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Argument Essay - Is Okonkwo (of Achebe's Things Fall Apart) a Hero? One of the primary reasons Okonkwo is a hero is his bravery. Throughout Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo shows his bravery in many situations. One of these situations was when in Umofias latest war he was the first to bring home a human head. That was his fifth head, and he was not an old show more content Despite being born poor, Okonkwo shows his power and of Liturgical Services Essay bravery to prove that he is a true hero. Although his story is mundane he does not have any superpowers or any relation to his gods Okonkwo fits the true definition of Essay, a modern hero. The Ibo people of Nigeria may seem very different from us today, but the themes of power, bravery, and self-determination transcend the differences in our cultures. Okonkwo would be a hero in any culture, because he embodies the qualities that all people can Essay on Okonkwo and Nwoye in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart. interest in The Model of Liturgical the things that his father is interested in. The second passage I have chosen better explains the feelings that Okonkwo has for his son. No Fear The Scarlet Letter? As Okonkwo sat in his hut that night, gazing into a log fire, he thought over the matter.

A sudden fury rose within him and Services he felt a strong desire to Money, Money, Rich Man's World) in Fitzgerald´s, take up his a machete, go to the church and wipe out the entire miscreant gang. But on further thought he told himself that Nwoye was not worth fighting for. The Model Of Liturgical Services Essay? Why should he , Okonkwo, of all people Essay on The Tragic Heros in Macbeth and Things Fall Apart. temptation but ultimately what separates Macbeth from just being a villain to a tragic hero is sparknotes the scarlet letter his sense of guilt and The Model Services his knowledge of the consequences of his actions. Cite A Website? His emotions and guilt end up driving him crazy, along with Lady Macbeth. She ends up committing suicide and Macbeth gets killed by his own people. In Chinua Achebes novel Things Fall Apart the The Model of Liturgical Essay, main character, Okonkwo is a tragic hero. No Fear Letter? Okonkwo had an unfortunate start. He didnt have the start in life which other men his age typically Essay about Things Fall Apart, Achebe's Odyssey. Also, Okonkwo exhibits his strength when it comes time for the death of the boy Ikemefuna.

He demands to be part of the event and goes with the party of men selected to The Model of Liturgical Essay, kill the young boy. When Ikemefuna realizes what is happening, he runs to Okonkwo and pleads for his life, but Okonkwo was afraid of being thought weak (p. 61) and raised his machete and Project struck down Ikemefuna. This had been a boy who had lived under his roof for the past three years and who called Okonkwo father, yet Okonkwo strikes Essay on The Power Struggle in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart. The Priestess Ezeani's warning to Okonkwo places the incident in perspective: You have committed a great evil. The Model? . . . The evil you have done can ruin the whole clan. . . Letter? (30). The Model Of Liturgical Services Essay? Ezeani's remark thus provides an anthropological explanation for Okonkwo's rash act. If a man's anger drives him to forget the collective whole, everyone will pay the price for that transgression if the gods retaliate and how to bring crop failure. Ironically, Okonkwo has already begun acting as an individual and not as a part Essay on Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart: Spiritual and Traditional Aspects.

But on one occasion Ezinma tells the The Model Essay, medicine man where her iyi-uwa lies buried. The stone is found and destroyed, and after this the people of how to cite apa, Umuofia considered Ezinma to be free from her spell. The Model Essay? Sometimes I believe in so-called super-natural things myself, so I do not blame the inhabitants of Umuofia for the scarlet their reasoning about the childrens deaths. Of Liturgical Services? I find it odd too that a woman can have nine children who all die before the age of three, and operating system then a tenth who survives. I suppose there is a physical

Interestingly, Okonkwo does not dislike his father for strictly personal reasons but for the same reasons for The Model which his society might frown upon Unoka: Okonkwo does not have any secret or intimate qualms with his father's personality, rather with the way that personality detracts from his success. One could imagine that, had Unoka been a successful man despite any of his flaws, Okonkwo could have respected him; indeed, the father and son's relationship is not based on love, as is Money, Money, Money (In A Rich Man's in Fitzgerald´s The Great conventional in needs to be killed. Services? Okonkwo eventually deals the real-time operating, final blow that kills Ikemefuna, to show that he is not weak. The grief that follows starts Okonkwo on his downfall. The next major event that led to Okonkwo's downfall took place at The Model Services Essay the funeral of one of the elders in the clan. When the group of men fired their guns to give the man his last salute, Okonkwo's gun exploded and a piece of iron dug into a young boy's heart, killing him. Even though the death was accidental, Okonkwo was forced to flee from something that is granger fahrenheit usually a great thing for the Igbo?s, but it is actually foreshadowing what is about to happen to Okonkwo?s life. ?Suddenly a shadow fell on the world?boundless sheets of of Liturgical Services Essay, black cloud drifting towards Umuofia?(55-56).? Okonkwo is warned by Increased Migration, Increased his friend Ogbuefi Ezeudu not to take part in the killing of Ikemfuna, but he does take part in it. Okonkwo actually kills Ikemfuna because he is afraid the other men will think that he is weak. Later, Okonkwo?s friend Obrierika tells him that Okonkwo beat his second wife a couple of of Liturgical Essay, weeks later for killing a banana tree, she later murmured something about his gun and he fired a shot but missed her. His wives barley made him mad but when they did he got really mad, his wives caused him a lot of stress. Yes, Umuofia has decided to kill him.

The Oracle of the Hills and Caves had pronounced it. They will take him outside Umuofia as is the custom, and kill him there. Increased Migration, Security Concern? But I want you to have nothing to do with it. He calls you his father In fear of ending up like his father, Okonkwo makes a concerted effort to work hard and earn respect among his peers. Okonkwo earned respect through his farming and wrestling. His fame rested on personal achievements. As a young man of eighteen he had brought honor to his village by Services Essay throwing Amalinze the Cat.

Okonkwo was as slippery as a fish in water (Achebe 1). Essay On Career Project? Despite all of his personal achievements, things begin to go downhill for The Model of Liturgical Essay Okonkwo as the book goes on. Money, Money (In A Rich Man's World) In Fitzgerald´s The Great? He is banished from The Model Essay, the

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sameer rathod resume AECOM Technology's (ACM) CEO Mike Burke on Q4 2014 Results - Earnings Call Transcript. Nov. Of Liturgical Essay? 11, 2014 5:26 PM acm. AECOM Technology Corporation (NYSE:ACM) Q4 2014 Results Earnings Conference Call. November 11, 2014, 12:00 PM ET. Paul Cyril - SVP, Investor Relations. Mike Burke - CEO and Director. Steve Kadenacy - President and CFO. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital.

Steven Fisher - UBS. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Justin Hauke - Robert W. On Career? Baird. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Good morning, and welcome to the AECOM Fourth Quarter 2014 Earnings Conference Call.

I would like to inform all participants, this call is being recorded at the request of AECOM. This broadcast is a copyrighted property of AECOM. Any rebroadcast of this information, in whole or part, without the prior written permission of AECOM is prohibited. As a reminder, AECOM is also simulcasting this presentation with slides at The Model of Liturgical Essay Investors section at Later, we will conduct a question-and-answer session. I would like to turn the call over to Paul Cyril, Senior Vice President, Investor Relations. Thank you, operator.

Before reviewing our fiscal 2014 fourth quarter and Essay Project full year results, I would like to point you to our Safe Harbor statement on Page 2. I would like to remind everyone that today's discussion contains forward-looking statements based on the environment as we see it today, and as such, does include risks and uncertainties. Our actual results might differ significantly from of Liturgical Services Essay, those projected in these forward-looking statements. Please refer to our press release or Page 2 of our earnings presentation and to our reports filed with the SEC for more information on the risk factors that could cause actual results to materially differ from projections. Note that we are using certain non-GAAP financial measures as references in real-time the presentation. The appropriate GAAP financial reconciliations are incorporated into our press release which is of Liturgical Services posted on our website. Please also note that all percentages refer to year-over-year progress except where otherwise noted.

In addition, our discussion of fiscal 2014 financial results will exclude the impact of acquisition and how to cite a website integration related costs, unless otherwise noted. Please turn to Slide 4. The Model Services? Beginning today's presentation is Mike Burke, Chief Executive Officer. How To Cite A Website? Mike? Thank you, Paul. Welcome, everyone, to our fourth quarter and full year 2014 earnings call.

I also want to of Liturgical Services Essay, welcome former URS stakeholders to our first call as a combined company and no fear thank you for your vote of of Liturgical Services Essay confidence that made this transaction a reality. Joining me today is Steve Kadenacy, our President and Chief Financial Officer. On today's call, I will provide an overview of AECOM's fiscal fourth quarter and full year 2014 results. Then Steve will review our financial results in greater detail, provide fiscal 2015 financial guidance for the combined company, and review changes to our reporting structure. I will conclude with additional remarks on granger, business trends and the opportunities we see for the combined company. I'm pleased to report that in fiscal 2014, we finished with $25.1 billion of backlog including $3 billion from the acquisition of Hunt's Construction which closed during the fourth quarter.

Including $4.2 billion of wins in The Model Services Essay the fourth quarter, we achieved a full year book-to-burn ratio of 1.7 times. In our PTS segment our organic growth rate improved and we benefited from a continued favorable mix shift in our MSS business, which help to drive strong operating performance. Throughout fiscal 2014, private infrastructure markets led growth especially in our construction services and international design markets. This was offset by the slower than anticipated recovery of our Americas design business. Please turn to on Career Project, Slide 5. Before turning the call over to Steve, I will take a moment to talk about the structure of the combined company. AECOM will operate across three segments, design and consulting services, construction services and The Model of Liturgical Services management services.

AECOM Capital will continue to operating, support our integrated services platform and differentiate our competitive offering through direct investments in The Model Services real estate and public private partnerships. To-date, we have committed $150 million to cite a website apa, 13 projects that have driven approximately $1 billion in Services Essay construction services backlog. This new operating structure is Money, in Fitzgerald´s Gatsby designed to Services Essay, reflect the strengths of granger both AECOM and URS. There are very few companies in the world that can execute at Essay the scale and technical level that AECOM is how to cite a website known for delivery and our capabilities are enhanced with this new structure. With that, I will turn the The Model Services Essay call over to cite, Steve, who will discuss our financial results. Thanks, Mike. Please turn to Slide 6. Of Liturgical Services? Before I begin, I would like to point out that our fourth quarter results included an extra week of how to apa business which favorably impacted growth rates as compared to prior periods.

As I discuss the financials I will speak to the actual results unless otherwise noted. For the of Liturgical Essay fourth quarter gross revenue of $2.6 billion increased 23% from the prior year including approximately $150 million from the acquisition of Hunt Construction. Net service revenue of $1.3 billion grew 6% from the prior year. System? Organic PTS growth was essentially flat after excluding the extra week. Our MSS business continued to diversify with strong backlog growth and profit improvement due to the successful repositioning of the business. Much like the last quarter, strong organic growth trends in The Model Services our international and construction services markets, help to offset the lack of growth in our Americas design business. We are especially happy to report that following several strong quarters of wins, construction services began converting backlog to revenue with revenue growth accelerating in Essay on Career the fourth quarter. For the fourth quarter, we delivered an 11.1% EBITDA margin. Our fiscal year EBITDA margin was 9.7% which was up 32% basis points from 2013.

We are pleased with our progress but as I mentioned earlier, our Americas design business wait on our performance. Our focus on free cash flow continued to deliver results. The Model? Once again, we achieved our targeted driving free cash flow in real-time operating system access of of Liturgical Services Essay net income for the quarter and the year. This marks our third consecutive year of exceeding our target. And we delivered EPS of Essay $2.53 which was within the The Model of Liturgical Services range of how to cite a website guidance that we provided. Please turn to The Model, Slide 7. As Mike already noted, our backlog at the end of fiscal 2014 was $25.1 billion. Growth was driven by our private sector construction services business and Money Rich Man's World) in Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby we benefited from the The Model of Liturgical Services continuation of strong international design demand. Looking at AECOM and URS together, we estimate that the pro forma contracted and awarded backlog was over $40 billion at sparknotes no fear the scarlet letter the end of fiscal fourth quarter. We intend to provide more detail around the The Model components of this backlog and Money (In A Rich Man's World) in Fitzgerald´s Gatsby the future as we harmonize our processes and definitions in the integration process.

Please turn to Slide 8. Moving to PTS, our fiscal fourth quarter gross revenue was $2.4 billion and The Model of Liturgical Services net service revenue was $1.2 billion. Constant currency organic PTS net service revenue increased 7.7% from the Migration, Security Concern Essay prior year, but that was flat excluding the impact of the extra week. For the full year, our operating margin in of Liturgical Services PTS was 9.1%, which compares to 9.7% last year. We delivered 52% backlog growth for the year. Americas construction services and the acquisition of Hunt Construction were the main growth drivers. Money (In A In Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby? And as Mike will talk about shortly, our sales pipeline has increased by double digits as compared to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, last year in our Americas design business. Please turn to Slide 9.Moving to MSS, our quarterly and Money, (In A World) The Great Gatsby full year revenue in operating income reflect the shift away from overseas contingency work for the U.S. Of Liturgical Essay? Department of Defense, to a more diverse business mix. Despite an Money (In A World) in Fitzgerald´s Gatsby, 18% decline in The Model of Liturgical Services revenue in fiscal 2014, MSS operating income grew 21% from the prior year, resulting in a 600 basis point improvement in our operating margin. Delivering improved profitability in MSS was a priority we shared at the beginning of the fiscal year, and we are proud of this accomplishment. We achieved 51% growth in the MSS backlog this year which resulted in real-time operating the year-end backlog of $2 billion.

Despite the removal of our Libya contract from awarded backlog, due to the continued political instability. As highlighted by our strong margin performance in fiscal 2014, the profit we expect to recognize on this backlog is higher than our historical overseas contingency operations work. Please turn to Slide 10. Turning to the balance sheet and capital allocation, we generated $298 million of free cash flow in 2014. This continues our strong track-record of The Model Services Essay cash flow.

Our near term priority is to deploy cash to pay-down debt. As we have communicated, the forecast of free cash flow of the combined organization is sparknotes quite strong, and The Model of Liturgical Services we expect to pay our debt down to around 2x debt to EBITDA by the end of 2017. Please turn to Slide 11. Project? Now, let's turn to our guidance for the combined company. This guidance excludes acquisition and integration costs as well as the amortization of intangible assets.

We expect our fiscal year 2015 adjusted EPS to be in the range of Services Essay $2.75 to $3.35. Our guidance assumes a tax rate of 32%, depreciation expense of approximately $210 million, interest expense of granger 451 approximately $225 million, and Essay a diluted share count of $155 million. Our guidance assumes that we continue to make progress on our $250 million synergy target. We anticipate, realizing synergies of operating system approximately $110 million during the fiscal year and target ending fiscal 2015 at a cost synergy run rate of approximately $180 million. The Model Services Essay? Our confidence in achieving our synergy target continues to grow, and we will update you with more details at our planned Investor Day in December. Now well take a moment to comment on the expected contribution of URS's highly successful chemical demilitarization contract for the U.S.

Department of Defense. Through the first nine months of the Increased Migration, Increased Security Concern Essay calendar 2014, URS generated revenue and operating income from the The Model Services Essay chemical demilitarization programs of $272 million, and $93 million respectively and was ahead of plan. While the four baseline sites for URS was leading are now largely completed, AECOM will continue to perform key services at two other chemical demilitarization sites, needless to say we are happy to have this world class capability at AECOM. We expect the contribution from these programs to operating income will be approximately $46 million for FY 2015. URS generated strong cash flow during the period before the close of the transaction. Cash flow that lowered the debt level we originally anticipated having to pay down on the deal.

Accordingly, the effective multiple pro forma for synergy savings is under 7x EBITDA, which is where we anticipated we would close. Mike mentioned, we will report our results across a new set of fahrenheit 451 operating segments. Let me spend a few minutes quantifying each. First, our design and consultancy services segment would have accounted for of Liturgical Essay approximately 45% of pro forma revenue on a trailing 12 months basis, and comprises URS's infrastructure and environment segment and AECOMs global design business. Second, we have grouped our construction businesses into apa, construction services segment. The Model Of Liturgical Services Essay? This division would have accounted for Increased Security approximately 35% of our trailing 12 months pro forma revenue.

This includes our building construction business, which is The Model of Liturgical Services mainly vertical, and URS's engineering and construction, and apa oil and gas divisions. Lastly, our management services group combines our increasingly diversified national government businesses. The Model Services Essay? This group would have accounted for approximately 20% of our pro forma revenue on a trailing 12 month basis. Beginning with our fiscal first quarter, well provide segment level gross revenue, operating income, backlog, and cite a website new wins. We will discontinue the use of net service revenue in the combined company. This metric is more relevant when you have a mix of construction and design in the same segment. Based on the new alignment of our businesses, gross revenue was the most relevant measure of revenue performance. And now, I would like to The Model of Liturgical Services, turn the Increased Migration, Security Essay call back over to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, Mike, who will provide an overview of the combined operations, and a review of end-market trends. Thank you, Steve. Please turn to Slide 12.

In mid-October, we completed the URS transaction with strong support from our stakeholders. Money, Man's World) In Fitzgerald´s Gatsby? Through the efforts of The Model of Liturgical Services Essay countless people at AECOM and URS, we closed the Essay Project transaction within three months of the announcement, enabling us to limit disruption in of Liturgical Services Essay the business and move quickly to appoint new leaders to take the combined company forward. The combination of these two great companies furthers our path toward becoming the sparknotes the scarlet premier integrated provider of services in the infrastructure space, and we are pleased with the efficiency of our closing process as well as the initial stages of the integration. The optimism of our employees and client is strong, and we are excited by the opportunities in front of us. One of the great benefits of this combination is the tremendous advantage it gives us in building the premier leadership team in our industry. As we fill the critical leadership roles for of Liturgical Essay the combined organization, we are choosing the best leaders from both companies, creating a team that is stronger and more committed than ever before.

It is worth noting some of the key leaders, because it illustrates my point that we have taken the most talented people of the combined organization to create something even stronger. From legacy URS, Tom Bishop, will now lead our Americas design and consulting services business. George Nash, will oversee our energy infrastructure and Money, Gatsby industrial construction group, and Randy Wotring will serve as Group President of our management services business. I am excited about the addition of these leaders to the AECOM organization. The Model Of Liturgical? And from legacy AECOM, Fred Werner will run our global design and consultancy business. Dan McQuade, will run our vertical construction business, and Mike Donnelly will run our end-markets program. These are just a few of the most senior examples, but this process is cascading through every level of the company.

Please turn to Slide 13. Our opportunities are truly exciting, but let me pause for a moment and take you through our markets and the trends we have seen develop over (In A Rich World) The Great the last quarter. I will begin with our design business. In fiscal 2014, our Americas business experienced weakness due to continued slow end-market growth, largely due to The Model of Liturgical Services, the lack of committed long term public funding. A Website? We saw intermittent signs of improvement throughout the year, but this has not yet translated into a sustainable recovery. Looking forward, our sales pipeline in of Liturgical Essay the Americas remain healthy, and Essay Project our new leadership is working diligently to The Model of Liturgical Services, leverage the capabilities of URS and AECOM across our combined footprint. I mentioned public funding because it remains a bottleneck to improve the performance for our business. Money, Man's World) In Fitzgerald´s Gatsby? But we're encouraged by The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, a number of valid measures dedicated to infrastructure investment that were passed by voters last week. For example, a $7.6 billion water bond passed in California, a direct response to the states need to act on the ongoing drought that has now entered its third year.

Also in San Francisco, a $500 million infrastructure bond measure passed with strong support. We are also seeing an increase in freight opportunities as growing intermodal traffic and crude volumes being transported by rail are driving facility capacity expansions and improvements. In the port industry, the Panama Canal expansion is nearly complete and a number of East Coast ports are pursuing projects to be able to handle the larger shipments. As the leading provider of services to both rail and port operators in the country, we see a significant opportunity for AECOM to benefit. Moving on to EMEA, we continue to capitalize on strong end-market trends and finish the fiscal year with double digit revenue growth across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Within Europe, the United Kingdom continues to be a source of growth for AECOM. Our work on large rail, highways, social infrastructure projects, carried our growth in fiscal 2014, and provides us with a good visibility into real-time system, fiscal 2015. The U.K. has ambitious high speed rail plants and we are currently supporting the Essay West Midlands to Manchester line, as well as an engineering for line to Scotland. We're also pursuing several major infrastructure programs and direct partnerships with contractors to leverage our vision for integrated delivery. In the Middle East, our business continues to benefit from a growing resume of marquee and infrastructure projects across the region. Our backlog remains near all time highs at the end of fiscal 2014. We are positioning ourselves to be a central player in cite the build-out of infrastructure for decades with key roles for the World Cup in Qatar and a design in development of entirely new cities in countries including Saudi Arabia. The Middle East is transforming and The Model of Liturgical Services AECOM is helping to facilitate the a website apa growth in The Model Essay this region. Looking at Increased Concern Africa, which grew over 20% for the full year we saw continued growth in our private sector work in the energy and of Liturgical Services Essay industrial markets. Security Essay? We are positioned to The Model Services, participate for the outset in how to cite a website apa the potential multi decade investment required to monetize natural gas resources of the East Coast of Africa. In addition to the energy processing facilities that are being developed, large improvements and infrastructure to facilitate world class energy export capabilities will be required and we're pursuing these opportunities.

Moving to Asia Pacific, in of Liturgical Services Essay Australia the stabilization process we have noted throughout the year continued in the fiscal fourth quarter. Our wins reached the Money Rich The Great highest level in The Model of Liturgical nearly two years. This has helped to sparknotes no fear the scarlet, support our backlog which was down only of Liturgical Essay 2% on a constant currency basis from cite apa, a prior year. In Asia, we delivered 9% revenue growth for the year, and 10% growth in the fiscal fourth quarter. Backlog increased 9% in the fourth quarter and we expect another solid year in fiscal 2015.

The market in Asia remains one of AECOMs largest international growth opportunities due to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, the continued focus on building world class infrastructure to Migration, Security Essay, AECOM is The Model of Liturgical Services Essay best suited to deliver. Moving on to construction services which had a strong year for new projects awards and backlog. We closed on the acquisition of Hunt Construction during the fiscal fourth quarter and real-time operating system as a result AECOM is now the premiere builder of arenas and stadia in North America which complements our industry leading design presence in this market. We also continued to win work on Services Essay, large vertical construction projects in metropolitan areas where non-residential and mixed use construction activity is outpacing overall infrastructure spending. Our construction services business in EMEA which is concentrated in Eastern Europe and Middle East markets delivered 100% revenue growth and 50% backlog growth in fiscal 2014. We have been successful and winning work on iconic projects over the past two years such as the real-time system Crescent development in Baku and The Model of Liturgical Services the midfield terminal in Abu Dhabi. The outlook for 2015 reflects the major opportunities we are pursuing in the regions and the continued progress on our existing portfolio of projects. Finally in Increased Concern Essay MSS, we continue to successfully diversify our mix of business and of Liturgical Services expend into higher margin markets for our national government clients including an increase in intelligence work in the U.S. Excluding the real-time expected decline in overseas contingency operations exposure, we expect to deliver revenue growth in fiscal 2015 and our plays to turn the Essay coin are on absolute growth by the scarlet, fiscal 2016. Please turn to Slide 14. Now let me turn to the opportunities ahead for the combined companies.

I know you have often heard this me say, that our vision is to become the leading provider of integrated services to our clients, but with URS we can confidently say, that we have attained the capabilities and scale to move us significantly closer to this vision. We know possess the critical process engineering and construction capabilities in The Model Services power and oil and sparknotes letter gas to deliver fully integrated project execution to our clients. Through the combination, we have also broadened our exposure and capabilities with an industrial markets with URS's strength in Services manufacturing already opening up opportunities to participate more broadly. We have a more complete federal offering that includes world class nuclear and environmental remediation capabilities. And we have rounded out our already industry-leading capabilities in in Fitzgerald´s light rail, ports, airports, highways and bridges, facilities and water and environmental markets through the combination. These strengths of the combined company are already being deployed through our industry leading global platform.

We are seeing tangible evidence as the capabilities and Services Essay the scale we now possess are allowing us to serve clients, and compete in new ways. Cite A Website? We have clients from each respective company and many that we share asking us to reframe agreements to leverage our combined graph. The revenue synergy opportunity is growing and exciting. To-date we have identified and our jointly pursuing more than $3 billion of projects in our industrial vertical alone that are our direct result of the combined company's capability set and of Liturgical footprint. Even more impressive than the dollar volume, is the operating mediate action by our nearly 100,000 employees to share resources and jointly identify where our new capabilities can create opportunities for of Liturgical Services growth. We believe this will prove to be the key differentiator versus our peers and the early examples of how to cite a website apa joint project pursuits clearly demonstrates the potential size of this opportunity. With that, I would like to now open the line for questions.

Operator? (Operator Instructions) The first question comes from Andrew Kaplowitz from Barclays. Please go ahead. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Hey guys, howre you? Mike or Steve, can you talk about your adjusted 2015 EPS guidance a little more?

At least at the lower end of the range, it seems a little low versus what some might have thought during the summer. So, can you talk about the Services puts and takes of the URS deal as you closed it? Were there any businesses that you think could be a little worse than you initially thought? And then are there any businesses at the scarlet AECOM where the outlook has deteriorated a bit from where you were over the summer - maybe that's the Americas design business but I'll let you answer the question. Thanks, guys. I will let Steve to of Liturgical Services Essay, address the puts and Money, Rich World) Gatsby takes and then we can come back and Essay give you a better sense of some of the fahrenheit 451 upsize and downsize of the mid point of range to frame it out. So, why don't I start with Steve will take you through the puts and takes. Andy, at the mid point take 305 is about 15% accretive on a cash basis, on the adjusted EPS line which is lower than the 25% that we had mentioned when we announced the deal which we know. And there is a few reasons for that. I think that the The Model Essay biggest is less - we pulled forward some of the chem demil work, or URS did into its first three quarter of the three which comes at the detriment to FY 15 even though it's really a high performing contract.

And then further weakness in there IE business as well. Operating? So there is the degradation to what we expected URS producing FY 15. And then the other piece is, we closed the deal two week into the fiscal year. So there is a two weeks less of an impact that will bridge you back to something close to The Model Essay, 25% cash accretive. But I will turn it back to Mike to talk about what could take us lower than that midpoint. Just trying to frame-out the wide range that we have starting with the mid pointed 305 Steve mentioned. So from a upside perspective, there is as you've seen in Essay Project the past, there are significant award fees in our business and depending on the timing of those award fees, if we pull those award fees into 2015, we have upside to the plan. You heard me mention the EC pipeline of Services Essay opportunities. It's the biggest pipeline of opportunities that weve seen in Essay Project quite a few years.

So, to that extent that pipeline of opportunities comes to fruition as we expect, there is The Model of Liturgical Essay upside to that. And of course the timing of the synergies. As Steve mentioned, we are moving very quickly against letter our synergy targets. We are very confident that we're going to achieve the numbers that we projected but to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, the extent we can move even faster towards that target and pull more that into 2015, we have some upside there. From a downsize perspective, you got the EC awards. Sparknotes No Fear Letter? The flip side of the EC pipeline is its lumpy, they are big projects and if we win them but we win them later in the year, they push into Services Essay, 16. So that has some downside also. Another point is that the recovery of the Americas design business. Real-time? As you know the Americas design business both at AECOM and URS has had a challenging past couple of years and weve seen some signs of recovery there, we both the URS and AECOM legacy businesses had a recovery and wins in Q4.

And so that pertains well for the future. Of Liturgical? But if we don't keep that recovery heading in granger fahrenheit 451 the right direction, that could take us below that midpoint. Oil prices are something we think about. Obviously our oil and gas business here in the Americas it can be impacted by the price of oil. We're not as much focused on the spot price of the oil but looking more at the curve and curve still puts prices well above the cost of production. So that gives us a good outlook.

But this is skittish environment right now in Services Essay oil prices. And important fact of our oil business is that half of our business is on Career driven by of Liturgical Services, regulatory issues and as we all know and as we all expect to be more regulatory changes in this environment, it helps us with half the business. But the other half of the granger 451 business is based on production and CapEx as we know decreases in The Model Essay a lower price market. So that's something we think about. And then of course the Increased Migration, Increased Security timing of the synergy, the The Model Essay flip side of sparknotes what I just talked about is that if we don't get the synergies as quickly in 2015, there could be downside. So thats some of the of Liturgical big picture issues that would take us to the upside and the scarlet take us to the downside of that midpoint but all in all we feel pretty good about the range that we set forth. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. That's very helpful. How much of the $110 million in Services synergies do you think is really low hanging fruit?

I know you mentioned $180 million run rate by the end of the Essay Project year. I assume that's because the real estate savings really start to ramp up at the end. But I'd be curious as to, of that $110 million what do you feel really good about in the short term versus develops over time? Andy this is Steve. I don't know if we would classify it as long hanging fruit but what we have around $110 is a lot of The Model of Liturgical Services Essay certainty in terms of what we need to Money, Money Man's The Great Gatsby, do to achieve it. There is a real estate piece of that. Our feeling is there is probably upside for the real estate piece that really depends on how fast we can execute on the projects because youre talking about moving people from one office to another, closing down an office, sometimes doing tenant improvements. But in terms of the The Model Services synergies around people where they are within departments, where they are within the operations, we feel very confident.

And as we mentioned in the script, we're more confident than we were when we announced the no fear the scarlet deal on the overall number and we plan to give you even more confidence in that in of Liturgical Services the Investor Day with more detail. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Got it. Steve, just one more thing. Sparknotes No Fear The Scarlet? Is it possible to give us a little more color? You've given us the segments and the pro forma revenue, but is it possible to of Liturgical Services Essay, give us more color around what we should think about growth of the individual segments within -- you've given us EPS guidance but you haven't given us much else in terms of how to look at growth of the individual segments and how to look at margins within the on Career Project individual segments.

Obviously we can put the two models together, but any more color you want to The Model Essay, give us around how to do this for no fear 2015? For 2015 were not ready to start breaking it down further. Of Liturgical Essay? I mean, we're still getting weve had the combination for a few weeks, now were still getting our arms around certain pieces of this. But I think that the overall comments that Mike made in his prepared comments hold true. Our vertical construction business is growing quite fast, our design business internationally is Essay showing quite strong, MSS is diversifying quite well, and the backlog is up significantly. A lot of those truths hold over onto the new business on a combined basis as well. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Okay. That's fine. But design and of Liturgical Essay consultancy would still be more Americas based, given it two together, right?

So, I might think of that as a little bit slower growing overall versus the other construction services? Andy, I think thats fair. The Americas design business has not been growing for either URS or the AECOM legacy businesses, and that's the most challenged part of our entire business globally, without question. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Okay. Thanks guys.

Thank you. Increased Increased Essay? The next question comes from Steven Fisher from UBS. Please go ahead. Great. Thanks very much. Of Liturgical Services? I'm wondering if you guys could help us understand the system free cash flow a little bit better. Do you have maybe a forecast you could give us for 2015?

Or, if not, maybe just help us with some of the pieces underlying that. We do not give a specific forecast for 2015, in the past we've always said we would exceed net income over the past three years, obviously that metric is of Liturgical not all that relevant given the significant cost that we have on granger 451, acquisition, integration related expenses. The Model Services Essay? So that's a significant moving piece. Our expectation as Steve said, our cash flow will continue to be very robust at the operational level, and that will be more than enough to keep us within our forecast to take down debt over the next few years to get down to close to two by FY 17. Can you just tell us how much CapEx is going to be in 2015? The CapEx is still a fairly moving target, Steve, largely because we're still working through the integration plan for our real estate portfolio, which could move that numbers significantly.

Okay. I mean - do you anticipate that it would still be less than your depreciation? Okay. And, can you give us a sense of what the cash integration cost are of that $290 million? The $290 million, were still not ready to break it out into Money, Rich Man's World), cash and The Model Services PL yet. But again, in the Investor Day we plan to spend a little bit more time on that, Steve. Migration, Security? So again, I think from a cash perspective, the cash is going to be healthy, were going to stay on our track to reduce our overall debt, reduce our debt to EBITDA even with a lower EBITDA compared to when we announce. So, were feeling fairly confident on it.

Okay. Shifting over to margins in the quarter, they were down year over year in PTS. Just curious, how much impact maybe Hunt had on Services Essay, the margins there? And ex-Hunt would you still have been down year-over-year? And I'm curious, what's pressuring the margins there on a year-over-year basis? By far, the granger most significant impact on our margins is the lower than expected revenue in our Americas design business. Hunt had a very minimal impact on that particularly when you look at it from an NSR standpoint. Okay.

And then maybe just to follow up there, it sounded like a quarter ago Americas design was maybe getting a little bit better, some water projects were coming through. What is of Liturgical Essay it that stunted the cite trajectory there? The way of the decline lessened in The Model Services Q3, and Money, Money World) in Fitzgerald´s The Great then it did not continue to improve in Q4. Of Liturgical Services? So, we were down a few percentage points in Q4 on organic basis. But we did see the wins tick up in Q4. And so, as I think, you heard I say earlier, the wins ticked up very nicely in Q4 but the actual revenue production was still down by a few percentage points. It's a challenging market overall, its not something that is particular to AECOM, we saw it in URS, we saw it in AECOM, we see it in our competitors. Its a tough market.

The civil infrastructure market in the United States is difficult. Certainly our private sector, construction market is booming, but we are seeing an uptick in the pipeline in the Americas design business. In the quarter we were up 20% in our pipeline of opportunities. So, the 451 pipeline is up, the wins are up, the backlog is up, and we just got to get it converted to revenue producing projects a little quicker. And the wins there, are those contracted wins or awarded wins? Well, everything comes into awarded first and then moves into contracted. The Model Of Liturgical Services? So, its a combination. Okay. Thanks very much.

Thank you. Next question comes from Tahira Afzal from KeyBanc. Please go ahead. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Hi, folks. Congratulations on an on-track integration. First question is Money Man's World) The Great really regarding your amortization. The Model Services Essay? And thank you for breaking that down versus the sparknotes no fear the scarlet letter expenses on the slides. As we look from Essay, 2015 to 2016, would it be possible to real-time, get an of Liturgical Services, idea of directionally how much that ticked down by, to the extent you can comment?

We would expect it to tick down over how to time, but were not prepared to get the amortization guidance for 2016, just yet, Tahira. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Got it. The Model Of Liturgical Services Essay? Okay. Thought I'd try my luck. Second question is just another follow-up on the free cash flow side. In your MA documents, you filed with the SEC you put a projection out there for granger what you expected from of Liturgical Services, URS.

Does the degradation, the slide degradation, and Increased Migration, Increased Security Essay the outlook really impact that number directionally? And in The Model Essay terms of your integration costs that you've disclosed today, are they still in line with what you thought a couple of months back? So, if I understand the a website question, its on cash flow relative to the degradation in The Model Services our EBITDA. Money (In A World) In Fitzgerald´s The Great? We did pull in cash flow into the calendar year - into our fiscal year from URS's calendar year. They outperformed significantly before we closed the deal, and that of course helped the overall multiple that we paid for the company. Some of that obviously would come from an acceleration of what was their fiscal year, but as a whole we still anticipate the combined company exceeding the cash flow forecast that we had originally put together. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Great. Thank you. Well, thanks Tahira. Thank you.

Next question comes from Justin Hauke from Robert W. Baird. Please go ahead. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Yes. Good morning, guys. You've alluded to a couple of times that URS's cash flow was better than expected and of Liturgical Services pulled forward.

Can you give us a pro forma balance sheet, either for the combined entity at close, or at cite a website a minimum can we get URS's balance sheet as of the end of the third quarter? I dont know if I want to give a pro forma balance sheet, but let me give you just some high level numbers. I mean, we closed at of Liturgical Services Essay right around the debt EBITDA numbers that we had anticipated, which was right around $4.4 billion, and the debt at the close was $5.3 billion-ish. Justin Hauke - Robert W. How To Cite Apa? Baird. $5.3 billion? And did you care to comment on The Model, URS's cash flow in the third quarter? Their cash flow in cite a website the third quarter, their third quarter was quite good. I dont know if you want an exact number, obviously they had three closes during the month of October, so, it depends on of Liturgical, what period of time, but they pulled forward relative to sparknotes, our original calendar year forecast and our fiscal year forecast about $270 million.

Justin Hauke - Robert W. The Model Of Liturgical? Baird. Okay. Great. Thank you. Real-time? And then on the backlog, being up so significantly, I assume some of that is from the construction management business. I think last quarter you commented that net service revenue backlog was up at a comparable rate to the gross figures you report.

Is that still the case here in the fourth quarter or is there any kind of divergence we should think about? On a year-over-year basis, net service revenue was up 18% which is not as robust because of the of Liturgical Services construction wins, as gross revenue, but still quite healthy. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Okay, great. Granger? Thank you very much. Thank you.

We have a question from Sameer Rathod from Macquarie. Please go ahead. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Hi, good afternoon. I was wondering what the impact of factoring of receivables had on cash flow in the quarter.

The net impact, Sameer, was negative actually. We factored about $77 million and unlined was around $85 million. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay. And then could you quickly comment on the drill rig moving business and oil sands-exposed part of your businesses, given the The Model of Liturgical Services Essay pullback in crude? Sameer, are you asking about the granger 451 rig hauling business? Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research.

Yes, the rig hauling business. If you look at Baker Hughes, a number of rigs are coming off. I was just wondering if you guys have started to see any impact. The impact on what, Sameer? The rig hauling business that was sold?

Is that what youre asking? It didnt contribute at The Model the EBITDA line. So, there is no impact on the bottom line. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay. And you mentioned several times that there was a pull forward in chem demil of the sparknotes legacy URS business.

Does this imply there should be a sharper fall off in 2016, just given the The Model prior guidance URS had given? Absolutely. Migration, Increased Essay? They will be back down to Services, just the normal run rate on existing projects. Increased Migration, Increased Essay? There is a follow up from what weve mentioned in The Model of Liturgical Essay the prepared remarks about $90 million or so of no fear income, and next year will be $46 million, 2016 will be even less, probably closer at $10 million. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay.

And then my last question, on Hunt-- any way you can comment on what new orders for The Model Services Hunt in Increased Concern the quarter were? New orders for Hunt in the quarter, I dont know if I have ever broken down at that level, they brought $3 billion of backlog to the business, about $2 billion of that was awarded backlog, and $1 billion was in contracted. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Thank you. (Operator Instructions) We have a question from Chase Jacobson from William Blair. Please go ahead. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company.

Hi, good afternoon. On the core AECOM business you guys have had some -- it's been slow but steady margin improvement on of Liturgical Services, the EBITDA line over Man's the last couple years, 20, 30 basis points a year. But still tracking below the 12% target that you had talked about in the past. So, wondering if you could give any color on to what's been different there versus when you gave that 12% target, and how you incorporate that into The Model of Liturgical Essay, when you look at savings in real-time operating system the URS business. The reason that we haven't made more progress on that 12% EBITDA to The Model, NSR target is largely the slowness in our Americas design business. So, our outlook going forward, obviously we will be giving guidance in the future against gross revenue, since were not going to Essay on Career Project, be stating net service revenue anymore in the news segments, that would translate to The Model of Liturgical Essay, roughly 6% to 8% EBITDA to gross revenue margin. And we think that is highly achievable given the synergies that we see and with the a website expected improvement in our Americas design business and with the general efficiencies that we see in our business that we've taken out as AECOM standalone prior to the combination particularly on real-estate and procurement which will apply to the new organization. So, really the reason we havent made better progress on that is the slowness in the Americas business, which we anticipate will wont last forever and well make progress faster on that target.

Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Okay. Just so I understand, the $250 million targeted synergies is all focused on cost reductions, or there's revenue synergies included in that also, or growth? Those are all cost reductions. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Okay. That's helpful. The other question I have is just more detailed. Can you just help reconcile the adjusted tax rate to what the GAAP tax rate would be in 2015? The adjusted tax rate for the GAAP, so FY 15 all in rate is about 26% - the biggest reason that its lower is because of some of the of Liturgical cost of integration we're going to get deducted at a higher tax rate, because theyre all domestic. So, perhaps we can take you offline and help you with the modeling of that if you would like.

Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Yeah, okay. That would be great. Thank you. Thank you. And our last question comes from Essay, Justin Hauke from Robert W. Baird. Please go ahead. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Thanks guys.

Just a quick follow-up. The Model Essay? Post all your financing, is there anything that's changed in your assumed interest rate? I think previously you were highlighting an all-in of 4.3%. It looks like it maybe a little bit higher. Is that correct? No, we actually came in slightly lower. How To? So, the execution on Essay, the overall financing - there are moving pieces within that but we did slightly better. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Okay. Thank you very much. Thank you.

We have no further questions at this time. I will now turn the call back over to Migration, Increased Security Essay, Mike Burke. Okay. The Model Of Liturgical Essay? Thank you, operator. Thank you every one for participating today. Real-time? I want to remind everybody that we will be in The Model Services Essay New York on December 16th, for our Investor Day. And as Steve mentioned a couple of times, we look forward to spending more time giving you much more detail on our plans and our synergies and even more detail than we have today. Were only three weeks into this acquisition but by December, well have even more information for you, little more certainty around the future and the details. So, we look forward to spending more time with you on December 16th. Fahrenheit 451? And for those of you that can't be available on that date, well look forward to The Model, talking to you on our next quarterly earnings call. So, thank you and apa have a great day.

Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Of Liturgical Essay? This concludes today's conference. Thank you for participating. You may now disconnect. This article is for Essay Project PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and Services Essay 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from $200/m.

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The Significance of the Narrator in Moby-Dick. The narrator of Moby-Dick performs a crucial democratising function, linking Ahab, the text and the natural environment together as equal participants in a system of The Model, consumption and counter-consumption. The narrator of Wharton's Ethan Frome discovers that attaining truth is difficult when a single sequence of events is relayed by different voices: I had the story, bit by bit, from various people, and, as generally happens in such cases, each time it was a different story. (p.13) With every level of discourse delivered by an identity in the polyphonic novel, an intermediary between the events and cite a website, the reader, the possibility that the narrative is corrupted or manipulated to suit that character's moral or political agenda is increased. Thus the omniscient, third-person narrator is the closest we can get to an immaculate representation of original events because he or she narrates outside the confines of the Services Essay, story; indeed Mieke Bal has suggested that such a narrator is simply an agent, the linguistic subject, a function and not a person, which expresses itself in the language that constitutes the text (Hawthorn, p.227). However, the more individualised a narrator is, the more characteristics 'it' gathers, and on Career, the more evidence of motivations and desires external to The Model Services, the narrative it possesses, the more plausible it becomes that the narrator will pursue its own agenda to manipulate elements of the granger 451, narrative for 'its' own self-interest. Indeed, even if the narrator is simply a function of the text, the way in which that narrator chooses to write - style, digressions, humour, pathos - may reveal enough about 'it' such that 'it' becomes a 'he' or 'she', a subject character of the of Liturgical Essay, text. This is certainly the case in first-person narrative, at which point such a narrator moves from the real-time system, objective and Services, comes to occupy a subjective, and how to a website apa, therefore potentially distorting, position in relation to his narrative. Of Liturgical Services Essay! Indeed, the very fact of writing a text down suggests an impulse to record, and this in itself is an indicator of some motivation in the writer and, since possession of motivation suggests characterisation, the act of creating a chronicle is always automatically associated with the liability of that document being unfaithful to the truth of the original event.

When any metafictional element is present in the text, when the literary act itself is foregrounded, we become doubly alert not simply to the narrative but to the nature of the one doing the Increased Security Concern Essay, narrating. The narrator of Moby Dick therefore attempts to counter-act the sense of intervening identity that highlighting the text as an artefact, through the sub-sub librarian's extracts at the start, creates. The Model Of Liturgical Services! By implying in the opening sentence, Call me Ishmael (p.3), that his name usually the strongest single signifier of identity, revealing as it can gender, nationality, and, in this case, religious affiliation is essentially irrelevant, the narrator of Increased Security Concern Essay, Moby Dick attempts to of Liturgical, position himself as a non-complex character, simply the coincidental relayer of the events he will describe. Real-time System! As a part of The Model, this scheme of desubjectification, the narrator gives very few details about his life prior to Money, Money Man's The Great Gatsby, the narrative timeline, which is itself taken out of history by Services the second sentence, never mind how long precisely (p.3). Increased Migration, Increased Concern! The drama of Moby Dick is driven not simply by the hunt for of Liturgical Essay the whale that gives the book its title and intent, but by the narrator's striving for objectivity, to stick to the demands of his narrative, and his increasing failure, his gradual occupation of a position as a subject within the text he tries detachedly to relate. This increasing subjectivity is triggered by the whale and therefore the narrator becomes disturbingly like Ahab, fashioning his own sense of identity and reason for being around the hunt for the whale. Increased Migration, Concern Essay! By slipping unconsciously into an obsessive relationship with his book similar to that of The Model Essay, Ahab in relation to Moby Dick, the narrator performs an ironic and Project, also a democratising function. By participating in the game of consumption and consumer, when he portrays himself as distinct from it, the narrator figure evidences that the The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, F/fall of man into how to a website apa desire and fetishism is possible in anyone but also, because consumption is shown to be the The Model Services Essay, way the world is naturally configured, both in the ocean-going narrative itself and in sparknotes the scarlet, the fact that the narrator's lapsing into a position as a consumer is itself a natural process, this cannot be an The Model Essay entirely a negative thing it is simply the Increased Migration,, way the world works.

Consumption can be creative and, indeed, because it relies on an interplay between consumer and consumed as much as a hierarchy of one over the other, such a system is innately democratic. In the presentation of the extracts at The Model of Liturgical, the start of the novel, the 'sub-sub-librarian' demonstrates what he has learned through the composition of how to cite, Moby-Dick . This makes the disorder and digression within the narrative remarkable because it must happen live, in The Model of Liturgical Services, the process of writing. Whilst Ishmael as a librarian has successfully collated, ordered and treasured vast amounts of data, in granger fahrenheit, scripting it down his narrative becomes a hyperactive palimpsest, rarely settling along a single dramatic or academic line. Of Liturgical Services! It is as if Ishmael the academic is the scarlet letter straining against the leashes of his discipline. The sublime nature of the whale, its vastness, refuses containment within a coherent structure and induces a terror about the failure of the methods of conventional study to describe it. The word 'whale' is a five letter container for a multiplicity of associations and The Model of Liturgical Services, physical organisations. 451! When the whale is described, it is only in parts, as fractals or synechdoches reproducing the Services, whole: the spout shows a whale's location, the hump, the brow, or fluke is enough to represent an entire being (p.446-447). Language, which must progress linearly in words and sentences, cannot in a single instant present the whale in totality. Paradoxically, if the whale cannot be comprehended in whole, it must be comprehended through the physiognomic pieces which constitute the whole but this only serves to enhance its vastness because of the amount of textual space required to represent each unique physical aspect.

Like Wordsworth rowing his skiff ( The Prelude :1805, I.409), the more objective distance Ishmael puts between himself and his subject, the more looming and magnificent that subject appears. Ishmael's initial impulse for the voyage is not as a field study of matter he has already investigated in depth but simply because, such a portentous and mysterious monster roused all my curiosity (p.7). Ishmael's strict course of literary study is pursued after the events he narrates and thus the text, with all its references, is spawned from the final hunt for Increased Increased Security Moby Dick, rather than the discovery of The Model of Liturgical Services, Moby Dick being the natural conclusion of the academic process. The end of the narrative of Ahab is the on Career Project, beginning of Ishmael's quest, and The Model Services, Moby Dick becomes the reason for the text which bears his name, not its end. Similarly, although Ishmael proposes that his desire to Money, Money Rich Man's World) in Fitzgerald´s, produce an epic has determined his choice of subject matter To produce a mighty book, you must choose a mighty theme (p.376) it is the whale which causes the book's expansiveness, not the genre which determines the whale's magnitude. This is enforced by describing the leviathan in of Liturgical Services Essay, terms of a mighty book itself, by Essay on Career classifying whales along a literary system, describing them as books or texts and dividing them into of Liturgical Folios and Chapters (p.112). If Out of the Essay Project, trunk the branches grow; out of The Model Services Essay, them, the twigs. So, in productive subjects, grow the granger, chapters (p.241), then every chapter which the Services, multiple literary and technical associations which surround the whale generates further establishes the impossibility of containing the whale textually. Increased Increased Concern Essay! The sense of The Model Essay, Terror the whale invokes manifests itself as the fear that Ishmael's powers of scholarship may be disproportionate to Essay, the magnitude of the task the discovery of Moby Dick has set him: Unconsciously my chirography expands into placard capitals.

Give me a condor's quill! Give me Vesuvius' crater for an inkstand! Friends hold my arms! For in the mere act of penning my thoughts of this Leviathan, they weary me (p.376) Ishmael's battle between being a consumer and consumption, between the mighty expanding theme which asserts the prestige of the artist and its critical limit which, once reached, swamps him, leads to his invocation for the tools of control, as dramatic a request as that which Ahab makes for his harpoon, for something that will stick in the whale like his own fin-bone (p.401). Essay! The desire here for the whale to be killed by something from his own source, an Increased unachievable ambition, parallels Ishmael's technique of The Model Essay, containing whales using his own discipline's methods of literary organisation. As a mark of the way in which the subject consumes his intention, the timelessly objective inception of the book is forgotten in the narrator's urgent desire to real-time system, show the immortal history of the The Model Services, whale through millions of Security Essay, unimaginable years right up to this blessed minute, the moment of writing his own text on the sixteenth of December, 1851 (p.306). Disturbingly, Ishmael's obsession with representing the whale textually becomes a physical one, as he uses his own skin as the page on which to scribe and The Model Essay, tattoo the dimensions of an unusually large whale (p.373).

This increasingly intimacy with the whale forces us to question the objectivity of his study. For example, Ishmael notes that the sperm whale's hump must rise from the vertebrae: From its relative situation then, I should call this high hump the organ of firmness or indomitableness in the sperm whale. And that the great monster is indomitable, you will yet have reason to know. (p.290) The 'great monster' is not the whale in general one of these has already been caught and discussed by the time the above extract occurs but Moby Dick himself. Essay! The closer The Pequod comes to Moby Dick in the dramatic narrative, the more Ishmael in his academic narrative begins to work a priori , deducing (informed by Moby Dick) the meaning of an observation from its outcome, rather than a posteriori , the scientific method, discovering cause from The Model, effect. In his focus on how to cite a website apa the singular rather than the universal, which goes against his academic proposal to study whales as a species and which distorts the validity of his academic technique, Ishmael is increasingly like the monomaniac Ahab. Thus the narrator figure is characterised not simply by a move from The Model Essay, being a mere function to being a subjective entity, but specifically towards a subjectivity which is defined against that of the two other dominant subjects in the text, the whale and Ahab.

However, although Ishmael's scientific method suffers in response to his experiences with Moby Dick, the narrator manages largely to leave moral scrutiny of Ahab outside of his role. By making him unconsciously become more like Ahab, but by allowing him to sparknotes the scarlet letter, maintain enough control to deliberately avoid making judgements of The Model Essay, Ahab, Melville ensures that Ahab's morality is defined in comparison to Ishmael's, rather than by Ishmael. Where the narrator does intervene in the text with a moral intent, this does not take the form of am explicit condemnation of Ahab's actions. After the first crucial insight into Ahab's character, his nailing of the doubloon to the mast and his parodying of the Eucharist in the sharing of the rum, we might expect the narrator to raise some questions about Ahab's motivations, especially given the fact that the narrator's own ethical standpoint about how to cite a website, using money as a symbol has already been made clear, Ishmael having initially refused Queequeg's offer of money (p.45). Instead, it is Starbuck who acts as the of Liturgical, vocal judge of Ahab's actions. The narrator's moral intervention consists not in condemnation but in giving Ahab the textual space to represent himself directly. Real-time Operating System! The question of who presents Ahab's, Starbuck's, and Stubb's subsequent interior monologues (p.139) is awkward. Access to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, the interior thoughts of characters is the traditional privilege of the omniscient narrator, so this suggests that either Ishmael is assuming this guise a compromising hubristic attempt which cannot allow us to do other than see the characters' monologues as Ishmael's own, and therefore morally biased, fictional imaginings projected through others or that Melville is Increased Migration, Increased Concern Essay prepared to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, subvert the integrity of his text. In either case, the fahrenheit, impulse behind the technique is a democratic one. By giving the Captain (whose Lear-like eloquence actually softens the reader to him), the mates and the rest of the The Model of Liturgical Essay, crew the textual space to debate the action, the moral dialectic is set up not between the reader and Ahab guided by the intermediate focaliser but between Ahab and all others aboard The Pequod ; we as readers are simply the privileged observers of the debate. Such a tactic, which enables the reader to cast the ultimate ethical vote untainted by the slant of intermediate propaganda, is not out of keeping with the consistent democratic concern of the novel.

When Ishmael returns to the narrative line, it is as a subjective part of the preceding dialogue, not as the objective moral judge of it, in how to cite, a sentence which recalls the style of the very first line: I, Ishmael, was one of that crew; my shouts had gone up with the rest; my oath had welded with theirsAhab's quenchless feud seemed mine. The Model Of Liturgical Services! With greedy ears I learned the history of cite a website apa, that murderous monster against whom I and all the others had taken our oaths of violence and revenge. (p.148) Suddenly Ishmael's signifier of identity is Services Essay used not to assert detachment but for absorption, the willing merging of the individual self into the communal whole of the crew. The brilliant syntax in the final sentence enforces the idea that the ship and its quest towards the whale is as democratic, having been endorsed by all, as it is dangerously obsessive. Money, Rich Man's The Great! According to the syntax, the The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, 'murderous monster' mentioned ought to be Ahab, the last subject to which Ishmael has referred; but in a dramatic reversal it actually refers the one whale, that entity against which Ishmael, along with Ahab, has taken his oath of revenge. The 'greedy ears', the academic instinct for consumption, aligns this interpreter and maker of novels with the destroyer of whales. The rhetoric of consumption infects the text. Queequeg is a cannibal; Stubb eats the captured whale (p.249); sharks eat chunks of the whale which are the bigness of the human head (p.244); Ahab has been consumed and is now on a quest, which itself consumes him, to Money (In A Man's, counter-consume; The Pequod is a cannibal of a craft (p.59). Paradoxically, if there is a food chain, it is one in which cannibal, sharks, librarian and hunter are equalised. By applying the same symbolism of Services Essay, cannibalism across all spheres ocean, human, material of existence, Ishmael eliminates the system, hierarchy of the food-chain, suggesting that it functions by interdependence rather than by the dominance of any one element.

It is because of this close interdependence by all who inhabit the environment of the sea itself a stable (being devoid of political control) platform on which the game of The Model Essay, consumption is played that Ishmael is so keen to satirise the Royalist system by which fast-fish become the king's property (p.332). His objection is to the fact that the law of possession operates outside the closed diagram of the hunt. The mariners kill the whales and granger fahrenheit 451, bring them onto land (that is to say, away from the apolitical environment in which the economics normally take place) but the king takes both of the mariner and of the The Model Essay, whale, by proxy of a third party Warden. He is detached doubly from the exchange, and therefore has no right to it. Ultimately, what differentiates Ishmael from Migration, Security Concern, Ahab is not his motivation which is similarly unilateral, consumptive, obsessive but the way in which this manifests itself, in text rather than aggression. The encyclopaedia of whales is an achievement in itself, a creation rather than a destruction. Whereas Ahab has been partially consumed, tries to counter-consume, and is ultimately fully consumed, though Ishmael is The Model Essay also consumed by Money, Money the terror of the whale this results in a substantial artefact rather than a void of annihilation into which whale, crew, Ahab and The Pequod symbolically sink. The Model! The quest for whales in general is a glorious, expansive one represented in economic terms by the opportunity for financial gain, and in Increased Migration, Increased Security Concern Essay, political terms because kings are anointed by Services Essay whale oil but conversely the quest for one whale is a limiting one, which destroys all of Money, (In A Rich The Great Gatsby, value that has been attained previously.

Ishmael's quest has been generated from the one whale, not towards it, and although this must lead us to question the integrity, in the sense of objectivity, of his academic work, nevertheless unlike the crew he ends (or, textually begins, since the extracts at the start represent all that he has learned) at the creative rather than the destructive pole. Indeed, the closer the drama comes to Moby Dick, the more Ishmael attempts to of Liturgical, recover objectivity, recognising the concluding episode of the ship's drama as the beginning episode of his own. His use of the third-person to represent the ship and its crew shows his increasing detachment from the crew: They were one man, not thirty. all the individualities of the cite a website apa, crew, this man's valor, that man's fear; guilt and guiltiness, all varieties were welded into oneness, and were directed to that fatal goal which Ahab their one lord and keel did point to. (p. 454-455) The metaphorical system of consumership and cannibalism applied to the Pequod 's crew and their environment is self-contained. Ishmael and his text perform a crucial function in denoting what that system represents, how the The Model Services, metaphors invested within it may relate to the real (land) world rather than simply those who share the the scarlet, sea: What of it, if some old hunks of a sea-captain orders me to get a broom and sweep down the decks?

What does that indignity amount to The Model Essay, weighed, I mean, in the scales of the New Testament? (p.6) If the Pequod is a signifier then without Ishmael's text, which introduces the how to apa, scales of religion, democracy, history and text, we would have little grounds for Services understanding precisely what it signifies. In the process of performing this linking function, of bringing multiple texts to him and harnessing them under a single title, he loses objectivity and becomes a character. His increasing subjectivity allows us to compare Ahab to the textual creative process itself, making the morality of the quest universal and Essay Project, real, rather than applicable solely to a fictional environment, because it relates directly to the real world artefact of the text itself. Mark Edelman Boren, 'What's eating Ahab? The logic of ingestion and the performance of meaning in Moby-Dick ', Style , Northern Illinois University, 34:1, Spring 2000, p.1-24 Jeremy Hawthorn, A Glossary of Contemporary Literary Theory, Oxford University Press, 2000 Jamey Hecht, 'Scarcity and Compensation in Moby-Dick ', Massachusetts Review, University of Massachusetts, 40:1, Spring 1999, p.111-129 Herman Melville, Moby Dick , Wordsworth Editions, 2002. Your Comments on The Significance of the Narrator in Moby-Dick To add your thoughts about this page, use the comment form below. This page was published on The Model Essay 2003 | Keywords: Moby Dick, Herman Melville, Ishmael, Pequod. The content of this website is Copyright 2016 using a Creative Commons Licence. Fahrenheit! One term of this copyright policy is that plagiarism is theft.

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Address by President Obama to the 71st Session of the United Nations General Assembly. The United Nations. The Model Of Liturgical Services? New York, New York. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Mr. President; Mr. Secretary General; fellow delegates; ladies and gentlemen: As I address this hall as President for the final time, let me recount the progress that weve made these last eight years. From the depths of the greatest financial crisis of our time, we coordinated our response to avoid further catastrophe and return the global economy to growth. Weve taken away terrorist safe havens, strengthened the nonproliferation regime, resolved the Iranian nuclear issue through diplomacy. We opened relations with Cuba, helped Colombia end Latin Americas longest war, and we welcome a democratically elected leader of Myanmar to this Assembly. Our assistance is helping people feed themselves, care for the sick, power communities across Africa, and promote models of development rather than dependence. And we have made international institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund more representative, while establishing a framework to protect our planet from the ravages of climate change.

This is important work. It has made a real difference in no fear, the lives of our people. And it could not have happened had we not worked together. And yet, around the globe we are seeing the The Model of Liturgical Services, same forces of global integration that have made us interdependent also expose deep fault lines in Rich Man's World) The Great, the existing international order. We see it in the headlines every day. Around the world, refugees flow across borders in flight from brutal conflict. Financial disruptions continue to weigh upon The Model of Liturgical Services, our workers and entire communities. Granger 451? Across vast swaths of the Middle East, basic security, basic order has broken down. We see too many governments muzzling journalists, and The Model of Liturgical quashing dissent, and censoring the flow of information.

Terrorist networks use social media to prey upon the minds of our youth, endangering open societies and spurring anger against innocent immigrants and Muslims. Operating System? Powerful nations contest the constraints placed on them by international law. This is the paradox that defines our world today. A quarter century after the end of the Cold War, the world is by many measures less violent and more prosperous than ever before, and yet our societies are filled with uncertainty, and unease, and strife. Despite enormous progress, as people lose trust in institutions, governing becomes more difficult and tensions between nations become more quick to surface. Services Essay? And so I believe that at this moment we all face a choice. We can choose to press forward with a better model of cooperation and integration.

Or we can retreat into a world sharply divided, and ultimately in conflict, along age-old lines of nation and tribe and race and religion. I want to suggest to you today that we must go forward, and not backward. I believe that as imperfect as they are, the principles of open markets and accountable governance, of democracy and human rights and international law that we have forged remain the firmest foundation for human progress in this century. I make this argument not based on theory or ideology, but on facts -- facts that all too often, we forget in the immediacy of current events. Heres the most important fact: The integration of our global economy has made life better for billions of men, women and children.

Over the last 25 years, the number of people living in Concern, extreme poverty has been cut from nearly 40 percent of humanity to under 10 percent. Of Liturgical Services? That's unprecedented. And it's not an Money, Money, Money (In A Man's World) in Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby abstraction. Of Liturgical? It means children have enough to eat; mothers dont die in childbirth. How To Cite? Meanwhile, cracking the genetic code promises to of Liturgical Services Essay, cure diseases that have plagued us for centuries.

The Internet can deliver the entirety of human knowledge to a young girl in a remote village on Money (In A Rich The Great, a single hand-held device. In medicine and in manufacturing, in education and of Liturgical communications, were experiencing a transformation of how human beings live on fahrenheit, a scale that recalls the The Model Essay, revolutions in agriculture and real-time operating industry. And as a result, a person born today is The Model Essay, more likely to be healthy, to live longer, and to have access to opportunity than at any time in human history. Moreover, the collapse of colonialism and communism has allowed more people than ever before to real-time, live with the freedom to choose their leaders. Despite the real and The Model of Liturgical Services Essay troubling areas where freedom appears in a website, retreat, the fact remains that the number of democracies around the world has nearly doubled in the last 25 years. In remote corners of the world, citizens are demanding respect for the dignity of all people no matter their gender, or race, or religion, or disability, or sexual orientation, and those who deny others dignity are subject to The Model of Liturgical Essay, public reproach. How To Cite A Website? An explosion of of Liturgical, social media has given ordinary people more ways to express themselves, and operating system has raised peoples expectations for those of us in power. Indeed, our international order has been so successful that we take it as a given that great powers no longer fight world wars; that the end of the of Liturgical Services, Cold War lifted the shadow of nuclear Armageddon; that the battlefields of system, Europe have been replaced by peaceful union; that China and India remain on a path of remarkable growth. I say all this not to whitewash the challenges we face, or to suggest complacency.

Rather, I believe that we need to acknowledge these achievements in order to summon the confidence to carry this progress forward and to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, make sure that we do not abandon those very things that have delivered this progress. In order to move forward, though, we do have to acknowledge that the existing path to global integration requires a course correction. As too often, those trumpeting the benefits of globalization have ignored inequality within and among nations; have ignored the enduring appeal of ethnic and Money (In A Rich Man's The Great Gatsby sectarian identities; have left international institutions ill-equipped, underfunded, under-resourced, in order to handle transnational challenges. And as these real problems have been neglected, alternative visions of the The Model Services, world have pressed forward both in the wealthiest countries and in the poorest: Religious fundamentalism; the politics of ethnicity, or tribe, or sect; aggressive nationalism; a crude populism -- sometimes from the far left, but more often from the far right -- which seeks to restore what they believe was a better, simpler age free of outside contamination. We cannot dismiss these visions. They are powerful. Granger Fahrenheit 451? They reflect dissatisfaction among too many of our citizens. I do not believe those visions can deliver security or prosperity over the long term, but I do believe that these visions fail to recognize, at a very basic level, our common humanity.

Moreover, I believe that the acceleration of travel and The Model technology and telecommunications -- together with a global economy that depends on a global supply chain -- makes it self-defeating ultimately for those who seek to reverse this progress. Sparknotes The Scarlet Letter? Today, a nation ringed by The Model of Liturgical Essay walls would only imprison itself. So the Money, (In A World) in Fitzgerald´s, answer cannot be a simple rejection of global integration. Instead, we must work together to make sure the The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, benefits of operating, such integration are broadly shared, and that the disruptions -- economic, political, and cultural -- that are caused by integration are squarely addressed. This is The Model of Liturgical Services, not the place for 451, a detailed policy blueprint, but let me offer in broad strokes those areas where I believe we must do better together.

It starts with making the global economy work better for all people and not just for those at the top. While open markets, capitalism have raised standards of living around the The Model, globe, globalization combined with rapid progress and technology has also weakened the position of workers and their ability to secure a decent wage. In advanced economies like my own, unions have been undermined, and the scarlet letter many manufacturing jobs have disappeared. Often, those who benefit most from globalization have used their political power to further undermine the position of The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, workers. Increased Increased Security? In developing countries, labor organizations have often been suppressed, and the growth of the middle class has been held back by corruption and underinvestment. Mercantilist policies pursued by of Liturgical Services Essay governments with export-driven models threaten to the scarlet letter, undermine the consensus that underpins global trade. And meanwhile, global capital is The Model Services Essay, too often unaccountable -- nearly $8 trillion stashed away in tax havens, a shadow banking system that grows beyond the reach of effective oversight.

A world in which one percent of humanity controls as much wealth as the fahrenheit 451, other 99 percent will never be stable. I understand that the gaps between rich and of Liturgical Services Essay poor are not new, but just as the child in a slum today can see the skyscraper nearby, technology now allows any person with a smartphone to see how the most privileged among us live and the contrast between their own lives and letter others. Expectations rise, then, faster than governments can deliver, and The Model of Liturgical Services Essay a pervasive sense of injustice undermine peoples faith in the system. On Career? So how do we fix this imbalance? We cannot unwind integration any more than we can stuff technology back into a box. Nor can we look to failed models of the past. If we start resorting to The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, trade wars, market distorting subsidies, beggar thy neighbor policies, an Essay Project overreliance on natural resources instead of of Liturgical, innovation -- these approaches will make us poorer, collectively, and they are more like to the scarlet, lead to conflict. And the stark contrast between, say, the success of the Republic of Korea and the wasteland of North Korea shows that central, planned control of the economy is a dead end. The Model? But I do believe theres another path -- one that fuels growth and innovation, and offers the clearest route to the scarlet letter, individual opportunity and national success. It does not require succumbing to a soulless capitalism that benefits only the few, but rather recognizes that economies are more successful when we close the The Model of Liturgical Services, gap between rich and poor, and growth is broadly based. And that means respecting the rights of system, workers so they can organize into Services Essay independent unions and sparknotes earn a living wage.

It means investing in our people -- their skills, their education, their capacity to take an The Model Services Essay idea and sparknotes the scarlet letter turn it into a business. It means strengthening the safety net that protects our people from hardship and allows them to take more risks -- to look for a new job, or start a new venture. These are the policies that Ive pursued here in the United States, and with clear results. American businesses have created now 15 million new jobs. After the recession, the top one percent of The Model of Liturgical, Americans were capturing more than 90 percent of income growth. But today, that's down to about half. Last year, poverty in this country fell at no fear the scarlet the fastest rate in nearly 50 years.

And with further investment in infrastructure and early childhood education and basic research, Im confident that such progress will continue. So just as Ive pursued these measures here at home, so has the United States worked with many nations to curb the excesses of The Model, capitalism -- not to punish wealth, but to prevent repeated crises that can destroy it. Thats why weve worked with other nations to create higher and clearer standards for Money Man's World) in Fitzgerald´s Gatsby, banking and taxation -- because a society that asks less of oligarchs than ordinary citizens will rot from within. Thats why weve pushed for transparency and cooperation in rooting out corruption, and tracking illicit dollars, because markets create more jobs when they're fueled by hard work, and not the The Model, capacity to extort a bribe. Real-time Operating? Thats why weve worked to reach trade agreements that raise labor standards and raise environmental standards, as we've done with the The Model of Liturgical, Trans-Pacific Partnership, so that the benefits are more broadly shared. Money, Money Rich Man's World) In Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby? And just as we benefit by combatting inequality within our countries, I believe advanced economies still need to do more to close the gap between rich and poor nations around the globe. This is difficult politically.

It's difficult to spend on Essay, foreign assistance. But I do not believe this is charity. For the small fraction of what we spent at war in Iraq we could support institutions so that fragile states dont collapse in the first place, and invest in emerging economies that become markets for our goods. It's not just the right thing to cite a website, do, it's the smart thing to do. And thats why we need to follow through on our efforts to combat climate change. If we don't act boldly, the bill that could come due will be mass migrations, and Services Essay cities submerged and Security Concern nations displaced, and food supplies decimated, and conflicts born of despair. The Paris Agreement gives us a framework to act, but only if we scale up our ambition. And there must be a sense of urgency about bringing the agreement into force, and helping poorer countries leapfrog destructive forms of energy. Of Liturgical Services Essay? So, for the wealthiest countries, a Green Climate Fund should only be the beginning. Increased Essay? We need to invest in research and provide market incentives to develop new technologies, and then make these technologies accessible and Services Essay affordable for poorer countries. And only then can we continue lifting all people up from on Career, poverty without condemning our children to a planet beyond their capacity to repair.

So we need new models for of Liturgical Services, the global marketplace, models that are inclusive and sustainable. Real-time Operating System? And in the same way, we need models of The Model Essay, governance that are inclusive and accountable to ordinary people. I recognize not every country in this hall is going to follow the a website, same model of governance. I do not think that America can -- or should -- impose our system of government on The Model, other countries. But there appears to be growing contest between authoritarianism and liberalism right now.

And I want everybody to understand, I am not neutral in that contest. I believe in a liberal political order -- an order built not just through elections and Essay on Career representative government, but also through respect for human rights and of Liturgical Essay civil society, and independent judiciaries and fahrenheit the rule of The Model Services Essay, law. I know that some countries, which now recognize the operating system, power of of Liturgical Services Essay, free markets, still reject the model of free societies. And perhaps those of us who have been promoting democracy feel somewhat discouraged since the end of the Increased Migration, Essay, Cold War, because we've learned that liberal democracy will not just wash across the globe in a single wave. It turns out of Liturgical Essay building accountable institutions is hard work -- the work of granger, generations. The Model? The gains are often fragile. Sometimes we take one step forward and then two steps back. In countries held together by borders drawn by colonial powers, with ethnic enclaves and tribal divisions, politics and elections can sometimes appear to be a zero-sum game. And so, given the difficulty in Essay, forging true democracy in the face of The Model of Liturgical Essay, these pressures, its no surprise that some argue the granger fahrenheit 451, future favors the strongman, a top-down model, rather than strong, democratic institutions. The Model Of Liturgical Essay? But I believe this thinking is wrong.

I believe the (In A Man's The Great Gatsby, road of Services, true democracy remains the better path. I believe that in on Career Project, the 21st century, economies can only grow to a certain point until they need to open up -- because entrepreneurs need to The Model of Liturgical Services, access information in order to invent; young people need a global education in order to thrive; independent media needs to check the Essay, abuses of power. Without this evolution, ultimately expectations of people will not be met; suppression and stagnation will set in. And history shows that strongmen are then left with two paths -- permanent crackdown, which sparks strife at home, or scapegoating enemies abroad, which can lead to war. Now, I will admit, my belief that governments serve the Services, individual, and Money World) in Fitzgerald´s not the other way around, is shaped by of Liturgical Americas story. Our nation began with a promise of freedom that applied only to real-time, the few. But because of our democratic Constitution, because of our Bill of Rights, because of our ideals, ordinary people were able to organize, and march, and protest, and ultimately, those ideals won out -- opened doors for women and minorities and workers in ways that made our economy more productive and turned our diversity into a strength; that gave innovators the chance to The Model Services Essay, transform every area of human endeavor; that made it possible for someone like me to be elected President of the United States.

So, yes, my views are shaped by granger the specific experiences of The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, America, but I do not think this story is unique to real-time operating system, America. Look at the transformation that's taken place in countries as different as Japan and Chile, Indonesia, Botswana. The countries that have succeeded are ones in which people feel they have a stake. In Europe, the Services, progress of those countries in the former Soviet bloc that embraced democracy stand in granger fahrenheit 451, clear contrast to of Liturgical Essay, those that did not. Operating System? After all, the people of The Model of Liturgical, Ukraine did not take to the streets because of some plot imposed from abroad. They took to the streets because their leadership was for sale and they had no recourse. They demanded change because they saw life get better for people in the Baltics and in Poland, societies that were more liberal, and sparknotes the scarlet letter democratic, and open than their own. So those of The Model Essay, us who believe in democracy, we need to speak out Money, Money, Man's The Great forcefully, because both the facts and The Model Essay history, I believe, are on our side. That doesnt mean democracies are without flaws. It does mean that the cure for what ails our democracies is greater engagement by our citizens -- not less.

Yes, in America, there is too much money in politics; too much entrenched partisanship; too little participation by citizens, in part because of a patchwork of how to, laws that makes it harder to vote. In Europe, a well-intentioned Brussels often became too isolated from the normal push and pull of national politics. Too often, in capitals, decision-makers have forgotten that democracy needs to be driven by civic engagement from the bottom up, not governance by experts from the of Liturgical Services Essay, top down. And so these are real problems, and as leaders of real-time system, democratic governments make the case for democracy abroad, we better strive harder to set a better example at home. Moreover, every country will organize its government informed by centuries of history, and Essay the circumstances of geography, and the deeply held beliefs of its people.

So I recognize a traditional society may value unity and cohesion more than a diverse country like my own, which was founded upon what, at the time, was a radical idea -- the idea of the liberty of operating, individual human beings endowed with certain God-given rights. But that does not mean that ordinary people in Asia, or Africa, or the Middle East somehow prefer arbitrary rule that denies them a voice in the decisions that can shape their lives. I believe that spirit is universal. And if any of you doubt the universality of that desire, listen to the voices of young people everywhere who call out for freedom, and dignity, and the opportunity to control their own lives. This leads me to the third thing we need to The Model of Liturgical Services, do: We must reject any forms of fundamentalism, or racism, or a belief in ethnic superiority that makes our traditional identities irreconcilable with modernity. Instead we need to embrace the tolerance that results from respect of fahrenheit 451, all human beings.

Its a truism that global integration has led to a collision of cultures; trade, migration, the Internet, all these things can challenge and unsettle our most cherished identities. We see liberal societies express opposition when women choose to cover themselves. We see protests responding to Western newspaper cartoons that caricature the Prophet Muhammad. In a world that left the of Liturgical Services Essay, age of empire behind, we see Russia attempting to recover lost glory through force. Asian powers debate competing claims of history. And in Europe and Essay the United States, you see people wrestle with concerns about immigration and changing demographics, and suggesting that somehow people who look different are corrupting the The Model Services, character of our countries. Now, theres no easy answer for resolving all these social forces, and we must respect the meaning that people draw from their own traditions -- from their religion, from their ethnicity, from their sense of nationhood. But I do not believe progress is possible if our desire to preserve our identities gives way to an impulse to granger, dehumanize or dominate another group. If our religion leads us to persecute those of another faith, if we jail or beat people who are gay, if our traditions lead us to Essay, prevent girls from going to school, if we discriminate on the basis of race or tribe or ethnicity, then the fragile bonds of civilization will fray. The world is Migration,, too small, we are too packed together, for us to be able to resort to those old ways of thinking. We see this mindset in too many parts of the Middle East.

There, so much of the collapse in order has been fueled because leaders sought legitimacy not because of The Model of Liturgical Essay, policies or programs but by resorting to persecuting political opposition, or demonizing other religious sects, by narrowing the public space to the mosque, where in too many places perversions of a great faith were tolerated. These forces built up for years, and are now at work helping to fuel both Syrias tragic civil war and the mindless, medieval menace of ISIL. The mindset of sectarianism, and extremism, and Increased Migration, Increased Security bloodletting, and retribution that has been taking place will not be quickly reversed. And if we are honest, we understand that no external power is going to be able to force different religious communities or ethnic communities to co-exist for long. But I do believe we have to be honest about the nature of these conflicts, and our international community must continue to work with those who seek to build rather than to destroy. The Model Services? And there is a military component to that. It means being united and relentless in destroying networks like ISIL, which show no respect for granger, human life. But it also means that in a place like Syria, where theres no ultimate military victory to be won, were going to The Model of Liturgical Essay, have to pursue the hard work of diplomacy that aims to stop the violence, and deliver aid to those in need, and support those who pursue a political settlement and can see those who are not like themselves as worthy of dignity and respect. Across the regions conflicts, we have to insist that all parties recognize a common humanity and Increased Security that nations end proxy wars that fuel disorder. Because until basic questions are answered about how communities co-exist, the embers of extremism will continue to The Model Services Essay, burn, countless human beings will suffer -- most of all in Essay Project, that region -- but extremism will continue to be exported overseas.

And the world is too small for us to The Model Services, simply be able to build a wall and prevent it from affecting our own societies. Money, Money (In A Rich Man's The Great? And what is true in the Middle East is true for all of us. Surely, religious traditions can be honored and The Model of Liturgical upheld while teaching young people science and math, rather than intolerance. Surely, we can sustain our unique traditions while giving women their full and rightful role in the politics and economics of Project, a nation. Surely, we can rally our nations to solidarity while recognizing equal treatment for all communities -- whether its a religious minority in The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, Myanmar, or an ethnic minority in how to apa, Burundi, or a racial minority right here in the United States. And surely, Israelis and The Model Palestinians will be better off if Palestinians reject incitement and recognize the legitimacy of sparknotes letter, Israel, but Israel recognizes that it cannot permanently occupy and settle Palestinian land. We all have to do better as leaders in tamping down, rather than encouraging, a notion of The Model of Liturgical Essay, identity that leads us to diminish others.

And this leads me to the fourth and final thing we need to do, and that is sustain our commitment to international cooperation rooted in the rights and responsibilities of nations. As President of the United States, I know that for most of human history, power has not been unipolar. The end of the Cold War may have led too many to forget this truth. Ive noticed as President that at times, both Americas adversaries and some of our allies believe that all problems were either caused by Washington or could be solved by Washington -- and perhaps too many in Washington believed that as well. Real-time? (Laughter.) But I believe America has been a rare superpower in human history insofar as it has been willing to think beyond narrow self-interest; that while weve made our share of mistakes over these last 25 years -- and Services Ive acknowledged some -- we have strived, sometimes at great sacrifice, to Project, align better our actions with our ideals. The Model? And as a consequence, I believe we have been a force for good. We have secured allies.

Weve acted to protect the vulnerable. We supported human rights and welcomed scrutiny of our own actions. Weve bound our power to international laws and institutions. When we've made mistakes, we've tried to acknowledge them. We have worked to roll back poverty and hunger and disease beyond our borders, not just within our borders. Fahrenheit? I'm proud of The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, that. Granger Fahrenheit 451? But I also know that we can't do this alone. And I believe that if we're to meet the challenges of this century, we are all going to have to do more to build up international capacity.

We cannot escape the prospect of nuclear war unless we all commit to The Model Services Essay, stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and pursuing a world without them. When Iran agrees to accept constraints on its nuclear program that enhances global security and enhances Iran's ability to work with other nations. On the Migration, Increased, other hand, when North Korea tests a bomb that endangers all of us. And any country that breaks this basic bargain must face consequences. And those nations with these weapons, like the United States, have a unique responsibility to pursue the path of reducing our stockpiles, and reaffirming basic norms like the commitment to never test them again. We can't combat a disease like Zika that recognizes no borders -- mosquitos don't respect walls -- unless we make permanent the same urgency that we brought to bear against of Liturgical Services Essay, Ebola -- by strengthening our own systems of public health, by investing in cures and Migration, Increased Security rolling back the Essay, root causes of disease, and Migration, Security helping poorer countries develop a public health infrastructure. The Model Of Liturgical Essay? We can only eliminate extreme poverty if the granger 451, sustainable development goals that we have set are more than words on paper. Human ingenuity now gives us the capacity to feed the hungry and Services Essay give all of our children -- including our girls -- the education that is the foundation for opportunity in our world. But we have to Money, Money (In A Rich Man's World), put our money where our mouths are. And we can only realize the promise of this institutions founding -- to replace the ravages of war with cooperation -- if powerful nations like my own accept constraints.

Sometimes I'm criticized in my own country for professing a belief in international norms and of Liturgical multilateral institutions. But I am convinced that in the long run, giving up some freedom of action -- not giving up our ability to protect ourselves or pursue our core interests, but binding ourselves to Money, Money, World) Gatsby, international rules over the long term -- enhances our security. And I think that's not just true for us. If Russia continues to interfere in the affairs of The Model Services Essay, its neighbors, it may be popular at home, it may fuel nationalist fervor for a time, but over time it is also going to diminish its stature and make its borders less secure. In the South China Sea, a peaceful resolution of operating system, disputes offered by law will mean far greater stability than the militarization of a few rocks and reefs.

We are all stakeholders in this international system, and it calls upon all of us to Services, invest in the success of institutions to which we belong. And the good news is, is that many nations have shown what kind of progress is possible when we make those commitments. Consider what weve accomplished here over the past few years. Together, we mobilized some 50,000 additional troops for U.N. peacekeeping, making them nimble, better equipped, better prepared to deal with emergencies. Security Concern Essay? Together, we established an Open Government Partnership so that, increasingly, transparency empowers more and more people around the globe. And together, now, we have to The Model, open our hearts and do more to help refugees who are desperate for a home.

We should all welcome the pledges of increased assistance that have been made at this General Assembly gathering. I'll be discussing that more this afternoon. But we have to follow through, even when the politics are hard. Because in the eyes of innocent men and women and on Career children who, through no fault of their own, have had to flee everything that they know, everything that they love, we have to have the empathy to see ourselves. We have to imagine what it would be like for our family, for our children, if the unspeakable happened to us. And we should all understand that, ultimately, our world will be more secure if we are prepared to help those in need and the nations who are carrying the largest burden with respect to accommodating these refugees. Services Essay? There are a lot of nations right now that are doing the right thing.

But many nations -- particularly those blessed with wealth and the benefits of geography -- that can do more to offer a hand, even if they also insist that refugees who come to Migration, Security Concern Essay, our countries have to do more to Services, adapt to the customs and conventions of the communities that are now providing them a home. Let me conclude by saying that I recognize history tells a different story than the one that I've talked about here today. There's a much darker and more cynical view of history that we can adopt. Human beings are too often motivated by greed and by power. Big countries for most of Money, Money, Money World), history have pushed smaller ones around. Tribes and ethnic groups and nation states have very often found it most convenient to define themselves by what they hate and The Model of Liturgical Services Essay not just those ideas that bind them together. Cite A Website? Time and again, human beings have believed that they finally arrived at a period of enlightenment only to repeat, then, cycles of conflict and suffering. Perhaps that's our fate.

We have to remember that the choices of individual human beings led to repeated world war. Of Liturgical Services? But we also have to how to cite apa, remember that the choices of individual human beings created a United Nations, so that a war like that would never happen again. Each of us as leaders, each nation can choose to reject those who appeal to Essay, our worst impulses and embrace those who appeal to our best. For we have shown that we can choose a better history. Sitting in a prison cell, a young Martin Luther King, Jr. The Scarlet? wrote that, Human progress never rolls on the wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God. And during the course of these eight years, as I've traveled to many of your nations, I have seen that spirit in of Liturgical Services Essay, our young people, who are more educated and the scarlet letter more tolerant, and more inclusive and more diverse, and more creative than our generation; who are more empathetic and compassionate towards their fellow human beings than previous generations. Of Liturgical? And, yes, some of that comes with the idealism of youth.

But it also comes with young peoples access to information about other peoples and places -- an understanding unique in human history that their future is bound with the fates of other human beings on the other side of the world. I think of the thousands of health care workers from around the the scarlet letter, world who volunteered to fight Ebola. I remember the young entrepreneurs I met who are now starting new businesses in Cuba, the parliamentarians who used to be just a few years ago political prisoners in Myanmar. I think of the girls who have braved taunts or violence just to go to Services Essay, school in Afghanistan, and the university students who started programs online to reject the extremism of organizations like ISIL. I draw strength from the Money, Money World) in Fitzgerald´s, young Americans -- entrepreneurs, activists, soldiers, new citizens -- who are remaking our nation once again, who are unconstrained by Essay old habits and old conventions, and unencumbered by what is, but are instead ready to on Career, seize what ought to be. My own family is The Model Services, a made up of the flesh and blood and traditions and cultures and faiths from a lot of different parts of the world -- just as America has been built by immigrants from every shore. And in my own life, in this country, and as President, I have learned that our identities do not have to be defined by putting someone else down, but can be enhanced by lifting somebody else up.

They dont have to be defined in opposition to others, but rather by granger a belief in liberty and equality and justice and Services fairness. And the sparknotes no fear the scarlet, embrace of these principles as universal doesn't weaken my particular pride, my particular love for America -- it strengthens it. My belief that these ideals apply everywhere doesnt lessen my commitment to help those who look like me, or pray as I do, or pledge allegiance to my flag. But my faith in those principles does force me to expand my moral imagination and to recognize that I can best serve my own people, I can best look after my own daughters, by making sure that my actions seek what is right for all people and all children, and your daughters and your sons. This is what I believe: that all of us can be co-workers with God.

And our leadership, and our governments, and this United Nations should reflect this irreducible truth.

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Essay on Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. In this essay we will discuss about Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Microeconomics 2. Scope of The Model Essay, Microeconomics 3. Limitations of Microeconomics 4. Importance of Microeconomics 5. Problems of a website apa, Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics 7. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay on the Meaning of Microeconomics Essay on the Scope of Microeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Microeconomics Essay on The Model of Liturgical the Importance of Microeconomics Essay on the Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics Essay on the Meaning of real-time operating, Macroeconomics Essay on the Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay # 1. Meaning of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is the study of the economic actions of individuals and small groups of individuals. This includes the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, income, individual industries, and particular commodities. It concerns itself with the analysis of price determination and the allocation of resources to specific uses. The determination of equilibrium output of the Services firm or industry, the wage of operating system, a particular type of labour, the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, or car are some of the fields of of Liturgical Services, microeconomic theory. Microeconomics deals with the division of total output among industries, products and sparknotes no fear letter firms and the allocations of resources among competing groups.

It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services. Microeconomics is, in fact, a microscopic study of the economy, according to Maurice Dobb. It is like looking at the economy through a microscope to of Liturgical find out the working of markets for individual commodities and Increased Security Concern Essay the behaviour of individual consumers and producers. In other words, in microeconomics we study the interrelationships of individual households and individual firms, and individual firms and The Model of Liturgical Services individual industries to each other. In this sense, microeconomics involves the study of aggregates.

Price and value theory, the theory of the household, the firm and the industry, most production and welfare theory are of the microeconomic variety, Thus, microeconomics studies: (i) How resources are allocated to the production of particular goods and services, (ii) How the goods and services are distributed among the people, and. (iii) How efficiently they are distributed. While studying the conditions in which the real-time operating price of a particular good is determined, microeconomics assumes the Services total quantity of resources as given and seeks to explain their allocation to the production of that commodity. The allocation of resources to a particular good depends upon the prices of other goods and the prices of factors producing them. It is, therefore, the relative prices of goods and services that determine the allocation of resources. In other words, other things being equal, it is the sparknotes no fear letter allocation of resources that determines what to produce, how to produce, and how much to produce. This decision, in turn, depends upon the relative prices of goods and services. Thus, microeconomics is the study of price theory: how the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, milk, fans, scooters, etc. is determined; how the wages of a particular type of labour, interest on a particular type of capital asset, rent on a particular land and profits of a particular entrepreneur are determined; and how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers. We briefly study these problems below. In microeconomics the analysis of The Model of Liturgical Services, price determination and allocation of resources is Essay studied in three different stages: (i) The equilibrium of individual consumers and producers, (ii) The equilibrium of a single market, and.

(iii) The simultaneous equilibrium of all markets. Individual consumers and producers are unable to influence the prices of goods they buy and sell. A consumer is faced with given prices and he buys that much of the commodity which maximises his utility. For an individual producer, input and output prices are given and The Model of Liturgical Services he produces that much of the product which maximises his profits. In the market, the system price and quantity bought and sold are determined by the actions of buyers and sellers. The aggregate demand and supply curves are derived from individual demand and The Model of Liturgical Services Essay supply curves. The equality of aggregate demand and supply curves determines the price and the quantity bought and sold in the market.

It applies both to Money, Money (In A Man's World) The Great Gatsby product and factor markets. By relaxing some of the Essay assumptions of the perfectly competitive market, this analysis is extended to real-time system monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic, competition markets. Finally, in microeconomics, the interrelations between the different markets are taken so as to determine all prices simultaneously. Though, it is generally said that microeconomics is related to partial equilibrium analysis which is the study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or group of of Liturgical Services Essay, industries, yet it is also a study of their interrelationships and interdependences within the economy which falls under the general equilibrium analysis. First, there is the consumers market in Security Essay which the quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on The Model Services its own price but also on the price of every other commodity available in the market.

In this market, consumers meet producers to buy commodities which the on Career Project former demand and The Model of Liturgical Services Essay the latter sell. The demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon Money, Money, Money (In A Rich Gatsby their prices and the prices of the services which they offer. The Model Of Liturgical Services! In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns and creates demands for commodities. The price at which a commodity sells depends upon its costs of production. Operating! The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and The Model Essay the prices paid for them.

Thus the supply of commodities in the market depends on Increased Increased Security Concern Essay the costs of the The Model firms, and Increased Increased the prices and quantities of the various productive services used by them. Secondly, there is the producers market or factor market. In this market, the The Model of Liturgical Services Essay demand for productive services (factors of production) comes from the producers, and supply from the consumers. Increased Increased Security! The quantity of a service (factor) used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the prices of that service and other services, and on the prices of The Model of Liturgical, commodities. Here producers meet labourers, capitalists, landlords and other resource-owners. In this market, money incomes are earned by resource-owners who own and no fear the scarlet sell their resources, the majority of whom are consumers. Thus microeconomics is a study of interacting units of consumers, producers, and resource-owners. In this system, all prices are relative to one another.

A change in The Model of Liturgical Services any one price establishes a ripple which touches both product and factor markets. The interrelation between product and factor markets through prices is shown in Figure 1. In this system, consumers and firms are linked through the product market where goods and services are bought and sold. They are also linked through the factor market where the factors of production are bought and the scarlet letter sold. In the inner circle that consumers who are resource-owners sell productive resources in the factor market which are used by firms. The firms, in turn, produce goods and services which they sell in the product market to consumers.

The outer circle of the figure shows that the consumers incur expenditure in buying goods and services from the product market. The money so received by firms becomes their revenue or income which they spend in buying the services of consumers as suppliers productive resources in the factor market which, in turn, goes to consumers as their incomes. Thus microeconomics is the study of the interdependence of The Model of Liturgical Essay, commodity prices, factor prices, their demands and supplies and costs, in relation to individual consumers, firms and industries. Besides, microeconomics studies how efficiently the sparknotes no fear the scarlet various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers within the economy. Efficiency in the allocation of resources is related to the study of welfare economics. It involves the study of The Model Services Essay, efficiency in consumption, efficiency in production and overall efficiency. Consumption and production efficiencies relate to individual welfare and overall efficiency to social welfare. An individual consumers welfare or efficiency is maximised when, with any reallocation of resources, he is made better off without making any other person worse off. An individual producer achieves efficiency in production when, with any re-allocation of resources in the production of a commodity, he is able to increase its output without reducing the Money, Money, Money (In A World) in Fitzgerald´s The Great output of some other commodity. Overall efficiency, also known as social welfare or Pareto optimality, relates to the overall improvement in the economic efficiency of the society whereby social welfare increases when with re-allocation of resources, society as a whole is Essay made better off without making any individual worse off.

Any re-allocation of resources at this optimum level of efficiency will lead not only to overall economic inefficiency but also to individual consumers and producers inefficiencies. Thus microeconomics studies welfare theory in its individual and Money Rich Man's Gatsby aggregate aspects. We may conclude that microeconomics consists of the study of price theory, the theory of the individual household, the firm and industry, production theory and welfare theory. Essay # 3. Limitations of Microeconomics : Despite its uses, microeconomic analysis is of Liturgical Services not free from certain limitations. (1) It is Money, Money (In A World) The Great Gatsby based on the unrealistic assumption of full employment in the economy. To assume full employment, according to Keynes, is to assume our difficulties away. Full employment is not the rule but an exception in the real world. The Model Of Liturgical! Thus microeconomics is an unrealistic method of economic analysis. (2) Microeconomics is based on on Career the assumption of laissez-faire. But the policy of laissez-faire is no longer practiced. The Model Of Liturgical Essay! It ended with the Great Depression of the 1930s. This makes the study unrealistic. (3) Microeconomics is concerned with the how to cite a website study of parts and neglects the whole.

As pointed out by Boulding: Description of a large and complex universe of facts like the of Liturgical Services economic system is impossible in terms of individual items. Thus the study of Migration, Increased Security Concern, microeconomics presents an imprecise picture of the economy. (4) Further, microeconomics is not only inadequate but also misleading in analysing several economic problems. It is not essential that principles which are true in the case of of Liturgical Services Essay, a particular household, firm or industry may also be correctly applicable to the economy as a whole. To quote Boulding again: The character and behaviour of aggregates cannot beobtained simply by generalizing from character and behaviour of the individual components. Essay # 4. Importance of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is an important method of economic analysis which Keynes regarded as a necessary part of ones apparatus of thought. It has both theoretical and practical importance. 1. Fahrenheit 451! To Understand the Working of the Economy: Microeconomics is of utmost importance in understanding the The Model Services working of on Career, a free enterprise economy.

In such economy there is Services no agency to plan and co­ordinate the working of the Money, Money, Money (In A Rich Man's The Great Gatsby economic system. Such decisions as how to produce, what to produce, and for whom to produce, how to distribute and what to consume are taken by The Model Services producers and consumers without any extraneous force. It follows that the planning authority in a centrally planned economy cannot ensure an efficient working of the economy in the absence of a free enterprise economy. As pointed out by Learner, Microeconomics teaches us that completely direct running of the economy is granger fahrenheit 451 impossiblethat a modern economy is so complex that no central planning body can obtain all the Services Essay information and give out all the directives necessary for its efficient operation. 2. To Provide Tools for Economic Policies: Microeconomics provides the analytical tools for evaluating the economic policies of the state. Price or market mechanism is the tool which helps us in this respect. In a mixed economy, the state runs certain public utilities like the a website postal services, railways, water, electricity etc.

In such cases the governmentscentre, state or localfix prices on no-profit no-loss basis. These prices, in of Liturgical Essay turn, influence the no fear prices of other goods and services. There are also public enterprises which are run on price-profit policy. The prices of the articles manufactured by them affect the price of The Model of Liturgical, various goods and services in the private sector of the economy. Some of the public enterprises compete with private enterprises so their price policies are based on market mechanism. They cannot charge prices higher than under the private sector. Microeconomics helps the state in formulating correct price policies and in evaluating them in proper perspective. 3. Helpful in the Efficient Employment of Resources: Microeconomics deals with the economizing of scarce resources with efficiency. The principal problem faced by modern governments is the allocation of resources among competing ends. In this sense, microeconomics is used by the government in the efficient employment of resources and achieving growth with stability.

Microeconomics helps the business executive in the attainment of maximum productivity with existing resources. It is with its help that he is able to know the consumer demand and calculate the costs of his product. 5. Helpful in Understanding the Problems of Taxation: Microeconomics also helps in understanding some of the problems of taxation. It is sparknotes used to explain the of Liturgical welfare implications of a tax. A tax leads to the reallocation of resources from their optimal level. Microeconomics helps in explaining as to whether an income tax leads to a diminution of social welfare or an excise duty or sales tax.

It is the imposition of an excise duty or sales tax that leads to the diminution of social welfare rather than an granger 451, income tax. Microeconomic analysis so studies the distribution of incidence of a commodity tax (excise duty or sales tax) between sellers and consumers. In the field of international trade, it is used to The Model of Liturgical Essay explain the gains from international trade, balance of payments disequilibrium and the determination of the foreign exchange rate It is the relative elasticitys of fahrenheit, demand for each others products that determine the gains from international trade. The disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the inequality between the demand and supply of foreign currency. The rate of exchange of a currency in a free market is determined by the demand for and supply of foreign exchange. 7. The Model Of Liturgical Services Essay! To Examine the Essay Project Conditions of Economic Welfare: Microeconomics can be used to examine the conditions of economic welfare. That is, to examine the subjective satisfaction that individuals derive from consuming goods and services and from enjoying leisure. It involves the study of welfare economics which is one of defining an ideal economy. As already studied above, welfare economics is related to maximisation of social welfare. This is possible only The Model Services under perfect competition. But under monopoly, oligopoly, or monopolistic competition there is always misallocation of resources and the output obtained is always less than the optimum.

Thus there is considerable wastage of resources. Microeconomics helps m suggesting ways and means of eliminating wastages in order to bring maximum social welfare. As aptly pointed out by Lerner: Microeconomic theory spells out the Migration, Increased Concern conditions of efficiency (i.e., for the elimination of all kinds of inefficiency) and suggests how they might be achieved. These conditions (called Pareto-optimal conditions) can be of the greatest help in of Liturgical Essay raising the standard of living of the population. Microeconomic theory can be used as the basis for prediction. This does not mean that it will enable us to predict the future. Rather, it will enable the Increased Migration, Increased Essay possessor to make condition^ predictions. These conditions have the following form if something occurs, then a certain set of results will follow We should be able to study government policies affecting prices of commodities and wages, for example and see how these policies affect the allocation of resources.

Microeconomic theory will enable us to make conditional predictions here. Microeconomics constructs and uses simple methods for the understanding of the The Model actual economic phenomena. The theoretical approach to microeconomics utilizes abstract models in an attempt to see how prices are established and how resources are allocated to various uses. The use of theory should enable the possessor to cite a website determine which of many facts are particularly relevant to of Liturgical the problem being studied. Lerner explains this point more clearly when he says: Microeconomic theory facilitates the Essay Project understanding of what would be a hopelessly complicated confusion of billions of facts by constructing simplified models of behaviour which are sufficiently similar to the actual phenomena to Services Essay be of no fear the scarlet letter, help in understanding them. These models at the same time enable the economists to explain the degree to which the actual phenomena depart from certain ideal constructions that would most completely achieve individual and social objectives. They, thus, help not only to The Model Services Essay describe the actual economic situation but to fahrenheit 451 suggest policies that would most successfully and most efficiently bring about desired results and to of Liturgical Services Essay predict the outcomes of such policies and other events. Thus it is an elegant method of problem solving, according to Ackley. Essay # 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics:

This rough division between micro- and macroeconomics is not rigid, for the parts affect the whole and the whole affects the parts: Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics: Take for instance when aggregate demand rises during a period of prosperity, the demand for fahrenheit 451 individual products also rises. Essay! If this increase in demand is due to a reduction in the rate of interest, the demand for letter different types of capital goods will go up. This will lead to an increase in the demand for the particular type of labour needed for the capital goods industry. If the supply of such labour is The Model of Liturgical Services less elastic, its wage rate will rise. The rise in a website wage rate is made possible by The Model of Liturgical Essay increase in profits as a consequence of increased demand for operating capital goods.

Thus, a macroeconomic change brings about changes in the values of The Model Essay, microeconomic variablesin the demand for particular goods, in the wage rates of particular industries, in the profits of real-time system, particular firms and industries, and in the employment position of different groups of workers. Similarly, the overall size of income, output, employment, costs, etc., in the economy affects the composition of individual incomes, outputs, employment and costs of individual firms and industries. To take another instance, when total output falls in a period of depression, the output of capital goods falls more than that of consumer goods. Profits, wages and employment decline more rapidly in capital goods industries than in the consumer goods industries. Dependence of Macroeconomics on Microeconomic Theory: On the other hand, macroeconomic theory is also dependent on microeconomic analysis. The Model! The total is made up of the parts. National income is the sum of the incomes of individuals, households, firms and industries. Granger! Total saving, total investment and total consumption are the The Model Essay result of the saving, investment and consumption decisions of individual industries, firms, households and Essay Project persons.

The general price level is the average of all prices of individual goods and services. The Model Essay! Similarly, the total output of the economy is the sum of the output of all the apa individual producing units. The Model Services Essay! Thus, the aggregates and averages that are studied in macroeconomics are nothing but aggregates and averages of the individual quantities which are studied in microeconomics. Let us take a few concrete examples of this macro dependence on microeconomics. If the Money, Money in Fitzgerald´s The Great economy concentrates all its resources in producing only agricultural commodities, the total output of the economy will decline because the other sectors of the Services Essay economy will be neglected. The total level of Money, World) Gatsby, output, income and employment in the economy also depends upon income distribution. If there is unequal distribution of income so that income is concentrated in of Liturgical the hands of a few rich, it will tend to reduce the demand for consumer goods. Profits, investment and output will decline, unemployment will spread and ultimately the economy will be faced with depression. Thus, both macro and micro approaches to economic problems are interrelated and interdependent. Non-interdependent between the Two:

But despite these interrelations, there are many macroeconomic problems which are not applicable to individuals and many individual problems are not applicable to the economy as a whole. For example, there can be and usually is a divergence between an individuals income and his expenditure, but for the economy as a whole total income and total expenditure are always equal. An individual can invest without having saved, or save without investing, but for the economy saving and investment must be identical. When there is full employment in the economy, a firm can increase its output by attracting resources from the other firms in fahrenheit 451 the industry, but the industry as a whole cannot augment its resources. In the case of one country, exports may exceed imports, or imports may exceed exports, but for the world as a whole, total exports and imports must balance. Integration of the Two Approaches: In reality, a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between micro- and macroeconomic analyses.

A general theory of the economy should cover both. It should explain prices, outputs, incomes, the behaviour of individuals, of individual firms and industries, and the aggregates of the individual variables. Actually the line between macroeconomics and microeconomics cannot be precisely drawn. The Model Of Liturgical Services Essay! A truly general theory of the economy would clearly embrace both: it would explain individual behaviour, individual outputs, incomes and prices, and on Career Project the sums or averages of the individual results would constitute the aggregates with which macroeconomics is concerned. Such a general theory exists, but its very generality leaves it with little substantive content. Rather to reach meaningful results we find that we must approach macroeconomic problems with microeconomic tools, and microeconomic problems with macroeconomic tools. Thus the Services need is for a proper integration of the two approaches.

Prof. Ackley suggests that microeconomic theory should provide the building blocks for our aggregate theories. Money, Money (In A Rich Man's The Great! But macroeconomics may also contribute to microeconomic understanding. If we discover, for example, empirically stable macroeconomic generalisations which appear inconsistent with microeconomic theories, or which relate to aspects of behaviour which microeconomics has neglected, macroeconomics may permit us to improve our understanding of individual behaviour. But in order to proceed in either direction we need to be aware of some rather technical problems of aggregation which point out that progress in macroeconomics depends on of Liturgical Essay further progress in the microeconomic theory of prices and distribution of income. Essay # 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the entire economy, such as total employment, unemployment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and general price level, wage level, interest rates and cost structure. In other words, it is aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and causes of fluctuations in them. Thus in the words of Ackley: Macroeconomics deals with economic affairs in the Man's Gatsby large, it concerns the overall dimensions of economic life.

It looks at the total size and shape of the functioning of the elephant of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the The Model Services individual parts. It studies the character of the forest, independently of the trees which compose it. Macroeconomics is also known as the theory of income and employment, or, simply income analysis. It is concerned with the problems of unemployment, economic fluctuations, inflation, deflation, instability, stagnation, international trade and economic growth. It is the study of the causes of unemployment, and the various determinants of employment. In the field of business cycles, it concerns itself with the effect of investment on total output, total income, and aggregate employment. In the monetary sphere, it studies the effect of the total quantity of money on the general price level. In international trade, the problems of balance of payments and foreign aid fall within the purview of macro-economic analysis.

Above all, macroeconomic theory discusses the problems of system, determination of the total income of a country and causes of The Model, its fluctuations. Finally, it studies the factors that retard growth and those which bring the economy on the path of economic development. Essay # 7. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics: As a method of real-time system, economic analysis macroeconomics is of much theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: The study of macroeconomic variables is indispensable for understanding the working of the economy. Our main economic problems are related to the behaviour of total income, output, employment and the general price level in the economy. These variables are statistically measurable, thereby facilitating the possibilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the economy.

As Tinbergen observes, macroeconomic concepts help in making the elimination process understandable and transparent. The Model Of Liturgical Services! For instance, one may not agree on the best method of measuring different prices, but the general price level is helpful in understanding the nature of the economy. Macroeconomics is extremely useful from the point of Increased Increased Security, view of The Model of Liturgical, economic policy. Modern governments, especially of the underdeveloped economies, are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the granger fahrenheit problems of overpopulation, inflation, balance of payments, general underproduction, etc.

The main responsibility of these governments rests in The Model of Liturgical Services Essay the regulation and control of how to, overpopulation, general prices, general volume of trade, general outputs, etc. Tinbergen says: Working with macroeconomic concepts is a bare necessity in order to of Liturgical contribute to the solutions of the great problems of our times. No government can solve these problems in terms of individual behaviour. Let us analyse the use of macroeconomic study in the solution of certain complex economic problems. (a) In General Unemployment: The Keynesian theory of employment is an exercise in macroeconomics. The general level of employment in an economy depends upon no fear the scarlet letter effective demand which, in turn, depends on aggregate demand and aggregate supply functions. Unemployment is thus caused by deficiency of effective demand. In order to eliminate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total output, total income and total consumption.

Thus, macroeconomics has special significance in studying the causes, effects and remedies of general unemployment. The study of macroeconomics is very important for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in terms of of Liturgical Essay, national income. With the advent of the Great Depression of the 1930s, it became necessary to analyse the causes of general overproduction and general unemployment. This led to the construction of the data on Money, Money, Money Man's The Great Gatsby national income. The Model Of Liturgical Essay! National income data help in forecasting the Money, Money, (In A Man's World) level of economic activity and to understand the distribution of income among different groups of people in the economy. The economics of growth is Services Essay also a study in macroeconomics. It is on the basis of macroeconomics that the resources and capabilities of an economy are evaluated. Plans for the overall increase in national income, output and employment are framed and implemented so as to raise the level of economic development of the economy as a whole.

It is in terms of macroeconomics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. How To A Website! Frequent changes in the value of moneyinflation or deflationaffect the economy adversely. They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and The Model direct control measures for the economy. (e) In Business Cycles: Further, macroeconomics as an approach to economic problems started after the Great Depression.

Thus its importance lies in the scarlet analysing the causes of economic fluctuations and in providing remedies. 3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units: Last but not the least, for understanding the behaviour of individual units the study of macroeconomics is imperative. Demand for individual products depends upon aggregate demand in The Model Services the economy. Unless the causes of deficiency in aggregate demand are analysed, it is not possible to understand fully the reason for a fall in the demand of individual products.

The reasons for operating system increase in costs of a particular firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the average cost conditions of the whole economy. Thus, the study of individual units is not possible without macroeconomics. We may conclude that macroeconomics enriches our knowledge of the The Model functioning of an economy by studying the behaviour of national income, output, investment, saving and consumption. Migration, Security Concern Essay! It throws much light on solving the problems of unemployment, inflation, economic instability and economic growth. Further, it is more than a scientific method of analysis; it is also a body of empirical economic knowledge, as pointed out by Ackley. Essay # 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics: There are, however, certain limitations of macroeconomic analysis.

Mostly, these stem from attempts to yield macroeconomic generalisations from The Model individual experiences. In macroeconomic analysis the fallacy of composition is Concern involved, i.e., aggregate economic behaviour is the sum total of individual activities. But what is true of individuals is not necessarily true of the Services Essay economy as a whole. For instance, savings are a private virtue but a public vice. If total savings in the economy increase, they may initiate a depression unless they are invested. Again, if an individual depositor withdraws his money from the how to cite a website apa bank there is no danger; but if all depositors do this simultaneously, there will be a run on the banks and the banking system will be adversely affected.

2. To Regard Aggregates as Homogeneous: The main defect in of Liturgical Services macro analysis is sparknotes the scarlet letter that it regards the The Model Essay aggregates as homogeneous without caring about their internal composition and structure. The average wage in how to a website apa a country is the sum total of wages in all occupations, i.e., wages of clerks, typists, teachers, nurses, etc. But the volume of aggregate employment depends on the relative structure of wages rather than on the average wage. If, for The Model Services instance, wages of nurses increase but of typists fall, the average may remain unchanged.

But if the employment of nurses falls a little and of typists raises much, aggregate employment would increase. 3. Aggregate Variables may not be Important Necessarily: The aggregate variables which form the economic system may not be of much significance. For instance, the national income of a country is the total of all individual incomes. A rise in national income does not mean that individual incomes have risen. The increase in national income might be the operating result of the increase in the incomes of a few rich people in the country.

Thus a rise in national income of this type has little significance from the point of view of the community. Boulding calls these three difficulties as macroeconomic paradoxes which are true when applied to a single individual but which are untrue when applied to the economic system as a whole. 4. Indiscriminate Use of Services Essay, Macroeconomics Misleading: An indiscriminate and Increased Migration, Increased Security uncritical use of macroeconomics in analysing the problems of the real world can often be misleading. For instance, if the policy measures needed to achieve and maintain full employment in the economy are applied to structural unemployment in individual firms and industries, they become irrelevant. Similarly, measures aimed at controlling general prices cannot be applied with much advantage for controlling prices of individual products. 5. Statistical and Conceptual Difficulties:

The measurement of macroeconomic concepts involves a number of statistical and conceptual difficulties. These problems relate to the aggregation of microeconomic variables. If individual units are almost similar, aggregation does not present much difficulty. But if microeconomic variables relate to similar individual units, their aggregation into one macroeconomic variable may be wrong and dangerous. Welcome to! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics.

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Crisis Does NOT Equal Danger Plus Opportunity There is a widespread public misperception, particularly among the New Age sector, that the Chinese word for crisis is composed of elements that signify danger and opportunity. I first encountered this curious specimen of The Model of Liturgical Essay, alleged oriental wisdom about ten years ago at an altitude of 35,000 feet sitting next to an American executive. How To Cite Apa. He was intently studying a bound volume that had adopted this notorious formulation as the basic premise of its method for making increased profits even when the market is falling. At that moment, I didn't have the heart to The Model of Liturgical Essay disappoint my gullible neighbor who was blissfully imbibing what he assumed were the gems of real-time operating system, Far Eastern sagacity enshrined within the pages of his workbook. Now, however, the damage from this kind of pseudo-profundity has reached such gross proportions that I feel obliged, as a responsible Sinologist, to take counteraction.

A whole industry of pundits and therapists has grown up around this one grossly inaccurate statement. The Model Services. A casual search of the Web turns up more than a million references to this spurious proverb. Real-time. It appears, often complete with Chinese characters, on the covers of books, on advertisements for seminars, on expensive courses for thinking outside of the box, and practically everywhere one turns in the world of quick-buck business, pop psychology, and orientalist hocus-pocus. This catchy expression (Crisis = Danger + Opportunity) has rapidly become nearly as ubiquitous as The Tao of Pooh and of Liturgical Services Essay, Sun Zi's Art of War for the Board / Bed / Bath / Whichever Room. The explication of the Chinese word for crisis as made up of Money, Money (In A World) The Great Gatsby, two components signifying danger and of Liturgical Essay, opportunity is due partly to wishful thinking, but mainly to a fundamental misunderstanding about how terms are formed in Mandarin and other Sinitic languages.

For example, one of the most popular websites centered on this mistaken notion about the sparknotes no fear the scarlet letter Chinese word for crisis explains: The top part of the Chinese Ideogram for 'Crisis' is the symbol for 'Danger': The bottom symbol represents 'Opportunity'. Among the most egregious of the radical errors in Essay this statement is the use of the Money (In A Rich World) in Fitzgerald´s The Great exotic term Ideogram to refer to Chinese characters. Linguists and writing theorists avoid ideogram as a descriptive referent for hanzi (Mandarin) / kanji (Japanese) / hanja (Korean) because only an exceedingly small proportion of Services Essay, them actually convey ideas directly through their shapes. (For similar reasons, the same caveat holds for another frequently encountered label, pictogram.) It is Essay, far better to The Model of Liturgical Essay refer to the hanzi / kanji / hanja as logographs, sinographs, hanograms, tetragraphs (from their square shapes [i.e., as fangkuaizi ]), morphosyllabographs, etc., or since most of those renditions may strike the sparknotes no fear the scarlet average reader as unduly arcane or clunky simply as characters. The second misconception in this formulation is that the author seems to take the Chinese word for crisis as a single graph, referring to The Model Services it as the Chinese Ideogram for 'crisis'. Like most Mandarin words, that for real-time crisis ( w#275;ij#299; ) consists of two syllables that are written with two separate characters, w#275;i (#21361;) and of Liturgical, j#299; (#27231;/#26426;). Chinese character w#275;i. Chinese character j#299; (in traditional form)

Chinese character w#275;i. Chinese character j#299; (in simplified form) The third, and real-time operating system, fatal, misapprehension is the author's definition of j#299; as opportunity. While it is The Model Services Essay, true that w#275;ij#299; does indeed mean crisis and that the w#275;i syllable of w#275;ij#299; does convey the notion of danger, the j#299; syllable of w#275;ij#299; most definitely does not signify opportunity. Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary defines opportunity as: a favorable juncture of operating system, circumstances; a good chance for advancement or progress. While that may be what our Pollyanaish advocates of crisis as danger plus opportunity desire j#299; to signify, it means something altogether different. The j#299; of w#275;ij#299; , in fact, means something like incipient moment; crucial point (when something begins or changes). Thus, a w#275;ij#299; is The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, indeed a genuine crisis, a dangerous moment, a time when things start to go awry. On Career Project. A w#275;ij#299; indicates a perilous situation when one should be especially wary. It is The Model Services, not a juncture when one goes looking for advantages and benefits. In a crisis, one wants above all to save one's skin and operating system, neck!

Any would-be guru who advocates opportunism in the face of crisis should be run out of town on a rail, for of Liturgical Essay his / her advice will only compound the danger of the crisis. For those who have staked their hopes and careers on the CRISIS = DANGER + OPPORTUNITY formula and are loath to abandon their fervent belief in j#299; as signifying opportunity, it is essential to granger fahrenheit list some of the primary meanings of the graph in question. Aside from the notion of incipient moment or crucial point discussed above, the graph for j#299; by itself indicates quick-witted(ness); resourceful(ness) and machine; device. In combination with other graphs, however, j#299; can acquire hundreds of secondary meanings. It is absolutely crucial to observe that j#299; possesses these secondary meanings only in Services Essay the multisyllabic terms into fahrenheit, which it enters. To be specific in the matter under investigation, j#299; added to huì (occasion) creates the of Liturgical Services Essay Mandarin word for opportunity ( j#299;huì ), but by itself j#299; does not mean opportunity. A w#275;ij#299; in Chinese is Increased, every bit as fearsome as a crisis in of Liturgical English. A j#299;huì in Chinese is just as welcome as an Money (In A Rich Man's World) The Great Gatsby opportunity to of Liturgical most folks in America. To confuse a w#275;ij#299; with a j#299;huì is as foolish as to insist that a crisis is the best time to no fear the scarlet go looking for benefits. If one wishes to wax philosophical about the j#299; of of Liturgical Services, w#275;ij#299; , one might elaborate upon it as the dynamic of a situation's unfolding, when many elements are at play.

In this sense, j#299; is neutral. This j#299; can either turn out for better or for worse, but when coupled with w#275;i the possibility of a highly undesirable outcome (whether in life, disease, finance, or war) is uppermost in the mind of the person who invokes this potent term. For those who are still mystified by Migration, Increased Concern, the morphological (i.e., word-building) procedures of of Liturgical Services, Sinitic languages, it might be helpful to provide a parallel case from English. An airplane is a machine that has the capability of flying through the fahrenheit air, but that does not imply that air by itself means airplane or that plane alone originally signified airplane. (The word plane has only come to mean airplane when it functions as a shortened form of the latter word.) The first element of the word airplane, like the first element of w#275;ij#299; , presents no real problems: it is the stuff that makes up our earth's atmosphere. The second element, however, like the second element of w#275;ij#299; , is much trickier. There are at of Liturgical Services Essay, least half a dozen different monosyllabic words in English spelled plane. While most of these words are derived from a Latin root meaning flat or level, they each convey quite different meanings. The plane of airplane is said to be cognate with the word planet, which derives from real-time system, a Greek word that means wandering. A planet is a heavenly body that wanders through space, and an airplane is a machine that wanders through the air. As Gertrude Stein might have said, An airplane is an airplane is an airplane. Neither air nor plane means airplane; only airplane means airplane - except when plane is being used as an abbreviation for airplane! Likewise, neither w#275;i nor j#299; means w#275;ij#299; ; only w#275;ij#299; means w#275;ij#299; . These are illustrations of the basic principles of The Model of Liturgical Services, word formation that are common to all languages. Sparknotes The Scarlet. When etymological components enter into words, they take on the semantic coloring of their new environment and must be considered in that context. As a matter of fact, the word airplane has a contested etymology (I follow Websters Third International), with some authorities believing that it derives from air + the apparent feminine of French plan (flat, level).

Even with this latter etymon, however, we must recognize that airplane does not mean a flat surface in the air, but rather it signifies a heavier than air flying machine. That is to say, when entering into a word consisting of two or more morphemes, the constituent elements take on special meanings depending upon their new, overall environment. In airplane, the second element no longer means merely wander or flat depending upon which etymology you favor. Perhaps it would be worthwhile to offer another example from English that is Essay, closer to our Chinese word w#275;ij#299; (crisis). Lets take the ity component of opportunity, calamity (calamity has a complicated etymology; see the Oxford English Dictionary, Barnhart, etc.), felicity, cordiality, hostility, and operating, so forth. The Model Of Liturgical Essay. This ity is a suffix that is used to form abstract nouns expressing state, quality, or condition.

The words that it helps to form have a vast range of operating system, meanings, some of which are completely contradictory. Similarly the j#299; of The Model Essay, w#275;ij#299; by itself does not mean the same thing as w#275;ij#299; (crisis), j#299;hui (opportunity), and so forth. The signification of on Career Project, j#299; changes according to the environment in which it occurs. The construction of w#275;ij#299; merits further investigation. The nature of this troublesome word will be much better understood if it is pointed out that, in Mandarin morphology, morphemes are divided into Services, bound and free types. Bound morphemes can only Essay on Career Project, occur in combination with other morphemes, whereas free morphemes can occur individually.

It just so happens that, in the real world of Mandarin word formation, wei and ji are both bound morphemes. They cannot occur independently. Just as the The Model syllable/morphemes cri- and -sis that go together to make up the English word crisis cannot exist independently in an English sentence, so too w#275;i and j#299; cannot exist by on Career Project, themselves in a Mandarin sentence. They can only occur when combined with other word-forming elements, hence f#275;ij#299; (airplane), j#299;hui (chance, opportunity), w#275;ixi#462;n (danger), w#275;ij#299; (crisis), and so forth. Now let us look at the morphology of the word crisis itself, bearing in mind that it derives from Greek ??#943;??? ( krisis ) crisis); the-si-s (act of putting [down] thesis); ap-he-si-s (act of The Model Services, letting go aphesis apo [off, away]). Greek -si- is cognate with Sanskrit -ti- . Fahrenheit. Greek -sis endings are nominal and The Model Essay, productive (i.e., they can be added to roots to produce new nouns quite readily), and are often used to make abstractions, usually from cite, verbs. If one wants to find a word containing the The Model of Liturgical Essay element j#299; that means opportunity (i.e., a favorable juncture of circumstances, or a good chance for advancement), one needs to look elsewhere than w#275;ij#299; , which means precisely crisis (viz., a dangerous, critical moment). One might choose, for instance, zhu#462;nj#299; (turn + incipient moment = favorable turn; turn for Money, (In A Man's in Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby the better), liángj#299; (excellent + incipient moment = opportunity [!!]), or h#462;o shíj#299; (good + time + incipient moment = favorable opportunity). Those who purvey the doctrine that the Chinese word for Services Essay crisis is composed of elements meaning danger and no fear the scarlet letter, opportunity are engaging in a type of muddled thinking that is a danger to society, for it lulls people into Services Essay, welcoming crises as unstable situations from which they can benefit. Adopting a feel-good attitude toward adversity may not be the most rational, realistic approach to its solution. Finally, to those who would persist in real-time operating disseminating the of Liturgical Essay potentially perilous, fundamentally fallacious theory that crisis = danger + opportunity, please don't blame it on Chinese!

Pertinent observations for those who are more advanced in Chinese language studies. The word crisis enters the English language around 1425 with the meaning of system, turning point in a disease, in a translation of Chauliacs Grande Chirurgie (Major Surgery). It was borrowed from Latin crisis , which in turn comes from Greek krisis (a separating, distinguishing, discrimination, decision, judgement), from The Model Services Essay, krinein (separate, decide, judge). Chauliacs first translation gives it as Old French crise , while the how to second translation has Latin crisis . The sense of The Model Essay, decisive moment is first recorded in Money Rich Man's The Great Gatsby English in 1627 as a figurative extension of the original medical meaning. In Latin, crisis signified: 1. a (literary) judgement, 2. a critical stage in ones life; climacteric. The Model Services Essay. Since, in Migration, Essay the Hippocratic-Galenic medical literature, crisis signified a turning point in a disease; sudden change for better or worse, this old Greek usage would be somewhat better positioned to Services Essay serve as a justification for the danger + opportunity meme than does Chinese w#275;ij#299; , which is, from the very beginning, always something worrisome and unwanted. The earliest occurrences of the Chinese expression w#275;ij#299; occur in Essay on Career the 3rd century A.D., at which time, and for centuries thereafter, they convey the notion of The Model Services Essay, latent danger. It was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that w#275;ij#299; came to real-time mean crisis, as in financial crisis, economic crisis, and The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, so on. How did this happen? It was almost certainly the result of matching up the old Chinese word w#275;ij#299; (latent danger) with the Western concept of crisis, and carried out no fear the scarlet, through the intermediary of Japanese, where it is pronounced kiki . Essay. This would make it another of the hundreds of Rich The Great Gatsby, modern Chinese terms that I refer to as round-trip words (see Sino-Platonic Papers , 34 [October, 1992]). Many coinages that made it into twentieth-century báihuà (vernacular Mandarin) are based on traditional uses of of Liturgical Services, words. That is to say, new compounds using j#299; draw on traditional uses of how to cite a website apa, j#299; . There is no traditional use of j#299; that means opportunity per se.

J#299;huì is a neologism coined to translate the The Model Services English word opportunity. To say that j#299; means opportunity is like saying that the z#333;ng of z#333;ngjiào means religion (N.B.: jiào here means doctrine, teaching). Z#333;ng traditionally means a line of orthodox transmission, or a clan lineage. Security Concern. It is of Liturgical, anachronistic to say that z#333;ng by itself means religion. For numerous examples of such calques and neologisms, many (such as those for economics and society) involving an initial borrowing into Japanese, and operating system, then a reborrowing into Chinese with a completely new, Westernized meaning, see Victor H. Mair, East Asian Round-Trip Words, Sino-Platonic Papers , 34 (October 1992). Traditional senses of j#299; include: mechanism, inner workings (and by Services, extension secrecy), germinal principle, pivotal juncture, crux, or a witty turn of thought.

This is the same j#299; that was used in real-time operating the coinage y#466;uj#299; (organic), but we can hardly say that j#299; in and of itself means organic. As examples of recent coinages using j#299; in innovative ways, we may cite j#299;zhì , which means mechanism or machine-processed / produced. There's also another j#299;zhì meaning quick-witted where the zhì syllable is written with a different character than the Essay zhì syllable of the j#299;zhì meaning mechanism. The latter j#299;zhì is on Career Project, based on The Model Essay the same sense of j#299; which is used in the expression d#462; Chánj#299; to operating employ the gnomic, witty language of Chan (Zen) Buddhist teaching stories. If anyone is truly interested in sharpening his or her mind to meet the crises of the future, engagement with this kind of The Model of Liturgical Services Essay, challenging wisdom might be a good place to begin. Professor of Chinese Language and Literature. Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations.