter collection is part of an ongoing NEH project, and another 10,000 volumes will be filmed in the next year. In addition to these large and intellectually cohesive collections, Project Open Book has at its disposal some 5,000 microfilmed volumes of high-use items that were preserved on demand from the entire corpus of humanities collections at Yale.

Content Usefulness: First and foremost, Project Open Book is a pilot research and development program within the how many did ray charles have Yale community. As such, ongoing evaluation by Lying on the Roots Essay a subset of african music potential users of the image library is crucial to the success of the project. The image library created in the project must be used relatively frequently in Lying Essay order for a systematic evaluation program to be implemented. Content usefulness as a selection criterion, therefore, is defined as those clusters of materials from the overall microfilm pool with known relevance to the ongoing teaching and Industrial Changed History Essay, research program of Yale's humanities scholars. Furthermore, the relevance of the collection must be tied to a commitment from university scholars and students to participate aggressively in the evaluation program. Selection by content usefulness will not involve item-by-item decision making, but instead will be a matter of identifying classification clusters, from the Old Yale and Library of Congress schemes, within large pools of preservation microfilm that hold promise of contributing to ongoing teaching and Roots Essay, scholarship over the next two years.

Technical Characteristics: Given the known technical limitations of the Inventions Changed History Essay hardware/software configuration, a set of basic technical selection criteria must be applied to the microfilm collection, on a title-by-title or reel-by-reel basis, prior to acceptance for conversion. Selection by on the technical characteristics of the input source allows for the convergence of maximum conversion quality at an optimum production rate. West African Music! The overall goal of the selection process is to be as inclusive as possible and to attempt to respond to any special technical challenges that arise during the course of routine conversion. Any given volume will not be excluded capriciously for technical reasons. Among the basic technical criteria that will be applied to Lying on the Roots each reel and/or title that has passed through the did ray charles content filter are: Film Stock: Input source will be 35 millimeter silver halide microfilm. The duplicate negative (2N) should be used for conversion. Conversion from on the Roots Essay, positive microfilm (3P) is slower and of slightly lower quality because of image degradation in the copying process. The master negative (1N) should never be used for digital conversion, given the risk of damage to the preservation copy. Image Density: The average density readings from the technical targets should be within the range specified in the RLG Preservation Microfilming Handbook for normal exposures (1.0 to 1.30).

A minimum of two readings should be taken per title from the technical target, with a preference for five readings from sociopathy, two separate technical targets for each title. Additional readings from the Essay body of the item itself should be obtained as needed to how distribution customer convenience construct a full portrait of the volume's density. Orientation: Original materials should be filmed two-up in on the Roots cine-mode with a limited number of vs psychopathy full-frame exposures from Lying Roots, any particular volume. Random full-frame exposures (e.g., fold-out maps or illustrations) require interrupting the continuous scanning mode of the equipment, manually adjusting the settings, and then re-setting the software to resume continuous mode. Reduction Ratio: An accurate measure of the reduction ratio is crucial to the proper conversion of microfilmed materials. The reduction ratio may either be obtained from the technical targets that precede the filmed item or from the bibliographic record.

In the absence of the reduction ratio figure noted at the time of filming, the reduction ratio may be calculated by reference to the original item. The time to have re-calculate the reduction ratio in this manner, however, may add substantially to the cost of converting the item. Condition of Film: Film stock should be relatively clean and free of scratches, redox blemishing, or major processing water-spots. Additionally, because film splices may result in scanner error, the number of internal splices (as opposed to splices between volumes) should not exceed RLG's recommendation of six for the entire reel. Additionally, the setup phase has demonstrated that the quality and rate of digital image conversion are substantially improved when the following characteristics are present in the microfilm source: Consistency of average density across the width of the reel, across the length of the title, and from title-to-title throughout the reel.

Image conversion proceeds more rapidly and more reliably the greater the consistency of microfilm image quality across the reel. Clearly defined edges in the original source material filmed, as measured by a rapid shift from black to white on the film. Roots Essay! The accuracy of page-by-page conversion depends in to provide customer convenience part on the implementation of edge-detection software. If original materials were severely yellowed (faded or discolored) or if the edges were cracked, chipped, dog-eared, or otherwise not clearly defined, the edge-detection software can be fooled. Wide exposures complicate the system setup procedures and, therefore, increase the time required to convert the volume. Frame exposures should not be set nearer than three millimeters from the Roots Essay edge of the film. The gutter of A Failed a bound volume should be rigorously centered in the film aperture. Avoid creep of the center line of the material across the film, which slows production as scanner settings are readjusted. The alignment of materials should be square to the edge of the film. Although software can de-skew a digital image tilted up to 10 degrees from Lying on the Essay, square, the process is very time consuming and is arranged customer convenience, therefore expensive. Although the absence of Lying Roots one or all of these factors should not necessarily be grounds for exclusion from conversion, it is important to recognize that the cost of sociopathy working around the limitations implied by the absence of a consistent, high-quality input source (whether microfilm or paper) most likely will either substantially increase the cost of conversion, due to Roots the necessity to devote extra time and effort to tweaking individual images, or will substantially lower the overall quality of the converted images.

Given the fundamental principle that the digital library created in Project Open Book must have value to contemporary users in the Yale Library, we expect the selection of materials for conversion to proceed in tandem with the process of project evaluation. The focus of the evaluation is on the useability of the system in enhancing access to preserved materials and the usefulness of the materials themselves for scholarship when converted to image form. Our principal hypotheses is that digital image systems are at least as useful for research and at least as useable as their hard copy and microfilm counterparts for researching the same topic. The clusters of issues to be investigated and systematic information to be gathered include the usefulness for research purposes of image content, document structure indexes, and linkages to the local online catalog, compared to A Failed Policy traditional access and browsing methods; the usefulness and quality of the user interface, screen displays, and Lying Roots Essay, local printing capability, as well as the vs psychopathy need for Lying on the Roots Essay these and Policy, additional tools and capabilities; success in retrieving relevant information sources when the structure and overall content of the Roots Essay database is largely known; and, the Inventions that characteristics of the Lying on the Roots Essay user population, especially its visual grasp of sociopathy vs psychopathy display screen layout, familiarity with content of the Lying image database, and range of experience with online searching or the use of research resources in electronic form. The project team, with the Inventions Changed History help of the Steering Committee, has begun to identify user groups in the Yale community who are willing to Lying test the usefulness of the materials selected for conversion and the useability of the end product of the conversion process itself, including the Policy document structure editing, and Lying on the Essay, the user interface.

One such user group will consist of a faculty member and students enrolled in specific courses involving primary research in the humanities. Material relevant to the class would have been digitized earlier in sociopathy vs psychopathy the project and the use of the Lying digital library would be a required assignment for at least half of the class. The second half of the class would be required to use materials on microfilm and/or original bound formats. Class members would provide feedback on the nature and on Prohibition:, quality of the imaging system and the research papers produced in the course could be evaluated for their use of image-based, as well as traditional library materials. Such modified controlled field experiments promise to provide valid and reliable assessments of both the Lying on the Essay useability of the system and kids did ray charles have, the usefulness of the materials in the digital library for scholarly research. Yale University Library is Lying on the Roots, now prepared to embark on the third phase of Project Open Book--the production-conversion of 3,000 volumes of the projected 10,000 volume digital library. In this phase Yale will identify the requirements for effective and economical digital conversion from how distribution is arranged, microfilm images.

Given the optimal scanner settings and the workflow configuration as determined during the setup phase, work in the third phase will validate the production-conversion model developed in the setup phase, attempt to resolve any problems that arise from Lying on the Roots, a three-workstation environment, and seek further to optimize productivity in the process. The third phase will also examine the requirements for intellectual access to the digital library through the addition and use of electronic links between the scanned images and the standard apparatus--pages, tables of contents, indices, chapters, and so on--by which complex documents are typically organized. How Distribution Is Arranged Customer Convenience! This phase will systematically incorporate user access capabilities into the project. Lying On The Roots! Yale will add a view/access workstation in the library during this phase and will also introduce a network accessible document server with an optical disk jukebox. Earnshaw! The introduction of wider access to the digital library will enable Yale to Roots Essay execute its plans to vs psychopathy evaluate user responses to the imaging system during this phase. Yale must be able to understand and on the Essay, demonstrate its ability to provide the image document library as a secure and dependable network service. During the next phase, Yale will begin to develop such an ability.

The growing document library and the enhanced conversion, storage, and vs psychopathy, access subsystems achieved in the third phase of Project Open Book will create a solid foundation for multiple and concurrent networked access to the image library. In the final phase of the project--the networked distribution phase--Yale will continue the Lying high-volume effort begun earlier and provide access to the growing digital library over the campus network. Formal evaluation of user responses will continue. African Music! Yale will explore issues of on the Roots network access and consider the explain how distribution to provide customer convenience costs and benefits of using service bureaus for digital conversion and document structure editing. The deliberate phased approach of the project is a pivotal component of the overall strategy to achieve the critical objectives of the project. At the completion of Project Open Book in 1996, the Yale Library, with its vendor and university partners and with the support of Lying on the its collaborators at History Essay examples, other institutions, will have thoroughly examined the means, costs, and benefits of Lying Roots converting large quantities of preserved library materials from microfilm to digital imagery. African! Acknowledgements: We wish to thank the Commission on Preservation and Access for its support of Project Open Book. Roots Essay! The support staff of the Xerox Corporation, in Industrial that Changed History Essay particular Rob Martella, were responsive to our needs for training, technical assistance, and product upgrades. Similarly, the Amitech Corporation provided ongoing technical support for the microfilm scanning hardware and software.

At Yale, we gratefully acknowledge the Lying support of the members of the convenience Project Open Book Steering Committee. Finally, the setup phase was in large part made possible through the willing and enthusiastic work of the Project Team, composed of the authors of this report plus Donald J. Waters, Greg Kaisen, and Robert Halloran. Project Open Book Conversion Workstation. The following technical manuals document the operation of the hardware and software components of Lying on the Roots Essay Yale's digital imaging system. Operating Instructions and Maintenance Manual for the Mekel M400XL Microfilm Digitizer , Manual #5052, 1989. (Mekel Engineering, Inc., Diamond Bar, CA) Amitech Turbo Scan Software , V3.0. Installation and Operation Manual. (Amitech Corporation, Fairfax, VA) IPT Scan Optimizer , V6.0., 1991. (Image Processing Technologies, Inc., Vienna, VA) Xerox Documents on A Failed Policy, Demand , V2.0C, 1994. XDM/XQM User Guide. (Xerox Corporation, Webster, NY) Donald J. Waters. From Microfilm to Digital Imagery: On the feasibility of a project to study the Lying on the Roots costs and benefits of converting large quantities of preserved library materials from microfilm to explain to provide convenience digital images , (Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Lying on the Roots Essay, Access, 1991). Anne R. Kenney and Lynn K. Personius. A Testbed for Advancing the role of Digital Technologies for Library Preservation and Access: Final Report by Cornell University to the Commission on Preservation and Access , (Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1993).

Donald J. Waters and Shari Weaver. Sociopathy Vs Psychopathy! The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book (Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1992). Glossary of Imaging Technology , Technical Report TR2-1992, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1988). On The Roots! Recommended Practice for Quality Control of Image Scanners , ANSI/AIIM Standard MS44-1988, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1988). Nancy E. Elkington, editor, RLG Preservation Microfilming Handbook , (Mountain View, CA: The Research Libraries Group, 1992). Resolution as it Relates to Photographic and Electronic Imaging , Technical Report TR26-1993, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1993. Standard Recommended Practice--Monitoring Image Quality of Roll Microfilm and Microfiche Scanners , ANSI/AIIM Standard MS49-1993, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1993). Practice for Operational Procedures/Inspection and Quality Control of First-generation, Silver Microfilm of Documents , ANSI/AIIM MS23-1991, (Washington, D.C.: Association for Information and Image Management, 1991). Patricia J. Smith, Xerox DocuTech: 'Print Shop' All in One, The Seybold Report on Publishing Systems 22 (22 June 1993): 2-21. Waters, From Microfilm to Digital Imagery , pp25-6. Copyright 2014 Council on Library and Information Resources . All rights reserved.

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ESTUDIOS SOBRE MULTILINGUISMO Y CREACION: Eje prioritario de la politica europea. El multilinguismo es un fenomeno esencial para comprender la historia de la cultura occidental. Roots Essay. El termino multilinguismo describe el hecho de que una persona o una comunidad sea multilingue, es decir que sea capaz de expresarse en varias lenguas. West African Music. El caso mas frecuente es el bilinguismo incluso el trilinguismo cuando dos o tres lenguas son utilizadas por la misma persona o por la misma comunidad. Roots Essay. Asi como lo muestra esta definicion, existen un multilinguismo individual y un multilinguismo colectivo . El multilinguismo se ha convertido en un asunto internacional importante porque, estos ultimos anos, es percibido por los que lo defienden como una solucion al problema de la desaparicion de numerosas lenguas. Industrial Inventions History Essay Examples. Sabemos en efecto que entre el 50 % y el 90 % de las lenguas son amenazados de extincion y deberian desaparecer en 50 anos1. I. Essay. INICIATIVAS EUROPEAS A FAVOR DEL MULTILINGUISMO.

Segun los estudios estadisticos, las personas bilingues y plurilingues son mayoritarias en el mundo: mas de 90 % de los estados que engloban el 91,2 % de la poblacion mundial es multilingue. To Provide Customer Convenience. Y sin embargo, a excepcion de algunos paises, la diversidad cultural y linguistica no es siempre reconocida ni promovida a los niveles politico, linguistico y social. Lying Roots Essay. Este hecho conllevo a la adopcion de la Declaracion universal sobre la diversidad linguistica y cultural por los 185 estados miembros de la Unesco (2001). Earnshaw Wuthering Heights. Tambien impulso iniciativas diversas, como el Ano europeo de las lenguas , instaurado por el Parlamento europeo en 2001; los Congresos Europeos del plurilinguismo, iniciados en 2005; el programa de la Comision Europea Mientras mas lenguas conoces, mas humano eres (noviembre de 2005); la creacion del Grupo de Alto Nivel sobre el Multilinguismo (GHNM) el 20 de septiembre de 2006 por decision de la Comision Europea o el Ano internacional de las lenguas , declarado por la ONU en 2008. Finalmente, a peticion de la Comision Europea, los expertos internacionales realizaron un Informe sobre la contribucion del multilinguismo a la creatividad en julio de 2009.

Este estudio tenia como objetivo de comprender el lazo entre el conocimiento de las lenguas y la creatividad (p. On The Roots Essay. 4). Catherine Heights. Esta investigacion se inicia por el hecho que, de una parte, aunque una gran parte de la poblacion mundial es bilingue, estamos de alli solo en los primeros balbuceos cuando se trata de comprender las consecuencias del multilinguismo (p. Roots. 5). African. Este informe subraya por otro lado que pocas investigaciones existentes a menudo tratan acerca de la etnicidad o la cultura, y olvidan examinar el papel del lenguaje.

Existen muy pocas investigaciones de calidad sobre la dimension linguistica vinculada a la creatividad (p. On The. 10). II. Industrial Inventions Changed Essay. VENTAJAS COGNITIVAS DEL MULTILINGUISMO. Vivimos en un periodo de la historia donde la innovacion por el rodeo de creatividad esta considerada como un motor del desarrollo economico y social, reconociendose desde hace poco, que el multilinguismo tiene incidencia sobre la creatividad en varios campos, ya sea la educacion, la cohesion social y la realizacion economica, incluso la salud.

El Estudio de la Comision Europea sobre la contribucion del multilinguismo a la creatividad justamente puso en evidencia los campos donde el multilinguismo tiene un impacto positivo sobre la creatividad. Lying Roots Essay. El informe sostiene por ejemplo que: De manera general, existe un vinculo entre el multilinguismo y la creatividad; El multilinguismo mejora el acceso a la informacion; El multilinguismo engendra otras maneras de organizar el pensamiento; El multilinguismo permite percibir de manera diferente el mundo que nos rodea; Aprender una nueva lengua aumenta el potencial creativo del individuo. Segun este informe, el multilinguismo contribuye a que el pensamiento se vuelva mas flexible . Sociopathy. Un pensamiento flexible aumenta la capacidad de razonar y por consiguiente a tener un pensamiento adaptable que permite responder de manera original a las demandas que emanan de diferentes situaciones (p.6).

Hoy en dia, la capacidad de comprender un problema o una situacion desde diferentes angulos constituye una habilidad importante. El estudio supone por otro lado que el cerebro bilingue o multilingue acostumbrado al tratamiento linguistico multiple tendria un control cognitivo mas grande que el de los individuos monolingues, lo que constituye una ventaja cognitiva importante que puede aumentar el potencial creativo. On The Roots. Las consecuencias de este tratamiento multitarea mejorado estan vinculadas a la aptitud de resolver los problemas, con el pensamiento abstracto y con la formulacion de las hipotesis creadoras. Otra ventaja cognitiva considerable de un sujeto multilingue reside en conciencia metalinguistica mas grande . How Many Kids Did Ray Charles Have. Diferentes investigaciones demostraron en efecto que un nino que habla otras lenguas diferentes a su lengua de escolarizacion, mejora el dominio de esta ultima. Lying Roots. En caso del adulto, cuando la consciencia metalinguistica se desarrolla por la interaccion de dos o varias lenguas, () Tener acceso a diferentes lenguas ayuda a sintetizar los conceptos y al distinguirlos unos de otros, lo que pudiera hacer emerger nuevas ideas. Vs Psychopathy. De esa manera, el pensamiento metalinguistico esta vinculado a la expansion conceptual creadora, con potencial de creatividad (p. Lying On The Essay. 8).

Por otro lado, el conocimiento de mas de una lengua mejora las capacidades de aprendizaje de nuevas lenguas . Sociopathy Vs Psychopathy. Hablar varias lenguas tiene incidencias sobre las capacidades de memorizacion, que se encuentran reforzadas considerablemente. Lying Roots Essay. Los investigadores en neurociencias pudieron comprobar que hasta una exposicion limitada a una lengua otra que la lengua materna modifica la organizacion de los circuitos neuronales y la plasticidad neuronal. Otras ventajas cognitivas subrayadas en el informe son una facilidad mas grande de comunicacion interpersonal y una reduccion del debilitamiento mental debido al envejecimiento. Music. En efecto, comprobamos que la decadencia de ciertos procesos cognitivos, podria verse disminuida gracias a un rendimiento de memorizacion mas grande debido al aprendizaje de varias lenguas. III. Lying Essay. EL LAZO ENTRE EL MULTILINGUISMO Y EL MUNDO DE TRABAJO. Los estudios sobre el mundo del trabajo pudieron subrayar un rendimiento mas grande sobre el plan economico de los equipos constituidos por personas de diferentes nacionalidades que hablaban diferentes lenguas en comparacion con los equipos que tenian las mismas calidades profesionales pero cuyos miembros tenian la misma lengua y la misma cultura. West Music. El estudio Multilinguismo y competitividad de las empresas [Effects the Essay European economy of catherine earnshaw wuthering heights shortages of on the Roots foreign language skills in wuthering, enterprise], solicitado en 2007 por la Direccion general educacion y cultura de la Comision Europea y realizado por el UK National Center for on the Essay Languages en colaboracion con un equipo de investigadores internacionales, establece un vinculo directo entre el multilinguismo y la competitividad economica: Una parte importante de los mercados perdidos por las empresas europeas lo es a causa de un deficit de competencias linguisticas.

Teniendo como base la muestra analizada, consideramos que el 11 % de las PYMEs exportadoras (a saber, 945 000 empresas) no se hallan en situacion de explotar oportunidades comerciales debido a dificultades de comunicacion2. IV. How Distribution. INVESTIGATIONES SOBRE MULTILINGUISMO. Aunque los estudios de creatividad son relativamente recientes, la concienscia sobre los asuntos del multilinguismo, puesta en evidencia por la comunidad internacional3, ha llevado a los investigadores a interesarse de cerca en este tema en varios campos cientificos. La sociolinguistica estudia el multilinguismo desde varias decadas y los trabajos en este campo son numerosos. Lying On The. Sin embargo, se refieren casi exclusivamente al lenguaje oral e intrinsecamente estan vinculados a las cuestiones politicas como la politica linguistica de un estado, los problemas de identidad, la ensenanza de las lenguas minoritarias, etc. En lo referido a los psicolinguistas, estos se interesan por la cuestion del multilinguismo en el marco de la adquisicion del lenguaje por los ninos. Did Ray Charles Have. Asi, la psicolinguistica deja al margen el funcionamiento cognitivo del adulto y sobre todo el campo del escrito, la investigacion que nos interesa.

Desde hace algunos anos, emergieron las investigaciones sobre la creatividad en psicologia cognitiva, pero no adoptaron la perspectiva multilingue4. Las investigaciones sobre el multilinguismo en el dominio de la neurolinguistica son particularmente prometedoras5. On The Roots Essay. Desde los anos 2000, emergio un nuevo campo de estudios sobre el cerebro de individuos plurilingues. Essay On Prohibition: A Failed. Este campo de investigacion es tanto mas importante dado que, como es conocido, los emisores monolingues representan una minoria en la poblacion mundial. Essay. Los primeros resultados de estas investigaciones muestran que los sujetos bilingues y plurilingues poseen un cierto numero de ventajas cognitivas en comparacion con los sujetos monolingues. Explain How Distribution To Provide. No obstante, estas investigaciones no tratan el campo del escrito y tienen otros inconvenientes. Lying On The Roots Essay. En efecto, este tipo de estudios trata siempre con un numero limitado de sujetos.

Pues, los resultados deben ser interpretados con gran prudencia en cuanto a su generalizacion al funcionamiento del cerebro multilingue. How Many. Por otro lado, la mayoria de las investigaciones en neurolinguistica se apoya en el ingles (+ otra lengua), lo que limita notablemente el campo exploratorio y el alcance cientifico de estas investigaciones. Hoy en dia, el unico campo que ha tomado como objeto el multilinguismo del escrito es el literario. Lying Essay. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, el enfoque critico clasico de la produccion de los escritores plurilingues se ha limitado la mayoria de las veces, al analisis de las obras publicadas6. History Essay Examples. Frente a esto, el enfoque genetico basado en la observacion de los borradores de los escritores multilingues tiene la ventaja de ofrecerles a los investigadores los rastros empiricamente observables de los procesos cognitivos subyacentes a la escritura.

Por otro lado, el numero de corpus disponibles es importante y las lenguas practicadas por los sujetos (los escritores) son variadas tambien como sus combinaciones linguisticas. V. Roots Essay. MULTILINGUISMO Y CRITICA GENETICA: INVESTIGACIONES EMERGEANTES. El campo de exploracion que cruza el estudio del multilinguismo y de la creatividad en la perspectiva genetica es completamente innovador. Essay On Prohibition: A Failed. Se trata de colocarse a la cabeza de las investigaciones consideradas por la Comision europea como esenciales para hacer reconocer que el multilinguismo europeo es un incentivo para el crecimiento economico y la cohesion social () Y es uno de los desafios del futuro (p. Roots Essay. 25). En ausencia por ahora de investigaciones cientificas solidas, los estudios sobre los manuscritos podran demostrar cientificamente el impacto positivo del multilinguismo sobre la creatividad en el campo del escrito.

En efecto, el Informe sobre la contribucion del multilinguismo a la creatividad que analiza un gran numero de actividades humanas donde se supone una relacion estrecha entre el multilinguismo y la creatividad, lamenta la ausencia de pruebas cientificas de esta relacion. How Many Kids Charles Have. Por esta razon, el informeinsiste en la importancia del desarrollo de los nuevos campos de investigacion para poder asentar sobre bases cientificas solidas el impacto positivo del multilinguismo sobre la creatividad. Lying Roots. El analisis genetico de los rastros materiales observables en los documentos de trabajo de los escritores multilingues posee una gran ventaja en el campo emergente de investigaciones sobre el multilinguismo y la creatividad. West Music. El mismo, inaugura un campo nuevo y original de investigacion que aportara datos cientificos sobre el multilinguismo y la creatividad en la escritura7. Todo especialista de los escritores multilingues de siglos XIX y XX ha sido llevado en su trabajo a estudiar los manuscritos en lenguas diferentes a la del pais de pertenencia del escritor. On The. Encontramos alli los rastros de interconexion linguistica que se presentan bajo formas diversas: Interferencias en la sintaxis, la morfologia, la fonetica o la formacion lexical; Introduccion en la narracion en una lengua dada terminos aislados o fragmentos enteros de texto en otra lengua; Idas y vueltas de una lengua a otra; Pasaje de una lengua, escogida en la etapa de planificacion de la obra, a otra lengua en el momento de la textualizacion. Estos fenomenos han sido mencionados en escritos criticos diversos sin ofrecer sin embargo, un analisis exhaustivo de los datos manuscritos disponibles ni proponer una tentativa de teorizacion.

Es lo que seria importante hacer en el marco de las investigaciones geneticas sobre los borradores de los escritores multilingues. Es necesario subrayar que estamos tratando con datos muy variados. Explain Is Arranged To Provide Convenience. Asi, escritores diversos, aunque perteneciendo en la misma epoca y al mismo medio social, no explotan su potencial multilingue de la misma manera. On The Roots. Asi, en el caso de Pouchkine, por ejemplo, el frances es utilizado sobre todo en el momento de la planificacion de modo que los planes son a menudo anotados en frances. Catherine Earnshaw Heights. Esto probablemente se explica por el hecho que el frances permite expresar mas facilmente los conceptos abstractos y condensar una situacion en un solo termino. Lying On The. No obstante, tan pronto como Pouchkine comienza a dar forma a su obra, es decir desde las primeras tentativas de textualizacion, es la lengua rusa que aparece en la escritura.

La funcionalidad de la separacion linguistica es menos facil comprender en caso de Tolstoi quien usaba frances a lo largo de su trabajo, como lo demuestran varios millares de hojas manuscritas. Earnshaw. En caso de Tolstoi, la lengua francesa participa en todas las etapas de escritura: en los planes, en las notas, en las libretas, en los guiones, en los borradores y hasta en el texto impreso. On The Essay. A veces una palabra francesa se introduce en el contexto ruso naturalmente, inconscientemente, como si se tratase de un termino que perteneciera al lexico comun. Catherine Earnshaw Wuthering. A veces, al contrario, la palabra rusa disponible no satisface al escritor, no mas que las sustituciones que procura efectuar, es entonces un termino frances que aparece por el como la solucion unica y satisfactoria. Lying On The Essay. La influencia del frances se encuentra por otro lado en las estructuras gramaticales y en las interferencias foneticas. Essay Policy. La alianza de estas dos lenguas en caso de Tolstoi es tan fuerte, que va hasta crear, en documentos personales asi como en las libretas o la correspondencia, o todavia al margen de los borradores o sobre las hojas sueltas, una lengua mixta franco-rusa. On The Essay. Estas notas franco-rusas jamas fueron objeto de estudio y, en raros extractos publicados, son anotadas como ilegibles.

Los escritores en condiciones de emigracion es un caso particularmente interesante. A Failed. En el siglo XX, el siglo de abandono de las tierras natales para millones de personas, un gran numero de escritores adopto una lengua extranjera para su escritura, manteniendo en su vida cotidiana su lengua materna. Lying Roots Essay. Los ejemplos son numerosos: Vladimir Nabokov, Ivan Turgueniev, Ivan Bounine, Elsa Triolet, Iossif Brodsky, Irene Nemirovsky, Nancy Huston, Andrei Makine, Emile Cioran, Samuel Beckett, por citar solo algunos. West Music. Sera cuestion de verificar si, en su trabajo, estos escritores verdaderamente abandonaron su lengua materna, como a menudo lo pretenden. On The. Y alli, frente a los textos impresos que efectivamente van en el sentido de las afirmaciones de los escritores8, solo los borradores ofrecen al investigador la posibilidad de poner en evidencia la relacion verdadera entre el multilinguismo del escritor y su creatividad. Para analizar la creatividad literaria de los escritores multilingues, conviene considerar la alternacion es decir la facilidad con la cual un individuo bilingue pasa de una lengua a otra segun el sujeto de que habla, la persona a quien se dirige y la presion social que sufre. Catherine Earnshaw Wuthering. Se supone que el individuo perfectamente bilingue utiliza ambas lenguas en principio indiferentemente en cualquier situacion, con la misma rapidez de procesamiento memoristico, la misma calidad de expresion y el mismo poder creativo.

Resumiendo, el bilingue perfecto utiliza dos codigos de modo completamente distinto, sin mezclar las lenguas. Lying On The. En efecto, el conocimiento perfecto de dos o de varias lenguas sobreentiende su funcionamiento independiente y autonomo donde la interferencia no tiene sitio. Industrial Changed History Essay. La interferencia revela a menudo un uso desfalleciente, por ejemplo el que caracteriza la utilizacion de una nueva lengua en curso del aprendizaje. Entonces, como lo muestran de modo notable los estudios previos, entre los escritores multilingues que tienen un peritaje linguistico incomparable y que, a menudo, aprendieron las lenguas extranjeras desde su infancia, el uso de otra lengua y de otro codigo linguistico no solo no esta excluido, sino que es muy frecuente. Lying On The. Ademas, lejos del uso o el conocimiento desfalleciente, este uso constituye una fuente notable de la creatividad linguistica para los escritores multilingues.

Los borradores de los escritores bilingues (o multilingues) representan un material unico que permite estudiar el impacto del uso de varias lenguas sobre la creacion literaria. Kids. Lejos de la especulacion de los analisis literarios clasicos, el enfoque genetico permite acceder a los rastros empiricamente observables como lo hacen los estudios experimentales. Lying Roots Essay. El rigor de una investigacion genetica ofrece al investigador la posibilidad de reconstituir el genesis verdadero de un acto creativo. El Informe sobre la contribucion del multilinguismo a la creatividad de la Comision Europea subrayo el hecho de que, en el campo del multilinguismo, la cosa mas importante que tarda en estudiar y en comprender, es el funcionamiento del pensamiento del individuo multilingue. Is Arranged. Podemos esperar que el estudio de los manuscritos de los escritores multilingues aporte avances importantes en este campo. 1 C. Roots. Grinvald, La disparition des langues , in explain to provide customer convenience, M. Lying. Vidard (ed.), LAbecedaire Scientifique des Curieux, Paris, France-Inter/Editions Sciences Humaines, 2009. 3 Ver para este sujeto el Informe final sobre la Contribucion del multilinguismo a la creatividad solicitada por la Direccion general Educacion y Cultura de la Comision Europea (Contrato de servicios publicos n EACEA / 2007 / 3995 / 2) y los actos del 1 er Congreso Europeo del plurilinguismo: F.-X. Wuthering. d'Aligny y alii (dir.), Plurilinguisme, interculturalite et emploi : Defis pour l'Europe , Paris, l'Harmattan, 2009.

4 T. Lying On The Essay. Lubart y alii, Psychologie de la creativite, Paris, Armand Colin, 2003. 5 Ver, por ejemplo, M. Vs Psychopathy. Paradis, A neurolinguistic theory of on the Roots bilingualism , Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2004. 6 Ver, a titulo de ejemplo, A. Sociopathy. Gasquet et M. Lying On The Essay. Suarez (eds.), Ecrivains multilingues et ecritures metisses : lhospitalite des langues, Clermont-Ferrand, Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, 2007. Industrial Inventions That Changed Examples. M. Lying On The Roots Essay. Oustinoff, Bilinguisme decriture et auto-traduction, Julien Green, Samuel Beckett, Vladimir Nabokov, Paris, LHarmattan, 2001. Sociopathy. S. Lying On The Roots. Benson, Les aventuriers de la langue fourchue : lecriture multilingue et la desintegration de lespace colonial , Tesis de doctorado, Universidad de Burdeos III, 2011. 7 Los primeros avances en este campo pertenecen en estos momentos al Instituto de textos y manuscriptos modernos (CNRS, Francia) que coorganizo con la Academia de las Ciencias de Rusia en 2007 un Symposio Internacional Multilinguismo y genesis de los textos: aspectos linguisticos y culturales . Explain To Provide Customer Convenience. Este symposio dio lugar a la publicacion de dos livros: O. Lying. Anokhina, N. How Many Kids Did Ray. Velikanova y alii (eds.), Multilinguismo y genesis de los textos , Moscu, IMLI RAN, 2010 (en ruso) y O. On The Essay. Anokhina (dir.), Multilinguismo y creatividad literaria , Academia Bruylant/Harmattan, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2011 (en frances)

8 Las politicas editoriales estatales tampoco dejan mucho espacio a la expresion multilingue. Larticle evoque linteret que la Commission Europeenne porte depuis quelques annees aux recherches sur le multilinguisme et la creativite. Catherine Wuthering Heights. Apres avoir evoque les domaines societaux et les disciplines scientifiques qui abordent cette problematique, lauteur avance lidee que les recherches sur le multilinguisme et la creativite litteraire, a travers le prisme des documents de travail des ecrivains et des traducteurs, apporteront des resultats scientifiques infaillibles attendus par la Communaute europeenne. Eje prioritario de la politica europea., Item [En ligne],

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What is the Lying Roots, Best Font for a Resume (+10 Examples Tips) What are the how many did ray charles have, best fonts for Lying Essay, a resume? Well, the best resume fonts are those that are easy to read. That’s the bottom line. If you use a common resume font that’s easy to read, you win. That’s all you have to do. No, there are no magical font that will get you more interviews. Some typefaces do seem to have a psychological impact on the reader.

Would you like to know which great resume fonts can make you seem more truthful or professional? Of course, you would. In this article you will find: The best resume fonts compared to the worst. Beautiful examples of how many kids charles how the best resume fonts look. Pros and cons for each recommended resume font to make your decision easier. Psychological tips on standard fonts to Lying Roots, use on a resume. Are you writing a resume for the first time?

Or are you a professional who could use some tips on how to west african, make a resume stand out? Either way, we've got you covered. Lying? Read our full guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) 20 Samples of the Worst and Best Resume Fonts. Let’s start with Calibri. Industrial Changed? Microsoft replaced Times New Roman with Calibri as the default font for Word in 2007. So, when you write your resume in Word without changing the font you’re using Calibri.

And there’s nothing wrong with that. Pro: As a default font, Calibri will not get messed up when a hiring manager opens your resume files. Plus it’s a professional and easy-to-read font. Con: As a default font, many other job seekers will also use Calibri. Lying On The Roots? That means your resume might not stand out from the others. If you want a less common font, put some thought into selecting one instead of going with what you’re given. Webdings isn’t even a font. It’s a typeface that uses pictures instead of letters.

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Sans Serif fonts are those that do not have the Lying on the, feet on letters like the “T” in earnshaw, Times New Roman. Designers describe them as fresh, modern, and good for resumes. Both the New York City metro and major corporations like BMW use Helvetica for Lying, their signs. Con: Helvetica only comes preloaded on Macs. Otherwise, you have to A Failed, buy the font to use it. A Bloomberg article attacked Courier as one of the worst resume fonts. That’s because Courier screams: “ I want my resume to look like I wrote it on Lying on the Essay a typewriter! ” You are not Jack Kerouac. Inventions Changed Essay Examples? You did not sit down and write your entire resume in one go on a typewriter. Lying On The Roots? (If you did, you might want to consider rewriting your resume.) So, your resume shouldn’t look like you wrote it on heights a typewriter. Luckhurst is also one of on the Roots those that believes Helvetica is the most beautiful font for Industrial Inventions Changed History Essay examples, resumes.

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It’s also a standard font for Microsoft Word which means it will show up on most computers. Con: If you’re looking for a modern resume font that’s going to stand out a little bit, Arial isn’t it. You might want to go with Garamond or other less obvious fonts. Or you might want to just pay for Helvetica. Yes, I shouldn’t have to tell anyone to avoid Comic Sans. Comic Sans is for writing the dialogue that appears in the speech bubbles of earnshaw wuthering heights comic books.

It was not designed for serious documents. That’s why it has become the Roots, font that other fonts push down on the playground. With that said, it’s pretty obvious why you should never, ever use it on vs psychopathy your resume. But what should you put on Lying on the Essay a resume? Are you sure you aren't forgetting anything? Just in case you want to find out, read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Georgia is the font used by the New York Times online.

It’s also used by did ray have, Yahoo, Amazon, and Twitter. The designers wanted to create a font that’s easy to read online, making it ideal if you plan to Lying on the Roots, send your resume as a PDF. Pro: You can find Georgia across writing platforms. Con: Georgia is customer convenience, accessible and a fine replacement font for Times New Roman. That may lead many other job seekers to use Georgia. So, again, if you want to Lying Roots, stand out you might want to go with something else. Now, there are no rules about explain how distribution is arranged to provide customer convenience, not using Times New Roman. Lying On The Essay? In fact, it is the most standard resume font. But that’s why you might want to avoid it.

Imagine you’re the west african music, hiring manager. You’re scanning one resume after another in Times New Roman. Then you come across a resume written in Georgia. It’s a similar font, but it's just different enough to Lying, be refreshing. Sociopathy? You might actually favor the resume written in Georgia for that simple fact alone.

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Especially if you know the Lying on the Essay, hiring manager is going to read it online and Essay on Prohibition:, not in print. Con: If you’re looking for a “wow” resume font, keep looking. On The Roots? Verdana doesn’t look all that different from Arial and sociopathy, Arial looks like Helvetica. In 2010, Ikea ditched a personalized version of Futura in favor of Verdana. The Ikea catalog is the third most printed document after the Lying Roots, Bible and Harry Potter. The Swedish furniture company felt that it was time to bridge the gap between digital and print. So, they chose Verdana. Futura looks good in on Prohibition: A Failed, print, but it can cause some hiccups for readers trying to consume text-heavy documents online.

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Pro: You don’t have to buy Proxima Nova if you’re using Google docs to kids, make your resume. Con: Proxima Nova is not a Microsoft Word font. So, if that’s the program you’re using to make your resume, you can’t use Proxima Nova unless you buy it. Want to go with the opposite of modern? Why not Trajan?

Trajan’s designer had had Roman inscriptions in mind when he made the font for Adobe. The font is all in caps, with no lowercase letters. So, using Trajan may make you feel like the Caesar of resumes. But, it will just make your resume look like a Steven Spielberg movie poster. Leading with an outdated resume objective will also make your resume look bad.

Read our guide to find out how to Lying on the, write a modern resume objective that will land you a job: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) Lukasz Dziedzic, a Polish typeface designer, created Lato. Explain To Provide Customer Convenience? It’s an open source font which means you can download and use it for free. Dziedzic was designing the font for a large corporate client in the beginning. Lying Essay? That’s why the typeface has both serious and catherine earnshaw heights, friendly qualities. He said the Lying on the Roots, dual nature of the font gave it the “feeling of the summer.” He named the font Lato, which is the explain, Polish word for summer. Pro: Lato is a corporate font. So, you can rest assured that it will work well on Essay your resume.

Con: Lato is not a standard Microsoft Word font. How Many Kids Did Ray? That might mean that it will not load when some hiring managers open your resume. Let’s say you want to go for something more personal and Lying on the Roots, less corporate. Wouldn’t a font that looks like handwriting work well? No.

You should personalize many aspects of the job-seeking process. Tailor your resume to the job description or write a personal email to the hiring manager. But don’t choose a popular resume font that looks handwritten. They’re kitschy and unprofessional like that picture of Essay on Prohibition: A Failed Policy dogs playing poker. Don't know how to Lying on the Essay, tailor your resume to a job description? It's one of the best things you can do for your resume. Read our full guide to find out how to tailor your resume: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description In an experiment for vs psychopathy, the New York Times, writer Errol Morris made a quiz to see if fonts changed the way people respond to information. The quiz was a true or false question presented in several different fonts. Takers were told that their answers would let them know if they were optimists or pessimists.

The results showed that Baskerville inspired people to select “true” more often. Pro: Hiring managers may find your resume more truthful if you use Baskerville. Con: Baskerville, like Garamond and Didot, is an older font and can give your resume a dated look. If you’re applying for on the Roots Essay, a job in a startup, choosing a hipper font might have more impact. Speaking of how distribution customer impact

Okay, so most of these preferred resume fonts are boring and common. Let’s go for something with impact. Hey, isn’t there a font called Impact? Why, yes. But you can’t use it on your resume. Because Impact is Lying on the, a bold font that’s difficult to read in explain is arranged to provide customer, the body of a resume. On The? So, if you want to make an impact, don’t use impact as a font.

Making an impact on a resume is about putting all the right skills in all the right places. How Many Did Ray? Need to know what skills are the Roots Essay, best for sociopathy, resumes? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) Didot is an Lying on the Essay elegant font designed by Firmin Didot just before the catherine earnshaw heights, French Revolution. Didot is not as old and classic as Garamond. But it was born during the Enlightenment and the reign of Marie Antoinette. So, it’s a good font for Roots, dressing up your resume. At the same time, many professionals associate the Essay Policy, font with fashion. Fashion brands like Ralph Lauren and Marks Spencer use Didot on their websites. So, keep in Essay, mind that there is a time and place for explain how distribution to provide, Didot. Essay? You don’t want your resume to suffer the same fate as Marie Antoinette.

Only use Didot under the right circumstances. Pro: Elegant font design that qualifies as the safest choice if you must go with something fancy. Con: You must buy Didot if you want to use it on A Failed Policy your resume. That’s the biggest drawback and Lying Essay, the reason why we’ve put it last on that our list of fonts. Also, Didot works best for fashion industry resumes.

Try something a little less ball gown and a little more business casual for corporate resumes. Villain Font: Vivaldi (Or any other swoopy, cursive font) Ask yourself. On The? Would this font look great on my wedding invitations? Or would Heathcliff find my love letters more romantic if I used this font? If you answer “yes” to either question when choosing a font, then you shouldn’t use it for music, your resume. That’s because fancy, cursive fonts are difficult to read.

And “hard to read font” translates to “bad resume font.” So, do not use fonts like Vivaldi under any circumstances. If it must be fancy, make it Didot. Pro Tip: Remember that different fonts are easier to read on screen and in print. Make sure you choose a font that works both ways. Print out on the Roots Essay, a copy of your resume to make sure. Also, when choosing a font size for a resume keep it between 10-12 points . Explain Is Arranged To Provide Convenience? Making your resume font size smaller just to smash in extra information is a big no-no. Choosing a proper resume font is all about making sure your resume is easy on the eyes of whoever is reading it. You’ll also want to make sure that you’re using a universal font. One that will open on every computer and Lying on the, appease Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.

There is west, some psychology behind how fonts work on the subconscious. That said, in the world of professional resume fonts, readability is king. Have a perfect resume font that didn’t make our list but got you your last job? Share it with us in the comments. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about Lying on the Roots, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in on the Roots Essay, a more accurate way. West African! WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, Ive revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think its fun (and because Im a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the Essay, essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. Its come a long way since then, and Im certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. On Prohibition: Policy! Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word heaven is one of the most frequently . Lying Roots! used words in the play Othello. Throughout the Industrial Inventions Changed, play, the word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. Heaven is on the, used in west, the first few acts mostly as a power or majesty of heaven, or as God(Heaven Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says Oh, let the heavens Give him.

Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. Final word count _______________ / 400 words minimum This writing sample fulfills the first writing assignment . in the course. Instructions: According to The Little Seagull Handbook, A descriptive writing provides specific details to show what something looks likeand perhaps how it sounds, feels, smells, and tastes (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 23). Descriptive arguments should make a clear dominant impression (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 367) and Lying on the Roots Essay should prove a point. Music! To the. Essay , Greatest hits albums , Linguistics 795 Words | 4 Pages. the Usage of the N Word When discussing the definition, effects, and Lying Roots Essay the history behind the Essay Policy, N word , it is Lying on the Roots Essay, interesting how . this word has managed to change over time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the how many kids did ray, N word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. This essay will go over Lying on the Roots, some.

Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the sociopathy, closest interpretations to the original version of on the Essay, The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. African Music! Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ? Brent Healey COMM 400 21 June, 2014 UMUC Blackhorse v. Lying On The! Pro Football Inc. Go Skins! An 82 year old cheer never to be . heard again on the gridiron In Blackhorse v. Pro Football Inc., the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board of the US Patent and explain is arranged convenience Trademark Office invalidated the trademark of the Washington Redskins. Filing in 2006, five plaintiffs, all Native Americans, have finally won a historic trademark cancellation case against one of the National Football Leagues (NFL) oldest. American football , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1793 Words | 6 Pages. On The Essay! The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and Essay on Prohibition: Policy hold your audience's attention, the on the Roots, three-section statement maximizes your opportunity.

The statements below provide ideas on earnshaw wuthering heights how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. Lying On The Roots! They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in Inventions Changed examples, our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in Lying Roots, the . future.

Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future. Sociopathy! The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of todays society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346).

In his essay , Slurring Spanish, Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the Lying Roots, language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an English Only education system. How Many Did Ray! Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. Lying Essay! ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Kids Did Ray Charles Have! Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didnt agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of respect and Lying Roots Essay a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Sociopathy Vs Psychopathy! Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the on the Essay, puts the art in heart, the Essay, word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the Lying Essay, word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in african, love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from a time when chivalry was the Lying Roots Essay, key to love.

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Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. on the use of Industrial that Essay, forbidden words in Lying Roots, the media, the individual responsibility of african, using curse words has increased. In this research . I have found that the use of curse words has heightened some peoples sensitivity to these words . Children are the most affected and the parents are not far behind. The use of Lying on the Roots, curse words in earnshaw wuthering heights, our media has changed our perspective; children and Lying on the Roots Essay teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with Ss and. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ne. West African Music! pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for multiple negatives and the desire of Lying on the Essay, many translators to catherine earnshaw heights render his words . exactly into English and you commonly get a text which is constructed of Lying Roots, double, treble and at least one octuple negative. This does not make for easy reading.

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It is Lying on the Essay, clear to wuthering see that the Roots Essay, education system falls short in challenging the creativity of our future society after a few years in the. CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks 100 1. Prose 20 marks 2. Verse 20 marks Textual Grammar 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350- 400 . words ] 12 marks 2. Rhetoric 12 marks 3. Project 20 marks Prose and Industrial Inventions that Changed examples Poetry (40 m/40P) Prose 1. On The Roots Essay! One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Essay A Failed, Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat William Wordsworth 2. Lying On The! You who never arrived Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. How Many Did Ray Charles Have! limit, and applicants and counselors frequently debated whether a tight 450- word essay was a wiser approach than a detailed . 900- word piece.

In 2011, that decision was taken away as the Common Application moved to a relatively short 500- word limit. Lying On The Roots! With the August 2013 release of CA4 (the newest version of the Essay, Common Application), the Lying Roots, guidelines have changed once again. CA4 sets the Industrial Changed History Essay, limit at 650 words (and a minimum of 250 words ). Lying On The Roots! And unlike earlier versions of the Common Application, the length limit. Cash flow , College admissions in the United States , College application 736 Words | 4 Pages. Kerrigan Lebloch., 2014) I learnt how communication is linked to some of the domains in the professional capabilities framework (PCF) this domain . highlighted how communication is Changed History, essential to social work professional practice when we were given an essay in professionalism at the beginning of the module. The link are domain 1, 2, 3,4,5,7 and 8. 1. Professionalism: this domain identify and tell us to behave as a professional social worker, this mean I will need to make use of my skills as part of my. Essay! Communication , Nonverbal communication , Paralanguage 2125 Words | 6 Pages. 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 2. . 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE adversely 3. aggregate ['?dv?:sli] ['?grigit] adversity (n) aggregate (v) [?'b?nd?n] adverse (a) aggregate (n) 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 1. 4. abandon cultivation 5. fertilize 6. intensify [,k?lti'vei?n] ['f?:tilaiz] . New York City Subway , Trigraph 4772 Words | 23 Pages. Essay On Prohibition: A Failed Policy! disquisition, monograph; More 2. Lying Roots Essay! formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of convenience, a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit.

?AfraSiab Mohal 03454644423 How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit 1.Write first and edit later. This is very important: . If you constantly worry about word limits, it is quite likely that you will end up discarding ideas that add to your paper. Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Replace phrases with single words . There are always opportunities to say more with less. For. English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. used. 2. Lying! Do you agree that what a word means today is explain is arranged convenience, what it meant in the past? Please explain what etymology???can help with todays . meaning of a word . I dont agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. It would cause semantic and meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the on the Essay, working of the human mind, but it doesnt help in determining what a word means today. 3. What is language. Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages.

Submit the essay to the Assignments page by going to the lefthand navigation bar of the main class page and clicking on Essay #1. . Submit either as a .doc or .docx or .rtf file. The Essay is earnshaw wuthering, considered on time or late depending on when it arrives in my Assignment inbox and not when you send it. Double space. The essay should have an introduction, a multiparagraph body, and a conclusion. You must use specific facts from the Lying Roots Essay, assigned textbook reading and you must cite those facts in the body of the. Kids Did Ray Have! 18th century , Charles I of England , Charles II of on the, England 1058 Words | 3 Pages. stand. The Sword of The Spirit . and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God: What is The Sword of The Spirit? . The word of God! The rhema; or spoken word of God. What is the word of on Prohibition: A Failed, God? Psalms 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path. Gods word - The Holy Bible illuminates.

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Doughnut , Dunkin' Brands , Dunkin' Donuts 1452 Words | 7 Pages. Dunkin Donuts : An Inside Look Strayer University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the aspects of Ramone . becoming a franchisee of Dunkin Donuts . The writer will talk about any critical issues that Ramone will face during this process. In addition, the writer will discuss any information that Ramone should be privy to on the Roots, prior to becoming a franchisee. The author will also deliberate about how many did ray have what marketing mix the Lying Roots Essay, future franchisee should look for with his business and what marketing. Business , Doughnut , Dunkin' Donuts 1893 Words | 5 Pages. Dunkin Donuts was founded in 1950 by Bill Rosenberg. Mr. Rosenberg opened the 1st store in Quincy Massachusetts. Mr.

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Poste le 27/03/2017 a 06h44 par THIBAUD D. Un bruit bizarre (vibration apres avoir recuperer ma voiture) Poste le 19/03/2017 a 18h34 par LOA?C M. Bonjour, Nous vous remercions pour le temps que vous avez consacre a nous laisser votre avis. Roots! Votre satisfaction est notre priorite.

Nous avons pris en compte vos remarques. West African! Sachez que nous mettons tout en ?uvre pour repondre a vos attentes. Lying Roots! Cordialement, Poste le 12/03/2017 a 17h07 par JEAN LUC D. les barres de toit achetees non correspondent pas a mon vehicule RENAULT ESPACE 3 et pourtant elles etaient indiquees compatibles avec mon vehicule. Poste le 12/02/2017 a 17h53 par ARIC S.

apres avoir selectionne mon Feu Vert pres de mon domicile (54 Nancy), le site me remet automatiquement sur le Feu Vert en region parisienne (Ulis) j'avais choisi le Diagnostic securite sur internet, Diagnostic offert sur AR de commande 10484704 mais celui-ci n'a pas ete fait car il n'etait pas prevu lorsque j'ai depose mon vehicule, donc diagnostic non effectue un collaborateur Feu Vert m'a propose de repasser un autre jour, dans le secteur pour le faire si un emplacement etait libre habitant a 15 kms c'est pas forcement pratique. Poste le 30/01/2017 a 20h10 par BRUNO M. Personnels accueuillants, polis, et prestations conformes. On Prohibition: Policy! Bref je suis satisfait. Poste le 27/01/2017 a 09h04 par LAURENT T. Poste le 24/01/2017 a 13h36 par WILFRIED C. RDV decale de 5H . Lying Essay! En cause, les produits (pneus) pas arrive malgre l'information donnee par le site avec prise de rendez-vous plusieurs jours avant. Sociopathy Vs Psychopathy! Controle securite inexistant. Lying Essay! Aucune info donnee. Earnshaw Wuthering Heights! Accueil redhibitoire tant en caisse qu'a l'atelier.

Triste a pleurer en periode de fete. Poste le 30/12/2016 a 16h59 par GUILLAUME P. Poste le 28/12/2016 a 19h55 par PIERRE B. Tres bon accueil et tres bon travail du personnel. Poste le 28/12/2016 a 08h36 par SOCIETE P. bonne prestation je recommande. Poste le 24/12/2016 a 07h48 par JACQUES C. rdv 14h sorti 15h20 pour 2 pneus (on m'avait annonce 30mn d'attente) Poste le 17/12/2016 a 08h21 par ERIC G.

J'ai l'habitude d'aller dans les centres Feu Vert et je ne me rappelle par avoir ete decue. On The! Accueil aimable et tres bon service. Poste le 15/12/2016 a 18h10 par FATIA S. Magasin que je frequentais deja pour ce genre d entretien pas avec la meme voiture. Poste le 15/12/2016 a 17h21 par ANTONIO A. Poste le 14/12/2016 a 09h48 par JEAN MARC G. Tres bon accueil sympa et rapidite pour la prise en charge de mon vehicule. Explain How Distribution Is Arranged Customer! 45mn chrono entree, sortie, probleme resolu. Poste le 03/12/2016 a 17h19 par PHILIPPE P.

Poste le 02/12/2016 a 18h43 par GERARDINE P. Poste le 29/11/2016 a 18h00 par LUC G. Poste le 16/11/2016 a 20h39 par MARTIAL T. Montage et equilibrage un peu cher vu que la concurrence *** (***) le fait a 10.et cela sans RDV. Lying! Bonne promo sur mes pneus chez vous, sinon j allais a *** forcement. Poste le 12/11/2016 a 08h34 par J-GILLES M. Bonne prestation. Earnshaw Wuthering! Site internet n'affichant pas la date du RDV. Poste le 30/10/2016 a 17h28 par LOIC C. Poste le 23/10/2016 a 20h45 par LAURA C.

Prestations tres correctes et personnel a votre ecoute vous signalant les travaux a venir. Poste le 23/10/2016 a 16h03 par GARARD M. Poste le 05/10/2016 a 17h01 par CYNTHIA W. Super rapidite sur la livraison en 2 h sur magasin. Poste le 05/10/2016 a 13h50 par FRANCOIS R. Bien dans l ensemble. Poste le 02/10/2016 a 16h11 par AURELINE V.

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