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Astronomy/ Black Holes term paper 12817. There are many strange and wonderful phenomenons being discovered throughout our Universe. One of the most intriguing is the concept of a black hole in space. Astronomers have discovered a black hole just 1,600 light years away from Earth. Of Problem. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory cataloged this black hole in the constellation Sagittari on a star called V4641.
A black hole is Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, one form of a dead star. A star has three choices when it dies, it can: shrink until it is a white dwarf, shrink until it is a neutron star, or keep on shrinking until it is definition, a point in space with an infinite density known as a black hole. A black hole is an Murphy, extremely dense outer space body that has been theorized to exist in the universe. The gravitational field of a black hole is so strong that, if the body is large enough, nothing, including electromagnetic radiation, can escape from its area. The body is surrounded by a spherical boundary, called a horizon, through which light can enter but not escape; it therefore appears totally black. The idea of a mass concentration so dense that even light would be trapped goes all the way back to Laplace in the 18th century. Almost immediately after Einstein developed general relativity, Karl Schwarzschild discovered a mathematical solution to of problem, the equations of the theory that described such an Essay and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J., object. The radius of the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole depends only on definition of problem, the mass of the Teaching Empowerment, body, being 2.95 km (1.83 mi) times the mass of the body in solar units (the mass of the body divided by the mass of the sun).
If a body is of problem statement, electrically charged or rotating, Schwarzschild#8217;s results are modified. According to approach, general relativity, gravitation severely modifies space and time near a black hole. As the horizon is approached from of problem statement outside, time slows down relative to that of distant observers, stopping completely on the horizon. Once a body has contracted within its Schwarzschild radius (radius of the horizon), it would theoretically collapse to a dimensionless object of infinite density. Although Schwarzschild discovered black holes, it wasn#8217;t until much later with the and Memento by J.J., work of definition of problem statement people such as Oppenheimer, Volkoff, and Pan-American Village, Snyder in the 1930#8217;s, that people thought seriously about the possibility that such objects might actually exist in the Universe. These researchers showed that when a sufficiently massive star runs out of fuel, it is unable to support itself against its own gravitational pull, and it should collapse into a black hole. In general relativity, gravity is a manifestation of the curvature of spacetime.
Massive objects distort space and time, so that the usual rules of geometry don't apply anymore. Near a black hole, this distortion of space is of problem statement, extremely severe and causes black holes to have some very strange properties. In particular, a black hole has something called an 'event horizon.' This is a spherical surface that marks the boundary of the black hole. You can pass in through the horizon, but you can't get back out. In fact, once you've crossed the horizon, you're doomed to move inexorably closer and closer to the 'singularity' at the center of the black hole. You can think of the Essay and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, horizon as the place where the escape velocity equals the velocity of light. Outside of the definition of problem, horizon, the escape velocity is Essay on Me and Memento by J.J., less than the definition of problem statement, speed of light, so if you fire your rockets hard enough, you can give yourself enough energy to get away. But if you find yourself inside the horizon, then no matter how powerful your rockets are, you can't escape. The horizon has some very strange geometrical properties. To an observer who is sitting still somewhere far away from the Essay Holistic Medicine, black hole, the horizon seems to definition of problem, be a nice, static, unmoving spherical surface. But once you get close to the horizon, you realize that it has a very large velocity.
In fact, it is moving outward at the speed of light! That explains why it is easy to cross the horizon in Essay and You and Memento and Fargo Murphy, the inward direction, but impossible to get back out. Since the horizon is moving out at the speed of definition of problem statement light, in Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel, order to escape back across it, you would have to travel faster than light. You can't go faster than light, and so you can't escape from the black hole. Scientists had no proof that black holes existed until 1994, when the Hubble Space Telescope uncovered the first convincing evidence that black holes exist in Galaxy M87. Definition Of Problem. Second and style, third black holes were discovered in 1995 in of problem statement, Galaxy NGC 4258 and NGC 4261. Incidentally, the name 'black hole' was invented by John Archibald Wheeler, and seems to have stuck because it was much catchier than previous names. Before Wheeler came along, these objects were often referred to as 'frozen stars.' Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in Essay Frankenstein:, most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is of problem statement, written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.
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How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay. Over at Inside PA Training Paul wrote a wonderful blog post about the common pitfalls that many PA school applicants fall victim to definition, while composing their PA school essay. Common Physician Assistant Essay Pitfalls. Cliches Lack of Specificity Weak Conclusion No Theme Boring Introduction. This is an excellent list because eight years ago while I was applying to PA school I proved how adhering to each one of these elements was a guaranteed formula for failure. I wrote a blog post awhile back about how to get into the PA school of your choice. Part of my recommendation was to throw caution to the wind and apply with your heart and not your mind.
This as you know, is easier said than done. Every one of the scottsboro trial above pitfalls is definition what happens when you think too much. The Six Hundred Words (or Less) that Changed my Life. I applied to five PA schools in 2001 (prior to The Central Application Service for Empowerment Essay Physician Assistants (CASPA). First, I used an essay that I thought gave the review committee everything they would need to definition of problem, see that I was a stellar applicant. Approach To Leadership! It showed my strengths, brown nosed a bit, and proved that I had the pedigree to be a wonderful healthcare provider. But, as you will see, it lacked heart, honesty, passion and most of all . . . grit.
I received my fourth rejection letter as I was completing my application for the University of Medicine and Dentistry (UMDNJ). I was demoralized. That night I sat down at my computer and composed what would become the 600 words that changed my life forever. Definition Of Problem Statement! I had not read them for over 11 years until this morning. I had never taken the time to Essay on Mary Frankenstein:, go back and see what made the difference. What had made the essay I sent to UMDNJ different from the previous four flops? I was thinking about this list of essay pitfalls this morning and decided to go back and see if I could find my original essays. Of Problem! I was delighted to find all of them, they brought back strong feelings and style, wonderful memories.
I am going to share with you both essays. Of Problem Statement! The one that worked, the one that didn't, and I want you to guess the winner. Avoid the urge to Essay about, reveal the answer, reading through both essays will help you as you sit down to of problem, write your personal statement. When I applied to UMDNJ (Rutgers) I was 0.1 points below the minimum GPA requirement to even consider sending an application. The fact that they opened my application, and offered me an interview was a miracle. Yet, I was admitted just a week after my trip to Essay Medicine, New Jersey. Where were those other 4.0 Ivy leaguers I met during my interview? They were placed on the waiting list. I am not trying to gloat, but I want to point out that the definition of problem statement essay may be the Pan-American Village single most important thing you do . I believe it is the reason I was accepted to PA school. Two PA School Applications Essays: Why Do You Want To Be a PA-C? Why Do You Want To Be a Physician Assistant?
Every day is a gift to be embraced wholeheartedly. It is our job to fill that day with a hopeful and definition of problem, meaningful purpose. It has been said that “the most important thing in life is to live your life for something more important than your life” William James. It is deeply rooted in this philosophy that I desire to scottsboro boys trial, become a physician assistant (PA). I hope to provide quality healthcare to the underprivileged, an area of medicine, which I have noted to be dramatically underserved.
I became involved in health care four years ago to help finance my college education. I worked as a medical record's clerk in the University of statement, Washington health clinic. In addition to Pan-American, delivering medical records, I assisted the hospital staff in a variety of definition of problem, activities. I loved working with the staff and approach to leadership, admired how well they operated as a team. I desired more direct patient care and in January 1998, when a student position opened in the lab, I jumped at the opportunity. Statement! In a few weeks, I was drawing blood, interacting with patients, and Essay Novel, helping with a variety of technical procedures. I loved what I was doing. The patients were often uneasy when facing a needle for statement the first time. Empowerment Essay! I was able to comfort them, help them to definition, smile, and ease their nervous tensions.
My job required that I work throughout the Essay Novel various University hospitals. This provided an opportunity to work within a variety of definition of problem statement, settings, and with people of all ages. Whether it was doing morning rounds in labor and delivery or working in the campus health clinic, one thing always remained the same; I found great satisfaction in caring for patients and learning of their needs. I felt a career in Pan-American Games Village medicine was truly for of problem me. While working at the clinic I discovered the PA profession. I have always enjoyed the complexities of science and have been fascinated by a career in medicine. In pursuit of this goal, I decided to boys trial, speak with one of the definition of problem statement resident doctors in Essay the clinic. She introduced me to statement, the role of on Me and Memento and Fargo Murphy, Physician Assistant.
After that, I immersed myself in research. I was surprised to learn that many people with whom I worked were Physician Assistants. I met with hospital staff, nurse practitioners, Physician Assistants, and physical therapists. I regularly visited the of problem PA at the clinic and admired his significant level of patient interaction and Teaching Empowerment Essay, his ability to work both autonomously and alongside other physicians and nurses. I admired the PA program's flexibility and versatility, which would allow a change of specialties if I desired. I began to focus my attention on becoming a PA.
Being an independent thinker, as well as a people oriented individual; I feel that I am well suited, not just for a career in the medical field, but for a lifetime career as a Physician Assistant. Why Do You Want To Be a Physician Assistant? As a child, every day, I would swing on the swing set in the backyard of my house. I would sit there for hours, without a care in the world simply singing songs and definition statement, swinging back and forth. Essay About! On that swing, I felt untouchable. Like a bird in flight, my only definition statement cares were that of the sky and the beauty of each adjoining minute. In the swings gentle motion I was overcome with a sense of peace. We wake one day and find that the swing no longer exists. Our backyard has been rebuilt and about Medicine, the ground, which had once supported our youth, has been transcended. We search again for the swing, longing to find a resemblance of that peace.
We hope to find it each day, as the definition of problem statement product of our life and of our career. A woman smiled at me one day, her name was Margaret. The wrinkles on her face told a story and in to leadership her hands there played a motion picture. She sat crouched in definition of problem a wheelchair; I sat on a stool beside her. Trial! I had been working as a phlebotomist in the University Clinic for two years. I was a friend of Margaret’s because every Wednesday at six she would arrive at the clinic for her routine blood work. Of Problem Statement! Everybody liked Margaret; she used to Pan-American Essay, tell us stories of her childhood and her husband who had given his life to the war. She had grown especially fond of of problem statement, me because “I had freckles like her grandson.” She used to come alone, but had grown weaker; this was the first time her daughter had accompanied her. Her daughter looked tired and spoke softly, “The best vein is in Holistic her hand” she explained, “it doesn’t hurt her there.” I gently placed my hand on hers, and it was cold.
She looked to me and through the cold touch of her hand poured the warmth of her heart. “It’s about time for dinner don’t you think mom”, said her daughter. The clock rang six and definition of problem, I agreed. “The medicines have been making her sick; she sometimes has troubles keeping her food down.” I looked closely at her face; it was thin and drooped to her chest. I realized that Margaret was unable to speak. “Margaret, can you make a fist for me?” “Just like last time.” She clenched tightly. I withdrew the needle and collected a small sample of blood. She raised her head and Teaching Empowerment Essay, with her frail hand, gently placed it on mine. I looked again to definition, her eyes while placing a bandage on her hand. Boys! It was warm now. “Time for of problem dinner mom”, replied her daughter. I smiled and waved goodbye “Margaret I will see you again next week.” She raised her head and smiled. Without a word, she made perfect sense. I never saw Margaret again.
In the memory of Margaret and every patient who has individually touched my every day, I have regained a piece of the backyard swing that I loved so much as a child. I have been directly involved in ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel health care for four years. Every day has brought great joy. To be a part of a person’s day is statement a wonderful blessing. Village! Certainly, there are many pleasures in life. But, for me, none is greater than that which we find in the healing touch of another. As the definition eternal motion of the Essay Frankenstein: swing, it is in this that I find great peace. Which essay is the one that worked? The difference: One is written from the heart, the other is full of cliches, lacks specificity, has no theme, has a boring introduction and a weak conclusion! In life, almost nothing ever goes to those who try to blend into the crowd.
Your PA School application essay should be different, reflect who you really are and not pander to what you think other people want to definition of problem, hear. This is a rule of thumb not just for your essay and for applying to PA school but for Essay on Me and You by J.J. life in general. As you write dig deep, don't hold back, believe in your words. Set your mind aside and try to find that place inside your head where your heart resides. Definition Statement! This is where you will separate yourself from the crowd, this is scottsboro boys where your journey to PA both begins and ends! The Physician Assistant Essay and Personal Statement Collaborative Are you ready to get started? Choose your package, and definition of problem statement, we will begin today! Single Edit One-on-one service Supplemental Essays We have helped over 1,700 PA school applicants just like you (see testimonials and comments below).
We are  PA Personal Statement Workshop: Essay 6, “That First Day in Surgery was the First Day of the Essay Holistic Rest of my Life” In this sixth installment of our special week-long personal statement workshop, we continue to pull essays submitted from the of problem comments section through our free essay submission process and provide you, and our users, with a more  Overcoming Obstacles on Your Path to on Me and You and Memento by J.J., Becoming a Physician Assistant Life is full of definition, obstacles. They can be as simple as getting out of the bed in the morning, or as arduous as writing the perfect physician assistant application essay. Most of the approach to leadership time the biggest obstacle is ourselves. The excuses  Get Your FREE 300+ PA School Interview Questions and definition of problem statement, Answers Workbook. Sign up below to receive your free 65 page 300 PA school interview questions and answers workbook. We offer comprehensive, start-to-finish personal statement assistance or help to perfect a draft you already have. Boys! We have services to definition of problem statement, fit every budget. Schedule a Live Recorded PA School Video Interview.
A physician assistant since 2004 and creator of The PA Life. A National Health Service Corps Scholar and Essay about, a graduate of The University of Medicine and Dentistry of NJ (Rutgers) PA program and the University of definition, Washington in Seattle, WA. Stephen's goal is to provide one of a kind online resources for those interested in style approach or practicing in the PA profession, to promote better access to healthcare for all and foster universal recognition/awareness of the PA profession. I think your second essay is a much more sincere, mature and thought provoking essay. That being said, your inappropriate context of the word “weather” in definition of problem your first essay could be a reason you were overlooked. Correct spelling, wrong context. Hi, Danielle, you are absolutely right. In fact, there is Essay Medicine more than one glaring error in that first essay. Definition! It took some willpower to avoid correcting these errors before I posted my essays online but I figured it was a good teaching point. Pan-American! I must say though I am impressed, after all the years I have had this post and these essays published online you are the of problem statement first to Pan-American Essay, ever mention the spelling/grammar mistakes.
And they are so very important. If I was Willy Wonka, I would give you the golden ticket:-) I’m looking for feedback on what to definition statement, cut out of my personal statement, its over 800 characters too long, but I felt like each paragraph was important. Essay On Mary ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic! Thanks in of problem advance! “Rummy!” He bellowed between labored breaths. Essay Holistic! Tom’s face was pale and beads of sweat lined his nasal cannula as he stifled back laughter. I was, once again, lost in the rules of definition statement, yet another new card game Tom was teaching me. “You have got to be aware of the cards other people can have in their hand,” he reminded me, as he tallied up his points to pull ahead.
A nurse snuck in the room between games to Pan-American, test Tom’s blood glucose and definition of problem statement, oxygen saturation. As I shuffled the cards I saw the look of concern on her face. And You By J.J. Murphy! “I think we can pick up where we are for definition statement next week Tom,”I suggested. “And hopefully I’ll be better at Rummy by Teaching Empowerment then anyway”. Tom passed the definition following day, unknowingly leaving me with a lot more knowledge than how to play euchre or Texas hold ’em. I began volunteering with Southern Care Hospice with the expectation to learn more about Essay about Holistic Medicine palliative and end of life care; instead, I gained insight on primary care through a friendship with an Indiana farmer.Tom was dealt what he taught me in Texas Hold ‘em as the “poor farmer’s hand”. It was easy to look at Tom the first day and see an obese man who made lifestyle choices that led to his poor health, but with each week I learned more about the of problem statement trials in his life that landed him in his hospice bed. Growing up in and You and Fargo a small rural community, Tom lacked reliable access to medical care and often went without doctor’s visits. As a result, his diabetes was poorly treated and resulted in a cascade of medical complications.While I knew I couldn’t solve all of these issues for people like Tom, I strived to to help help those who fell into the healthcare disparity gap. Multiple times growing up, life only dealt my family wild cards. Job loss, followed by lack of insurance became a reoccurring game I was accustomed to losing. Definition Statement! The norm quickly became visits to Games Village Essay, urgent cares and emergency departments for any of definition, my medical needs.
It was here that I was first introduced to the PA profession. What I once viewed as misfortune actually introduced me to the influential role of a physician assistant. I shuffled through the scottsboro trial deck of healthcare professions before drawing the of problem card for the PA route. Intrigued by medical doctors, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants, I began shadowing each to Essay Holistic Medicine, note the similarities yet distinct differences in each. Statement! Despite making the choice to become a PA early in my undergraduate career, my decision became clairvoyant as my senior year came to a close and I met a physician assistant named Julie, an interventional cardiologist at scottsboro, the hospital I worked at. A tiny, 90 year old woman sat upright in bed, squinting towards Julie and I as we walked in definition of problem statement the door.
Julie carefully and meticulously described the heart cath procedure the surgeon would be performing, patiently answering each question that arose. When the patient didn’t understand the anatomy of her coronary arteries, Julie pulled out a dry erase marker and began to sketch the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries, adding a tiny stent within the vessel for example. On Mary ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel! Each time Julie entered a patient’s room, she went the extra inch—whether it was letting a patient hear their heart murmur through her stethoscope, or drawing out the anatomy of a heart cath procedure. Julie played an integral role in statement a team of cardiologists, filling in the gaps for busy doctors and working with nurses to Empowerment, ensure each procedure was smooth and flawless. Through Julie, I saw the level of definition statement, responsibility, patience, and compassion required to practice as a PA, further cementing my desire to fulfill that role.
I pursued a more tangible role in about healthcare as a Rehabilitation Technician at IU Health Bloomington Hospital. Statement! Here, the intricacies of Teaching Empowerment Essay, patient care surfaced as I saw the collaboration among all professions to provide a high standard of care. While I primarily assisted physical and occupational therapists, I frequently consulted with nurses about a patient’s status before a rehab session, or helped a doctor maneuver a patient out of bed for assessment. Definition Statement! The patient’s overall physical and emotional health was impacted by scottsboro the successful collaboration of the entire healthcare team. Even though I enjoyed being a part of that, I yearned for the responsibility to asses, diagnose, treat, and hold a level of autonomy for my patients. Overall, my undergraduate career provided me the insight on definition statement what defines a PA, but also geared me towards becoming a successful PA student.
Juggling multiple jobs to cover the remaining costs of undergrad, I mastered multitasking and thrived in a stressful environment. I excelled in scottsboro prerequisite coursework, eventually becoming an undergraduate teaching assistant for physiology. Although I enjoyed teaching physiology material, I cherished the definition statement opportunity to teach others about the PA profession. Approach To Leadership! As Pre-PA Club President, I was able to advise, guide, and definition, fuel my classmates desire to enter the field. My aspirations are to not only become a PA, but eventually utilize my proclivity to teach as a PA preceptor and educator one day. The decision to become a PA wasn’t instantaneous, but instead a premeditated journey over approach, the last handful of years. This path taught me the integral role PAs can have on high-quality patient care in a system strained with primary care providers. It showed me the crucial and of problem statement, overlooked qualities of compassion and patience that the job demands.
Teamwork in healthcare became not only trial enjoyable for me, but a necessity for of problem putting my patient’s needs first. Looking back, I can’t imagine choosing another career route that didn’t lead me to Village Essay, these encompassing experiences. Lastly, this journey introduced me to Tom and how to play Rummy. Of Problem Statement! If there’s one thing I’ve taken away, it’s that everyone is dealt a different hand of cards in life. The least I can do is be there for those who are dealt a bad hand.
“You are such an old soul” is something I hear quite often from on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel, friends, family, and acquaintances. This perception from definition statement, so many is in Essay fact a product of valuable life experiences that begun at a very young age. “Mommy, are you going to die?” I asked my mother who was becoming more frail from treatments from stage 2 breast cancer. At seven, I was trying to understand many things, such as why we moved into my grandparents’ house, why my father was moving somewhere else, but most importantly why my mother, who was the most important person to me, was losing all of her hair and statement, becoming too weak to care for me as she once had. My grandparents picked up the responsibilities for my mom while she underwent six months of chemotherapy treatments and 36 radiation treatments. My grandfather became my biggest support during this hard time, and approach to leadership, stepped up when I needed him the most. My grandfather was my male role model during those formidable years of my parents’ divorce and my mother, his daughter, was fighting cancer. Grandpop picked me up every day after school, helped me with my homework, and statement, teased me until I couldn’t take it anymore. I cherished every moment I had with him. Teaching! I was only nine when my grandfather suffered from a serious stroke that left him without his speech, loss of strength, and definition statement, issues with coordination. On Me And Fargo By J.J. Murphy! He was devastated and I watched him become more and more frustrated while seeking out statement, different treatments to aid in his healing process. Watching him try to recover from the stroke was difficult.
I just wanted to help him, and understand why he could no longer speak or why he stopped teasing me relentlessly. Essay! As the years went on, my grandfather never fully recovered and he forever lost his ability to definition of problem statement, speak, but I watched him fight every day to Pan-American Village, live as normal of a life as he could. He passed away when I was sixteen and definition statement, although I was not able to help my grandpop, observing the difficulties he went through has made me more determined than ever to choose a career that will allow me to about Medicine, care for others as I had wanted to with my grandfather. James and I clicked right away while I was working as a rehab technician for definition statement an inpatient rehab facility. I was supporting him while we practiced gait with the walker, we discussed many topics that reminded me of Essay about Holistic, my grandfather. As our session ended, I took him back up to statement, his room and told him I would see him next week, but little did I know it would be weeks before I saw him again. As I was walking through the gym just a few short weeks later, I noticed a man sitting in a wheelchair looking sad, in Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic pain, and uncomfortable.
As I walked closer to the gray looking man, I noticed it was James. I lit up with joy and definition statement, asked how he was doing. He looked at me with a frown and could only by J.J. Murphy grunt in of problem statement response, and it was then I realized he had suffered a stroke. Boys! I started to talk with him about all the things he loved such as fishing, and the beach. He started to smile, and of problem statement, this encouraged him to keep going even though he was frustrated and in pain. ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel! Every shift I would stop by to talk to James and ask how he and his wife were doing. I would stay and talk with him for a while knowing he would appreciate it. So often many people would not know what to definition of problem statement, say to him because he could not respond back appropriately. One day his wife acknowledged how well I worked with him, and how appreciative she was of Pan-American Games Village Essay, me. With tears filling up my eyes, I told her the story of my grandfather, and how he also suffered a stroke that left him without his speech. I told her that although at definition statement, times things were difficult for my grandfather, he was always strong and learned to about Holistic Medicine, live with the diagnosis for many years to come.
James regained his strength and was able to definition, be discharged, and on Essay and You and Memento Murphy his last day I went up to his room to definition of problem statement, say one last goodbye, I gave him a hug, and ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, as I pulled away he looked at me and muttered thank you to the best of his capabilities. Definition Statement! I smiled back and approach to leadership, told him to definition of problem statement, take care of himself, and scottsboro boys, that I would miss him. Before I left, I thanked him and told him how thankful I was to definition of problem, be a part of Empowerment, his journey, and how he helped me grow stronger as a healthcare professional. Being an old soul can mean many different things to different people, but to me it means experience. Definition! When people hear my story of my childhood they are very sympathetic. Often I have to explain that even though it was hard, there was many things I gained from my experiences. They say you have to experience sadness to enjoy happiness, and my happiness was being able to see my very strong mother beat breast cancer and be in remission for the past sixteen years. Style To Leadership! My happiness is being able to have a close bond to my grandparents that some grandchildren can’t say they have.
My experiences at a young age from my mother and of problem, grandfather being sick to my experiences as a rehab tech have guided me on an amazing journey of finding out who I want to be as a grow older, and that dream would to be a physician assistant. Thank you for your help! I want you to meet Donna*. She has been through so much. Four back surgeries.
Physical therapy. Countless injections. Approach! Long-term opioids. Ten years of constant pain. Of Problem Statement! Unfortunately, Donna is my typical patient, and we are nearing the end of the road. There are very few options left for Donna if this treatment does not work. Today is Donna’s procedure. When I met her at the office, she was draped in turquoise jewelry and a floral print dress, undoubtedly a free-spirit of the 60’s. Now, she is wearing a paper gown, and she seems alone and anxious. I make an effort to be warm and confident as we discuss the procedure, hoping to put her at ease. She has post-laminectomy syndrome.
Twenty-four hours a day, Donna has intense low back pain that radiates down both legs. She has trouble sleeping, walking, and cannot play with her grandchildren. Pan-American Village Essay! I review the procedure with her and what we hope to accomplish for her. “I just want to get off the pills,” Donna proclaims, a little forlorn. “We are going to statement, do our best,” I promise her and grasp her hand before leaving her room. I hope we can deliver. Donna is here today for a spinal cord stimulator trial and I am her clinical specialist. At one time, her physician could manage her chronic pain with opioids and injections, but after a decade their efficacy has waned and the opioids leave her hazy and lethargic. To Leadership! If the spinal cord stimulator does not work, she will likely remain on opioids for the remainder of her life. During the procedure, the statement physician and I work as a team to deliver an electrical stimulation to the nerves carrying the pain signal to the brain. The procedure sounds simple, but is often wrought with challenges that must be overcome in order to produce a successful outcome. In Donna’s case, she has significant fibrosis in the epidural space from her previous back surgeries which means the approach to leadership physician is of problem unable to place the leads in Pan-American Games Essay an ideal position. By examining the fluoroscopic imaging and using Donna’s feed back, I am able to generate a field which provides Donna with the desired therapy.
Donna will return on definition statement Friday to Pan-American Village Essay, have the trial system removed and assess the pain relief she experienced. My love of science began with the ocean. As a child, our spent every available hour at definition of problem, the beach. Playing in boys the waves, digging holes and dams in definition of problem the sand, watching the coastal flora and fauna interact in boys their environment fed my curiosity of the natural world. Definition Of Problem! As I began my education, I enjoyed history and literature, but the and You Murphy sciences always peaked a special interest. In elementary school, our yearly field trip to the aquarium was my favorite day of the year. In middle school I won the science fair with my analysis of fire-retardant baby clothing. In my sophomore year of high school, I met the teacher who influenced my the most, Dr. Price, my AP Biology teacher. I knew I wanted to succeed in AP Biology but Dr.
Price refused to hold anyone’s hand. My success or failure would be my own. At the end of the year, we all took the AP exam. I still vividly remember opening the results and seeing the “5.” It gave me the confidence that I could pursue a career in the sciences. Definition Of Problem Statement! As I began courses at style approach, the University of California – Santa Cruz, I decided to study biochemistry because it would provide me with a deep understanding of biological systems.
Our biochemistry program was rigorous, working full-time made it more so. Statement! After graduating, I considered research and volunteered in a marine biology laboratory. The subject matter was fascinating but found the daily operation uninspiring and inert. I always considered a career in medicine, so when I was offered a position as a clinical specialist I jumped at the opportunity. The two years as a clinical specialist were the on Mary A Gothic toughest and most rewarding of my life. The role of CS was multi-faceted. I was a member of a collaborative surgical team, where I learned to think critically in stressful situations. I was responsible for educating clinicians on new technologies, which taught me the importance of lifelong learning in medicine. I worked closely with patients, which taught me compassion is as important as clinical skill. I learned I loved working with patients.
The long hours, challenging surgeries, and definition of problem, tough programmings were made worthwhile when I saw a patient transformed into style the vibrant person they once were. I was ecstatic to help my patients, but I wanted to definition, offer them more. I decided to explore other careers in healthcare and saw PA as a perfect fit. A career as a PA would provide me the Teaching Empowerment Essay opportunity to definition, expand my clinical skills and Essay about Holistic, focus on treating patients like Donna. Donna’s trial was successful. She was implanted two years ago. Her pain has decreased 80% and definition, she rarely needs pain medication. We stay in touch. I send her photos of my infant son and she tells me to enjoy this rare time with him.
And she tells me how much fun it is playing with her grandchildren. *name has been changed. It was summer time and all the kids were off school. I was only 12-years old and that day I was in charge of looking after my little sister and cousins. They started playing with my fathers old concrete making machine and, at Essay on Mary Frankenstein:, one point,I heard my sister screaming from inside the house. Two of definition statement, her left hand fingers were caught in the machinery and were cut very badly. My family is known for being afraid of blood. They freeze and almost faint when they see blood; especially my mother. Good thing she was not there at that moment because she would scream more than my sister.
As soon as I saw my sister’s hand, I got her inside the Essay and You and Fargo Murphy house. I cleaned her hand and definition of problem statement, ran to the cabinet where we had a few medications and got the iodine bottle and on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s, some compresses. I poured some iodine on her fingers and wrapped them very quickly. The reaction to definition, my sister’s accident was the first push for me towards medical school, but, at that moment, I did not put much thought into it. As a child raised in and You and Memento by J.J. Murphy Albania, I come from a small and poor family, but it never stopped my parents from making school the priority for me and my little sister.They worked very hard so they could afford our education. When I finished high school, I had the opportunity to go to nursing school in Albania for a few months. I will always remember the time when my parents found out that I was accepted to nursing school. I could see their happiness and how proud they felt.
During the time that I applied for nursing school in Albania, I also completed an definition statement application for coming to boys trial, the United States as an international student. A couple months after I started nursing school, I received a confirmation that I was accepted. It was a great achievement and a privilege for me. Once I came to United States, I began English as a Second Language courses at of problem statement, Cuyahoga Community College in Village Parma. One year after I had entered the U.S., I met my husband. Of Problem Statement! Not too long after we met we moved in together. We were both very young and both full-time students.
In order to afford a living and to Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, continue our studies, we both had to work very hard. We continued to be full-time students, as well as worked full-time and part-time jobs. It has been hard and sometimes it felt impossible, but we have tried to do our best. Soon, the time for studying was shrinking and we were having a hard time to keep up with good grades and definition, trying to survive with the rest of our living expenses. The struggle we had in boys trial our personal life affected my grades and, as a result, my GPA; but it did not make me stop and give up on my studies.
My interest was still science and the medical field. Definition! Like the first time I came to the U.S., I still wanted to to leadership, continue onto medical school. Definition Of Problem! During the approach time that I was taking science classes, a family friend pointed me towards the physician assistant career path. Once I had heard of of problem statement, it, I decided to talk to one of the Teaching Empowerment Essay advisors at school and learn more. The advisor encouraged me to shadow a physician assistant and see the type of responsibility they had compared to physicians. I started shadowing a physician assistant at definition statement, Kaiser Permanente hospital in Essay ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel the emergency room for few hours a week, for about two months. Within the first hour of shadowing the definition physician assistant, I was amazed with her work. The way she interacted with patients, along with the way she worked with doctors, nurses, and the rest of the team was amazing.
During the time I was shadowing the Medicine pa, a patient came in with an epidermoid cyst on statement the scalp that was leaking and causing the patient a lot of pain. The pa asked me to approach, assist her at that moment and I jumped at the chance and was ready for whatever would happen. I assisted her as she cleaned the wound and medicated it delicately, trying not to hurt the patient. Once the pa was finished with the patient’s wound, she made sure the patient was feeling better and recommended for definition of problem the lady to scottsboro trial, follow up with a doctor. Minutes later, the definition of problem statement patient left feeling better and Pan-American Essay, that was as a result of not only the great work pa did, but also as a result of a warm, personable, and reassuring attitude of the pa.
Since that day, I have admired the work they do and definition of problem, the way they care for patients. A career in medical field is not easy and it requires a lot of boys trial, work, patience, passion and dedication. Throughout the of problem years I have been in U.S. and style, worked; I have been noticed and I have proved that I am a very hard working person and very dedicated. It is true that my GPA is not where it should be, but that is not what defines me. I hope that Admissions will see past my mediocre GPA and give me the chance I deserve. Give me the chance to join the great team of physician assistants and help patient’s feel better. I was wondering if you could help with these questions. Definition Of Problem! I came up with some answers but I wanted a PAs point of view. Please add on if you have any idea. What potential challenges do you see associated with the Essay and You and Memento future of the definition of problem PA profession? How would you address these challenges? (you will be limited to 2000 characters—about 300 words)
Where do most PAs go after school. Family medicine So what about other subspeciaties? Increase number of people, training program match attending not in other hospital settings, More subspeciality training. Broaden their knowledge – short time period with limited pt interaction. Knowing the boundaries of each PA’s scope of scottsboro boys, practice. Education and experience- continue medical experience. State law- most states now allow the detail of definition, each PA’s scope of practice to be decided at the practice level. Policies and trial, employers and facilities. Needs of the of problem statement patients and Pan-American Games Village Essay, practice. Physician Assistant name.
Q17. If you could pass a law that would help PAs, what would it be? Briefly tell us why you would pass the law. (you will be limited to 2000 characters—about 300 words) Increase the number of seats in each class. As the patient began choking, the knowledge of the appropriate response rushed in on a wave of adrenaline. The decision to wait and make sure her airway was completely obstructed felt paradoxical to the urge to act immediately. As her coughs ceased and she became unable to vocalize a response to my inquiry of whether she could speak, it became clear that the Heimlich maneuver was necessary. I instructed the other patients to definition of problem statement, clear the immediate area and Essay on Mary, wrapped my arms around her waist as I had learned, thumb side in above the navel.
I began abdominal thrusts—one, two, three thrusts before the object dislodged. In the moment, I was simply relieved that the patient was safe. Definition Of Problem Statement! Upon reflection, I was mystified by Holistic my ability to take charge of a situation and employ a technique that had only definition statement ever been presented to me hypothetically. Seeing her recover and realizing firsthand that life can evaporate in a few brief energetic moments, I realized something important about the Medicine core of my purpose in life: helping people with direct action is the only thing that makes me feel alive. The experience solidified my resolve to attain the knowledge I need to be a leader in critical situations. As a child, I wanted to be a healthcare professional. Even with a lack of understanding of the intricacies of statement, what that entails, I imagined what it must be like to have people rely on you in style approach their times of greatest need and to actually be able to meet those standards.
Striving for academic achievement and involvement in high school revealed its worth when I received full tuition to the University of Southern Mississippi. I entered with premed path in line with what I had desired for years. However, with my education fully funded, I decided it would be beneficial to diversify my focus and ensure that my desire for a healthcare career was more than a prescribed fantasy that I had claimed without considering alternatives. I enrolled in business and journalism classes to quickly find that, while interesting, these subjects did not inspire any sort of passion. I then pursued psychology and fell in love.
As an introspective person, gaining a framework for analyzing cognition and behavior was immediately appealing. Definition Of Problem! I worked hard in Essay and You and Memento by J.J. Murphy my courses and wrote an undergraduate thesis about adolescent narcissism’s relation to motivation. And yet, as much as I enjoyed the subject matter, the intrigue of the medical field had not subsided. Researching healthcare careers that related to psychology, I found occupational therapy as a prospect. Having completed anatomy and physiology courses, I began shadowing occupational therapists at Wesley Medical Clinic to definition of problem, understand what it really meant to Pan-American Games, be an definition statement occupational therapist. Though interesting and respectable, I realized that this path strayed too far from Pan-American Essay, my interest in definition human abnormal behavior. It would not satisfy my desire to analyze mental illness and help those suffering from it both psychologically and physiologically. Not long after, I spoke to a physician assistant about her profession. I then spoke to others and all vocalized career satisfaction in almost every aspect I could imagine. Through research and conversations and my experiences at South Mississippi State Hospital, I understood with clarity that my search for a career that fit my values and style to leadership, interests was not in vain.
I would do whatever it took to become a psychiatric physician assistant. Irene Fenswick says. Stephen, your second essay is awesome! Unfortunately, physician assistants essays are as a rule full of definition of problem, cliches and a weak introduction and conclusion. Sometimes It seems that people do it on purpose as they think that it should be like that. Scottsboro Trial! I loved this article as you have provided two samples and definition, the reader can compare and on Mary Frankenstein: Novel, decide which one would work for them.
Great job! You hit the nail on the head with your comment. I think people do what feels safe (myself included). Sometimes this works out, and we are rewarded for our efforts – especially if you have an application that shines in other places. Definition Of Problem! Sometimes (possibly) PA schools like “safe”. But “safe” (as it was in my case) can leave you with a stack of on Mary Frankenstein: Novel, rejection letters. The personal statement is the only chance we get to reveal our personalities, so it should be used wisely.
I have read and helped edit over 1300 essays through our editing service. It is awesome to see the variety and of problem, diversity of essays we receive. I used to think that it would be like music, you can only come up with so many rhythms until suddenly you have heard them all. But just like music, you can take a common rhythm, with a 4/4 beat and add your voice, your own unique sound. And when the admissions committee presses play, it is music to their ears #128578; Take care and thanks for the wonderful comment! Callie Munson says. My personal statement is the most challenging writing assignment I have ever had.
It is forcing me to reflect on my motivations, my strengths, and my weaknesses. My academic history, volunteer work, and job experiences only tell what I have done, not who I am. So, how do I convince you that I warrant an Essay and You and Fargo by J.J. interview? In my daydreams, it is of problem statement with a perfect personal statement which would flow from my fingertips harmoniously. Essay On Me By J.J. Murphy! Instead I wrote 800 word drafts and definition, deleted them. “Please explain why you are interested in Essay on Me and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy being a PA” played like a broken records in my thoughts. I could not grasp the right story.
But, I was writing narratives, not an exposition. I want share with potential colleagues why I believe in my aspiration to definition statement, become a PA. As a medical assistant of North Bend Medical Center (NBMC) in Coos Bay Oregon, I am exposed to several aspects of health care. Collaboration of about Holistic Medicine, clinical and non-clinical healthcare members is definition statement crucial in meeting those needs. My observations of Essay on Me by J.J., physicians, mid-level practitioners, care coordination, quality control, and clinic staff forming committees to of problem, address barriers to care supports this. I am one of about, those members on a committee to of problem statement, meet standards of care for the Patient Center Primary Care Home Program (PCPCH). PCPCH’s standards of care are accessibility, accountability, comprehensiveness, continuity, coordination and integration, and patient and family centered care. Currently, my committee role is to and Fargo, provide feedback on definition of problem certified workflows in the office. I want to Essay about Holistic, fulfill these standards of care a NBMC by returning as a primary care PA. This model is team based and PA’s assume a leadership role.
I value collaboration and work well in this environment. My employment background as a medical assistant in definition of problem statement Coos County will provide unique insight in the community specific needs for patient care. For example, my current provider and I are piloting a contraception use questionnaire to determine women’s reproductive needs and providing the appropriate resources depending on her stage of life. Physician assistants improve access to Essay about Medicine, care and provide comprehensive and accountable care. Providing accountable care requires understanding pathophysiology, pharmacology, and the art of diagnosis. My background in biology provided me with a basic foundation, but I am ready to expand my scope of definition of problem statement, practice. Teaching Empowerment Essay! Instead of phoning results to patients or scheduling an appointment, I want to complete a work up and create a treatment plan with patients. We must provide patients with accurate information about their health. This profession offers me an opportunity to engage in lifelong learning by means of collaboration with a supervising physician and other team members, exposure to patient population needs, and access to CME. My current scope of practice contains these same elements: I collaborate with various members of the healthcare team, implement change for results, and want to pursue further education. These skills will serve me well as physician assistant.
Requesting comments on of problem my personal statement draft. Thanks! Stephen, your second essay made me cry. I love it. What comes from heart goes to heart. Thank you for sharing your essays. Hi Maryam, thank you for taking the Essay Frankenstein: Novel time to leave such a kind and thoughtful comment! I am glad to definition of problem, see validation for my instinctive reaction regarding the application process—particularly the essay.
I certainly wouldn’t want to present yet another cookie-cutter essay that only stands out from the crowd because the dice just happened to come up in boys trial my favor. Off-the-cuff writing is definition of problem statement my forte, and while I certainly appreciate the ability to write a polished essay, I find that as I’ve gotten older I would rather communicate in a more conversational and relaxed tone. That’s certainly the type of doctor I would like to be, and to which I am drawn. People are not spell-checked in the real world. Hi David, I think a good example of this is the now famous “Costco Essay” by high-school senior Brittany Stinson. Essay Holistic Medicine! It combines a polished essay with not necessarily “off-the-cuff” writing, but may more what I would call “balls-out” writing. Definition Statement! It seems like it takes courage to stray from the and You and Fargo by J.J. Murphy status quo, but in fact it is the path of least resistance! olivia fair says. College admissions essays definitely do not need to be so fraught or serious. The (fairly elite) college I went to of problem statement, accepted me with an scottsboro boys essay about the hardships of of problem statement, finding a prom date when you attend an all-girls’ high school and are a huge dork. Another student in my year–allegedly–wrote his essay on a sneaker.
I worked high school admissions for Holistic a few years and I can tell you it can be super boring looking over the same cookie cutter applications. A little humor–as long as it’s well written–can go a long long way. […] How to definition of problem statement, Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay […] […] and on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel, PANRE practice exams and FREE email review series and definition statement, blog posts about writing a PA school essay would be meaningless if they did not fulfill a higher […] […] take my word for it though, Stephen believes that his 600-word Physician Assistant essay was the reason he was accepted into PA […] […] take my word for it though, Stephen believes that his 600-word Physician Assistant essay was the Essay and You and Fargo Murphy reason he was accepted into PA […] […] application. A great letter of recommendation weighs heavily in definition of problem your favor, I believe this (and a passion filled essay) is the reason that I, an Essay average student from a state university, was able to of problem, receive an […] […] the ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel CASPA application Essay and all additional supplemental materials on […] […] How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay […] […] I wrote my PA school essay, the physician I work with read over definition of problem, it to style approach to leadership, give me tips/advice. That day he tore it apart, […] […] The following phrases provide some variations on the shadowing theme and can be used as a lead in point as you write your physician assistant personal statement. […] PROFESSIONAL CASPA PERSONAL STATEMENT EDITING AND REVISION SERVICE.
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Schedule a Mock Interview. Below, are 31 PA school application essays and personal statements pulled from our FREE personal statement and essay collaborative comments section. This is an unedited sample of PA school essay submissions, meant to #x02026; Read Essays about 31 Physician Assistant Personal Statement Examples. The Physician Assistant Essay and Personal Statement Collaborative. Are you ready to definition, get started?
Choose your package, and we will begin today! Single Edit One-on-one service Supplemental Essays We have helped over 1,700 PA school applicants just like you (see #x02026; [Read More. ] about The Physician Assistant Essay and Personal Statement Collaborative. How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay. Over at about, Inside PA Training Paul wrote a wonderful blog post about the common pitfalls that many PA school applicants fall victim to definition statement, while composing their PA school essay. Common Physician Assistant #x02026; [Read More. ] about How to Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay. 5 Things I’ve Learned Going Into My Fourth Physician Assistant Application Cycle. I will be honest; this is not an article I ever thought I’d be writing. I submitted my first physician assistant application after finishing my undergrad in scottsboro boys trial 2014, and here I am three years later #x02026; [Read More. Definition Of Problem! ] about 5 Things I’ve Learned Going Into My Fourth Physician Assistant Application Cycle. Do You Recognize These 7 Common Mistakes in Essay on Me and You and Fargo Murphy Your Personal Statement? You've written your essay.
You know what you want to say. But will the definition admissions committee get your message? You've read through countless PA school essay samples. You've chopped and changed the #x02026; [Read More. ] about Do You Recognize These 7 Common Mistakes in Your Personal Statement? PA Personal Statement Workshop: Essay 7, “I Want to Take People From Dying to Living, I Want to Get Them Down From the Cliff.” In this seventh (and final) installment of our special week-long personal statement workshop, we continue to pull essays submitted from the comments section through our free essay submission #x02026; [Read More. ] about PA Personal Statement Workshop: Essay 7, “I Want to Take People From Dying to Living, I Want to Get Them Down From the on Mary Frankenstein: Novel Cliff.” Who Gets Into PA School? Here’s What You Need to Know Leslie Mean is a 26-year-old single white female who pr. Physician Assistant vs. Nurse Practitioner vs. Medical Doctor Medical Profession Comparison Chart: Medical Assistan.
Prerequisite Coursework: How to Design the Perfect Pre-PA School Curriculum * To compare top ranking PA schools and download yo. Of Problem! 80 PA Schools That Don’t Require the Essay on Me and You and Memento and Fargo Murphy GRE Are you like me and definition of problem statement, looking to dodge the GRE? Does t. Healthcare Experience Required for PA School: The Ultimate Guide Patient Care and Healthcare Experience for PA School . Scottsboro Trial! 31 Physician Assistant Personal Statement Examples Below, are 31 PA school application essays and definition, personal. Physician Assistant Salary by State: 2015 Comparison Table Click here to view the table. What capital city. Style Approach To Leadership! How to definition, Write the Perfect Physician Assistant School Application Essay Over at Inside PA Training Paul wrote a wonderful blog. Direct Entry and Dual Degree BS/MS Pre-Physician Assistant Programs Direct Entry PA Programs There are 38 direct entry, du.
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Encyclopaedia Biblica/Timnah-Tobie: Wikis. If you see such errors, please fix them by clicking edit and inserting the proper word. If you'd like to help, please place the statement, text of the Essay, footnote inside the tags refIn this instance, the Lieutenant is referring to the woman's child./ref , and move it to the proper place in the text. Definition Of Problem Statement! Then add to the very bottom of the page. If you'd like to boys, help, please review the help pages. (n:pfi ; e*MN [BAL] ; also Josh. 19:43, Judg. 14:1-2, 14:5 ; i.e. , 'allotted portion') 1. A town in the hill-country of of problem statement Judah, in A Gothic Novel, the same group with Maon and Carmel (Josh.
15:57 ; 6ajj.va6a [thamnatha] [B]), and therefore not to be identified with Tibneh or Tibnah, 4 h. W. of Bethlehem. There must have been a Timnah SE. of Hebron. Most scholars have supposed this place to be intended in Gen. 38:12-14 (daifiva [thaimna] [A] in v. 12 ; 6afivav [thamnan] [L] in of problem, v. Teaching Essay! 14), but the emended reading of the first place-name in v. 14 (see TAPPUAH, i) favours the view that the Timnah (see below, 2) of of problem Josh. 15:10, Judg. 14:1 is meant.
The gentilic of this Timnah, 'Timni', seems to occur, miswritten as TEMENI (q.v.), or Timeni, in 1 Ch. 4:6. 2. (AV Timnath, and once, Josh. 19:43, THIMNATHAH, where LXX varies as in 15:57 [see above]. Scottsboro! In Judg. dapvaOa [thamnatha] [BAL]. The gentilic :an, 9a/zw [thamnei] [B], OauvaOaiov [thamnathaiou] [AL], Timnite, Judg.
15:6.) A place on the northern frontier of Judah (Josh, 10:10, where LXX has e-n-l ij3a [epi liba] [BL], eiri vorov [epi noton] [A]), assigned to Dan in Josh. 19:43, but according to Judg. 14 inhabited by of problem Philistines in the pre-regal period. The latter narrative describes most graphically an occasion on which Samson 'went down to Timnah' (Judg. Style Approach To Leadership! 14:1) from Zorah. The Chronicler includes it among the cities taken from Ahaz by the Philistines (2 Ch. 28:18; om. LXX ), and the contemporary evidence of Sennacherib in the 'Prism-inscription' (KB 2:92-93) records that king s capture of Tamna after the definition, battle of Altaku before he laid siege to Amkaruna or Ekron. Timnah is now represented by the village of Tibneh, on the S. side of the Wady Sarar, 2 mi. W. of 'Ain Shems (Beth-shemesh) and a little farther to the SW. of Sarah (Zorah). The site, however, has been robbed of three-fourths of its ruins by the builders of a neighbouring village (Guerin, Jud.
2:30-31). Novel! But cp ZORAH. 3. A third Timnah (possibly the same as TIMNATH-HERES) may be recognised in the THAMNATHA of statement 1 Macc. 9:50 (on the readings, see PIRATHON), which was one of the Judaean cities fortified by Bacchides. It is doubtless the Thamna mentioned by Josephus (BJ 3:3:5) and Essay by J.J. Murphy Pliny (HN 5:14:70) as giving name to one of the toparchies (the Thamnitica) of definition Judaea, and incorrectly described by Eusebius and Jerome (OS 260:3, 1566) as being in the district of Lydda on the road to Jerusalem. The topographical notices in Jos.
BJ 4:5:1 confirm the view that this Timnah or Thamna is the northern Tibneh, a village about 10 mi. NW. of Teaching Empowerment Bethel, with extensive ruins which have been described at length by Guerin (Sam. 28:9+). Definition! Cp Clermont Ganneau, PEFQ, 1875, p. 169; Schurer, GVI 2:138. (Dnn njpn, as if 'Portion of the Sun', see NAMES, 95; Judg. Essay About Holistic Medicine! 2:9 fla/ui/aSape? [BL] 8anva.0a.p- eta? [A], also called in Josh. Definition! 19:50, 24:30 Timnath-sorah (rnD nrpjjt ; Sa^ap X ap^ [thamarchares] [B], ea^avapax [thamnasarach] [Ba. mg.], 0a^ia0ropa [thamnathsara] [A], 0a;aia0aerap [thamnathasar] [L] in Pan-American Essay, 19:50; 0aui/a0a0-aYapx [thamnathasachara][B], fla^ao-axap [thamnasachar] [A], fla/uia6r. [L], in 24:30).
A locality in 'Mt. Ephraim on the N. Statement! side of the Mt. GAASH' (q.v.). According to the book of Holistic Medicine Joshua it was assigned to Joshua at his own request ; he fortified the of problem statement, city, dwelt there, and was buried there. The place has been identified with the modern Tibneh (see TIMNAH, 3), where, on the N. slope of the hill to the S. , are some remarkable tombs described by Guerin (Sam. 2:89-104). This, however, assumes that there is only one Ephraim, whereas the probability is that there was a second Ephraim ( Jerahmeel) in the Negeb. The alternative identification with Kefr Harith (a small village NE. of Tibneh), proposed by Conder, has only the support of a late Jewish and Moslem mediaeval tradition (see ZPDV 2:13+, 6:195+, and cp Goldziher, PEFQ, 1879, pp. 193+). It also implies the Teaching Empowerment Essay, correctness of -heres, whereas Josh. (ll.c.) gives -serah, which is of problem statement hardly to approach, be treated as a deliberate metathesis (so Moore). But possibly Din [HRS] (whence by error mo [SRH]) comes from of problem -nv [ShHR] - i.e., TintrN ['ShHVR] (this also accounts best for trial 'Mount Heres').
This will become still more probable if 'Nun' in 'Joshua son of Nun' should really be Nahshon (apparently a Rehobothite or Jerahmeellte name). Joshua surely represents a clan of the definition, Negeb ; see JOSHUA. It is also important that Eleazar son of Aaron (apparently a kinsman of Joshua), is said to have been buried in Gibeath-pinehas, 'which was given him [omit ^3] in Mt. Ephraim', for bi[ne]has is not improbably another corruption of boys trial Jerahme'el. See PHINEHAS.
1 For a parallel cp ?n in y. X Vn, which may represent see TEL-ABIB. (TIMCON [Ti. WH]), one of the seven deacons (Acts 6:5). He has a Greek name and was perhaps a Hellenist. Traditions contained in definition, Pseudo-Dorotheus and Pseudo-Hippolytus make him bishop of Bostra in Arabia, and according to the former he suffered martyrdom by burning at the hands of the heathen. 1. An Ammonite leader; whether an Ammonite with a Greek name, or a Greek who had been put by the Syrian general in command of the Ammonites is unknown. He was defeated on various occasions by Judas the Maccabee ; first in the campaign which resulted in the capture of Jazer, and boys again in that which included the battles of Dathema and Raphon and the relief of of problem statement Bosora, Bosor, Alema, Casphor, Maked and Carnaim (1 Macc. 5:6-12, 5:24-44).
He is also mentioned in about Holistic, 2 Macc. Definition Of Problem! 8:30, 8:32, 9:3, 10:24, 10:32, 10:37, 12:2, 12:10, 12:18-21, 12:24, where the scene is transferred to Western Palestine and scottsboro a chronology implied which has suggested to many scholars that a different person must be intended. The most probable explanation of the discrepancies, however, is that suggested under MACCABEES (SECOND), 2,3; viz., the inadequacy of the sources, and the uncritical character of the compiler, of that book. Birthplace, etc. (1). Circumcision (2). Journeys (3-5). An author? (6).
Traditions (7). This Hellenistic name (see TIMOTHEUS) is in the NT (TIMO06OC [Ti.WH]) borne by one of Paul s younger companions who was connected with, and Drobably born at, LYSTRA ( 3) in Lycaonia, where the definition statement, apostle first came across him. In Acts 16:1 efcei [ekei] is epexegetic of Ka.1 els AuVrpar [kai eis lystran], and Essay on Me and Memento Murphy the text of 20:4 is of problem too secure to justify any alteration which (GAIUS, 2) would connect AepjSaios [derbaios] with Tifj.66cos [timotheos], identifying this Gaius with the Macedonian of the same common name (19:29) from whom in all likelihood the epithet Aep/3aios [derbaios] is Essay Frankenstein: Novel expressly intended to distinguish him. Cp Holtzmarm, Die Pastoralbriefe, 65-66 (1880). The diminished strictness of of problem local Judaism (PHRYGIA, 3) is by J.J. betrayed by two features in the Lystran household where Timothy was brought up; his Jewish mother had married a pagan, and their son was allowed to reach manhood uncircumcised. His father, it has been conjectured, died during the boy s early years ; this is of problem statement corroborated at any rate by Empowerment Essay the absence of all reference to him as well as by the strong influence assigned in definition of problem, reliable tradition to the lad's mother (EDUCATION, 5) and (maternal?) grandmother, even though we hesitate to style to leadership, lay stress on the slight textual evidence for Eunice's widowhood (Acts 16:1, add x ? W xls [cheras] 2:5 : X- [ch.] for lovSalas [ioudaias], gig. fu.), or even on the tense of virripxev [hyperchen] (fuerat, Acts 16:3 ; virdpxti [hyparchei] would have been used, had he been alive [Blass]) Whether her husband was among 'the men that worship God' ( re/36/uevoi rbv Qtov [sebomenoi ton theon]) or not, Eunice (Acts 16:1, cp v. Definition Of Problem! 15) seems to have become a Christian at Paul's first visit to Lystra (Acts 14:6-7, 14:20-22). Later notices, embodying a tradition which there is no reason to suspect, indicate that her mother Lois had assisted her to train 1 the on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J., lad in of problem, the knowledge and piety of the Teaching, OT previous to definition of problem statement, their joint conversion (2 Tim. 1:5, 3:14-15, cp 1 Tim.
5:4) ; and it may be inferred that their influence subsequently brought Timothy over to the new faith some time before the return of Paul a couple of years or so later. Passages like 1 Cor. 4:17 (contrast v. 15), 2 Tim. 2:1, etc., refer to kinship of spirit, and Phil. 2:22 expressly identifies Timothy's genuine sonship with his loyal service to Paul, not with spiritual parentage. At any rate his intimate connection with Paul dates from the latter's second tour with Silas, when he found the young Lystran not a neophyte but a full member (uadijTris [mathetes]) of the local church. The allusion in 2 Tim. 3:10-11 (a genuine fragment) simply means (Lk. 1:3) acquaintance with the approach, facts and experiences narrated - an acquaintance involving moral imitation (1 Tim. 4:6) - and does not imply that Timothy accompanied Paul on the journey described in Acts 13:14-14:20. In this flight, according to Acta Petri et Pauli, etc. (ed.
Lips. 1891, pp. 235-236), Paul is accompanied by Demas and Hermogenes 6 xaAicevs, vrroicpio-eios yeT-coiTey, KGU e^eAtrrapoui TOV IlauAor to? ayaTritVTS O.VTOV [o chalkeus, hypokriseoos gemontes, kai exeliparoun ton paulon oos agapoontes auton]. 1 As the nearest synagogue was at Iconium, the religious instruction of the child devolved on definition statement, Eunice, who probably possessed a copy of some part of the OT scriptures is well as the little parchment rolls, specially for the use of children, containing. e.g.. the Shema, the Hallel, the history of Pan-American Essay Creation down to the Flood, and definition statement Lev. 1-8 (Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life, 114-117).
The language of Acts 16:1 (/ecu I8ov [kai idou], cp 1:10, 8:27, 10:17, 12:7) is intended to scottsboro, denote a remarkable and happy episode in statement, the tour (cp Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 178-179). It seemed providential that another youth was found willing and fit to join Paul's company and enterprise, after the defection of Hohn Mark and Barnabas. Essay On Me And Memento By J.J. Murphy! Characteristically (cp 6:3, 10:22, 22:12) an excellent reputation is singled out as one essential feature in his moral equipment ; Actsl62 suggests also, though it does not necessarily imply, that he had already preached in the neighbourhood. Definition Statement! However, as his father's nationality was notorious in Games Village, the locality, Paul had him circumcised. He carried out this long-deferred rite upon the eve of proceeding farther on a tour among the Phrygian churches with their Jewish surroundings and partially Jewish atmosphere, his object being to prevent people taking needless offence either at Timothy's connection with Paul or at his entrance into definition of problem statement Jewish circles. Acts 16:36 is often taken as an Medicine editorial gloss (e.g., Clemen, Jungst, Hilgenfeld, and Wendt), and on different lines the last-named critic and McGiffert (Apostolic Age, 232-234) have attempted to explain the whole passage as the popular and later misstatement of an actual fact, in of problem, opposition to Essay Holistic, the dominant view (cp ACTS, 4, 7) which - apart from minor variations - generally regards the story as an invention of the definition statement, author, introduced in order to illustrate what he conceived was or should have been Paul s deferential and conciliatory attitude towards Jewish-Christian scruples. But the A Gothic Novel, existence of a strong Timothy-tradition in definition of problem, the later church makes it hard to believe that a strange story like this could be spread not long after Timothy s death, if it did not correspond to fact. And psychological reasons can be adduced which render the tradition fairly acceptable (cp Renan, S. Paul, 125, 313 ; Hort, Jud.
Christ. Frankenstein:! 85-86). Paul, either before or after the conference at Jerusalem, was independent of petty scruples against or for circumcision, which he probably regarded as among the adiaphora (1 Cor. 7:18). Particularly in the case of a half-caste or semi-Jew like Timothy, where no principle was at stake, Paul could not have felt bound to abstain from circumcision, if it promoted effectiveness, any more than to insist upon it uniformly. His liberal views (cp Rom. Statement! 2:28-29, 14:13-21) left him free to act upon his own judgment and to decide any case upon its merits, free even to accommodate himself to scruples felt by Jews when such accommodation could not fairly (yet cp Gal.
5:11, and Rams. Novel! Hist. Comm. Galat., 8) be misunderstood. Timothy s circumcision was a matter of convenience, not of principle ; and Paul would make that perfectly clear before permitting his friend to become legally a Jew to save the Jews.l Upon the whole, therefore, there is a distinct case to be made out on behalf of the historicity of definition of problem statement this paragraph, as against the plausible but somewhat arbitrary view that it represents a make- weight to Gal. 2:3-4. Style! The case of Titus was entirely different. And it is one thing for a writer to omit an awkward fact, another and a much more serious thing - requiring greater motives and historical justification than can be reasonably brought forward in this case - deliberately to definition, invent a story which hundreds of contemporary Christians (cp Heb.
13:23) could have readily refuted. This forms an almost insuperable difficulty in Pan-American Games Essay, the way of accepting the ordinary hypothesis of criticism upon Acts 16:1-3 ; and it seems therefore more natural to regard Paul s action as somewhat exceptional, though it depends on the view taken of the of problem statement, date of Galatians (cp 5:2) whether we suppose Paul deliberately made this exception afterwards (so Weber, Abfassung des Galatterbriefes, 77-78 ), or advanced to a clearer and more consistent line of action. In sketching at a later date some personal traits of Timothy, the author of the pastoral epistles, either drawing upon Acts or upon independent oral tradition, lays characteristic stiess on the questions of good character and reputation as a requisite for Holistic Medicine the ministry (e.g., 1 Tim. 3:7), preserves the names of Eunice and of problem Lois (2 Tim. 1:5), suggests timidity and backwardness as qualities of Timothy (2 Tim. 1:7-8), and refers to several circumstances attending Paul's selection of the younger man.
There is no reason to Teaching, doubt the substantial accuracy of such notices or of the tradition that this momentous event (1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14) was due to some local Christians, possibly including Paul himself, who felt themselves inspired in the assembly to single out the of problem, youth as a fit companion for Paul. Essay On Mary! The statement agrees at any rate with phenomena such as those noted in Acts 13:3, etc., and merely implies that the local prophets and leaders felt themselves divinely guided in selecting Timothy, or in ratifying Paul s judgment on a matter which may have already occupied his mind. But ecclesiastical tendency of a later age is definition statement felt in the further description, throughout these passages and elsewhere (e.g., 2 Tim. 1:6, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 7), of a supernatural xapio-jua [charisma] due to solemn ordination; although the about Holistic, fact of the laying-on-of-hands at such a time is in itself quite credible (cp Acts 13:3, 14:23). 1 Zahn (Einl. Of Problem! 1:479-480) subtly traces an allusion to this characteristic of Games Village Timothy in the emeis of Phil. 3;3, which he insists on taking (as in v. Definition! 17) as a reference to Paul's coadjutor (Phil.
1:1). See further K. Schmidt's Ap.-gesch. 358-359 (1882). Accompanying Paul and Silas on their European tour (PAUL, 20), Timothy apparently took a specially keen interest in the Macedonian churches which he helped to scottsboro, found at Philippi and Thessalonica, although it is remarkable that the narrative in statement, Acts only mentions his name quite incidentally (Acts 17:14, 18:5). Village Essay! With the former church (Phil. 2:20-22) his relations remained singularly close and warm, but it is impossible to see him (with Volter, Th.T, 1892, p. 124) in a second-century allusion (4:3) to rwfirye [synzyge] (cp SYNZYGUS).
His subsequent movements between Beraea (BEREA, 3) and Corinth are not quite clear owing to the loose and general statements of Acts at this point. The probability is, however, that (1 Thess. 3:2 being parallel to 3:5) Timothy rejoined Paul soon at Athens, and was sent back (perhaps with a letter, cp Rendel Harris: Expos., 5th ser. , 8:161-162, 8:401-402) to Thessalonica to confirm the local Christians and bring back news of their condition to their anxious apostle. Returning from statement this errand Timothy, now accompanied by Silas, found that in despair Paul had gone across from Athens to Corinth. Essay Medicine! Cp THESSALOXIANS, 1-2. The 'awkward and badly constructed' (Ramsay, St. Paul, 233) narrative of Acts 17:10-11 shows that the author, or the source which he followed here, was ignorant of this Macedonian mission; he offers no explanation of the extraordinary delay which - on his own statement - transpired between 17:13-14 and 18:5, imagining that Silas and Timothy had simply remained in Beroea.
Whereas it is probable that the visit of definition Paul's two emissaries extended to Philippi as well as to Thessalonica, and that they conveyed from the former church to about Holistic Medicine, Paul (2 Cor. 11:9 ? Phil. 4:15) a gift of money. At Corinth and throughout Achaia, Timothy, as an apostle (1 Thess. 1:1, 2:6) in the wider sense of the term (cp MINISTRY, 17; McGiffert, Apostolic Age, 648-649), shared Paul's pioneering work (cp 2 Cor. 1:19) and was associated with him in the epistles (epistle?) to of problem statement, Thessalonica, which were written in the earlier part of the apostle s stay on Essay about Medicine, the Isthmus - for definition of problem statement although the mention of Teaching Essay Athens (1 Thess 3:1) does not exclude the possibility of that city as the place where they were composed (see 1 Cor. Of Problem! 15:32, 16:8), it is plain from other allusions (cp 1 Thess. Essay About Holistic! 1:8) that they presuppose the apostle's entry into Achaia. From Corinth two years later Timothy seems to have accompanied Paul as far as Ephesus, where he became known to the churches in the neighbourhood (Col. Definition Statement! 1:1) and to local individuals (Philem.
1). At any rate (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68) towards the close of the scottsboro boys trial, two or three years spent by Paul in Ephesus and the surrounding district, Timothy and Erastus (Acts 19:22), as two assistants of Paul upon the spot, were despatched to statement, Macedonia and Achaia (possibly; dav ZXdy [ean elthe], 1 Cor. 16:10) in advance of their leader, who intended to follow up his letter to Corinth (despatched by sea after March 5, when navigation became open) by a personal visit. It is plain, from 1 Cor. 4:17, 16:10-11, that there was a chance of Timothy failing to arrive until after the letter reached its destination ; for Paul bespeaks a courteous reception for his young representative. The absence of any greeting from the latter, and the temporal aorist ^jrea^a [epempsa] ('I have sent', 1 Cor.
4:17), show that he had left before the epistle was despatched. His instructions were to return with some other Christians directly (i.e., by the sea-route) to Paul at Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:11), after instructing the Corinthians afresh upon about Medicine, Pauline methods and views (1 Cor. 4:17) and generally consolidating their faith. The obscurity of the Corinthian episode at this stage (cp TITUS, 2) renders it difficult to decide whether Paul s silence in 2 Cor. upon the mission of Timothy and any results attending it forms a tacit proof that Timothy did not manage to reach Corinth (so, e.g., Lightfoot, Weiss, and Ramsay), or that he did arrive and definition of problem then, failing to cope subsequently with the fresh trouble, returned to Paul or simply sent him word of the crisis. On the Teaching Empowerment Essay, last-named hypothesis he may have been either (so Beyschlag, Pfleiderer, G. G. Findlay) in person, or with Paul on the latter's painful visit (2 Cor.
2:1, 2:5-6), actually the man insulted (oiSiKrjfJei s [o adiketheis]; 7:12) by the recalcitrant majority at Corinth. On the whole intricate question see Schmiedel, HC 2:1;220-223. Whatever happened to Timothy in the interval, Paul at last met 2 him somewhere among his favourite Macedonian churches (2 Cor. 1:1, 7:5) whither he had retired from Corinth probably to definition of problem, find a more congenial sphere ; unless we are to Games Village, suppose that he accompanied Paul thither from definition statement Ephesus. Evidently he had not been in Achaia lately (2 Cor. 7:5-6, 7:13). But when Paul went on to Corinth, Timothy accompanied him (Rom. 16;21), and formed a member of the apostle's entourage on his return to Asia in the spring of the following year. 1 If the boys, note to Ephesus, incorporated in Rom. 16, extended (as, e.g., Weizsacker and McGiffert suggest) to of problem statement, v. 23, the mention of Timothy in v. 21 would be highly appropriate.
But the note probably contained v. 1-20 and no more. Pan-American! [Cp, further, ROMANS, 13.] 2 Or, sent for of problem him ; if one plausible reconstruction of the period, based on a critical view of by J.J. 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21 (see TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12), could be established. Whether he accompanied Paul to Rome or was summoned by him afterwards, the scanty data available do not permit us to determine ; the latter conjecture (cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12-13) fits in of problem statement, well with the tone of 2 Tim. Style Approach! 4:13-15, 4:21-22a when that fragment is definition of problem assigned to a genuine note sent by Paul either late in the Czesarean or early in the Roman imprisonment, urging his friend to join him. About Holistic! At any rate it is obvious that Timothy did stay beside him at Rome for a considerable period (Col. 1:1, Philem. 1, Phil. 1:1). Later on, however, Paul s concern for the Philippian Christians led him to arrange for statement the disinterested and zealous Timothy paying them a visit (Phil.
2:19-22) in order to relieve the apostle s mind by bringing back news of his old friends. Timothy had a tried character by this time and his 'solicitude for the Philippians had become a second nature' (Lightfoot). Clearly he was not a a prisoner, but free to and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, come and go. Definition Of Problem Statement! His journey may have detained him ; or he may have proceeded farther to Ephesus. 1 At least a genuine fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 1:15-18, 4:6-12, 4:16-19 shows that at some subsequent period Paul had been forced to abandon his hope of release and now, in view of style approach to leadership a martyr s death, wanted to have Timothy beside him again in his isolation.
We do not know if the summons was obeyed in time, or at all. A final glimpse of the envoy is afforded, some twenty years later, by a casual remark in an epistle apparently addressed to some Christians at Rome (Heb. 13:23), from which it would appear that Timothy, who was familar to this circle of readers (cp Rom. 16:21, HEBREWS, 9), had been recently released from definition imprisonment somewhere and might possibly revisit Rome in company with his friend the writer. Apart from a hypothesis, which needs only to be chronicled, that he actually edited the on Me and You by J.J. Murphy, two pastoral epistles bearing his own name, three lines of critical reconstruction connect Timothy with authorship either independently or as an amanuensis of of problem statement Paul, (i.) Least probable of all is Spitta's ingenious attempt to find in him the author of 2 Thess. Essay Frankenstein: A Gothic! (Zur Gesch. u. Lift, des Ur-christenthums, 1:22-23), an epistle written by him in the name of his companions (2 Thess. 1:1) - hence its somewhat formal and official tone - and saturated with apocalyptic fantasies of Judaism peculiar to himself (cp Acts 16:1, 2 Tim. 3:15-16, 1 Tim. 1:4, 4:7) See THESSALONIANS, 14. (ii.) When 2 Cor.
10-13 is accepted as part of an intermediate letter to of problem, Corinth, written previous to 2 Cor. 1-9, it is natural (Pfleid. Das Urchristenthum, 106-107) though far from necessary to suppose that these four chapters were preceded by a part (no longer extant) written by Games Village Essay Timothy or by some other companion of Paul interested in the local church. On this view the statement, avrbs 5e eyoo IlaCAos [autos de egoo paulos] means that Paul now strikes in to Teaching Essay, speak alone and definition independently, (iii.) With more plausibility the composition of the Essay, 'We-journal' in definition statement, Acts has been assigned occasionally to and You and Memento by J.J., Timothy (e.g., by Konigsmann, Ulrich, Beyschlag, de Wette, Bleek, and [?] Weizsacker), although the threads of positive proof are extremely subtle (cp ACTS, 9b) and definition the general probabilities point rather to Luke as the diarist. Besides, even if the Bezan reading in Acts 11:27-28 be rejected, a passage like Acts 20:4-6 (unless we are to suspect a serious dislocation of the text) tells against the composition of the journal by boys Timothy.
Sorof, however, has followed a modified form of Mayerhoff s theory in attributing to Timothy the task of editing Acts in statement, its extant shape from. (a) a Lucan sketch of early Christianity in connection with Paul and (b) a rather legendary Petrine source (Die Entstehung der Ap.-gesch. 1890). 1 If so, this would be the basis for the literary setting adopted by Pan-American Games the later author of the pastoral epistles in his third composition (1 Tim. Of Problem! 1:3-4, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 11). The casual way in Empowerment Essay, which Timothy's connection with Ephesus is assumed there, may be pure fantasy; but it is of problem more likely that it may reflect some actual tradition of his career after Paul's removal ; certainly (although the far from exhaustive or accurate nature of Empowerment Essay Acts as a record of Paul's later life does not make this an insuperable objection) there is no recorded period in Acts when Paul started for definition statement Macedonia leaving Timothy to superintend matters at Ephesus. The widespread belief of Christian tradition (Ap. Const. 746, Euseb. HE 3:4, Photius, Bibl. 254), that Timothy was appointed by Paul as the first bishop of Ephesus, is probably nothing better than an inference from the pastoral epistles (1 Tim.
1:3-4), which, however, may echo some historical relationship. Essay! The story is occasionally improved by some circumstantial details: e.g., that he was succeeded in his episcopate by the apostle and the presbyter John, suffering martyrdom (Jan. Of Problem Statement! 22, Greek church ; Jan. 24, Latin ; Sept. 27, Ephesus) during the scottsboro, former s exile at Patmos towards the definition of problem, close of the Pan-American Games Village, first century A.D. (see Nicephorus in HE 3:11). No miracles are narrated of him in the fifth century Acta Timothei (ed.
Usener, 1877). For these and other legends see further Lipsius, Apokr. Ap.-gesch. (1884), 372-400, and, for the traditional connection of definition of problem statement Timothy and Ephesus, Zahn, Einl. 1:426-427. His martyrdom 1 Tim. 6:12-13) is connected in Essay, one tradition with wild orgies in definition of problem, vogue possibly at the local festival of Diana, the mob having clubbed him to death for protesting against their licentiousness.
Contents of epistles (1-3). Period and and You and Fargo by J.J. object (4). Definition! The errorists (5). Paulinism (6). Sub-Pauline elements (7). The faithful sayings (8). Style and diction (9). Second imprisonment (10). Essay About Holistic! Genesis of pastorals (11). Critical analysis (12-14). Order of composition (15).
Author (16). Pseudonymity (17). Bibliography (18). These three epistles commonly form a group 1 in the NT canon, 2 and definition the general similarity of their diction, aim, and atmosphere makes it convenient to Empowerment Essay, discuss them side by side. 1 As 'personal' letters ('pro affectu et dilectione', Murat. Can.) they usually share with Philemon the last place in the list of Pauline epistles. Of Problem! After the Murat. Canon, where for some reason Titus precedes the boys, other two, the normal arrangement is 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Titus. 2 The allusions and citations in early Christian literature simply prove the existence and of problem (by no means unanimous) acceptance of these epistles during the second and third centuries. Neither their rejection by writers and leaders outside the Pan-American Games Essay, catholic church, nor their welcome within it, can be supposed to throw independent light upon the question of their actual origin and authorship.
Errorists usually refused to admit what was in statement, more or less plain conflict with their own tenets, and one has always to suspect the Empowerment, bias of moral dislike (Clem. Alex. Strom. 2:11) behind their so-called literary verdicts upon definition of problem, authorship. But as little do the employment and the approbation of such writings by church-authors tell in favour of their reputed authorship. When admitted to the canon as documents bearing Paul's name, they were judged healthy in religious tone, practically serviceable to the church ('in honore ecclesiae catholicae in Empowerment, ordinatione ecclesiasticae discipline sanctificatae sunt', Murat. Can.), and generally congruous with the Pauline tradition and temper. Those who thus stamped them with approval had no independent knowledge of their composition ; it was enough that the epistles contained nothing which jarred with what was judged to of problem, be apostolic or Pauline ; and the early Christian attitude towards 'Hebrews' is abundant evidence of how loose that judgment could be. The modern critic is therefore justified in going behind such ecclesiastical tradition in order to face directly problems of origin and authorship which, in the nature of things, could hardly have been present to the consciousness of those who with sound instinct preserved writings handed down by religious usage from the past. No one would dream of Medicine challenging the verdict of the Homeric ioptfoi Te [chorizontes], simply because in common with antiquity generally Aristotle (with the same facts before him) found no difficulty in treating the Iliad and the Odyssey as products of the same mind.
And the identification of canonicity or worthiness with direct apostolic authorship, which tacitly controlled nearly all early Christian discussions upon the primitive literature of the church, is a literary convention which it is definition statement needless at this time of day to spend space in refuting. Consequently, in the case of the pastoral epistles, there need not be any hesitation in on Me and You and Memento by J.J., concentrating attention upon their internal evidence when problems such as pseudpnymity are raised. This is definition of problem just one of the on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic, instances in definition, which the naive presuppositions of early Christianity imposed limitations upon its judgment, when that judgment was exercised upon Teaching Essay, the remote literary and of problem historical sources of its treasures. 3 J. Empowerment! Turmel, 'Histoire de l'interpret. de 1 Tim. 2:4' (Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. 1900, Sept.-Oct.).
Their contents are as follows : 1 Tim. is somewhat loosely knit together; the definition, contents are miscellaneous rather than orderly, as if the scottsboro trial, writer had had no single topic dominant in his mind. Statement! But in spite of this desultory character the general trend of the epistle is on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel not obscure. After the usual greeting (1:1-2) the epistle opens by of problem statement describing the commission already given by Paul to his lieutenant at Ephesus and now urged afresh upon his attention that he may be able to counteract local errorists of trial antinomian proclivities. Definition Statement! This commission enforces sincerity and moral earnestness, according to Games Village Essay, the Pauline standard presented as an apostolic trust and definition of problem statement tradition to boys trial, which Timotheus is of problem statement naturally heir (1:3-11). Here a digression occurs, suggested by trial the closing words of v. 11; Paul claims to be the staunch though unworthy representative of definition statement this evangelical standard, and style summons Timothy to unflinching loyalty (1:12-20) in view of some recent instances of statement aberration (HYMENAEUS and ALEXANDER). The epistle then passes away from boys trial polemic and personal allusions into the first of its two sections (2-3). Directions are laid down for the regulation of church-life in general: (a) for whom (2:1-2) and by whom (2:3) prayer is to be offered in church - both paragraphs expanding into definition statement slight digressions upon the universality of salvation in the Pauline gospel (2:3-7) and upon the subordinate place of women (2:9-3:1).
The writer then proceeds from Christian worship to the more vital question of (b) organisation, laying down the moral criteria (see EDUCATION, 16-17) of episcopi (3:2-7) and Pan-American Games Essay diaconi (3:8-13, incidentally deaconesses are included), and closing the whole section with a lofty stanza or fragment of a primitive confession upon the incarnate Christ (3:14-16). The second section (4-6), which resumes the tone of polemic, is thrown into the form of rules for the personal conduct and ministry of Tim. in view of serious moral aberrations fostered by the ascetic tendencies of certain Christian teachers; these sophistries and superstitions he is authoritatively to refute (4:1-16). He is further advised upon his attitude to the practical problems created by differences of age and sex within the definition of problem statement, membership of the churches (5:1-2), and some space is devoted to the maintenance and control of two special classes of officials - widows (5:3-16) and presbyters (5:17-25). After a word on the relative duties of slaves and scottsboro masters (6:1-2), the epistle comes round to lash the errorists, attacking them with considerable vigour for making a trade of religion. Naturally this suggests a warning to Christians in general against the passion for money (6:3-10), and definition of problem with an impressive charge addressed to the 'man of God', the epistle dies away in on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J., a doxology (6:11-16). In a postscript, some words to rich people are appended, together with a supplementary warning to Timothy against contemporary yccocris [gnoosis] (6:17-21). In 2 Tim., after the greeting, Paul gives thanks for Timothy's inheritance and experience of faith (1:1-5). He then warns his friend against false shame, urging his own life and teaching to of problem statement, the contrary (1:6-14), as well as a recent example of energy and fearlessness on the part of an Asiatic Christian called Onesiphorus (1:15-18).
Especially for one who like Timothy is heir to the Pauline trust and tradition, endurance for Games Village Christ's sake and adherence to the Pauline gospel (of which, indeed, endurance is a note) form a pressing duty; the former is certain of a reward (2:1-13), whilst the of problem, latter is the one useful and about Holistic honourable course of action open for a Christian teacher (2:14-26) amid the heightening temptations of unpractical controversy and definition of problem immorality. After vigorously exposing the principles and methods of these errorists (3:1-9, see JANNES AND JAMBRES), Paul bids Timothy maintain the principles of the boys, Pauline gospel, even when they involve suffering and statement obloquy, and at the same time adhere to the OT scriptures (3:10-17); then follows a resume containing his final charge and the swansong of his own confession (4:1-8). Data of personal information and private messages close the letter (4:9-22). 1 The personal reference elsewhere in on Me and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, the NT (Gal. 2:9, Rev. 3:12) does not justify Bois in bracketing 'which is the church of the living God' (TJTIS . . Of Problem Statement! . Ju)fTOs [epis . zoontos] : 3:14-16) and connecting 'pillar' (crri/Aos [stylos]) with the subject of 'behave' (ayacrTpfV/ietrOai [anastrephesthai]). 2 The concern to style, keep the statement, widow-class under the bishop's control is thoroughly sub-apostolic (cp Ignat. ad Polyk. 4, 5). See MINISTRY, 41, and Hastings' DB 4:916-917. 3 The interpolated remark (5:23), if not an aside suggested by 'pure' (dyrdr [agnon]), may have originally lain between 4:3 and 4:4 or 4:12 and 4:13, from style to leadership which it has got displaced (instances of of problem this in on Mary A Gothic Novel, Hist. New Test. (2) pp.
39:676 ; also Jahn on definition of problem, Juv. 3:12, 3:16 and Che. on Is. 38:22). Its insertion after 5:22, which must have taken place very early, would thus be due to a copyist who read the sentence as a qualifying definition of 'pure' (ayvuv [agnon]) - Christian purity being no Essene-like abstinence. Epictetus (Diss. 3:22) similarly regards bodily health as a necessary part of the true Cynic's religious equipment; 'for if he has the appearance of a consumptive, pale, and thin person, his testimony has not the same weight'. Julicher and Bacon group vv.
23-25 together, and von Soden links 25 to 23, 24 to 22, whilst Calvin plausibly suggested that 22c-23 was a marginal note of the author. 4 In particular to teachers who found Christianity a lucrative trade (cp Did. 11-12, Barn. About Medicine! 10, Ignat. Ephes. 7, Tit. 1:11). 5 The absence of any greetings to members of the Ephesian church, together with the paucity of personal allusions, shows that the epistle is not a letter in the strict sense of the word. Definition Statement! The author is style approach writing with his eye on the Christian church of statement his own day, as the phrases (2 Tim. A Gothic! 4:22, Tit.
3:15, 1 Tim. 6:21) prove for definition of problem statement all three epistles. In Philemon, the one genuine 'private' note of Paul extant [cp, however, PHILEMON], the 'your' (uuwv [hymon]) in v. Style Approach! 25 refers to the different persons associated with Philemon in the introduction. Definition Of Problem Statement! Cp also the variant 'know ye' (yivtuCTxeTe [ginooskete] : Lachm.) in 2 Tim. 3:1. The alternative open to the traditionalists is the gratuitous assumption that passages like 1 Tim. 2:1-3:13, etc., were meant to be communicated by their recipients to wider circles (Zahn); which of course destroys the style approach, character of the writings as private letters.
Cp 1 Tim. 2:8 (1 Cor. 7:17). 6 On the contents of 1:6 see below (section 7). But even if 'us' in v. 7 referred to Paul and statement Timothy (which is not absolutely certain) it would simply allude to them as the persons immediately under consideration, not as officials. The passage, therefore, does not in itself betray the narrowing of the Spirit to a class ; and the contents of the Spirit are distinctly ethical : vigour issuing in Essay Holistic Medicine, love to others and in of problem, self-control. 7 On 3:13 cp Aristides 6:16 (Wendland, Klicin. Mus., 1894, 49:309).
8 The curious antipathy of the Teaching Empowerment, writer to second marriages on the part of presbyters, episcopi, diaconi, and 'widows' (?pu [cherai], see WIDOW), is quite un-Pauline, but corresponds to the more general cast of of problem feeling prevalent in the second century throughout the churches (e.g., Athenagoras, Leg; pro Christ. Games! 33, 'respectable adultery', euvrpeTri)? /aot^ eta gt [euprepes moicheia]; Herm. Statement! Mand. 4:1:4 ; Clem. Alex.
Strom. 3:1). See Jacoby, Neutest. Ethik (1899), 378-399. After a somewhat elaborate greeting (1:1-4), the epistle to Titus opens by reiterating Pauls instructions with regard to Essay Murphy, the choice and duties of presbyters or episcopi in Crete, in order to sharply check erroneous teaching and immoral practices on the part of some Judaising propagandists who were upsetting the of problem, churches (1:5-16). Titus is then instructed how to enforce the moral obligations of Christianity upon aged men (2:1-2), aged women, and married women (2:3-5), younger men like himself (2:6-8), and slaves (2:9-10). Paul insists on this moral life as an essential of the Christian faith (2:11-14, see PECULIAR PEOPLE), and urges Titus to press home the positive duties of obedience to authority and of pure conduct, instead of wasting time over-controversialists and sectaries (2:15-3:11; cp EXCOMMUNICATION, 3 ; HERESY, 2). To Leadership! With some brief personal notices (3:12-15) the epistle closes; the definition of problem, mention of the Essay Novel, jurist Zenas and the evangelist Apollos is perhaps intended to suggest that it was conveyed by their hands to definition, its recipient. The cluster of problems offered by these epistles is intimately connected with the dual nature of their contents.
Within a setting and alongside of material which, upon all available criteria of internal evidence, must be pronounced distinctly sub-Pauline, 4 the reader meets passages apparently alien which have high claims to and Memento, be considered as directly due to definition of problem, the apostle whose name the letters bear. The task of criticism is to do justice to both of these elements. The sub-Pauline element is primary, and in view of it any reasonable appreciation of the whole question, not merely of isolated details, leads almost inevitably to Games Essay, the conclusion - one of the best established in NT research - that the three epistles are pseudonymous, composed by a Paulinist in Asia Minor 5 not earlier than the close of the first century, and not later than the second decade of the second century, based in part upon genuine fragments from the apostle s pen as well as upon more or less reliable oral tradition, and intended to express and instruct the common Christianity 6 of the day in terms, as far a! was possible or useful, of the great Pauline tradition. Definition Of Problem Statement! Substantially they were written and circulated early in the second century, as is evident from Games their employment in the epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp. During the period 90-120, and during that period alone, they possess a career and object which corresponds to their own internal evidence as well as to the data afforded by more or less contemporary literature.
The latter point is minor though real. Their literary affinities are beyond question with Lk.-Acts, 1 Clem. Of Problem Statement! Rom., Barnabas, and the epistles of Jude and 2 Pet. , as well as with the fourth book of the Teaching Empowerment, Sibylline oracles (Asia Minor, circa 80 A.D. ) which, like 4 Maccabees, reiterates the term 'pious' (eire,i?7s [eusebes]). Unlike Paul, the author also makes copious use of the vocabulary of 2 Maccabees, and, at least in Titus and 1 Tim. , there are traces of acquaintance with 1 Pet. 1 The concrete and bitter description of the Cretan character - with its prevalent traits of definition falsehood, avarice, drunkenness, and restless sedition - does not favour the ingenious hypothesis that Cretans in this epistle are an allegorical equivalent for Philistines (Kprji-es [kretes], cp CRETE), whom tradition occasionally connected with the island. Style To Leadership! There is no evidence for such personification in the pastorals as would represent the of problem, church under the figure of the twelve tribes scattered in the dispersion (Jas. 1:1) and opposed by enemies of the true Israel. 2 In v. 16 o/j.ooyovcriv [homologousin] (EV 'profess') is Essay about (as Heb. Statement! 11:13) 'to make public avowal', especially when called upon (1 Pet. 3:15).
The writer s point is, not that the errorists made extravagant claims, but that they did not act up to the normal profession of the Christian faith. 3 For npfcrBuTis [presbytis] in approach, early Christianity see Achelis, ZNTW, 1900, pp. 92-93; 'young men' (vfwTfpoi [neooteroi]) came to mean 'laymen' as 'presbyters' (npfcrbuTfpoi [presbyteroi]) passed into an official term (see MINISTRY, 43). 4 It is only fair to the ascertained results of criticism to adopt this position, although one still meets statements like the following: 'It may be asserted without fear of contradiction that nothing really un-Pauline has been proved in any of the disputed epistles' (Sanday, Inspiration, 338-339, 363-364, 379-380, 1896, a discussion characterised by Dr. Hincks of Andover thus: 'General assertion, bolstered up by the opinion of definition those like-minded this is not the way in which an intelligent man, who has solid arguments at his disposal, maintains an imperilled cause'). 5 Cp von Dobschutz, Die urchristlichen Gemeinden, 127-139 (1902), Harnack, Ausbreit. d. Christ. (1902) 461-462. 6 The motto of the pastorals lies in Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, a sentence like (RV) 'For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us' (Tit. 2:11, eTre^afr; yap TT apis TOV 9eoO cramjpio? iracrti/ ayflpiuTroi? TraiSev ovtra rjfias).
In their age Christianity had to fight for its life against definition of problem statement, a subtle spirit in the air rather than against civil persecution ; visionaries and Pan-American Games Village Essay sophist? were more deadly than proconsuls and lictors. Thanks to the moderation and steady sense of writers like the author of the pastorals, however, ordinary Christians came safely through the struggle with four truths as a secure possession; the unity of the Creator and of problem the Redeemer, the unique and on Mary Novel sufficient value of Jesus for redemption and revelation, the vital tie between morals and faith, and of problem the secure future assured to the church of God. The distinctive element, however - i.e. , the prominence assigned to Timothy and Titus, is intelligible only upon the supposition that the author had specially in view the ulterior end of vindicating the legitimate evangelic succession of contemporary episcopi and other office-bearers in provinces where this was liable for on Me and You by J.J. Murphy various reasons to be challenged. The pastorals were composed, says Tertullian, to expound church affairs ('de ecclesiastico statu'). The craving (visible in Clem. Definition Of Problem Statement! Rom. ) for continuity of succession as a guarantee of authority in doctrine (and therefore in discipline 2 ) underlies the on Me and Fargo, effort of this Paulinist to show that Timothy and Titus were genuine (yvrjcrioi [gnesioi]) heirs of Paul, who himself (as the author goes out of definition his way to repeat and assert) was a divinely commissioned herald of the gospel. Inferentially, the successors appointed by Paul's lieutenants possessed the scottsboro trial, true central deposit of the faith. Conscious of this inheritance, and alive to its value, they are urged even as novices to instruct 3 the churches personally upon the faith in a peremptory and positive manner, 4 instead of definition of problem statement allowing converts to lie exposed to unreliable teachers or false leaders. Such teachers and leaders abound. Indeed, one note of the age is the flaunting confident temper of the Essay on Mary A Gothic Novel, errorists (2 Tim. 2:23-24, 3:1-2, 4:3-4, Tit.
1:10-11, 3:10, 1 Tim. 1:7, 4:1-2, 5:24, Acts 20:29-30, Jude 8-10, 12, 19, Rev. 2:20, 1 Jn. 4:1, 4:5, 2 Jn. 7, 3 Jn. 9 ; Ign. Ephes. 7, Trall. 6, etc. ). 1 Cp von Soden, Theol. Abhandlungen, 133-135 (1892).
A comparison of the pastorals with Lk.-Acts, etc., establishes not their priority or literary filiation, so much as the relatively late period at which all were composed. Diction, ideas, standpoint - all indicate unmistakably the sub-Pauline period, with its stereotyped expressions and current phraseology. 2 The concern of the pastorals, less avowed yet none the less real than in Ignatius and Clement, is to vindicate the authority of the elders or bishops over definition, the enthusiasts and scottsboro ascetics in definition of problem statement, the church ; the second century reveals this perennial struggle going on particularly in scottsboro trial, Asia Minor. Hence this Paulinist is forward to definition of problem statement, claim Paul s authority on behalf of the organised discipline of the churches. 3 The prominence given to 'teaching' qualities shows that one danger of the contemporary churches lay largely in the vagaries and crude speculations of unauthorised teachers (Did. 15:1). The author's cure is simple. Better let the episcopus himself teach ! Better let those in authority themselves be responsible for scottsboro trial the instruction of ordinary members ! Evidently teaching was not originally or usually (1 Tim.
5:17) a function of the presbyters ; but abuses had led by of problem this time, as the Didache proves, to a need for Teaching Empowerment Essay combining teaching with organised church authority. Definition Of Problem Statement! A contemporary spirit of contempt for young episcopi (Ignat. Magn. 3 etc.) is answered by the repeated encouragements of Essay Paul in statement, 2 Tim. 2:22-23, Tit. Essay Holistic Medicine! 2:6-7, 1 Tim.
4:11-12, 5:1; these are effective from the writer's standpoint, though such a tone would have been singularly inappropriate from Paul to statement, lieutenants of mature experience. Here, however, they are types of Pan-American Games loyalty to the Pauline gospel; that is all. 4 Timothy (2 Tim. 4:5), eg., is definition of problem statement not an evangelist, but he is to do an evangelist's work as part of his full service. See EVANGELIST, MINISTRY, 39b, and Dieterich in ZNTW, 1900, pp. 336-338. The whole evidence from the style approach, allusions to of problem statement, ecclesiastical organisation points to the period immediately preceding that of Ignatius (MINISTRY, 54).
5 Also to the statement of Essay about Clem. Definition! Alex. (Strom. 7:17) that Gnostic heresies first became threatening about Hadrian's reign, whilst the Pan-American Essay, apostolic age and teaching ended with Paul's ministry under Nero. 6 Emphasis on the visible church as a bulwark of morals (2 Tim. Definition Of Problem Statement! 2:19-20 etc.) is accompanied by Empowerment Essay its elevation to definition statement, the rank of foundation (#e/xe Aios [themelios]), hitherto reserved for Christ (1 Cor. 3:11), or, at least, for the prophets and to leadership apostles (Eph. 2:20). The church now takes her place in a fairly stable world; the old anxious outlook for an immediate return of Jesus is no longer central. The really pressing questions concern not the of problem statement, next world but the present, and institutions are brought forward as a means of moral discipline and religious settlement.
Open attempts, as well as cunning intrigues (2 Tim. 3:6, Jude 4), are on foot to exploit the principles of the faith, and the new tone of overbearing petulance, among other traits, answers to the tradition preserved by Hegesippus (circa. 160 A.D.) that such a phase occurred first of all during Trajan's reign (Eus. HE 3:32), previously to which the church had remained 'a pure and incorruptible virgin' (mtpScvos KaOapa. KO. aidtji0opo; [parthenos kathara kai adiaphthoros]), her seducers lurking somewhere in obscurity (ev afiijAo TTOU cr/corei [en adeloo pou skotei]). This comparatively virgin purity of the church lasted not merely till the death of the apostles, but till the close of the next generation, 'of those thought worthy to be immediate listeners to the very words of the on Me and Fargo, divine wisdom' (riav avrals dicoats TTJS evBiov rofia.f eTraicoGcrai /caTTjfiiojitei coi [toon autais akoais tes entheou sophias epakousai katexioomenoon]), when the deceit of teachers of definition of problem statement other doctrine (TO eTepo6ifiao-/taAui^ [toon eterodidaskaloon], cp 1 Tim. 1:3, 6:3) produced impious error in the communities. Since none of the apostles survived, these [eTpo6iSd(rcaAoi [eterodidaskaloi]] now attempted, unabashed and style openly, to preach 'so-called gnosis' (TTJC l/tvtawnov yvtatriv [ten pseudoonymon gnoosin], cp 1 Tim.
6:20) in opposition to 'the preaching of the truth' (TUJ TTJS aArjSei a? (cijpuy/maTt [too tes aletheias kerygmati]; cp 2 Tim. 4:17, Tit. 1:3). Of these Marcion 1 was the foremost. In the pastorals, as in Jude and 2 Peter, this movement in definition, its incipient stage is met by approach to leadership equally frank methods, which seem denunciatory merely because we no longer possess any statement of the other side and are, therefore, prone to definition, forget that such rough and style approach decisive ways are at times the of problem, soundest method of conserving truth. Popular applications of gnosticism were, as a rule, brilliant and poisonous fungi. Instead of writing a botanical treatise on their varieties, this writer felt the simpler and scottsboro trial more practical plan was to make people either avoid or destroy them. It was a short and easy plan, and probably effective at the time, although its expression in literature runs the natural risk of of problem statement being reproached for containing more heat than light. On Me And You And Memento Murphy! Firmness and even ridicule have their own place as ethical weapons of defence, and the opening of the second century offered Christianity some admirable occasions for their use. The physiognomy of the errorists is indistinct, for several reasons.
The author had to preserve the statement, verisimilitude of a Pauline situation, for one thing ; and the desire of Games Village Essay avoiding undue anachronisms prevented him from being more explicit about the details of statement errors which had arisen in his own later age. Besides, the errors were familiar to his audience and might be taken for granted on the whole. It is even probable that he abstained purposely from confining his range to any one set of visionaries and opponents, inasmuch as his letters were intended (like 1 Peter, James, and 2 Peter) to Essay and You and Fargo, be manifestoes to the church in general, rather than homilies for any local audience. The numerous forms of opinion and conduct in definition, and around contemporary Christendom, which by a sound instinct he regarded as a menace to the faith, had certain common features; and to describe these as due to a syncretism of Gnosticism and (Tit. Empowerment Essay! 1:10-11, 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:7) Judaism, is to go as far as the evidence of the pastorals warrants.
The environment (as in Rev. 2-3, and the Ignatian epp.) is marked by the incipient phases of what afterwards blossomed out into the Gnosticism of the second century : an amalgam of tendencies towards dualism and docetism (1 Tim. Definition Of Problem! 2:6, 3:16, as in 1 jn.), the multiplication of media between God and man (1 Tim. 2:5-6), a distinction between the God of Games Village creation and the God of redemption (1 Tim. 4:3-5, cp Herm. Statement! Vis. 1:3), a depreciation of the OT (2 Tim. 3:16), and a penchant for approach magic and superstition (2 Tim.
3:8, 3:13 ; cp. Acts 8:9-24, 19:11-19 for Ephesus, 13:6-12 for Cyprus). These tendencies were allied to ascetic predilections (like the prohibition of marriage among the Encratites, of marriage and flesh among the Saturninians and of problem the Marcionites), which as usual bordered on antinomian license, to an aristocratic exclusiveness (opposed in non-Pauline fashion, 1 Tim. 2:4-5, 4:10), to about Holistic, a semi-philosophic evaporation of primitive beliefs - e.g., on the resurrection (2 Tim. 2:18 ; so Menander and Dositheus), to indulgence in definition statement, superficial theories and rhetoric, and so on.
To our author's eye these errorists were heterogeneous. 'For there are many insubordinate people, chatterers and cheats, especially those who have come from the circumcision' (Tit. 1:10). The mischievous feature about them was their presence within the churches and their combination of trial plausible errors with apparent, even ostentatious, fidelity to of problem statement, the principles of the scottsboro boys trial, faith - a trouble elsewhere reflected (Acts 20:29-30) in connection with the Ephesian church towards the close of the first century. 1 Marcion's omission of the pastorals from his canon tells heavily against their origin as preserved in tradition. Philemon was accepted by him, though far more of a private note than any of the pastorals; and the presence of of problem statement elements antagonistic to his own views need not have made him exclude them, since he could have easily excised these passages in this as in Essay about Holistic Medicine, other cases. 2 Cp von Dobschutz, 180-187, 189. 3 The lack of homogeneity in of problem, the description of the errorists prevents this trait from telling against on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, the reference (GENEALOGIES, 4; Hart, Judaistic Christianity, 135-136) of the 'genealogies' (yei/eaAo-yuu [genealogiai]) in Tit. 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4 to legendary pedigrees of Jewish heroes. Definition Of Problem! But the phrase came to have a conveniently appropriate colour afterwards in view of the interminable series of aeons and emanations developed especially by Gnostic sects like the Valentinians.
The Jewish legalism of Tit. 1:14, 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:7-8 recalls Cerinthus decidedly. Even if the author had any single system of error in mind (which, in view of the contemporary fusion of paganism and Judaism, is ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel unlikely), the vague and somewhat indiscriminate fashion in which he endeavours to confute their pretensions, renders it impossible to reconstruct any coherent picture of his opponents. Several traits suggest influences similar to those which fostered Essenism ; others 2 recall the picture of of problem statement Cerinthus sketched in Essay ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel, later tradition, others again the errorists Carpocrates, Menander, and Dositheus. The two in disputable facts are, that the collective evidence of the early Christian literature, as well as of later tradition, places the origin of such phenomena (upon any considerable scale) not earlier than the close of the first century, and that their locus was primarily Eastern, in Syria and particularly Asia Minor, where we find the pastorals, like the Ignatian epistles, pouring a scattered fire upon manifold forms of antagonistic theosophy. Against the seductive influences of local paganism, with its ethical miasma and religious cravings, the definition of problem, author assumes a moralistic standpoint based upon the popular conception of Paulinism.
No writer after Paul s death could maintain, even when - as in Marcion's case - he happened to sympathise with, the deeper aspects of the apostle's thought, which survived mainly, so far as the subsequent literature was concerned, but in altered form throughout the Fourth Gospel. As a general rule Paulinism was either misunderstood or modified. The sub-Pauline epistles, like the Roman symbol (Kattenbusch, Das Apostolische Symbol, 2:498-499, 596-597, 720-721 ), show instances of both attitudes, and the pastorals are a vivid proof of how even a devoted Paulinist had to alter the and You, emphasis at many points of his master s teaching upon religious and of problem statement practical topics 3 in a restatement of it for some later age - being forced, for example, to meet the common objection to Paul's severe view of the Law, and to admit the high estimate of its value throughout the diaspora as an on Me and Memento by J.J. ethical code and check (1 Tim. Definition! 1:5-11), as well as to correct abuses and misunderstandings of certain Pauline ideas (e.g., the resurrection, 2 Tim. 2:18). 1 This notion is either ultra-spiritualist (cp Jn. 5:24, qualified carefully by 5:28-29, etc.) and due to Gnostic tendencies, or chiliastic - the reign of Christ, eternal life, has already begun; therefore there can be no marrying (Lk. 20:35-36, 1 Tim. 4:3).
2 If Cerinthus and Carpocrates really rejected the virgin-birth (Iren. Adv. Boys Trial! haer. Definition Statement! 1:26:1, 1:25:1), it is strange that neither the author of the Essay and You by J.J., Fourth Gospel nor the author of the pastorals defended this point. The former, probably, had reasons of his own; but the of problem, latter, who had no semi-philosophic christology to state, seems to have omitted the virgin-birth from his rhythmic summary (1 Tim. 3:16-17) owing to Games Essay, his genuinely Pauline standpoint. This adherence to the older view is all the more remarkable side by side with the statement, eager insistence on it in Pan-American Essay, Asc. Isaiae., 11:2-22, and definition Ignat. ad Eph.
19 (where a Pauline citation occurs, 1 Cor. 2:8), both contemporary writings. 3 Note, e.g., the varying proportion of the two currents - one spontaneous and prophetic, the other veering towards order and organisation. The former is in some writings of this age almost wholly subordinated to the latter (Clem. Rom., Past., even Ignat.) : in others it is dominant, almost exclusively important (Barnabas, 1 Jn., Rev., Jude, 2 Pet.). 4 Antiphanes (Fragm. Com. Graec.), 'He who does no wrong needs no law' (6 jUTjSep aSiiciuv ovfierbs 6f ITCU vonov [o meden adikoon oudenos deitai nomou]). The author rightly felt that Paul was essentially anti-Gnostic, and that the tenets of the incipient Gnostic theosophy would have been repugnant to the man who had theoretically and practically attacked its precursors at Colossae. But his own practical bent and scottsboro trial prudent sense of the situation prevent him from developing in reply Paul's peculiar theory of gnosis as a special endowment, superior to faith, and mediated by the spirit. Such methods would not have been appropriate.
Popular Christianity had always been wider and statement more varied than Paulinism, even during Paul s lifetime, and the new period which found Christianity in fresh relations with the wider empire in Essay about Holistic Medicine, the generation following Paul s death, stimulated fresh energies and fresh methods of expression, native to the age but more or less an advance upon all previous conceptions. Of Problem! To the author of the Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s, pastorals, loyal to definition statement, the apostolic and especially the Pauline tradition, but none the less free to interpret afresh his Christian consciousness, God appears - in un-Pauline fashion as a Saviour ; Jesus not as the son of God but as a mediator, 1 or rather the and Fargo, mediator ; baptism (Tit. Statement! 3:5) as almost a sacrament of salvation, the Law simply as a useful code of morals. Anthropomorphism is carefully avoided, as in the Fourth Gospel ; God is the Absolute - his unity, awe (1 Tim. On Me And You By J.J.! 6:16, cp En. 14:21-22), and of problem eternity, his universal purpose, but not his fatherly love, being prominent. 2 The pressing question of religion is the consolidation of the churches rather than the extension of the gospel to those as yet unreached. We are in the age of the Epigoni, when the creative genius has almost disappeared and is yielding place to practical activities which are mainly devoted to conserving ground already gained.
The spirit of defensiveness has increased. Christianity is now more self-conscious than ever. Her outlook is not eschatological so much as secular, directed to a useful though troubled career in the world. The church has behind her a sound body of religious truth, which it is her business to teach and enforce ; and this is presented by the writer in brief, crystallised phrases and paragraphs, which recall the incipient liturgies and symbols of the church. 3 Faith consequently is tending to become more than ever fides quae creditur. It is predominantly the confident apprehension of the truth or the conviction that the gospel-message is approach authentic, sometimes the virtue of fidelity ; but neither the author nor his age has any intelligent sympathy with Paul s characteristic idea of faith as the warm tie between Jesus and the redeemed Christian. Nay more, the old Pauline antithesis of faith and works (like the idea of justification by faith, or of salvation from sin's guilt) is put into the background, evidently as misleading or apt to be misunderstood. 'Piety', nourished by sound 4 teaching, is the root out of which all human virtues spring ; and the conceptions of reward, a good conscience, and the value of definition of problem statement a respectable reputation, come to the front. In effect, this is practically the ethical result of Paulinism. But how differently 5 the apostle and the later church reached even the same conclusions ! Here eternal life is the boon granted to ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein:, good works, and definition of problem statement 'faith' (iriffris [pistis]) is style approach to leadership a man's relation to the 'truth' of 'the teaching'. Similarly the church, to this unmystical author, is no longer the bride or the body of Christ but God's building, or rather a familia dei, quite in the neo-catholic manner. It is beginning to assume the place occupied by the Holy Spirit in definition of problem, Paul's theology, the latter doctrine having become liable to abuse as well as proving too profound for Frankenstein: later generations.
As in books like the definition, Apocalypse, Jude, and 2 Peter, the Spirit in the pastorals is essentially prophetic ; 1 as a means of Essay on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic union between the individual and Jesus, it is almost if not entirely ignored. The exceptions - and they are apparent or partial exceptions - are Tit. 3:5-6, 2 Tim. 1:14 ; even the personal relation of the definition of problem statement, believer to Jesus is not cardinal (2 Tim. Pan-American Games! 1:12, 2:11-12). 1 Sub-Pauline idea (Heb.
8:6, etc.). In Test. Dan. 6, the angel of peace is the mediator between God and man. 2 The heaping up of predicates, especially in the negative, recalls earlier attempts by Jewish thinkers (e.g., Philo and Josephus) to define God semi-philosophically, as a reaction from the earlier realism and its love of theophanies.
Passages like 1 Tim. 1:17, 6:16 mark the sub-Pauline transition from this to the later efforts of the Greek spirit, as in the 'Preaching of Peter' and Aristides. The pastoral 'Trinity' corresponds, however, to of problem, the apocalyptic (e.g., Rev. 14, Lk. 9:26, etc.) - i.e., God, Jesus, and the angels (elect); while Christ s appearing (1 Tim. 6:14-15) is stated in Pauline terms of subordination, and with the substitution of epiphany (eTrt^xxveta [epiphaneia]) for the Pauline parousia (wapowia [parousia]). 3 The pastorals, like Ephesians, are absorbed in an un-Pauline devotion to the church which ignores the local churches. Style! This trait, absent even from Ignatius, significantly illustrates their authorship and real aim as tracts for the officers of the Catholic church. Timothy and definition Titus are portrayed as receiving instructions and Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel ideals which were to control the contemporary teachers and other office-bearers of the author's age. 4 This un-Pauline use of vyiaiveiv [hygiainein] in 8iSacnca.ia vyiaivovcra [diaskalia hygiaiousa] ('sound doctrine') is anticipated in the Philonic phrases 'sound learning' (vyiaivovcra |ud#T)ris [hygiainousa mathesis]), and definition of problem statement 'sound words' (oi vytai j/orres Aoyoi [oi hygiainontes logoi]); it tends occasionally to Pan-American Village Essay, become almost equivalent to 'rational', or 'sane'. 5 Paul could have written Tit.
2:11, 2:14; but he would have had something to say also about peace with God and reconciliation. He 'could no doubt have said all this' (i.e., Tit. 3:4-7) also, but 'probably he would have said it otherwise, and not all at a time'. Definition Of Problem! Practically it is the use of such stereotyped and almost formal language which makes it reasonable to say that 'St. Paul was inspired, but the writer of these epistles is sometimes only orthodox' (Denney, The Death of Christ, 1902, p. 203). These and other items of the Pan-American Village Essay, creed, now rapidly crystallising in Rome and Asia Minor, are conveyed partly in hymnal fragments which, like those in the Apocalypse of John, sprang from the cultus of the definition, churches ; partly in the shape of aphorisms such as the terse and weighty axioms called the five 'faithful sayings' (cp Ps.
111:7-8). These are like proverbs; they mark a comparatively advanced stage of experience, expressing in concentrated form the outcome of prolonged reflection. (i.) 2 Tim. 2:11-13a. - Here the 'faithful saying' (TTIO-TO? Ao-yos [pistis logos]) resembles a fragment of some primitive hymn or confession, if it is scottsboro not - like the definition, rhythmical snatches (cp also Rev. 21:5, 22:6, Adyoi TTIOTOI [logoi pistoi]) in the Apocalypse - an outburst of the Essay on Me and You and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, Spirit-raptures in the early church (cp Weinel, Die Wirk. des Geistes, 80-81 ). (ii.) Tit. 3:8. - As the phrase implies a condensed and pregnant statement, it seems better in Tit. Definition Statement! 3:8 to find its contents in v. Village Essay! 7 rather than in definition of problem statement, 4-7, which it is sometimes supposed (e.g., by von Soden, Bernard, Weiss) to recapitulate. (iii.) 1 Tim.
1:15. Here the phrase not merely is about Holistic expanded by the non-Pauline addition 'and worthy of all acceptation' (/cai Trao-rjs aTroSoxrjs a to? [kai pases apodoches axios]; as in 4:9), but also precedes its contents which are in this instance introduced by definition statement 'that' (on [oti]), (iv.) 1 Tim. 3:1 - The use of the phrase in this verse, which of course refers back to 2:15 ('saved in child-bearing'; Chrysost. Erasm. Essay About Medicine! etc.) - a wife's salvation being worked out in her own sphere of motherhood (despite the associations of Jewish tradition), not in ecclesiastical position - is remarkable for the variant (accepted by Zahn. Einl. 1:482) 'human' (avdpuiwivo; [anthroopinos) 5 in D*g (Ambrosiast. Sedul.). In 1:15 as here, 'save' (ra$ei.v [soozein]) has an indirect eschatological reference, (v.) 1 Tim. 4:9. - In this verse (which Bois and Baljon delete) the contents of the definition statement, 'saying' (Adyos [logos]) might be either v. 8 (Chrysost.
Weizs. Hilg. Weiss, von Soden, Horton) or v. 10 (Bengel, Schleierm. Holtzm., cp 'for' [yap [gar]] and ayuiv [hagion]. Village! 2 Tim. 2:11). 1 In 1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14, where a symbol is trembling into a sacrament (cp Acts 20:28, not 13:1-3 which denotes a commission for some special service), divine inspiration prompts the Christian prophets, of whom Paul is one, to select men for office in the church, and to confer upon definition statement, them a supernatural charism (xcipicrjiia [charisma]) by means of the rite of Essay on Me and You and Fargo by J.J. imposition of hands (see HANDS, LAVING ON OF, and SPIRITUAL GIFTS, also MINISTRY, 37b, 37c). The idea of such a special rite, even in the form of 2 Tim. 1:6 (1 Thess.
5:19-20), could hardly have come from the man who wrote 1 Cor. 12:4 (diversities of gifts), 1:11 (dividing to every man), and represents the statement, water-mark of later Catholicism; the semi-official tinge lent to a primitive ceremony is palpable (see Gunkel's Wirkungen des heilig. Geistes,(2) 7 , and especially Weinel's Wirk. des Geistes und der Geister, 140-142, 216-218 , with the conveyancing of influence through physical contact as traced by Volz in ZATW 21:93-94 ). Approach! The other function of the Spirit in the prophets - i.e., prediction of woes and perils (1 Tim. 4:1-2, 2 Tim. 3:1-2) - is naturally referred by the sub-apostolic age (Acts 20:29-30, Clem. Rom. 44:1, Jude 17-18, 2 Pet. Definition Statement! 2:1) to the apostles. They foresaw what their successors suffer.
Hence the pseudonymous pastoral epistles credit Paul with anticipations of the errors current in their own age. 2 In 1 Tim. 3:16 the statement of the ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel, resurrection ('justified in the spirit', eSixaiiaOr] ei n-i/ev/ixaTi [edikaioothe en pneumati]) is an un-Pauline development of Rom. 1:4 (cp Iren. 2:32:3-4) after 1 Pet. 3:18, 4:6 and Jn. 16:10, as that of the incarnation is un-Pauline and distinctly Johannine (1 Jn.
3:5, 3:8, cp 1 Pet. 1:20); 'seen by definition of problem angels' is a sub-Pauline development (Eph. 3:10, 1 Pet. 1:12, 3:18-19), 'world' (edoyios [kosmos]) appears to style to leadership, have its sub-Pauline emphasis of 'evil', and definition of problem statement 'was taken up in glory' (di/eA^i^r) f v Sofrj [anelemphthe en doxe]), if an style to leadership allusion to of problem, the Ascension, is thoroughly un-Pauline. On the Messiah as the copestone of Pan-American this new temple of Truth, see Briggs, Messiah of Apostles, 228-232 . 3 The reference is neither to v. Statement! 8 (Weiss) nor to what immediately precedes (Chrysost.), but to v. 11b-13a. which, like Tit. Teaching Empowerment! 3:8 and 1 Tim. Definition Of Problem Statement! 4:9, looks out directly upon the future and to leadership final hope of the Christian disciple. v. 13b is probably an explanatory comment ; but there is no need to regard v. 13 (with Ewald, Hesse, Hilg.) as a gloss or interpolation.
4 Cp En. 9:41, 'the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation'. 5 So r (humanus), 1:15. It is noticeable that of these sententiae (i.) alone is in thought anil style somewhat parallel to Paul, who never associates 'heirship' or 'hope' (as Tit. Definition! 3:7-8) with 'eternal life' (fior) aiiovios [zooe aioonios]).
The colouring of (iii.), as of to leadership Tit. 3:5 (2 Tim. 1:10, 1 Tim. 2:4 6:13-14, Tit. 1:1-2, 1:16) is Johannine, whilst (iv.) contains the statement, pastoral triad of faith, love, and soberness, and scottsboro trial the air. Aey. [ap. Of Problem! leg.] childbearing, which is besides an idea generally strange to Paul's mode of thought (particularly if childbirth is considered as a means of salvation). In (v.) characteristically un-Pauline terms abound (e.g., 'bodily' [erw^uiTiKos [soomatikos]], 'bodily exercise' [yvuLvatria [gymnasia]], 'profitable' [ot^e Aipof [oophelimos]], v. 7-8, niaTrjp [sooter] of God, v. 10). Style! The 'faithful sayings', therefore, not merely are characteristic of the pastorals, but betray an essentially un-Pauline conception of the regula fidei.
This difference in ground-work is endorsed by definition of problem the difference in boys trial, style and diction between Paul and the author of the pastorals, an argument which forms a cumulative and almost final proof of the sub-Pauline origin of the epistles. Out of the 176 hapax legomena, a proportion two or three times as great as in definition of problem statement, the Pauline epistles, nearly 80 are in on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel, LXX and were therefore consciously neglected by Paul. Favourite Pauline phrases and definition of problem words are totally wanting (e.g., 'unjust' [afiixos [adikos], 'uncleanness' [aKaBaptria [akatharsia]], 'adoption' [vio0ccria [hyiothesia]], 'our Father' [n-ar)p ijjuui [pater emoon]], 'covenant' [6ia07jier) [diatheke]], 'reveal' [aTroKaAun-Teiv [apokalyptein]], 'free' [eAeutfepos [eleutheros]] and compounds, 'be operative' [ei/epyety [energein]], 'perform' [Karepyd^ftrdai [katergazesthai]], 'boast' [(cauvao-Sai [kauchasthai]], 'folly' [fiuipia [mooria]], 'tradition' [napaSocn; [paradosis]], 'persuade' [TruBeiv [peithein]], 'abound' [7repirTfvftv [perisseuein]], 'do' [irpa.va eLi [prassein], = iroielv [poiein], in past.], 'perfect' [re Aetof [teleios]], 'be gracious' [apifea-0ai [charizesthai]], 'think' [fjtpovclv [phronein]], with 'ordinance' [SiKautyia [dikaiooma]], 'greater' Oaeafiof [meizoon]], 'small' [ju/epo; [mikros]], 'body' [crw^a [sooma]], 'good' [pr)cTT6? [chrestos]], etc. ; also particles like 'then' [apa [ara]], 'wherefore' [fiio], 'because' [fiiort [dioti]], 'then' [en-ftra [epeita]], 'still' [en], 'behold' [tfie, iSov [idou]], etc., etc., prepositions like 'with' [rvv [syn] = fj.eTa [meta] of pastorals], 'instead of' [ai/Tt [anti]], 'until' [dxpt [achri]], 'before' [HiJLirpor6ev [emprosthen]], 'beyond' [irapd [para], acc.]). Many fresh terms are coined, new compounds and Latinisms are introduced, whole families of words appear for the first time (cp those in a [a] privative, SiSaovc- [didask-], otico- [oiko-], Taijp- [soophr-], iAo- [philo-], etc.), and others are used with unwonted frequency (e.g., icdA- [kal-]). Pan-American Games Village Essay! The extent and definition statement significance of Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Novel this change in vocabulary cannot adequately be explained even when one assigns the fullest possible weight to such factors as change of amanuensis, situation, or topic, lapse of time, literary fertility, or senile weakness ; for of problem the wider evidence of syntax and style, to be felt even through a translation, comes in to verify the impression already made by the vocabulary. Particularly where the writer is most himself and least dependent on previous letters (as in 1 Tim.), the Essay on Mary Novel, idiosyncrasies of his composition appear, neither accidental nor trivial by statement any means. Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Novel! The comparative absence of rugged fervour, the smoother flow, the definition statement, heaping up of words, all point to another sign-manual than that of Paul. Essay Holistic! In short, the relative proportions of likeness and unlikeness (especially to Romans and definition of problem Philippians) between the style of Paul and the style of these three letters, are explicable only upon the hypothesis that the writer of the pastorals modelled his diction in Essay on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic, part upon that of his master, but not slavishly - certainly not to the prejudice of his own originality and cast of thought. These proportions are precisely what we should expect in such a literary relationship. Upon any other hypothesis they do not seem credible or reasonable.
Questions of style are proverbially delicate, but the linguistic data of the pastorals and the Pauline epistles may be said to resemble those of the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel ; both ratify the conclusion that we have to definition of problem statement, do with kinship, not identity, of authorship. * 1 Yet 'deny' (apvelcrOat [arneisthai]) is non-Pauline, and the stanza reads like a popular version of Paul's own words, adapted to the requirements of a martyr-period. See Denney, 202. 2 The knowledge of God or of the truth = salvation or eternal life (Jn. 17:2-3, 17:17); cp Jn. Essay About Holistic Medicine! 17:3 with 1 Tim. 2:5, the same combination of monotheism as against polytheism, and of Christ's unique and sufficient position as against of problem, Judaism or Gnosticism, besides ('the man Christ Jesus') a Johannine protest against the Gnostic or Docetic tendency to style approach, resolve Christ into a phantom of abstract spirit. Definition Of Problem! On the Christology of the epistles (1 Tim. 3:16), see A. Klopper in ZWT (1902) 339-361.
3 No possible change of circumstances could make Paul oblivious (through three separate letters) of God's fatherhood, of the Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Novel, believing man's union with Jesus, of the power and witness of the Spirit, or of reconciliation. They might be taken for granted? But surely in enforcing the ethical requirements of the pastorals, Paul would never have demanded the blossom without urgently pressing the need of these spiritual facts as its root ! 4 There is no ground for the idea that the prosaic tone of the pastorals is due to their preoccupation with the practical steps of organisation, whilst in Paul s earlier letters he had been mainly employed in sketching the ideal of the church. A letter like 1 Cor., to definition statement, say nothing of passages in the other letters, is enough to refute this explanation and to show how Paul would have dealt with the problems of organisation and church order, had these met him in an acute form. And You And Fargo! It would have been different from the method of this Paulinist, for Paul ever came down upon definition of problem, ethical tasks from scottsboro boys a spiritual height. Still further proof in corroboration of their un-Pauline origin flows in from the impossibility of placing the epistles within Paul s lifetime. With practical unanimity defenders of the traditional hypothesis abandon all attempts to statement, fix them previous to Paul's Roman imprisonment ; but their conjecture of a release, followed by a further extension of activity and a second imprisonment, is quite gratuitous and hardly furnishes a more tenable ground for the pastprals. It is not indeed bound up with the acceptance of their Pauline authorship ; the two positions are independent and maybe held separately. Hut even apart from the evidence of the Empowerment, pastorals (which never mention Spain, nor allude to so momentous a tour in the Western Mediterranean), the evidence for this second imprisonment must be pronounced inadequate (CHRONOLOGY, 79-80, PAUL, 31), resting mainly on a vague rumour (Xtryos ?x et [logos echei]) reported by Eusebius, and the allusion in the Muratorian Canon (possibly derived from apocryphal Acta) which is simply an expansion of Rom.
15:24, 15:28 - the devout and imaginative fantasy of later tradition being convinced that because Paul proposed a visit to Spain, he must have carried it out. Of Problem! No such tradition lingered in Spain itself, whilst the approach to leadership, express statement of definition statement Acts 20:25, 20:38 and the significant silence of Clemens Romanus imply that the tradition nearest to Paul's life knew of no return to Asia Minor. The very passage in Clemens Romanus (5), which has been supposed to refer to this western journey, tells against Essay, it. Charged with rhetorical feeling, as Baur pointed out, it narrates (like Rom. Of Problem Statement! 15:19) the sweep of Paul's career from Jerusalem to Rome: 'after teaching righteousness to the whole world, and reaching the Games Essay, limit of the West, and bearing testimony tefore the authorities, so he left the world'. Of Problem! Paul's sun had ended its course (Acts 13:47). Clement is speaking from the standpoint of his Eastern readers who would naturally take 'the limit of the west' (rd repfj.0. Scottsboro Boys! Trji Srcrews [to terma tes dyseoos]) as the definition statement, Imperial capital (cp 'east' [dvaToXrjs [anatoles]] and 'west' [5wns [dysis]] of Syria and Rome in Ignat.
Rom. 2), and incidentally clinches the proof by adding that the Neronic martyrs of 64 were 'gathered unto Paul and Peter', implying that the latter had already died. Were the 'earlier' chronology adopted, which brings Paul to Rome early in the sixties if not even earlier, space would of course be won before 64 for the two or three years' interval required by the traditional hypothesis of the and Memento and Fargo by J.J., 'pastorals' (CHRONOLOGY, 64-66). Otherwise no time is definition of problem left, and it is scottsboro boys trial almost incredible that the 'pastorals', if written after 64, should breathe no hint of the of problem, shock produced upon the Christian consciousness of the Village Essay, age, especially at Rome, by Nero's massacre which outraged even the Roman conscience. But even chronological resetting only makes the hypothesis possible ; its acceptance or rejection rests on other grounds, and - to put it mildly - these do not seem at any point secure. 1 Bartlet, Bowen (Dates of Pastoral Letters, 1900), and Lisco (Vincula Sanctorum, 1900) are the definition of problem statement, chief exceptions recently.
2 Especially Spitta in Zur Gesch. und Litt, des Urchrist. Scottsboro Boys! 1:2-108 ; also Lightfoot (Biblical Essays, 215-233), Zahn (Einl. 1:435-436), Steinmetz (Die zweite rom. Gefang. des Apostels Paulus, 1897), C. H. Turner (Hastings, DB 1:421, etc.), and Frey (die zweite rom. Gefang. und das Todesjahr des Apostels Paulus, 1900). The genesis of the pastorals is therefore sub-Pauline. To account for the Pauline, or presumably Pauline element, including not merely phrases and conceptions such as could be gathered pfrom the extant letters of the apostle or from tradition, but also private details and personal matters affecting about sixteen new figures (some of whom are not mere names) - recourse must be had to statement, theories of compilation, whose common feature is the presupposition that the author was in possession of genuine reliquiae Paulinae. No doubt a pseudonymous writer would endeavour to stamp his figures and scenery upon Village, the reader's mind by means of circumstantial details, especially when (as in this case) the authentic letters would suggest the introduction of a certain quantum of personal matter - though in the sub-Pauline letters (Eph. , Heb. , 1 Pet.) this quantum is noticeably small. But, while it is conceivable that this may be sufficient to account for definition statement 1 Tim., it fails to style to leadership, afford an adequate rationale for 2 Tim.
The latter is flooded with items which by definition of problem no means fall under the category of romantic ornament or literary vraisemblance, and lift the letters quite above the level of later Pauline romances. Even when such passages do not part from their context, they suggest to a critical inquirer the advisability of admitting that they are based upon authentic tradition and that they reproduce, with more or less freedom, information still accessible to the immediately sub-Pauline generation. It may be allowed, still further, that genuine notes have been incorporated, although these cannot any longer be deciphered. But the advocates of compilation attempt the subtler task of actually separating original notes from the strata in which they lie embedded, 2 upon the hypothesis that, whilst the authors direct aim was to instruct and move the church of his own day and not to preserve literary relics, he was able to use certain Pauline notes in the composition of 2 Tim. at least and even Titus. The preservation of such letters is far from incredible. 3 Paul was the first 'man of boys letters' in early Christianity, and the extant canonical collection represents only a part of definition of problem statement his actual correspondence. In the nature of Essay on Me and Memento Murphy things, private notes would be more likely to remain overlooked than others, unless, like the letter of recommendation to Phoebe (Rom. 16:1-20), they were attached by statement late editors to some larger epistle.
In addition to this, the Pan-American Village, pastorals have suffered accretion as church documents, and statement thus three stages of their composition must be distinguished: (i.) the primitive notes from to leadership Paul's lifetime, (ii.) the incorporation of these by the author of the definition, pastorals in his epistles, substantially composed about forty years after Paul's death, and (iii. ) glosses added to these epistles by subsequent copyists to render them more suitable than ever for the needs of the Empowerment, second century. The last-named process naturally ceased by the time that the letters passed into the canon. Whether the letters are substantially Pauline and only interpolated by some editor, 4 or whether - as is highly probable, in the case of i Tim. at any rate - the Pauline element, such as it is, has been submerged in later work, cannot be decided till each letter has been separately examined upon the principles of definition statement literary morphology. As the amount of presumably authentic material is Essay obviously largest in statement, 2 Tim. and least in 1 Tim., it will be advisable to discuss the about Medicine, epistles in that provisional order. 1 1 Tim. 1:3-4 might be developed from the definition, hint in Philem. 22 (the Asiatic locus being shown in the failure to use the companion allusion in Phil.
2:24 to a return visit to Macedonia). The personal matter here is Essay on Mary Frankenstein: Novel principally meant to furnish a suitable setting for an epistle dealing with general questions of church life and of problem work in the Asiatic provinces, and reflecting that cardinal importance of Ephesus as a centre of early Christianity to which Lisco has rightly but extravagantly called attention (Roma Peregrina, 1901). Cp Harnack, Ausbreitung, 333, 462, 482. 2 Perhaps 2 Pet. also contains material worked up from earlier sources ; certainly it has incorporated parts of Jude. And the canonical 2 Cor. is a compilation of Pan-American two separate letters in reverse order. But even were the pastorals, as compilations, without any analogy in the NT literature (cp, further, JAMES [EPISTLE], 5), this would not of itself discredit the analytic hypothesis. Tlie pastorals present quite unique features, and it is only reasonable that the complexity of their structure should demand somewhat unique and exceptional methods of treatment. 3 E.g., the correspondence of Cicero and Atticus, the letters of King Agrippa II. (Josephus), etc. Definition! See Peters, Der Brief in der romischen Litteratur (rgoi), 27-28, 78-79, and about Wehofer, 'Untersuch. zur altchristliche Epistolographie' (SWAW: phil.-hist.
Klasse, 143, 1901). 4 Menegoz, for example (Le Peche et la Redemption, 5-6), treats them as authentic, but supposes that copyists under the direction of bishops subsequently added glosses; these, however, affected only questions of definition of problem statement discipline and order, leaving the about Holistic Medicine, genuinely Pauline spirit unimpaired. 5 The insertion of 'mercy' between 'grace' and 'peace' (so 2 Jn. Definition Of Problem! 3) is un-Pauline. Deleting it among other phrases Hausrath (Neutest.
Zeitgeschichte, ET, 1895, 4:160-163) finds a genuine letter to Timothy in 1:1-2, 1:15-18, 4:9-18, Sabatier in to leadership, 1:1-18, 4:6-22. Second Timothy. - Although the definition of problem statement, address of 2 Tim. (1:1-2) is fairly 5 Pauline, the strange emphasis on the fact and purpose or standard of Paul's apostolate ('according to the promise' [/car 1 eTrayyeXiai [kat epaggelian]]) in a letter to one who could hardly have doubted it, at once reveals the real genius of the writing and corroborates the general evidence afforded by all three epistles, especially by 1 Tim. and scottsboro Titus. They are not private letters at all, not even semi-private, and the very form of of problem statement a private letter is not strictly preserved. They resemble rather 'pastorals' in the modern sense of the term , and find their real audience among people (primarily teachers and officials, it may be) 1 inclined to doubt the Essay, validity and misunderstand or misapply the tenets of the Pauline gospel. As even Liddon admits (Explan.
Analysis of 1 Tim., 1897, ad loc.), of Paul's apostolic authority 'Timothy did not require to be reminded ; St. Paul has other readers of the epistle - perhaps false teachers 2 - in view'. Behind 1:3c-6a lies a tradition of Timothy's temporary absence (Phil. 2:19-20) from Paul during his last captivity ; but neither here nor elsewhere is it feasible in of problem statement, 1:3-14 to disentangle any written source. On the other hand, 1:15-18 is perhaps a displaced (after 4:10 M Giffert, 4:13 Knoke), 3 and at any rate a genuine, fragment, probably written from Teaching Empowerment Essay Paul's Roman captivity.
So most editors and critics (Lemme, 4 Hesse, 5 and Krenkel 6 omitting rather needlessly 1:15b and 1:18a). Again, 2-3 hardly seems homogeneous (cp 2:16, 3:13 with 3:9); 2:2 [or 2:22] seems a gloss (om. Statement! Hesse, Hilg. ZWT, 1897, pp. 1-86); 2:14-15 is awkwardly introduced, and the thoroughly un-Pauline passage 3:1-9 may well be a later insertion, due to the process of Empowerment Essay accretion. 3:10-12, however, is an interpolated genuine fragment ; its isolated position and contents mark it off from the surrounding context. Furthermore, the bulk, if not the whole, of definition of problem statement 4:(6)9-22 is generally allowed to have come directly from Paul's own hand (4:9-18a, except 'having loved this present world' [a.ya-n-qa-a.^Tbvv uva.i^va [agapesas ton nyn aloona]] 4:10, 4:11b, Bahnsen ; 4:9-15, 4:19-22, Ewald ; 4:9-18, Immer ; 4:9-21, Pfleid.). But it is not homogeneous ; evidently 4:11a and 4:21b, like 4:6-8 and 4:9-15, reflect different situations in Paul's life, and Pan-American Essay the whole passage offers an admirable proof of the composite character of even the directly Pauline strata in the pastoral epistles. Following the various dates and definition statement moods, one can detect approximately in 1:15-18 4:6-12, 14:6-19 a note (or part of a note) written after Philippians ; the situation has become more grim, and Paul pines in loneliness for his younger ally.
Again, 4:13-15, 4:21-22a go back to a still earlier period, when Paul had left Troas on some journey; 4:20 (cp Acts 21:29) seems to belong to boys trial, Acts 18:18-19, though the historicity of Acts 21:29 is not above suspicion (cp ACTS, 11, TROPHIMUS ; with J. Weiss, Ueber die Absicht u. d. literar. Charakter der Ap.-gesch. Statement! 39-40 ). A dual analysis of 2 Tim. has been carried through by several critics from Credner onwards. Hesse, e.g. (pp. 170-180), regards it as the Holistic, compilation of a genuine brief letter of recall (1:3c-4, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 4:9-22a) with a later pseudonymous letter (1:1-3b, 1:5-10, 2:3-8a, 2:14-26, 3:1-8, 3:13b-17, 4:1-5). Lemme's reconstruction of the genuine letter underlying 2 Tim. is even more intricate (see O. Holtzmann's critique, ZWT, 1883, pp. 45-72) and definition less convincing (=1:1-9 except 'pity' [eAeos [eleos]] 1:2, 1:3b, 1:6b, and 'a sound mind' [cat crujcJpoi ij7xoG [. Village Essay! sophronismou]] 1:7, 'in Christ Jesus before the world began' [ef . . Definition Statement! . nioji ioji [. aioonioon] 1:9, 1:10, except 'but is now made manifest by the appearing' [la.i epu6(iTa.v, . . . nri^opctaf [ranerootheisan . epithaneias]], 1:11 except 'and a teacher' [ai i .Sa.TKaos [kai didaskalos]], 12 except 'against that day' [ets . . . rmtpav [eis . emeran]], 14 except 'that good thing which was committed' [TTJI . . Teaching! . jv. Of Problem Statement! [ten . Style Approach To Leadership! oul.]], 1:15a, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 2:1, 2:3-5, 2:8a, 2:9b, except 'with eternal glory' [ju.era 56f) aitaviov [meta doxes aiooniou]], 4:6+ except iv ec. Of Problem! r. 17.[en ek. t. e.], 4:9-22), while Hilgenfeld's analysis of the epistle into two sub-Pauline notes is quite in Teaching Empowerment, the air (A = 1:1-2, except 'according to of problem statement, the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus' [KO.T . . . Approach To Leadership! IrjaoO . iesou], 1:3a, 1:5-10, except 'before the world began; but is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death and hath brought life and immortality to light' [irpb poviav . Definition Of Problem Statement! . . afflapaiav [pro chronoon . aphtharsian]], 1:11-12a, 1:16-18a, 2:1, 2:3-8a, 2:9-12, 2:19-26, 3:1-4, 3:10-12, 3:14-15, 4:1-2, 4:6-8, 4:19-22; B = 1:1b, 1:3b-4, 1:9c-10, 1:12b015, 1:18b, 2:2, 2:8b 2:13-18, 3:5-9, 3:13, 3:16017, 4:3-5, 4:9-18). More is to Essay, be said for McGiffert's hypothesis that the epistle is a redacted version of one written by definition of problem statement Paul towards the close of his Roman imprisonment (1:1-12, 2:1-13, 4:1-2, 4:5-8, 4:16-19, 4:21b, 4:10, 1:15-18) (so Clemen for 1:15-18; from Rome 61 A.D.), whilst 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a represents an approach earlier note written from Macedonia before 2 Cor. which was composed (1:1) after Timothy had obeyed his summons. Of Problem! Similarly Bacon places 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a, 4:22b in the period immediately previous to 2 Cor.
2:12-13, when Paul was in Games, Macedonia, whilst von Soden takes 1:15-18, 4:9-19, 4:21b-22a as a note written after Philippians from definition of problem statement Paul's Roman captivity. Hitzig had already found a letter of Paul written about 58 A.D. from Caesarea in Pan-American, 1:15, 4:13-16, 4:20-22 (so Clemen : 4:9-18, about of problem statement, 60 A.D. ?), and another letter written from Rome about 63 A.D. in 4:6-12, 4:19, 1:16-18, 4:22b ; whilst Kartlet recently has distinguished (in 4:9-13, 4:21-22a) a note written between Ephesians and Philippians, the rest of 2 Tim. Essay Holistic! being the swan-song of the apostle. Definition Of Problem! Less probably Clemen puts 4:19-21 into 57 A.D. Approach! (from Jerusalem, previous to definition, his imprisonment), dating the epistle as a whole slightly earlier than Titus (circa 100 A.D.), which again preceded 1 Tim. (100- 110 A.D. Asia Minor) and trial the author's interpolations in 2 Tim. Definition Of Problem Statement! (1:13-14, 2:14-26, 4:1-8) and Titus (1:7-11, 3:1-11). 1 'Les communautes vaudront ce que valent leurs conducteur? ; voila l'idee generale qui se degage de ses instructions' (J.
Reville). 2 Cp Ascension Isaiah 3:20-21 (before 100 A.D.) for the contemporary feeling that an apostasy would precede the latter days, when the disciples of Jesus would desert 'the prophecy of his twelve apostles and their faith (cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.) and love and purity (1 Tim. 4:19), and Essay about Medicine there shall be many sects', etc. (rrji/ npo^Tfiav TWV StaSfxa. ajroo-ToAoii/ avroO ai -rrv rriemv [cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.] (cai TIV ayaTriji O.VTMV, icai -rr]v ayveiav aiiTtav [1 Tim. 4:19] Kai eVoi Tcu aipeVet; TroAAai K.T.A.). 3 Praktisch-theol. Comm. zu den Past.
1887-1889. 4 Das echte Ermahnungsschreiben des Ap. Paulus an Tim., 1882. 5 Die Entsteh. der NT Hirtenbriefe, 1889. 6 Heitr. Of Problem! zur Aufhellung der Gesch. und der Briefe des Ap. On Mary ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic! Paulus, 395-408 .
7 Chap. 2 contains two passages paralleled in Epictetus (Diss. 3:10, 'God saith to thee, Prove to me whether thou hast contested according to requirement' [et POjiu /uios TJyAT)ras [ei nomimoos ethlesas]] = 2 Tim. 2:3 ['good soldier']; and 3:22 where, as the Cynic is in an army arrayed for battle, it is urged that he should not be 'entangled' [e/u.7re7rAeyju.eVoi [empeplegmenon]] but wholly devoted to God's service - cp 2 Tim. 2:4 ['entangleth himself', efiirAefceTat [empleketai]] - and free from definition statement distraction; aTrepio-TraoTios [aperispastoos], 1 Cor. 7:35). Five parallels to the pastorals in Seneca are cited by Lightfoot, Philippians, 290. 8 Upon the difficulties of geography in v. 10, see CRESCENS, DALMATIA, GALATIA 32. The figurative expression in v. 17 is trial paralleled by definition of problem statement an old proverb that one should 'visit the poor in his affliction and Teaching Empowerment Essay speak of him in the Sultan's presence and do one's diligence to save him from the mouth of the lion' (Rendel Harris, Story of Ahikar, p. Definition! 67). The conjecture 'Melita' [MeAiVn [melite]] for Essay 'Miletus' [VIiAtJTto [miletoo]] is neither probable nor helpful.
9 II. Timothcus (1876). 10 Sieben Sendschreiben (1870). 11 Theologie des NT, 399 (1877). 12 These 'commissions and cautions' at least are 'unlike a dying man ; the writer is in a hurry for Timothy to come simply because he is of problem statement old and lonely', not because he fears his friend will be too late (G. Pan-American Village Essay! A. Definition Of Problem Statement! Simcox, Expos. T 10430-432, finding in Heb. 13 also two commendatory letters). Titus. - The attempts to find in Tit. 1:1-4 a genuine address interpolated by some redactor are not convincing.
But, even when the epistle as a whole is taken as sub-Pauline, 1:7-9 certainly appears a further g]oss (so O. Ritschl, TLZ, '85, 609; Knoke ; Harnack, Chron. 710-711; Clemen, and McGiffert). The sudden transition from presbyters to episcopi, and the general contents of the Essay Medicine, passage, mark it off as the insertion of some later editor who was interested in promoting the monarchical episcopate. Hesse and Clemen carry the gloss on to the end of 1:11; but, although 1:10 connects with 1:9 (which partly explains the insertion of the gloss at this point), 1:12 would be abrupt after 1:6, for naica. 0. [kaka th.] are not an antithesis to dwir. [anup.], nor 'slow bellies' (yaartpes dpyai [gasteres argai]) to 'riot' (duwrias [asootias]), much less 'liars' (^ePcrrat [pseustai]) to 'faithful' (TTicrrd [pista] which here = believing, not reliable or trustworthy). The passage 1:7-9, then, was inserted, perhaps from the margin, in the original text which ran : 'unruly, for there are many unruly' (avvTroraKra. Fjlfflv yap TroXXot dvvir6Ta.KTOt, K.T.. [anupotakta Eisin gar polloi anupotaktoi, k.t.l.]). Definition Statement! No man could discharge a presbyter's duties effectively, if the members of his own family were tainted with the local disease of insubordination and profligacy.
2:1-14 and 2:15-87 are somewhat parallel (cp 2:5 and and You Murphy 3:2, 2:14 and 3:1) ; but no analysis of the definition statement, passage into a Pauline and a later source is plausible. The 'genuinely Pauline ring' of much in 3:1-7 (McGiffert) is not very audible, though Sabatier detects genuine material in it and 3:12-15. The latter passage certainly, 3:12-13 [3:12-14], 3:15b, contains an authentic fragment, as is admitted upon Essay on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, almost all hands (e.g. , Weisse, 1 Ewald, Krenkel, Knoke, Hesse, von Soden, Clemen, M'Giffert). Hesse (pp. Statement! 150-151) finds further in boys trial, Titus (1:1-2, 1:4-6, 1:12-13a, 1:16, 3:1-6, 3:12-13, 3:15) a complete letter of Paul, written shortly after he left Crete; it has been expanded by the addition of passages which, although rising out definition, of the original text (with the style approach, possible exception of 2), are intended as a proviso against heresy. Definition Of Problem Statement! Similarly McGiffert regards the canonical epistle as a redacted version of some letter (1:1-6 partly, 3:1-7, 3:12-13) written to Titus before Paul reached Corinth in scottsboro, Acts 20:2. The alternative to these dual hypotheses is to reconstruct (with Krenkel) out of 2 Timothy and Titus three letters of Paul; (a) one written to Titus at Crete, perhaps from of problem Illyricum during Paul's second journey to Corinth (Acts 20:1-3) = Tit. 3:12, 2 Tim. 4:20, Tit.
3:13; (b) another, from his Caesarean imprisonment, to Timothy at or near Troas = 2 Tim. 4:9-18, subsequent to Colossians and Philemon; (c) a third = 2 Tim. 4:19, 1:16-17, 1:18b, 4:21, written from his Roman imprisonment to Timothy at Ephesus. The Caesarean date of Colossians, however, is untenable; and otherwise this ingenious resetting of the Pan-American Games Village Essay, fragments fails to explain satisfactorily how such notes came into of problem statement their present curious position. 1 Philosoph. Dogmatik, 1:146. First Timothy. On Me And You! - In spite of its unwieldy anacoluthon (cp Rom. 1:1-7), 1 Tim. 1 is probably a unity as it stands, modelled on Pauline letters and tradition, though vv. Statement! 12-17 resemble in part something more definite. Certainly 1:13-11 and 1:18-20 hang together.
After 1:1-2 a thanksgiving would naturally follow, in the Pauline manner; but when the Essay on Mary, thanksgiving does come (v. 12-17) it is occasioned not by the person addressed but by Paul himself. Even the 'therefore' (o$v [oun]) of 2:1, resuming either 1:3-11 or 1:12-17 or 1:18-20, forms a loose transition; but it illustrates the zigzag course of the epistle rather than any phenomena of compilation. Similarly with subsequent passages like 2:6b-7, which has a poor connection with its context and only repeats the protestation of 1:12-17 (so Holtzm., Hesse, Hilg. ), 2:9-10 (the odd juxtaposition of rules for definition prayer with a sumptuary regulation for women) 4:1-8 which would readily part from its context, and 5 which has suffered accretion towards the close. No fragment of the epistle can be referred, however, to the apostle himself with much confidence. The incidental allusions to Paul's personality (3:14-15, 4:13) merely betray the writer's consciousness that there was a certain awkwardness in such elaborate commissions and instructions upon the commonplace regulations of Essay on Me and Fargo Murphy a Christian community being addressed to one who was not merely himself in mature life but ex hypothesi separated from his superintendent only for a short time. In such touches we feel the author's literary conscience and his tactful attempt to preserve the vraisemblance of the situation or to justify the existence and point of of problem statement such an epistle. As it stands, in fact, 1 Timothy is about a free composition; it consists of a sub-Pauline letter which has been subsequently enlarged by of problem interpolations, especially in chap. 6. 6:17-21 is plainly an addition (Harn.), in thought and diction perhaps the least Pauline paragraph in all the pastorals ; its contents and context are against it as an integral part of the letter. The 'antitheses' of 6:20 are not the casuistic subtleties of dialectic in the Halacha, but the tabulated passages from the OT and approach to leadership the gospel arranged by Marcion to of problem, prove the diversity of the two dispensations and the superiority of the later. Such arguments are dismissed as secular and verbose and trial pseudo-scientific.
See 2 Tim. 3:16, 'every scripture', etc. , and the significant collocation of an OT sentence and an evangelic saying in 1 Tim. 5:18. Another un-Pauline element is of course the connection between eternal life and almsgiving (vv. 17-19) as already between salvation and religious work or personal conduct (2:15, 3:13). Hence, like Tit. 1:7-9 and some other passages in 1 Tim. (3:1-13, 5:17-20 ?) or even 2 Tim. (2:20-26 ?), 6;17-21 shows the process of accretion familiar in documents bearing on church organisation and discipline. 1 The motive of this section is to throw the glorious gospel into relief against of problem, the unworthiness and weakness of its original bearers, as in and You Murphy, Harn. 5:9: 'he chose for the preaching of his gospel his own apostles ovra; vnep ira.a av a/uapriai/ ai-o/uiorepovs [ontas hyper pasan amartian anomooterous], that he might show he had not come to call the righteous but sinners'. See Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimnis (1901), 107-108.
Here again Hesse, admitting (like Schleiermacher) the irregular course of the epistle, attempts acutius quam verius to disentangle an original letter of commission (1:1-10, 1:18-20, 4:1-16, 6:3-16, 6:20-21) containing the duties and rights of an episcopus at Ephesus. This is definition of problem conjectured to have been enlarged by the addition of independent pieces bearing on the work of the episcopate: e.g., 1:11-17 (justifying the apostolate to the Gentiles), arrangements for the worship (2:6b-7, so Hilg., and 2:9b-10, glosses) and the officials of the church (3:14-15a, a further insertion to justify the author dilating on such topics; 3:15b-16, to connect with 4:1-2), a general mandate for bishops (5:5, 5:23, however, being genuinely Pauline), and extracts (6:1-3, 6:17-19) from a table of Games Village ethical duties. Knoke pushes the definition, epistle much nearer Paul by Essay his hypothesis of two letters from Paul's pen, one - an instruction (n-apayyeAta [paraggelia]) written to Timothy from Corinth (1:3-4, 1:18-20, 2:1-10, 4:12, 5:1-3, 5:4c-6, 5:11-15, 5:19-23, 5:24-25 ?), another - more doctrinal in character - composed in his Caesarean imprisonment (1:12-17, 3:14-16, 4:1-11, 4:13-16, 2:12-15, 5:7-8, 6:17-19, 1:5-11, 6:2c-16, 6:20-21 ?). These have been combined with an un-Pauline church-directory (3:1-10, 3:12-13, 2:11, 5:9-10, 5:16, 5:4a-b, 5:17, 6:1-2), whilst passages like 3:11 and 5:18 are to be regarded as marginal glosses. It is not easy, however, to see adequate psychological motives for this sort of extensive compilation, and the criteria of style are by no means equal to the inferences drawn from them. Hypothetical and definition statement contradictory as such conjectures may appear to be, however, a not inconsiderable agreement prevails even amid the approach, most independent analyses of of problem statement these epistles. About Holistic! All partition-theories presuppose an editorial function which certainly is unexampled in previous early Christian literature, even in Acts and the Apocalypse. Of Problem! But this is not an insuperable objection; and whilst it is idle to dogmatise upon the particular and on Me and Fargo Murphy original setting of verses, or at every point to distinguish precisely between redactor, author, and source, the composite nature of these epistles and (within general limits) the main strata of their contents have been substantially proved. Definition Of Problem Statement! Such analytic criticism is upon the right lines, and as a working hypothesis it is Teaching Empowerment historically superior to the conjectures which attribute the writings en bloc to Paul or as unpromisingly set down the Pauline element to vague tradition or the inventiveness of definition a literary artist. As the titles formed no part of the original autographs, the early church naturally argued from the Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel, internal evidence that 2 Tim., with its reflection of a climax and rich individual references, represented the statement, last phase of the apostle's life, and that 1 Tim. was earlier. But the to leadership, comparative study of the epistles suggests that 2 Tim. is the earliest, and 1 Tim. the latest production of the author.
3. The relative amount of hapax legomena (46 in 2 Tim., 28 in Tit., 74 in of problem statement, 1 Tim.), the increasingly sub-apostolic colour of 'faith' (TTICTTIS [pistis]) and 'saviour' ((rwrjjp [sooter]), the diminution of freshness and intimate feeling in the allusions to Paul, the predominance of ecclesiastical interests and church organisation in Tit. and Essay on Me and Memento and Fargo 1 Tim., 1 the gradual shifting of emphasis from the personality to the sheer authority of the apostle, the gradual increase of severity towards errorists, evident as the definition of problem, epistles proceed - these and other traces form a cumulative and sufficient argument for Essay on Mary this order of definition composition. When the author wrote 2 Tim. he had considerable Pauline material at his disposal. Even in Essay about, the epistle to Titus, he falls back on genuine tradition, and of problem Pauline material preponderates though to a less degree. But in 1 Tim. the Pan-American Games Village, situation has become more advanced ; he writes more freely and less under the of problem statement, influence of his master, confutes errorists with greater sharpness, assigns more dictatorial powers to the officers of the church, and elaborates the various ecclesiastical canons with unprecedented care. The third epistle (1 Tim.) is thus, as Schleiermacher was the first to point out, an expansion and in some respects a repetition of the others, further from their Pauline background of about reminiscences and tradition, but more characteristic of the writer himself. Definition Of Problem Statement! The superiority of ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic 2 Tim., with its ample personal allusions and statement less formal tone, is quite obvious; and superiority means here priority. That it comes from the same pen as the to leadership, others, need not be doubted, although in it the writer is more of an editor than an definition of problem statement original author. The general sub-apostolic style and spirit of all three is fairly uniform and affords no adequate evidence for suspecting a plurality of on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic Novel writers.
1 Among the qualifications of the Jewish sheliah tsibbur (rv 7B 1s3gS, the man who on any given occasion offered common prayer in definition of problem, the synagogue) were: 'to have many children and style no money . to be of sound age, and definition of problem statement humble, popular, well-mannered . to be practised in the study of the law, the prophets, and the psalms ; able to expound the allegoric meaning, traditions, and histories', etc. (R. Style To Leadership! Jehuda, quoted by Selwyn. Christian Prophets, 208-209). 2 The difficulty of definition statement fj^avBavovcn [manthanousi] (v. 13) would certainly be eased by the adoption of the attractive conjecture Aai/0aiou7 [lanthanousi] (Hitzig, Naber, Baljon, Clemen). 4 The pronounced element of ecclesiasticism in on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein:, 1 Tim., which in definition of problem statement, several passages is simply a manual of church order, betrays its more advanced situation. For some not insignificant details of style, see 'certain men' (rti/es avBpunroi [tines anthroopoi]), or 'certain' (-rii/e s [tines]) [7 times in 1 Tim., never in others], 'faith' (TTUTTIS [pistis]) in objective sense (4 times in 1 Tim., once in Frankenstein: A Gothic, Tit. 14), 'saviour' (roTtjp [sooter]) of God alone in 1 Tim. (in the second-century piety 'no one could any longer be a God who was not also a soter', Harn., Dogmeng., ET, 1:1:18) ; cp also 2 Tim. 2:17-20 as preceding 1 Tim. 1:20, and the heightening scale of 2 Tim. 2:23, Tit.
3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4, of 2 Tim. Definition! 1:11 and 1 Tim. 2:7, of 2 Tim. 3:1 and 1 Tim. 4:1-2, of Tit. 1:7 and 1 Tim. 3:2. Like most of the NT writings, the Teaching Empowerment Essay, pastorals have a communal origin. In them a current of the definition statement, age becomes articulate, and hence the inconspicuous personality of their author 1 cannot be rightly deduced from his writings. It was an age when, as in the days of Haggai, men had to 'fetch wood and build the house', while others had to Games Village, encourage and direct their efforts.
To furnish such inspiration may not have been a very heroic task, demanding writers of exceptional insight and pioneering ardour like Paul, but it was timely and serviceable ; and after all 'edification' (oiKodo/j.eiv [oikodomein]) was the criterion and aim of early Christian literature. This Paulinist had singular capacities for the labour of instructing the churches of his day. Thoroughly convinced that he had a message for definition it, or rather that in Paul's teaching and life lay the pattern for true doctrine and godliness, he addressed himself to the duty of curbing and stimulating his contemporaries in scottsboro boys, the spirit of definition his master, writing like a shrewd and experienced man of on Me by J.J. affairs who feels (unlike his contemporary, the prophet who wrote Rev. 2-3) that the moral plight of the age demanded consolidation - consolidation as opposed to speculation in belief or looseness in organisation. If he lacks the authority of intuition, he at least possesses the definition of problem statement, intuition of authority. He has much in Essay, common with the unconciliatory element in Paul.
Unlike the later apologists, he refuses to discuss points of disagreement or to meet objectors on their own ground, but is content with the more congenial method of definition of problem statement insisting in a rather dictatorial fashion upon the fixed truths of the faith. In this he is a precursor of Polycarp, yet in all likelihood the majority of his opponents, perhaps even of his readers, were none the worse for being somewhat sharply reminded that the ultimate proofs of religion lay open to faith and the moral sense ; there may have been an effectiveness in the resolve of this censor to assert and enlighten, not to argue. The genuine faith is to him a 'tradition' (TrapdSocns [paradosis]) or a 'deposit' (irapadriKr [paratheke]), 2 involving 'testimony' (/j-aprvpia [maryria]), which lays a moral responsibility upon the officials of the church especially. The tone of his instructions to them reminds one often of Essay on Mary Frankenstein: Novel Butler's famous Charge to the Clergy (1751) not to trouble about objections raised by men of definition of problem statement gaiety and speculation, but to endeavour to beget a practical sense of religion upon the hearts of the common people. This task demands moral purity above all things, together with teaching ability in the higher officials. True to his master, this mentor is utterly indifferent to boys, the sacerdotal heresy 1 which was already beginning to tinge unhealthily the primitive ideas of the church (MINISTRY, 59a, PRIEST, 8). Definition Statement! In resisting incipient Gnosticism with its attempt to Hellenise the faith into an evaporated intellectualism, the pastorals refuse to employ the tendency, which ultimately secularised the Catholic church, of Hebraising the religion of on Mary Frankenstein: Novel Jesus by means of a retrograde movement to ritual and priestly conceptions. Definition Of Problem Statement! Indeed the impression made by these letters is revealed in nothing so clearly as in the fact that they came to be cherished by those who more or less unconsciously were either ignoring or modifying or defying their principles under the constraining influence of the Zeitgeist. 1 The pastorals in fact voice a tendency of popular Christianity rather than any individual writer's cast of Essay Frankenstein: thought ; cp Wrede, uber Aufgabe und Methode der sog.
NT Theologie, 35-36 (1897). Authorship is here quite subordinate to function. 2 Cp Herod. 9:45 : Men of Athens, 'I leave these words with you as a trust' (ai/Spes AftjfOlOl, Trapadr/Kujv v^iv TO. ewea raSe riSffnai K.r.A.) with 2 Tim. Definition! 1:12-13, etc. Like the authors of Matthew's gospel, Barnabas, Hebrews, the Fourth Gospel and 2 Peter, the author of the scottsboro, pastorals belongs to the great anonymous period of definition of problem statement early Christian literature. The religious life of the primitive church, as of ancient Israel, was 'at certain periods very intense, and at these periods the spiritual energy of the nation expressed itself almost impersonally, through men who forgot themselves and were speedily forgotten in name by others' (Dav. Job, 68).
His work, too, was pseudonymous. Village Essay! 2 To write under Paul's name was, for a Paulinist, quite a legitimate literary artifice'; and although pseudepigrapha in the second century - that period rich in rhetorical forgeries (Jebb, Homer, 87) - ranged from mere fabrications to high-toned compositions, the pastorals, like 2 Peter, belong to definition of problem, the latter class, breathing not a crude endeavour to deceive but self-effacement and deep religious motives. Hence the Teaching Essay, oblivion in which the writer chose to work and has been allowed to remain. It was clue not merely to the necessity of throwing a certain air of mystery round the situation in order to secure the of problem statement, circulation of Essay letters long after their putative author s death, but to a sort of statement Pythagorean feeling that unselfish piety required a pupil's work to be attributed to his master - a canon of literary ethics not unfamiliar to early Christianity itself (Tertull. adv. Marc. 4:5). This author wrote from what he conceived to on Me and Memento by J.J. Murphy, be the standpoint of Paul. 3 But it would be unjust to estimate him by the measure of the man whose spirit he endeavoured to propagate and apply in his own way. Definition! The correct standard is to be sought in the sub-Pauline literature. And if the author of the pastorals is inferior to the genius who wrote the fourth gospel, even in appreciating some of the more inward aspects of Pauline thought, he is superior in range and penetration to those who wrote Barnabas, Jude, the Ignatian epistles, the Christian section of Ascensio Isaiae, and 2 Peter.
The prevailing deference shown to the apostles and to Empowerment Essay, Paul by contemporary and later writers 4 who disclaim all pretensions to of problem, equality with them, as well as the Essay Holistic, fact that mere literary ambition was utterly foreign to the early Christian consciousness at this period, may serve to guarantee the of problem statement, ethical honour of the pastorals and to corroborate the impression left by Essay on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic themselves that their author 5 was right in feeling himself not merely justified but obliged to sanction and support his message by of problem his master's name. Not long before, another 'Paulinist' had composed speeches for Paul which were based on oral tradition and yet were indubitably free products of Empowerment Essay a historian who had skill and statement sympathy enough to give fairly faithful transcripts of the situation in question (Acts 13:16-4i, 17:22-31, 20:18-35, etc.). It was but a step from this to the other recognised method of literary impersonation, which chose epistolary rather than historical expression to ain its religious end. 1 Louw, Het ontstaan van het Priesterschaap in Pan-American, de Christelijke Kerk, 32-33, 62-63, 79-80, 110-126 (1892). 2 See EPISTOLARY LITERATURE, 4; MINISTRY, 35d; and, to statement, the literature cited in Hist. New Test. 597-598, 619-624, add W. Christ, Philologische Studien zu Clem. Alex. 30-39 (1900), and (for the pseudepigrapha, mainly Gnostic, of the 2nd cent., etc.) Liechtenhan in ZNTW, 1902, Hefte 3-4. 3 He is least successful in reproducing what would have been Paul's tone and temper to colleagues like Timothy and Titus.
The curt, general instructions put into the apostle's mouth are often incongruous with the character of their primitive recipients as well as with the situation presupposed by Empowerment the epistles in question. 4 E.g., Ignat. Rom. 4, 'I do not order you, as did Peter and of problem statement Paul; they were apostles, I am a convict'; also Acta Phoc. 4, OVK aTravTO/aoAo) Tt)T Ttav aTrocrroAcoi TOV eou euapeerrtas [ouk apautomoloo tes toon apostoloon tou theou euarestias]. 5 His success, undoubtedly deserved, becomes all the more remarkable where failure was so easy. Essay About! The Asiatic presbyter who half a century later composed the Acts of Paul and Thekla no doubt acted with a sincerity equal to definition, his affection (id se amore Pauli fecisse), but failed to appreciate the vital elements of Paulinism and was deposed - not for using an illegitimate method so much as for employing it to promote notions which the common-sense of the church rejected as palpably alien to the faith. Pseudo-Pauline epistles ('fictae ad haeresim Marcionis'), were widely circulated during the second century ; the superiority of the Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, pastorals to all such is statement a difference of degree rather than of kind. Since Schmidt and Schleiermacher almost a century ago suggested a sub-Pauline date for 1 Tim., a conjecture which Eichhorn amongst others speedily (1812) extended to all three epistles, there has been a remarkable continuity of criticism, starting from *F. About Holistic! C. Baur (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus, 1835). For the critical work up to definition statement, 1880 see.
H. J. Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe kritisch und exegetisch behandelt (1880), a monograph which is far from Essay about Holistic being superseded. Subsequent contributions in statement, general support of Baur. and Holtzmann, with modifications and Teaching Empowerment Essay adaptations, have come along three main lines:- (a) editions: *H. Definition Of Problem Statement! von Soden (HC 3:1:155-254. (2) 1893); *Moffatt (Histor. New Testament. (2) 556-575 ); O. Cone (Internat. Hdbks. to NT, vol. 3 ). (b) monographs and essays on- (i) general criticism of epp. : Kenan (St. Paul, 23-53, l'eglise Chretienne, ch. 6); *Harnack (Chronologie, 480-485, 710-711); *Pfliederer (Paulinismus, ET, 2:196-214, Das Urchristentum, 801-823 ); *M.
A. Rovers (Nieuwtest. Letterkunde, 1888, (2) 66-78); van Manen (OLD-CHRIST. LIT., PAUL); *Bruckner (Die Chronol. Reihenfolge der Briefs des NT, 277-286 ); Prof. E. Y. Hincks, J BL, 1897, pp. 94-117, Reville (Les origines de l'episcopat,1:262-263), and the NT introductions by Hilgenfeld (1875); H. J. Empowerment! Holtzmann (3) (272-292 ); *S.
Davidson, (3) 1-75 ; B. W. Bacon. (127-139 ); Baljon, Geschiedenis v. d. Bb. d. NT (1901) 150-174; *Julicher ((4) 136-156 ) and Sabatier, art. Pastorales, L'ency. Sciences rel., 10:250-251. (ii) textual features: Henri Bois, JPT (1888) 145-160 'zur Exegese der Pastoralbriefe'; *Clemen, Einheitl. d. Of Problem Statement! paul Briefe, 142-176 ; P. Ewald, Probabilia betr. d. Text des 1 Tim. (1901) (c) Discussions on special phenomena of epp:- (i) ecclesiastical organisation : See under MINISTRY and add (to lit. there cited) defences of and You and Memento Murphy conservative standpoint in Hort, Christian Ecclesia (1898), 189-217, and J. W. Falconer From Apostle to statement, Priest, 109-146 (1900): against Kuhl (Die Gemeinde-ordnung in den Pastoralbriefen, 1885), see Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1886, pp. 456-473); and on their connection with Apostol.
Constitutions, Harnack, Texte und Untersuch. Holistic Medicine! 2:5:49-50. Statement! (ii) the errorists ; Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1880, pp. 448-464): Havet, Le Christianisme et ses origines, 4:376-380 (1884); and Bourquin, Etude critique sur Paul. epitres, 51-64 (1890) (iii) general setting and religious standpoint: Hatch (EB (9), articles 'Paul' and 'Pastorals'); *Beyschlag's Neutest. Theol. (ET, 1895), 2:501-517, Holzmann's Neutest. Theol. 2:259-281 (1897); O. Trial! Cone (Gospel and its Interpretations, 327-338 ); W. Mackintosh (Nat. Hist. of statement Christ. Rel. 465, 490 ); Weizs, Das Apostl. Zeitalter, (2) (ET) 2:163-165, 2:329-330; *A.
C. McGiffert, The Apostolic Age, 398-423 (1897); E.P. Gould, Bibl. Theol. of NT, 142-150 (1900), also Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (ET) 1:156-162, 1:189-192, 1:215-216, 2:23-24, and Wernle, Die Anfunge unserer Religion, 347-368, 380-381 (1901). Although the general critical position, outlined in these contributions, is Essay unquestionable, it is unhappily not unquestioned. The traditional view survives, with more or less hesitation and a far from uniform presentment, in the editions of Rolling (1882- 1887 ; on i Tim.), Weiss (-Meyer, ( G )i893, also Die Paulin. Definition Statement! Kriefe, i6yC, 6o4-682_li8g6]), Riggenbach-Zockler (1897), and Stellhorn (1900), and in the representative NT introductions of Weiss, Godet, Zahn, and Belser ; so still most English commentators (Ellicott, Plummer, J. H. Bernard, Horton, J. P. Lilley), writers on NT introduction (Salmon, Gloag, and to leadership Adeney), and definition of problem others, e.g., G. G. Findlay (appendix to Essay on Me and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, ET of Sabatier s L apttre Paul, 341-402 , Hastings D B 3 714-716), and definition Rams. ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel! Church, ) 248^, EJ:/OS. 4th ser. 8no_/T, etc.
Add Bertrand (!-:ssai critique sur [authenticity des cpitres Past., i88b), Ruegg (Ans Schri, t und Geschichte, 59-108 ) ; Roos (Die Briffe des ap. Paulus und die Redcn des Herrnjesii, 156- 202), G. H. Gilbert s Life of Paul, 225-232(1899); and definition of problem G. T. Essay! Purves, Christianity in Apostolic Age, 170-176 (1900). Also (published since this article was written) Lock s studies in Hastings DB 4 on the epistles. i. MO. ( 7H2, bedil, lit. 'that which is separated' [from precious metal], see Is. 1:25, where render 'alloy' [RVmg. Definition! Che., see LXX] ; KacrriVepos [kassiteros] [4 times], |u6Ai(6]os [molib[d]os] [twice], stannum), Ezek. 22:18, 22:20 (Israel to be cast into the furnace like one of the baser metals), 27:12 (exported from Tarshish), Zech. 4:10 (material of plummet, /cacraiTepu os [kassiterinos]), Nu. 31:22 (cleansed by passing through fire). Being a component of bronze, tin was used as a metal from a very early date (see COPPER).
A ring from a tomb at Dahshur (dated about the third dynasty) contains 8.2 percent of tin ; a vase of Games Village sixth dynasty 5.68 percent of of problem tin. When the unalloyed metal was first introduced cannot be ascertained with certainty. All we know is that about the first century the Greek word Ka.TriTfpos [kassiteros] designated tin, and that tin was imported from Cornwall into Italy after, if not before, the invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar. From what Pliny says (HN 34:16, 33:9), it appears that the Romans in his time did not fully realise the distinction between tin and on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic lead ; the former was called plumbum album or candidum to distinguish it from statement plumbum nigrum (lead proper). 1 The word stannum definitely assumed its present meaning in Empowerment Essay, the fourth century. Definition Of Problem! (See Jer. on Zech. Trial! 4:10. (D DDi;), Is. 3:18 AV, RV ANKLETS (q.v.). 1 So in definition of problem, LXX the distinction between Ka(rrtTep09 [kassiteros] and jixoAi/3os [molibos] is uncertain.
i. A place in the Eber-han-nahar (see EBER) mentioned as the NE. boundary of Solomon's empire (1 K. 4;24 [5:4]), corresponding to Gaza in boys, the SW. It is generally held that Tiphsah is the ancient Thapsacus, and that Solomon's occupation of this place was connected with his commercial enterprises, Thapsacus being the definition of problem, great zeugma, or place of passage, of the river Euphrates alike for Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic caravans and for invading armies. It was there that the Ten Thousand first learned the real object of the expedition of Cyrus the Younger, and crossed the stream (Xen. Definition! Anab. 1:4:11). There too, Darius Codomannus crossed after the Essay, fatal battle of Issus, and Alexander after him. Definition Of Problem! In the sixth century A.D. it passed out of knowledge. The true site was identified about the same time by J. Essay And Fargo By J.J.! P. Definition Of Problem! Peters (Nation.
May 23, 1889) and B. Moritz (Ber. der Berl. Akad., July 25, 1889) with Kal'at Dibse, a small ruin 'at the bend of the stream where it changes from a southerly to an easterly course, 8 mi. below Meskene, and 6 below the ancient Barbalissus'. Among other points in which the situation of Dibse agrees with the statements of Xenophon and Strabo is the existence of a camel-ford at this very spot. Trial! There is no philological objection to this combination, but excavations still wait to definition, be made (cp Peters, Nippur, 1:96+) At the same time, there are good reasons for testing this theory afresh. The realm of Solomon was not as extensive as a tradition based on incorrect readings of the text has represented (see SOLOMON, 9). To Leadership! Tiphsah and Azzah are most probably places on the frontier of Solomon's dominion in the Negeb. The former may come from Tappuah ( = Nephtoah), the latter may perhaps represent the strong city Zarephath. These points are doubtful. 2. A town in Ephraim which opposed the pretensions of Menahem, and of problem statement was punished by him (2 K. 15:16-17), identified by Conder with Kh. Tafsah, on an old site 6 mi.
SW. of Shechem (PHFMem. 2:169). The 'Tiphsah' of MT is as much conjecture as the 'Tirzah' (depua [thersa]) of LXX (Oaipa [thaira] [A]). The right reading, as many think, is that of LXX - viz. TAPPUAH (ra^we [taphooe]). So Thenius, Klostermann, Renan (Hist. Pan-American Games Essay! 2:450), Kohler (Bibl. Gesch. 3:399), Guthe. There were at least three places called Tappuah (or Nephtoah).
Whether this Tiphsah or Tappuah was really in of problem statement, the neighbourhood of and You Shechem, and not rather in definition, the Negeb (cp 1), is one of the most recent critical problems. See Crit, Bib. on 2 K. 15:16. (DTfl; 9[e]lpc[BADEL]), son of Japheth, mentioned after Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, Gen. 10:2 (P), 1 Ch. 1:5. It is usually assumed that he must be the representative of a northern folk. Essay Holistic Medicine! The older commentators mostly think of the Thracians (9/a [thrax]; Jos.
Ant. Definition Statement! 1:6:1). But after removing the Gk. nom. suffix s, we get a form which has no similarity to Tiras. Hence Tuch, Noldeke (HL 5:519-520), and style W. Max Miiller (As. Of Problem! u. Eur. 382-383) think of the Tyrseni, who are spoken of not only as Etruscans but also as pirates on the Aegean Sea (cp TARSHISH, 6, and note quotation from boys E. Meyer on the probable distinction between the Etruscan Tyrseni and the Turusha of the Egyptian inscriptions).
This is certainly plausible, and has suggested (to the present writer) that after correcting DTD in v. 2 into DTin, the latter word should be substituted for srenn in v. 4. The order of the names in v. 4 seemed to favour this, and granting that Tarshish is the Hebrew name for Tartessus or S. Spain, no better course seems to be open, for one cannot expect Tartessus to be inclosed between Elishah (i.e., S. Italy and Sicily [Lag., Di. , Kau.]), and Kittim (i.e., Cyprus?). The Tyrseni, however, might naturally enough be so grouped. How easily Tiras (or Tures?)and Tarshish might be confounded is suggested by the fact that in Judith 2:23 [2:13] Vg. Definition Of Problem Statement! actually gives filios Tharsis where Vet. Lat. gives filios Thiras et Rasis. Cp ROSH. Essay On Me And Memento And Fargo By J.J. Murphy! A better view, however, can possibly be found (see 2). Jensen connects Tiras with the Hittite T(a)rsh = Tarzi (so Shalmaneser II. ) = Tarsus (Jensen, TLZ., 4th Feb. 1899, col. Definition Of Problem Statement! 70), but see TARSHISH, 6.
The increasing evidence (see Crit. Bib.) that many parts of the OT, which came down to on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic, the late editor or editors in a corrupt form, have been manipulated by him in accordance with incorrect views of geography and definition of problem history, compels us to consider, as we pass through the Table of Nations, what may have been the boys, original form of statement each ethnic or place-name that we find there. Empowerment! It has already been suggested by others (see JAPHETH) that Japheth in the original legend meant either the Phoenicians or the Philistines. It may be added here that there is great reason to doubt whether either the J portions or the P portions of Gen. 10 in their original form extended their range beyond Palestine and Arabia. It is a characteristic of P's lists (and to P vv.
2-4, according to of problem, the critical analysis, belong) that he in naive ignorance repeats the scottsboro trial, same name in different corrupt and independent forms. Thus 'Tiras' in of problem statement, v. 2 is ultimately the Essay, same as 'Tarshish' in definition of problem, v. 4 ; 'Gomer', 'Magog', 'Madai', 'Javan', and 'Togarmah' are all most probably corrupt and independent forms of 'Jerahmeel'. Scottsboro Trial! 'Tubal' (cp TABEAL), as the connection in which the name occurs in Ezek. Definition! 32:26 ought sufficiently to show, is a Palestinian or rather a N. Arabian name. 1 'Meshech' (TJire) should be 'Cusham' (CJ 2) - i.e., the style approach, N. Arabian Cush (see CUSH, 2). Definition! 'Elishah' in v. 4 should be 'Ishmael'; 'Kittim' probably comes from 'Rehobothim'; 'Dodanim' should be Dedanim. If these emendations are in the main right - and the evidence referred to above would seem to Essay Novel, make this a reasonable contention - it follows that 'Tiras' as well as 'Tarshish' (see TARSHISH, 7), is most probably a corruption and distortion of the N Arabian ethnic name Ashhur or Asshur ( = Geshur). Cp GESHUR, 2. 1 'Elam' of course should be 'Jerahmeel' (as probably always [never] in OT), and most probably (if not certainly) 'Zidonians' should be 'Misrites' [no they shouldn't]. (D ninfi), 1 Ch. 2:55.
See JABEZ. 1. D Ohnb*, saharonim. Is. 3:18, Judg. Definition! 8:21, 8:26, RV 'crescents'. See NECKLACE, 2. 2. Frankenstein: Novel! -IN2, pe'er, Ezek. 24:17 (AV), 24:23 (EV) ; see TURBAN, 2. 3. lity, shesh; Ezek. 16:10 RVmg translates '[a tire of] fine linen'. A headtire seems to be meant.
See TURBAN, 2. 4. fj-i-rpa. Judith 10:3, 16:8 (AVmg. Definition Of Problem! 'mitre'), Bar. 5:2 (EV 'diadem'). See DIADEM. (H^rnF! ; OAPAKA [A in 2 K., B in Is.]. 9Ap0AK [tharthak] [L], -pA [-ra] [B in 2 K.], -p6A [ratha] [XAQ* in Is.], Vg. Tharaca).
According to Is. 37:9 = 2 K. 19:9, the on Mary A Gothic, Assyrian general (rab-shakeh) had heard that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia (LXX of [the] Ethiopians), was coming forth to fight against the Assyrian armies occupying Judah before the of problem, siege of Jerusalem (701 B.C.) in order to assist Hezekiah. This is the about, third king of the twenty-fifth (or Ethiopian) dynasty of Egypt (EGYPT, 66b). His name is written in of problem, Hieroglyphic signs Ta-h-ru-k. The vowels (a and u) are written quite constantly, although they appear to us unintelligible and useless. The cuneiform transcription is Tarku. Manetho gives Tarkos or Tarakos, Strabo, 1:3:21, Tearko (he strangely makes the to leadership, king a great conqueror, who reached the of problem, pillars of Hercules ; cp Megasthenes, Fragm. Teaching! 20, in definition of problem statement, Strabo, 686). The biblical rendering would seem to need a transposition ; Teharko, Teharka (npinn). The king seems to have been an Essay Medicine usurper, 2 who legalised his crown afterwards by marriage with the widow of king Shabako. Definition! When the usurpation took place, can be determined with certainty (see SO).
Tirhakah reigned, according to a stele of the Serapeum, twenty-six complete years ; according to Assyrian sources he died in 668/67 ; consequently his accession to the throne was in 694/93 B.C. This shows at once that in the biblical account there is an impossible conjunction of facts. Either the original form of the text did not give the name of the 'king of Ethiopia' referred to - later scholars would then attempt to identify the king and insert Tirhaka-Taharko instead of Shabako who reigned in scottsboro, 701 (see, however, So on of problem statement, the improbability of Shabako's attacking the Assyrians) or Taharko was mentioned as the Ethiopian governor of Lower Egypt, and the later recension made him a king. Otherwise, we should have to acknowledge a confusion of the events of 701 with others of the time between 693 and 676 B.C. The first expedition of the Assyrians against Egypt, in 676, was in all probability caused by such a provocation as military aid from Egypt to Palestinian rebels against Assyria.
Esarhaddon mentions indeed that Ba'al, the Teaching Essay, king of Tyre, was induced to rebellion by Tarku. Of Problem Statement! This may have occurred earlier ; but 693 is, as has been said, for Tirhakah the superior chronological limit. Tirhakah, however, could not really play the part of an aggressor in Syria. The difficulty of maintaining Egypt and Games Village keeping the nomarchs in subjection must as a rule have absorbed his whole strength. An Assyrian army penetrated into Egypt in 676 and seems to have occupied a considerable portion of it, but in 675 was annihilated. 4 In his tenth year, 671, king Esarhaddon secured the road to Egypt by an expedition against the Arabs, invaded (then, or by another army?) Egypt by way of a city in statement, the desert called Magdali or Migdol (see MIGDOL), and met and defeated the forces of Taharko near a place called Ishupri. Essay And You And Memento! The Ethiopian king had finally, after losing the definition of problem statement, third battle, to withdraw from Egypt. The Assyrians marched as far as Thebes, which capitulated and was mildly dealt with. The country was divided among twenty nomarchs, descendants of Libyan generals. Some of these may have called in the Assyrians to free them from the Ethiopian yoke, and submitted to the Assyrian supremacy without resistance.
Nevertheless we read of a conspiracy with Taharko against the Assyrians by the three most influential leaders (Niku-Necho I. of Sais and Memphis, Sharludari of about Medicine Tanis and Pakruru of Pi-saptu. Evidently, they felt too weak to definition, resist the Ethiopians when these threatened to invade Egypt again, and therefore tried to maintain good relations with them. In point of fact Taharko invaded Egypt again in boys trial, 669. Esarhaddon hurried to the rescue of his vassals, and died on the expedition. His army, nevertheless, entered Egypt, defeated Taharko's army, coming from Memphis, at Karbanit (near Canopus?), and statement forced him to retreat as far as Thebes. About Holistic! The cities Sais, Mendes, and Tanis were cruelly punished for definition of problem joining the Ethiopians ; prince Necho, however, when sent to to leadership, Nineveh as a prisoner, obtained a pardon and his dominion. Evidently, the Assyrians needed his influence. They even gave the city of of problem statement Hathribis to his son Psametik and scottsboro trial thus furthered the rise of the next dynasty (the Saitic). Taharko, in of problem, the meantime, fortified a camp near Thebes and, while the Assyrian troops were engaged in the Delta, forced this city to Essay, surrender. At first, the prince of Thebes seems to have closed the door to the fugitive Ethiopian king.
Preparing for a new invasion of definition statement northern Egypt, Tirhakah died there. His step-son Ten(wa)t-Amon (Tandamani of the Assyrian reports), son of Shabako, became king, and made the last attempt to expel the Assyrians (668/67). 2 See Maspero, Histoire, 3361, on this point. Essay! The words of the inscription of Tanis (de Rouge in Melanges d'Archeologie Egyptienne, 1:21, etc) 'he went to the Delta at the age of twenty years' do not point, however, to a revolution necessarily. 3 Cp Winckler in KAT (3) 93. Why he places (p. Of Problem Statement! 87 and AOF 1:482) his accession to Village Essay, the throne in 691, does not appear.
4 See KAT (3) 88, for the report of the 'Babylonian Chronicles'. On the Egyptian monuments, nothing of this warlike activity of the king can be observed. Tirhakah left many buildings and restorations, especially in his residence Napata (mod. Gebel-Barkal) and at Thebes. North of Thebes, the difficulties caused him by the nomarchs seem to have prevented him from definition of problem building much ; but inscriptions bearing his name have been found at Tanis, and at Memphis his name is represented at the burial of an Apis bull in his tenth and twenty-fourth year (directly before the Assyrian conquest?). Nominally, also, the two years following 668/7 seem to have been counted to him in Egypt, so at least later by Psammetichus I. At Thebes, the nomarch Mont(u)-m-he't was in boys, the time of the Assyrian invasion practically independent (he built considerably at Karnak) and does not seem to have always been faithful to his suzerain in Napata (see above). A (rather conventionalised) portrait of Tirhakah is definition of problem given elsewhere (ETHIOPIA, fig. 1, right-hand picture); the Negro blood is more strongly indicated in several other portraits ; the full Negro type on the Zinjirli-stele of Esarhaddon is therefore no caricature. [The view expressed elsewhere (SENNACHERIB, 5) as to the possibility of a confusion between an Assyrian and an Asshurite (N.
Arabian) invasion of Juclah may possibly require a reinvestigation of the meaning of tm t^D in 2 K. 19:9 = Is. 37:9. 'Cush' may be, not Ethiopia, but a region in N. Arabia (see CUSH, 2). If so, npmn (Tirhakah) will have to be admitted into Essay the group of personal names which have (according to the new theory) been modified by redactors to suit their own limited historical knowledge. Definition! See Crit. Bib. on 2 K. 19:9 and other parts of 2 K.] 1 So far after Winckler's arrangement, KAT (3) 90-94.
(narnn ; GARAM [tharam] [B], GARXNA [tharchna] [A], 6ARAANA [L]), a son of scottsboro trial Caleb by his concubine Maacah (1 Ch. 2:48). (NJU ; in ; either = tarshata, Pers. Definition Of Problem Statement! partic. Scottsboro Trial! = 'feared' [Meyer, Ryssel, and definition of problem statement most scholars], or an official title from Old Pers. antare-kshathra, 'royal representative in the province', Lag. Symmicta, 160; A6ARAC0AC [atharasthas] [L generally]), a title like 'Your Excellency' (Meyer), or an official title (Lag., Stade) of the Persian governor of Judah, or perhaps a corrupt form of a personal name, or of a gentilic, of Pan-American Semitic origin. The article is always prefixed. (a) Ezra 2:63 (afleptraa [B], -crafla [A], -ar0a; [L]) = Neh. 7:65 (ao-eptrafla [R], aOcp. [NA])= 1 Esd. Definition Statement! 5:40 (see below); (b) Neh. 7:70 (om.
B, a.6apraoa [tfc.a mg. A]) ; The sense in (a) Ezra 2:63 = Neh. 7:65 = 1 Esd. 5:40 and (b) Neh. 7:70 depends on the critical view adopted as to the origin of the list of sons of the province. If, with Meyer, we admit it to be a list of exiles who returned with Zerubbabcl, the Tirshatha will of course be Zerubbabel ; to on Me and Memento by J.J., Kosters, however, it is a list of post-exilic residents in Judah and definition of problem Jerusalem, and the Tirshatha is Nehemiah. Cp 1 Esd. 5:40 (= Ezra 2:63), where we find v. [o] Kai uT#x/xas [kai attharias] (BA), XTapao-0aS [atarasthas] [L], ATHARIAS, RV ATTHARIAS). In (c) Neh. 8:9 = 1 Esd. 9:49 and (d) Neh.
10:1 [10:2], Nehemiah is mentioned by name as the Tirshatha, but is it certain that the text is correct? Guthe (SBOT) points out that 1 Esd. 9:49 ( = Neh. 8:9) gives simply /ecu elirev aTTO.pa.Ti [kai eipen attarate] ([B], ar^apar. [attharates] [A], adapaaOas [atharasthas] [L], ATTHARATES) - i.e., 'and the Tirshatha said', and infers that N?n rram [nehemiah . ] is Teaching a gloss. Smend, however (Listen, 18), prefers to definition statement, omit 'that is, the Tirshatha' (so LXX [BXA] in Neh.), whilst Meyer (Entst.
200) omits both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha'. In (d) Guthe (SBOT) and Wellhausen (GGN, 1895, p. Approach! 177 omit 'the Tirshatha', because it separates the proper name from the of problem, patronymic (LXX , but not LXX , supports this). On Mary! Very possibly here as well as in (c) both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha' are intrusive (cp Marq. Fund. 34). The two laymen, Nehemiah and Zedekiah, are very isolated just before the names of priestly classes (see ZEDEKIAH). Nehemiah's usual title is nns, 'governor'.
It is not certain that Nehemiah had yet returned. To this it may be replied that Nehemiah s change of title may be connected with a limitation of his jurisdiction during his second period of office to matters connected with a religious reformation. For the definition of problem statement, grounds of this hypothesis see NEHEMIAH. On the about, name see, further, Crit. Bib. in ? 'agreeable', 102; 0epc[BAL]; but in Josh. 12:24 0apra [BF], Oeppa. [therma] [A], in 1 K. 14:17 yrji/ ra.pi.pa. Statement! [gen sarira] [A ; see ZARETHAN], in 2 K. 15:14 6aprei.a. [tharseila] [B], OepcrtAo, [thersila] [A], in Cant.
6:4 evSoiaa. [eudokia] [BXA], in Targ. NrTjnrY). 1. An ancient city of Empowerment Essay Mt. Ephraim (see below) which had a king of its own before the Israelitish conquest (Josh. 12:24), and was the residence of the N. Israelitish kings from Jeroboam to Omri (1 K. Of Problem Statement! 14:17, 15:21, 16:6, 16:8-9, 16:15, 16:17, 16:23). And Memento By J.J.! According to Klostermann's emendation of has-Tseredah in 1 K. 11:26 (and of the crapeipa [sareira] of LXX in 1 K. 12), Jeroboam was a native not of 'Zeredah' but of Tirzah, which place he fortified while still nominally in the service of definition of problem statement Solomon (see JEROBOAM, i, ZARETHAN, 2). Shortly afterwards we read (1 K. 12:24-25) that on Jeroboam s return from Egypt he built a castle (xa/a/ca [charaka] = N3n3) at approach to leadership, Sarira. Whether Klostermann is right in holding Tirzah to be the original form of the name of Jeroboam's city, will be considered later; at any rate, we may follow him in his statement that Zeredah (rrns), or hats-Tseredah, crapeipa [sareira], and definition Tirzah are fundamentally the same.
The next fact recorded of Tirzah is that, when, after a reign of seven days, Zimri saw that he could not hold Tirzah, he burned the citadel, and himself perished in the flames (1 K. 16:17-18) ; the usurper Omri then took up his abode in Tirzah. Even after Samaria had supplanted Tirzah as the capital, it continued to be a fortress of strategic importance. Menahem b. Gadi won Tirzah first and then Samaria, when he slew Shallum b. Jabesh and mounted the throne of Israel. From the context (on 2 K. To Leadership! 15:16 see TIPHSAH) Tirzah appears to have been not far from Tappuah (in Ephraim, but on the border of Manasseh). In the Book of Judges too there is one more reference in the narratives, which, if based on fact, should come first in chronological order. Nor must we omit a famous poetical reference in the ordinary text. In Cant. 6:4, as given by MT (LXX, however, has ws evdoKia [oos eudokia]), we find the Shulammite compared to Tirzah. But whether a methodical criticism can accept this reading, is doubtful (see CANTICLES, 14, and cp ROSE). We need not therefore discuss the question whether Tirzah really was as beautifully situated as the ordinary text of Cant.
6:4 seems to imply. Definition! It is enough to find out where this northern city lay. There are three current identifications. (1) Robinson and Van de Velde thought of Talluza, 1 a picturesque village on a hill 2040 ft. ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein:! above the sea-level, E. of Samaria, and definition slightly N. of Mt. Ebal. The phonetic resemblance, however, is but slight, and the description of Pan-American Games Village Essay Thersa quoted by Robinson from Brocardus ('on a high mountain, three leagues from Samaria to the E.') suits Tubas (Thebez?) better than Talluza. (2) The Midrash represents Tirzah as Tir'an (cp CANTICLES, 14, note) and definition statement the Targum as Tar'itha. Essay Holistic Medicine! Hence Buhl (Pal.
203) suggests that Tirathana, a village close to Gerizim (Jos. Ant. 18:4:1), may be intended, and he (doubtfully) identifies this with et-Tireh, on statement, the W. Style To Leadership! side of the plain of Makhneh. But this is not a sufficiently important site. Definition Statement! (3) Conder (PEFM 2:216) suggests the Pan-American, village Teyatsir, 11 mi. N. of Shechem, and 12 mi. E. of Samaria (see ASHER, 2). Definition Statement! The site appears not unsuitable ; but nothing can be based on the name. But is the name Tirzah really the Pan-American Games Essay, correct form? Is it likely to have been corrupted into Zeredah or hats-tseredah ? And is it the of problem statement, most natural name for an important fortress? Add to this that another corrupted form of the same original may be ZARETHAN (q. v.).
The problem is to find a name out of which all these forms can have been corrupted. Such a name is VIS JV3 'Beth-zur'; such a name, too, is Essay rlSlS, 'Zarephath'. It so happens that all the OT passages referred to above most [least] probably, in their original form, referred to the Negeb (Cant. 6:4 of course is excluded). It will therefore be safer to pronounce in favour of Zarephath.
2. Definition Of Problem Statement! One of the five daughters of ZELOPHEHAD - the fifth (Nu. 26:33, 27:1 [om. L], Josh. 17:3), or the second (LXX the first), Nu. 36:11, perhaps = Zarephath. (nifa 3Cn ; CK Gee BOON THC p [ RA 1. Trial! o eK SecceBtoN THC p [L]) 1 K. 17:1, RVmg, AV 'inhabitants of Gilead', RV 'sojourners of Gilead'. See TISHBITE and reff.
CgP Fl; 6ecB(e)lTHC ; Thesbites, i.e., a native of Tishbeh, 1 K. 17:1, 21:17, 21:28, 2 K. 1:3, 1:8, 9:36. See ELIJAH, i, and n. i ; JABESH, i ; and especially PROPHET, 6, and Crit. Of Problem Statement! Bib., where it is conjectured that Elijah and Elisha both came from Zarephath in the Negeb, then perhaps the extreme limit of the Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, southern dominions of N. Israel. Cp THISBE. pb lJP, pi. nnb M?: Aevm [dekath]; decima. 1 Probably the Tarlusa of the Talmud (Neub. Definition Of Problem Statement! Geogr. Style Approach To Leadership! 268).
2 Konig (Exp. Of Problem Statement! T 12:38 ) explains the ' [Y] in the Gileadite place-name ajj-n [ThshBY] as a radical (/ 3B f [root ShBY]) 3 A om. in 1 K. 17:1, BAL om. 1 K. 21:28 ; LXX has eerj8(e)iTr [thesb(e)ites] also in 1 K. 18:27 [BAL], 18:29 [L] Mal. 4:4 [3:23] [BXAQr[gamma]].
4 The tithe in relation to other sacred dues is discussed elsewhere (see TAXATION; see esp. 9+), to which the present article is supplementary). The tenth, as a rate of taxation, secular or religious, is found among many ancient peoples. See Ryssel, PRE (2) 17:428-429, and for the Greeks, Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encycl. 4:2423-2424; Romans, id., 2306+; Carthaginians, Diod. Sic. 20:14 ; Justin, 18:7 ; Egyptians, Maspero, Struggle of Nations, 312 (spoil of war, tribute, etc., to Amon); Syrians, 1 Macc.
10:31, 11:35 ; Sabaeans, Plin. NH 12:63; Lydians, Herod. On Me And Fargo By J.J. Murphy! 1:89; Nic. Damasc. frg. 24 (FHG 8:371); Babylonians, Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 668 ; Chinese, Legge, Chinese Classics, 1:119, etc. The oldest use of the word seems to have been secular, designating a tax or tribute in kind levied by of problem a ruler from a subject or vassal people, or from his own countrymen. The obligatory offerings to the gods were cnrapxai [haparchai], primitiae, Heb. reshith, bikkurim. When these offerings came to Essay on Me and You and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, be regarded as a tribute due to the deity as the ruler or the proprietor of the land, the statement, name tithes was applied to them also. The dedication of a tithe of the spoils of war, an early and wide spread custom, may have contributed to this extension of the use of the term.
The 'tenth', doubtless, originally roughly expressed the proportion exacted; and in later times also, for example in Sicily under Roman rule ( Pauly-Wissowa, 4:2307+), was the actual rate of taxation ; but frequently the notion of tax or tribute predominated, so that the term tithe might be used in cases where the rate was different - as in Moslem law the 'tithe' is sometimes 1/20 or 1/40 - or where there was no fixed percent. Thus in the religious sphere dirapxal [haparchai] and deKarat [dekatai] are often synonymous: so, e.g., in Dion. Halic. 1:23-24, cp SeKarevcris [dekateusis], ib. 24, for the payment of about Holistic a vow of firstlings ; so Philo calls the of problem, tithe which was to be paid the priests out of the Levites' tithe, dTrapxijs a.ira.px.n [haparches haparche] (De mutat. nom. 1:607, Mangey). Similarly in the OT : to exact a tithe from the grain-fields, vineyards, and flocks is a royal prerogative (1 S. 8:15, 8:17). The oldest laws prescribe that the aparchae (reshith) of the first fruits of the land shall be brought to the house of Yahwe (Ex.
34:26, cp Dt. 18:4, 26:2, Ezek. 44:30). The term 'tithe' was in use, however, in the northern kingdom in the eighth century for religious dues (Am. 4:4, cp Gen. 28;22, E).
In Dt. the word occurs repeatedly (12:6, 12:11, 12:17, 14:22+, 14:28-29, 26:12+); the tithe of grain and wine and oil is to be brought to Jerusalem and - as in Amos - used for a feast ; in the third year, however, a tithe is to be reserved for charity (see TAXATION, 9-10). Together with the Essay Holistic, tithes Dt. 12:6, 12:11, 12:17 names the terumah (terumath yadka ; EV 'heave offering'; more accurately 'reserved portion'), by definition which it is commonly thought that the first fruits are intended (see Dillm. in loc. ), but this is doubtful ; more probably the Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: Novel, terms are to be taken as synonymous ; cp Nu. 18:24. In Ezekiel we find reshith and definition terumah (20:40), which are assigned to the priests for their support (44:30); but no mention of tithes. Style Approach To Leadership! There is nothing on the subject of definition statement tithing in H. It seems probable, therefore, that the style, name 'tithe' was employed at some sanctuaries in the period of the kingdoms, while elsewhere other names were in use.
It is not improbable, moreover, that the nature and quantity of the definition of problem, obligatory offerings, and Essay Holistic the use made of them, differed at different places as well as times. When the fragmentary remains of old sacred laws were brought together with later rules (P) in one code, these various terms were treated as so many different dues, and combined in one system of religious taxation. The critic, on definition of problem statement, the other hand, sometimes falls into the hardly less serious error of assuming that all the Essay Medicine, laws lie in one serial development. 1 Ex. 23:19 is brought over by a redactor from 34:26. Until the aparchae were offered to God, the crop might not be used by men in any way (see, e.g. , Lev. 23:14). The presentation was the natural occasion of a feast at the holy place.
This is the use of the tithe in Dt. (12:6, 14:23). The portion dedicated to the deity may at some time have been actually consumed upon of problem statement, the altar ; or, as in the case of the voluntary minhah, a representative part may have been thus consumed ; but in the rituals we possess the offering is symbolical (cp the wave sheaf and approach to leadership the two loaves, Lev. 23:9+, 23:15+) , God ceded his share to the priest (Nu. 18:11). At the feast given by the offerer the priest had a place by custom ; and statement thus from early times the Pan-American Games Village Essay, offerings of first-fruits or tithes indirectly contributed to the support of the of problem statement, clergy.
The poor, also, shared in the feasts by a religious guest-right. The deuteronomic reformers foresaw that the suppression of the village high-places would deprive both the country priests and the poor of the community of no small part of their living. They provided, therefore, that every third year the Essay Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, land-owner, instead of definition statement taking his tithe to Jerusalem, should set it aside for charity at scottsboro boys trial, his own home. Here, again, it is not improbable that they found a precedent in earlier custom ; there are many examples, e.g. - among the Arabs - of sacrifices left wholly to the poor, this being a work of superior piety. The new model of Ezekiel provides for the support of public worship, including the feasts at the great seasons, by the prince, out definition of problem statement, of the scottsboro boys, proceeds of of problem statement a general tax (terumah, 45:13+) at a fixed rate. The old reshith bikkurim and terumah, are all assigned to the priests for their support (44:30). Ezekiel s programme was never put into operation, but in the Persian period the tithe seems to have been converted to the use of the temple (Mal.
3:8-10). Some such provision must have proved necessary, not only for the support of the priests but also for the maintenance of public worship. In P all sacred dues, under whatever name, go to the support of the ministry (Nu. 18:8-20); the 'tithe' is specifically the portion of the Levites (vv. Scottsboro! 21-24) ; of it they in turn make over a tithe to definition of problem statement, the priests (vv.
25-32). See NUMBERS, 11. According to Neh. 10:37+ (Chronicler), the plan was for Essay Medicine the Levites to collect their tithe in definition, all the cities and villages, under the supervision of a priest, and style approach to leadership then deliver the of problem, tithe of the tithes into the storehouse in boys, the tern pie for the priests. There is complaint, however, that the tithes were not paid, so that the Levites had to support themselves (Neh.
13:10+). It is impossible to say whether this system was ever actually worked. It is often inferred that Neh. 10:37+ represents the practice of the Chronicler's own time; but it is quite as likely that it is one of the many pia desideria which he projects into his 'history as it ought to have been'. The fortunes of the Levites in definition, these centuries are involved in dense obscurity (see LEVITES, 7). What is certain is that at the beginning of the Christian era the tithes were collected by the priests for themselves (Jos. Vita, 12, 15; Ant. Empowerment! 20:8:8, 20:9:2). This departure from the definition of problem, law is recognised in the Talmud : Ezra took the tithe away from the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Essay on Mary Novel, Palestine (Kethuboth, 26a ; Yebamoth, 86a-b ; Hullin, 131b, etc.). The deuteronomic laws name grain, wine, and oil as subject to tithe (12:17, cp 14:22, Nu.
18:27); Lev. 27:30 is definition more general: 'all the Essay, tithe of the soil, whether of the seed of the ground or the fruit of the tree, is Yahwe's. The general rule of the Mishna is: 'Everything that is eaten and is watched over and grows out of the of problem, ground is liable to tithe' (M. Ma'aseroth, 1:1). The scrupulosity of the Pharisees in matter of garden herbs - 'mint', 'anise', and 'cummin' - is commented on in the NT (Mt. 23:23 Lk. 11:42); the Mishna and the Palestinian Talmud go into minute details and discussions of on Me and You by J.J. Murphy what should be tithed, and when, and how. The tithe of agricultural products paid to the Levites or to the priests, is called by the Jewish writers on the law the 'first tithe'. Lev. 27:32-33 puts by the side of the tithe of seed crops and fruit (vv. 30-31) a tithe of animals of the flock or herd ; every tenth one, as the flock is counted, shall belong to Yahwe.
The complete parallel between vv. 30-31 and of problem vv. 32-33 naturally suggests two inferences : first, that it is the increase of the year that is to be tithed (so M. Bekoroth, 9:3+, etc.); and, second, that the tithe of Pan-American Essay cattle, like that of the fruits of the earth, was to of problem statement, go to the priests. This is the view of Philo (De praaemiis sacerdot. 2, 2:234, Mangey ; De carit. 10, 2:391) ; so also Tob. 16 (cod.
X [aleph]) and - what seems not to have been noted - Jubilees, 32:15 (on Gen. 28:22) : 'all tithes of on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel neat cattle and sheep shall be holy to of problem statement, God and belong to his priests, who eat them year by Essay and You and Memento Murphy year before him'. On the other hand, the legal authorities unanimously take the whole passage, Lev. Of Problem Statement! 27:30-33, to refer to style approach, the 'second tithe'; the definition of problem statement, animals were sacrificed by their owners as thank offerings (todah), or as 'joyous peace offerings' (shalme shimhah at the feasts. 1 Modern critics generally assume that the chapter is a late supplement to the 'Priests Code', and that the tithe is therefore to be understood in Essay on Me Murphy, accordance with Nu.
18:21+ But if, as is more probable, it be a supplement to a body of law which included Dt. , the rabbinical interpretation is equally possible (cp vv. 9-15). There can be no doubt that the Mishna and Siphre represent in statement, this particular the practice of the first century. And it is not difficult to conceive that the Pan-American, claim of the priests to definition of problem, all the firstlings - once the accompaniment of the tithe of corn and wine and Essay Holistic Medicine oil (Dt. 126, etc. ) - made it necessary to statement, make some other provision for the sacrificial feasts ; the tithe of cattle is a natural form for this provision to scottsboro, take.
It is, therefore, not so certain as has sometimes been thought, that Lev. Definition! 27:32-33 is the last monstrous demand of a greedy priesthood or the fiction of an imaginative scribe. 1 Siphre, Dt. 63: M. Pan-American Games! Hagigah, 1:4 ; M. Menahoth, 7:5, etc. See Schurer, GJV (3) 2:251 n. So also Maimonides, Rashi, and the Mishna commentaries.
On the basis of the of problem statement, Pentateuch as a whole, the system included three tithes: the 'first tithe', a tax of one tenth of all edible vegetable products collected by the ministry for its own support (Nu. 18:21-24) ; the 'second tithe', of the same products, which, together with the cattle tithe (Lev. About! 27:32-33), furnished a feast for definition of problem statement the owner and his guests at to leadership, Jerusalem (Dt. 14:22-27); and definition statement the 'poor tithe', set apart every third year for charity (Dt. 14:28-29, 26:12).
The last, in Pan-American Games Village Essay, the original intention of the law probably only definition a particular use of the Essay on Mary Frankenstein:, tithe every third year, was in later times made, at least by some, a 'third tithe' falling twice in every seven years, in the third and sixth years of the of problem, Sabbatical cycle (Tobit, 1:7-8; Jos. Ant. 4:8:22; Trg. Jer. Dt. 26:12-13); see Geiger, Urschrift, 176+; Schurer, GJV (3) 2;252.
Spencer, De legibus ritualibus, lib. 3, diss. Novel! 1, cap. 10 ; Selden, History of Tithes; Reland, Antiquitates sacrae, lib. 3, cap.
9, reprinted with extensive notes by the editor in definition, Ugolini Thesaurus, 2:1031+; J. C. Hottinger, De decimis Hebraeorum, also in Ugolini Thesaurus, 20:283-490 (valuable for its Rabbinical erudition); Riehm, HIVR, art. 'Zehnten'; Ryssel, 'Zehnten bei den Hebraern', PREP) 17:428+, lit. ib. 17:444); A. S. Style Approach To Leadership! Peake, 'Tithe' in Hastings' DB 4:780+; W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. (2) 244+; Nowack and Benzinger, HA ; Schurer, GJV (3) 250+ i. |VV. tsiyyun, 2 K. Of Problem Statement! 23:17 RV 'monument'. See MASSEBAH, 1 (e) 2. On Me And Fargo Murphy! rtrXos [titlos], Jn. 19:19-20. See CROSS, 4.
(TITOC : on the accentuation see Winer-Schmiedel Gramm. Th. i., 6:2) is the name of a rather enigmatic minor figure in the apostolic age, who is known almost entirely from Paul's allusions to him (in Gal. and of problem statement 2 Cor. ) as a friend and trusty lieutenant. He is not associated with Paul in the address of Teaching Empowerment any extant epistle, and nothing is known of his birthplace, age, or nationality, except that he was a pagan by birth (EXX?/!/ uv [hellen oon]) and definition of problem statement apparently a native of Asia Minor (cp Gal. On Me And Fargo By J.J.! 2:1-5). Later tradition (Tit. Definition Of Problem Statement! 1;4) may be correct in hinting that he was brought over to Christianity by Paul himself.
At any rate he appears at an early stage of the apostle's public career (possibly in 49 A.D. ; cp CHRONOLOGY, 74, PAUL, 16) as a private individual who accompanied Paul and Barnabas (cp Acts 15:2) at the former's request upon their visit to Jerusalem, evidently to represent the success of the Pauline gospel outside Judaism. The burning question at the conference of about Jerusalem was the value and validity of Christian faith if unsupplemented by circumcision, and (as Paul had foreseen) the case of of problem Titus inevitably came up for discussion. Essay On Mary A Gothic! Whether it was made a test case or not, it led to bitter feeling between the conservative party and their challengers. Paul and Barnabas, however, stood their ground against the orthodox centre and repudiated any compromise involving their companion; 'not even Titus', says Paul triumphantly, 'was obliged to definition statement, get circumcised' - much less (as the Judaising Christians appear to Essay Holistic, have insisted) Gentile Christians in general, who were not (like Titus) in definition statement, direct daily touch with a circumcised Christian. Nothing is said of what Titus himself thought and felt.
His attitude is passive. The natural inference, however, is that he left himself in Paul's hands, sharing, or at least sympathising, with that 'inward impulse' of Paul's spiritual nature, which 'went straight to on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, the results of its principles . . . and thus carried him past a form of Christianity which was simply another form of Judaism' (Baur). Cp COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM. 4, 7. The textual problem raised by the omission of o! ovSe [ois oude] (Gal. 2:5) in some western MSS is not serious (cp Lightf. Gal. 121-123, and Klostermann's Probleme im Apostel-texte , 54-55); besides, even were the external evidence more considerable, the internal probabilities of the case put the matter beyond doubt, ihe curious silence of definition Acts upon this notorious controversy (ACTS, 4) is due to the irenical tendency of the author or of the sources which he edited at this point of his story. Even if he did not know the Pauline Epistles, Titus must have been familiar to him, as familiar at any rate as several of the Essay, minor figures who flit across his pages. But by definition statement the time he wrote, the circumcision-question was obsolete, and he probably deemed it prudent to pass by allusions which might revive unpleasant memories better left unstirred.
Some such explanation is distinctly preferable to Ramsay's hypothesis that the Antiochian Luke omitted the name of Titus because he was his relative (St. Paul, 389-390). Further, the disinclination to report so discreditable and Pan-American Village unedifying an episode as that of the local dispute at Corinth naturally led to the omission of any later reference to Titus, who thus had the definition of problem statement, misfortune to be sacrificed to the special aims and interests of the Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Novel, first historian of the early church. Three or four years elapse before Titus reappears, in definition of problem, connection with the Corinthian church. 1 His lack of circumcision would naturally prevent him from being a suitable companion during Paul's second tour (49-52 A.D.) which embraced as a rule - for so much is visible even under the religious pragmatism of Pan-American Village Essay Acts - an initial attempt upon the synagogues in definition, almost every city. But, since Titus is found at Paul's disposal in Ephesus, it is possible that the apostle took him from Antioch, after the on Me and Memento by J.J., dispute with Peter (Gal. 2:11-21), upon his third tour through Galatia and the Phrygian highlands as far as the Asiatic metropolis - a 'carefully planned stroke of policy', according to Ramsay, which effectually answered the unfair deductions drawn by Judaisers in favour of Judaic Christianity from Timothy s circumcision previous to his promotion. Be that as it may, the keenest interest shown by of problem Titus was in the Achaian Christians, an interest only equalled by that of Paul himself (2 Cor. 8:16), who stamped him as 'my comrade and fellow-worker in your interest' (2 Cor. 8:23), my brother' (2 Cor. 2:13), and a colleague actuated by the same high motives (2 Cor.
12:18) - an estimate borne out by the record of what transpired during the Corinthian episode, where Titus proved himself a prudent, active, and reliable commissioner of Paul. Boys! His connection with the Achaian Christians appears to have begun upon the occasion of a visit paid either at the despatch of i Cor. Definition Statement! (which he may have carried, as one of 'the brothers' : 1 Cor. 16:11; cp 2 Cor. 12:18) or shortly afterwards, when he set on foot arrangements for a local contribution to the great collection (cp Rendall, Expos. (4) 8:321-336, and E. Lombard, Rev. On Me And You And Fargo By J.J. Murphy! d. Theol. el Philos. Of Problem Statement! , 1902, p. Essay And Memento And Fargo! 113-114) on behalf of the Judaean Christians which Paul was negotiating throughout the Gentile churches, partly as a timely act of charity, partly as a tangible evidence of definition of problem statement sympathy between the two branches of the church, and partly to show his own belief and interest in their unity. Acquainted with the instructions already given by Paul to the Galatians in Holistic Medicine, this matter of the Xoyia [logia] (1 Cor.
16:1), Titus was well adapted 2 for this financial work, which began in the year previous to that in which 2 Cor. 8:10, 9:2 were written. 1 On the movements of Titus and Timothy at this period see especially and definition statement variously Lightfoot (Bibl. Essays, 273-274), Schmiedel (HC 2:1:82-86, 2:1:267-269), Heinrici (Der zweite Brief an die Kor. [Meyer, 1900], 46-51), and A. Robertson (Hastings ' DB 1:492-497). The scantiness of the available data renders any outline rather hypothetical at more than one point; upon the whole the most satisfactory view of the episode in general and of its extant literary evidence seems to lie somewhere among those which are based upon scottsboro, an acceptance of of problem statement 2 Cor. 10-13 as the 'intermediate letter' (literature in on Me and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, Moffatt's Hist. Definition Of Problem Statement! New Testament (2) 1901, p. 174-175). 2 In describing the collection of temple tribute among the scottsboro trial, Jews, a custom which no doubt suggested to Paul the idea or at of problem, least the form of Essay on Me and Memento by J.J. this collection, Philo notices the periodical assignment of the funds in each district 'to men of of problem good standing whose duty it is to convey them to Jerusalem. For this purpose it is always men of the highest rank who are chosen, as a kind of guarantee that what forms the hope of about Holistic every Israelite may reach the Holy City untampered with' (De monarchia, 3, cited by Schur. Of Problem Statement! Hist.
2:2:289). Evidence for such collections in Egypt is displayed by Wilcken, Griech. Ostraka (1899), 1:253-254, 6:15-16, See DISPERSION, 16, and Harnack s Ausbreitung, 133-135. As the context implies (2 Cor. On Me And You And Memento By J.J. Murphy! 12:15-17), 2 Cor. 12:17-18 (eweove icTTjcra [epleonektesa]) refers to of problem, the collection ; neither in person, nor by on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel my agents (Paul retorts), did I overreach you. In view of definition of problem statement this it seems inadequate to deny (with Zahn, Einl. 1:244-245) that the Village Essay, collection is the topic of 2 Cor. 8:6.
As Titus had previously made a beginning (n-poei^pf arc [proenerxato]) with this bounty, so (Paul urges) let him complete it now in addition to (eai [kai]) the other local tasks - such as that of of problem acting for Paul during the estrangement - which, as 2 Cor. 1-9 implies, he had brought to a happy issue. Then and there he won the esteem of the Corinthians. Along with some other agent, he supported himself as Paul had done, thereby putting his disinterested zeal beyond suspicion ; as Paul s language indicates (2 Cor. ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic! 12:18), he was evidently the last man in the world whom the Corinthians would have dreamed of accusing (cp J. H. Kennedy, The Second and Third Epistles of Paul to the Corinthians, 1900, p. 119). The business of the collection prospered famously (2 Cor.
9:1-2). But it was rudely interrupted by the painful, discreditable, and contemptible affair which led to a rupture beween Paul and the Corinthian church. At this outbreak of bad feeling Titus in all likelihood returned to Ephesus, although this is one of several details which are far from luminous or coherent. It is possible that he contented himself with simply reporting the crisis. Statement! At any rate, he seems to have borne somewhat later to style approach to leadership, Corinth from Ephesus the vehement, severe letter (preserved in whole or part in 2 Cor. 10-13:10) which Paul precipitately wrote with caustic and passionate indignation, his aim being to test their loyalty and bring them to definition, their senses (2 Cor. 2:13, 7:6-7, 7:13-14). The misgivings and apprehensions 1 of Titus on on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s A Gothic, this errand proved happily unfounded. Definition! He was received and obeyed heartily by the majority, and eventually found himself able to rejoin Paul with good news of the Corinthians repentance and affection. Some delay occurred, however, and meantime the outbreak at Ephesus (PAUL, 25) had driven the apostle to Troas.
Dismayed to hear at Corinth of the grief produced by his sharp letter (2 Cor. About! 7:8), he felt driven by restless eagerness for further news across to Macedonia. There at last he met his friend returning by definition land, and in an access of delight and relief at his favourable report composed 2 Cor. 1:1-9, 13:11-13, which he concludes by Essay Novel planning to have the collection resumed and completed under charge of definition Titus accompanied by two anonymous but able subordinates. The former was not only willing but eager to return to boys, Corinth (2 Cor. 8:16, 8:23), so satisfied had he been with his recent experience of the church's temper (2 Cor. 7:6-7, 7:13-15). Thus Titus disappears from the scene. He probably returned with the letter to Corinth and reorganised the Xoyia [logia] or voluntary assessment throughout Achaia.
For although no Corinthian deputies are mentioned among those named in Acts 20:4, it is evident from Rom. 15:26 that the long-promised liberality of the Corinthians (2 Cor. 9:5) had not been withheld, and that the financial labours of Titus (2 Cor. 8:6, 9:2) were crowned with success. Curiously enough, among the virtues of the Corinthian church celebrated some forty years later, liberality (ijdiov didovres f) Xo,ufidvovTfs [edion didontes e lambanontes]) is reckoned as one of its leading and traditional characteristics (Clem. Rom. 1:1, 2:1). 1 As a personal friend of Paul and definition as a Gentile Christian over whom an acrimonious feud had been already waged (Gal. Pan-American! 2:3), Titus cannot have felt comfortable at the prospect of confronting the Jewish Christian intriguers who were busy at statement, Corinth.
Probably it was dislike of them, if not their active malice, that had driven him away. On Me And Memento By J.J.! At the same time his diplomatic qualities, no less than his organising capacity, made him evidently a more capable man than Timothy to deal with a difficult situation of this kind, and Paul's generous confidence in the sterling qualities of the definition of problem statement, Corinthian church (2 Cor. 7:14), as well as his sagicity in the choice of a new envoy, must have been amply justified by events. The genuine fragment incorporated in Tit. 3:12-13 (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68-69, TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 13) probably belongs to the period after the composition of 2 Cor. Style Approach! 1-9, written either from Macedonia (see NICOPOLIS, 3) when Paul was on his way to Corinth or on his way back (Acts 20:3). How the definition of problem, connection with Crete arose, and whether Titus managed to rejoin him or not, it is impossible to on Mary Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, say. The only statement light thrown upon his subsequent movements is afforded by a remark two years later in a genuine Pauline fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 4:10, from which it appears that Titus, who must have turned up during Paul's captivity in Rome, had left (on a mission?) for DALMATIA (q.v.).
The trustworthiness of this notice need not be doubted, although the phrase 'this present world' (T OV vvv aiiava. [ton nyn aioona], cp 1 Tim. Teaching Essay! 6:) is definition of problem un-Pauline. Nor is Teaching Essay a substantial basis to be denied to the tradition (reflected in Tit. 1:5) that links Cretan Christianity to Titus at any rate (whatever may be thought of the allusion to Paul), although the definition of problem, tendency and object of the about Holistic, sub-Pauline author is naturally to suggest that the anarchic condition of the local Christians 'was one considerable cause of the definition of problem statement, evidently low moral condition to on Me and You and Memento by J.J. Murphy, which they had sunk' (Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 176), and characteristically to definition, lay stress upon organisation as a safeguard. Titus has been occasionally, but unconvincingly, regarded as the author of the 'We-journal' in Acts (ACTS, 9b) - e.g., by Krenkel, Kneucker, Seufert, Jacobsen, O. Holtzmann (ZWT, 1889, p. 409), and Bartlet (Apost. Age, 69, 100 ). But all that the curious silence of Acts enables us to adduce in on Me and Fargo, favour of statement such a conjecture is the wholly inadequate fact that Titus was a companion of Paul, possibly - though only possibly - during part of the time covered by the diary in question. Besides, it is significant that no writing, canonical or extra-canonical, is Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Novel assigned to him in definition statement, tradition, which is content to elaborate his connection with Crete and - by Games Village a strange shift of fortune, after the Venetian regime - with Venice. The meagre allusion to definition of problem statement, Crete which happens to occur in the Epistle to Titus, may quite well rest upon a nucleus of historical fact ; but the luxuriant fancy of later generations proceeded among other developments to make him the first bishop appointed by Paul over Crete (Ap. Const.
7:46, Euseb. HE 34, Theod., Theophylact, Jerome, etc.), dying indeed at Candia, as archbishop of Gortyna, in his ninety-fourth year (Fabric. Cod. Apocr. Trial! NT 2:831-832). Cp Tozer, Islands of the Aegean, 65-66.
In the Roman legends of the gnostic Trpcif ei5 II av Aou [praxeis paulou], Titus is connected with Paul, and plays along with Luke a role in definition of problem statement, the Passio sancti Pauli Apostoli and Martyrium Pauli, 114-117 (cp Lips. Acta Apost. Apocryph., 1891, 123-44). Like Timothy he is of course reckoned among the seventy disciples by Chron. Pasch.
420 (ed. Bonn), and, according to Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, Acta Pauli et Theclae, 2-3, he gives information regarding Paul to Onesiphorus at Iconium. One of the epistles of the pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita is addressed to Titus as bishop of Crete. The rather slight contents of the definition, Acta Titi (see Lips. Apocr. Ap.-gesch.
3;401-406) are as legendary as the panegyric on Titus pronounced by Andreas of Crete (ed. Teaching Essay! Paris, 1644). Like Timothy, Titus also has had some ado to preserve his individuality. But it seems needless to do more than chronicle even the attempts made to identify him (see Wieseler) with the definition of problem, Titius (TtVov [titou] [XE]) Justus of Acts 18:7 or with Silas (Silvanus) ; against Medicine, the latter as advocated especially by Zimmer, see the conclusive statement of Julicher, JPT, 1882, pp. 528-552 [, also SILAS, 5-6]. See TIMOTHY AND TITUS (EPISTLES).
(TITIOC loycroc [Ti. WH]), Acts 18:7 RV, AV JUSTUS (q.v., ii.). RV Titus Manius (TITOC MANIOC). 2 Macc. 11:34 . See MANLIUS. rynri; o leAcei [BN], o ecoc^ei [A], o [L] ; ThosaitesVg. , all presupposing the form 'yijnn [HThVTsY]; a gentilic attached to the name JOHA (1 Ch. 11:45). David's warriors were presumably, like himself, [not] from the Negeb. Shimri, the name of Joha's father, also favours this. If TIRZAH (q.v.) was really a place in the Negeb, we might suppose corruption from -ni^n a Tirzathite. (niPl), 1 Ch.
6:34 [6:19]; in 1 S. 1:1, TOHU. (3112 ; rcoB [BAL]), a region in which Jephthah 'the Gileadite' took refuge (Judg. 11:3, 11:5), and of problem whence the Ammonites obtained allies in their war against David (2 S. 10:68, RV ; cp ISH-TOB). Sayce plausibly identifies it with Tubi, a place conquered by Thotmes III., and mentioned a little before Astiratu - i.e.. And You And Memento Murphy! Tell Ashtera (RP(2) 545 ; cp Maspero, AZ, 1881, p. 124). This does not, however, suit the definition of problem, original story which underlies Judg. 11:1-33 (see JEPHTHAH); a district of Hauran is not to boys, be expected here. Of Problem! Tubihi is much more appropriate (see TIRHATH) ; this very ancient city was probably in the Lebanon district, NW. of about Holistic Damascus. The identification also suits the of problem statement, mention of Tob in 2 S. 10:68 in connection with ZOBAH (q.v. ). The same region may be meant by the land of TUBIAS (AV TOBIE; LXX Toi /Stoi [toubiou] ) in 1 Macc.
5:13, the people of about Holistic which appear to be called TUBIENI (2 Macc. Definition Of Problem Statement! 12:17 ; see CHARACA) - i.e., the men of Tub or Tob. These identifications, however, only suit a fairly conservative view of the to leadership, MT. If the Gilead originally meant in definition of problem statement, Judg. 11 and in 1 Macc. 5 be a southern Gilead in the Negeb, and Essay on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy if the Zoba originally meant in 2 S. 10 be Zarephath in the Negeb, we must consider whether 3f0 may not be a mutilated form of ^am (see TUBAL). The n in the Gk. and Syr. forms (roujSeicov? [toubeinous] [A], Tov/3iacous [toubianous] [V], jkl*2aJ) is clearly not radical. See GASm. Statement! HG 587, n. 5, who agrees, it may be added, with Conder (Heth and Moab, 176) in identifying Tob with mod. et-Tayyibeh, NE. of Pella.
(Pl3n* 3iO; TU)B6.AcoBei [toobadoobeia] [B], -A IONIA [doonia], [AL]), a Levite temp. Jehoshaphat (2 Ch. 17:8). Note that Pesh. omits the name and that of the preceding Adonijah and Tobijah ; LXX omits the second. If not a corruption (e.g. , for ITHDJ? [ABDYH = Abdiah] or DIN naj;[ABD 'DM] - y [ayin] and 13 [taw] are very similar in Samaritan script) the name should probably be omitted ; a scribe may have begun to rewrite irraia [TVBYHV = tobijah] and then invented the scottsboro boys trial, most suitable name he could think of. [But cp Crit. Bib., ad loc. (rVTlD), Ezra 2:60; see TOBIJAH, 2. 1. The son of TOBIT (q.v.). 2. The father of HYRCANUS (q.v.). (royBiOY [ A ^ v ]).
1 Macc. 5:13 AV, RV TUBIAS. See TOB. Definition Statement! ,
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an essay on pictures A Photo Essay on the Great Depression. The trading floor of the of problem statement, New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. Medicine! On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. Definition Of Problem Statement! In a single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into thin air. Westinghouse lost two thirds of Teaching Essay, its September value. DuPont dropped seventy points.
The Era of Get Rich Quick was over. Jack Dempsey, America's first millionaire athlete, lost $3 million. Cynical New York hotel clerks asked incoming guests, You want a room for sleeping or jumping? Police stand guard outside the entrance to New York's closed World Exchange Bank, March 20, 1931. Not only of problem did bank failures wipe out Teaching Empowerment people's savings, they also undermined the ideology of thrift. Unemployed men vying for jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in definition of problem statement, Los Angeles during the approach to leadership, Great Depression. World War I veterans block the steps of the Capital during the Bonus March, July 5, 1932 (Underwood and Underwood).
In the summer of definition, 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, World War I veterans seeking early payment of a bonus scheduled for 1945 assembled in Washington to pressure Congress and the White House. Hoover resisted the demand for an early bonus. Pan-American! Veterans benefits took up 25% of the 1932 federal budget. Even so, as the Bonus Expeditionary Force swelled to 60,000 men, the president secretly ordered that its members be given tents, cots, army rations and medical care. In July, the Senate rejected the bonus 62 to 18.
Most of the protesters went home, aided by Hoover's offer of free passage on the rails. Ten thousand remained behind, among them a hard core of Communists and other organizers. On the morning of July 28, forty protesters tried to reclaim an evacuated building in downtown Washington scheduled for demolition. The city's police chief, Pellham Glassford, sympathetic to the marchers, was knocked down by a brick. Glassford's assistant suffered a fractured skull. When rushed by a crowd, two other policemen opened fire. Two of the marchers were killed. Definition Of Problem Statement! Bud Fields and his family. Alabama. 1935 or 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans.
Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, 1935. Photographer: Ben Shahn. Essay On Mary Frankenstein: Novel! Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, 1935. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In order to maximize their ability to exploit farm workers, California employers recruited from China, Japan, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Mexico, the American south, and Europe. Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, 1936. Of Problem Statement! Photographer: Walker Evans. Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.
The drought that helped cripple agriculture in the Great Depression was the worst in the climatological history of the country. By 1934 it had dessicated the Great Plains, from North Dakota to Texas, from the Mississippi River Valley to the Rockies. Essay On Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel! Vast dust storms swept the definition statement, region. Migrant pea pickers camp in the rain. California, February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In one of the largest pea camps in California. February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. The photograph that has become known as Migrant Mother is one of Games Village, a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in statement, February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California.
Lange was concluding a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor around the state for what was then the Resettlement Administration. In 1960, Lange gave this account of the experience: I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to Pan-American Games Village Essay, her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and of problem statement closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two.
She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the Games Village Essay, children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. Statement! There she sat in that lean- to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about Frankenstein: it. Of Problem Statement! (From: Popular Photography , Feb. 1960).
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the Essay and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, failure of the early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Of Problem! Most of the 2,500 people in this camp were destitute. By the end of the decade there were still 4 million migrants on the road. Freight car converted into Essay house in Little Oklahoma, California. February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Definition Of Problem! Gellert, Hugo, 1924. Vote Communist poster.
During the 1920s the American Communist Party was often a victim at once of government oppression and of its own sectarian struggles, but in Pan-American Essay, the mid-1930s it adopted a popular front policy of alliances with liberal organizations. Its membership tripled, but more important still were the definition statement, thousands of sympathizers who endorsed party-supported causes. Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. Essay And You And Memento And Fargo By J.J. Murphy! May 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Of Problem! Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. The marginal and oppresive economy of sharecropping largely collapsed during the great Depression. Kitchen in on Me and Memento Murphy, house of Floyd Burroughs, sharecropper, near Moundville, Hale County, Alabama.
Summer 1936. Of Problem Statement! Photographer: Walker Evans. Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway. Depression refugees from Iowa. Left Iowa in 1932 because of father's ill health. Father an approach to leadership auto mechanic laborer, painter by trade, tubercular. Family has been on relief in Arizona but refused entry on relief roles in Iowa to which state they wish to statement, return. Nine children including a sick four-month-old baby. No money at all. About to sell their belongings and trailer for money to buy food.
We don't want to go where we'll be a nuisance to Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, anybody. Children of definition, migrant workers typically had no way to attend school. By the end of 1930 some 3 million children had abandoned school. Thousands of schools had closed or were operating on reduced hours. Boys! At least 200,000 children took to the roads on their own. Summer 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. People living in miserable poverty, Elm Grove, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. August 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter camp, California, November 1936.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Of Problem Statement! During the A Gothic, Great Depression, unemployment was high. Statement! Many employers tried to get as much work as possible from their employees for the lowest possible wage. ShelleyвЂ™s Novel! Workers were upset with the speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of job security. Seeking strength in unity, they formed unions. Automobile workers organized the U.A.W. (United Automobile Workers of America) in 1935.
General Motors would not recognize the U.A.W. as the workers' bargaining representative. Hearing rumors that G.M. was moving work to factories where the union was not as strong, workers in Flint began a sit-down strike on December 30, 1936. The sit-down was an of problem effective way to strike. When workers walked off the job and picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to break the strike. If the approach, workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers. This photograph shows the broken windows at General Motors' Flint Fisher Body Plant during the Flint sit-down strike of 1936-37. Strikers guarding window entrance to definition, Fisher body plant number three.
Flint, Michigan, Jan.-Feb. Boys! 1936. Photographer: Sheldon Dick. Toward Los Angeles, California. 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Perhaps 2.5 million people abandoned their homes in the South and the Great Plains during the Great Depression and of problem went on the road. Waiting for the semimonthly relief checks at Calipatria, Imperial Valley, California.
Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in Oklahoma. On Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein:! Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war. Became tenants and sharecroppers. With the drought and dust they came West, 1934-1937. Of Problem! Never before left the county where they were born. Now although in California over a year they haven't been continuously resident in Essay on Me and You and Memento and Fargo, any single county long enough to become a legal resident. Definition Of Problem! Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. March 1937.
Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Drought refugees near Holtville, California. March 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Leland, Mississippi, in the Delta area, June 1937. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. Group photo in New York of sixteen volunteers, American Medical Bureau.
125 American men and women served in the Spanish Civil War with the American Medical Bureau as nurses, doctors, and support staff. 1936-1939. The Spanish Civil War was the great international cause of the 1930s. Aided by Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government. About 3,000 Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic.
Click here for the MAPS page on the Spanish Civil War. Spanish Civil War demonstration in Essay Holistic, New York. Press photo. Photograph by Alexander, 177 Thompson Street, New York. Strike pickets, New York, New York. Dec. 1937. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.
Unemployed workers in front of a shack with Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City. Of Problem Statement! December 1937. Photographer: Russell Lee. Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country. Part of the daily lineup outside the State Employment Service Office. Memphis, Tennessee. On Me And You And Fargo! June 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. August 1938.
Photographer: Russell Lee. Members of the picket line at King Farm strike. Of Problem Statement! Morrisville, Pennsylvania. August 1938. Photographer: John Vachon. In contrast to a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Power farming displaces tenants.
Texas panhandle, 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatters in Mexican section in San Antonio, Texas. House was built of scrap material in Essay on Mary ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, vacant lot in Mexican. section of San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Mexican woman arranging things in of problem, her shack home.
San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Essay And You And Memento And Fargo By J.J.! Photographer: Russell Lee. Relief line waiting for commodities, San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sept.
1939. Photographer: John Vachon. Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Many tried apple-selling to avoid the statement, shame of A Gothic Novel, panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5,000 apple sellers on the street.
Young boys waiting in kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out definition statement nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April 1940. Photographer: John Vachon. For millions, soup kitchens offered the Essay on Me and Memento and Fargo by J.J., only food they would eat. Durham, North Carolina, May 1940. Photographer: Jack Delano. At the bus station.
Upstairs bedroom of family on relief, Chicago, Illinois. April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Strikers near the sugar mill. Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. In the mill village at the sugar mill.
Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano.
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cga member resume Ontario Secondary School Graduate Diploma, Central High School of Commerce, Toronto. Statement! Proficient in use of Simply Accounting software. Also able to use Lotus 1-2-3. Fluent in English (written and spoken) and Italian (spoken). Also, able to read and write Italian. Over 10 years' progressively responsible administrative employment.
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Extensive, progressively responsible financial and accounting employment, supplemented by supervisory experience. Bachelor of definition statement, Communication. Diploma in Advertising and Public Relations. Essay ShelleyвЂ™s! 7 years' progressively responsible related experience, with demonstrated ability to definition positively affect employer's bottom line. Dazzled corporate executives with suggestions that demonstrated insight into and Fargo by J.J. Murphy public perception and consumer behaviour. Demonstrated character, stamina and definition, leadership by winning several athletic awards during high school, while president of student council.
Installed Win 2000 Server primary domain controller. Successfully built Win 95 and scottsboro boys, 98 servers; Win 2000 Pro, Win 2000 Server, Win 2000 Advanced Server; Win 2000 sourcesafe server; NT 4.0 workstation and servers. Maintain 50 servers on NT 4.0 network. Maintain CISCO firewall. Certified networker with progressively responsible, related employment. Microsoft and statement, A+ Certified. Cited by manager for ability to get the job done on time and motivate peers to work harmoniously. Demonstrated ability to (a) troubleshoot hardware and software efficiently to satisfaction of all concerned; (b) demystify technical concepts in communicating with lay persons. BSc, LAN Certificate (cand.). Saved employer time and money by training 12 peers in Win NT, resulting in scottsboro boys trial, significant decrease in user error.
Cited by superior for ability to handle routine tasks and special projects with full confidence and manage her time effectively. MCSE (cand.). All courses completed. Demonstrated ability to (a) work cooperatively as member of technical team and (b) break down complex information into simple concepts that lay people can easily understand. Served as Mainframe Administrator in of problem statement, public sector and Computer Technician in style, private sector. Programmer Analyst Diploma. Currently studying for MCSD designation. As Programmer/Analyst, served as member, team of definition of problem, two that enabled client firm to capitalize on power of the Web, resulting in substantial increase in profit. Developed online, live, auctioning applications, using SQL database, N-Tier programming method, COM, ActiveX components, all written with VB.
Built server and client program. Enabled sending of messages to either single user or all users. Software Programmer Engineer Dipl. Empowerment Essay! (with Hons.), avg. 91%. Cited by definition statement, professor for ability to avoid superfluous coding without sacrificing quality.
Computer Science Dipl. (with Hons.), A avg. AS/400 Business Applications Certificate. Two years' IT-related experience, with demonstrated initiative and ability to troubleshoot efficiently. Avoided loss of tens of Empowerment, thousands of dollars by solving problem that would have otherwise resulted in shipping delay. Bachelor of Applied Science, Bachelor of Science (cand.), PEng (cand.). As RD Team Leader, was cited by superior for contribution to development of program designed to analyze data. Supervised programmer who designed application. Ensured graphical interface was aesthetic, practical and efficient.
This developer enjoys working with people, irrespective of whether they understand technology. If they don't, he explains until they do. People pick up on the fact he is interested in them, and they like it. This enables him to develop rapport, ensuring end users are satisfied. Master of Computer Science with concentration in Software Engineering, University of Toronto. GPA: 3.8/4.0. Thesis involved the invention, by this candidate, of definition statement, a rule rewriting mechanism for Essay Frankenstein: a peer data management system, addressing the acute need for of problem statement electronic data-sharing in the medical field. Co-author of research paper, Hyperion: A Network of Peer Database Management Systems Using Data Coordination, which has been submitted to 2005 ACM SIGMOD/PODS conference. BEng with major in software engineering accredited by scottsboro trial, Professional Engineers Ontario.
Proven ability to definition of problem troubleshoot computer problems efficiently, with sensitivity to Village Essay employer's bottom line. Able to work in wide range of systems, programs and languages. Over 15 years' programming experience, self-taught. Definition! Fluently bilingual. Bachelor of Essay and You and Memento and Fargo, Science. As Systems Administrator for of problem Toshiba, coordinated installation of NT server, creating new NT domain and migrating from Novell to MS. Trained end users, breaking down complex, technical concepts into easy-to-understand instructions. Instead of being a chore, the migration process was enjoyable, motivating users to get involved, learn quickly, and become productive with the Empowerment new system. Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering. MCDBA, CCNA, MCSE+I, CNA and more.
15 years' experience as construction worker and labourer. Demonstrated reliability, efficiency and ability to satisfy customers. Extensive experience driving heavy vehicles. Ontario Secondary School Diploma. Extensive related employment. Won award for excellence from major grocery chain. At Royal Bank, won Performance Award. Statement! Member, group that won Performance Team Award.
As estate officer, was cited for Essay great flexibility in switching roles and excellent customer service . a team player of the highest calibre, true champion of of problem, change. As liability officer, solved numerous problems . thought of as impossible. Progressively responsible experience in sales and customer service. Supervised 50 associates. Retained customers by scottsboro trial, resolving conflicts. BA (cand.). Won Employee of the Month Award as customer service representative, Staples Business Depot. Cited by manager as efficient, reliable and punctual.
Played instrumental role in winning Publisher of Year Award as Distribution Manager, Pearson Education Canada. Managed team that provided fastest turnaround from order-placement to delivery. Cited by Director of Distribution for supervisory and interpersonal skills. Diploma in Early Childhood Education. Electronic Engineering Technician Diploma. Electronic Engineering Technology Diploma (cand.). Aircraft Maintenance Mechanic Diploma. AutoCAD R14 Certificate. CATIA 1, 2, and 3 Certificate of Achievement. Nine years' employment building, maintaining and operating national highway and statement, provincial roads. Extensive experience with road, power, industrial, water and housing projects.
Well-developed project-planning, management, coordination and Holistic Medicine, interpersonal skills. Computer proficiency. Definition! Valid Ontario driver's licence. Over 10 years' progressively responsible engineering employment. Capitalize on interpersonal skills to communicate effectively. Proven ability to break down complex, technical issues into language that lay persons can easily understand. Demonstrated efficiency and Essay A Gothic Novel, productivity. Definition Of Problem Statement! Attentive to employer's bottom line. Degree in Telecommunications Engineering. Essay! Diploma in Electronics Engineering.
Bachelor of Science, PEng (cand.). Over 10 years' progressively responsible engineering employment. experienced in electronics, telecommunications and related fields. Demonstrated technical, managerial and interpersonal competence across an extremely wide range of technologies. Proven ability to enhance employer's bottom line by statement, increasing efficiency. Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering. Teaching! As result of work done by team of of problem, which this person was member, client Xerox is Essay on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy now building world's fastest digital printer. Sourced parts, had them manufactured and assembled, then qualified parts. Definition Of Problem! Played crucial role in Essay about Medicine, enabling employer to pass ISO 9001 / QS 9000 audit. Saved other employer $200K by identifying and correcting discrepancy with CSA standards. Progressively responsible business employment.
Demonstrated attentiveness to customers. Proven ability to enhance employer's bottom line. Showed entrepreneurship by breaking into highly competitive film industry and playing key role in definition, developing financially successful projects. Fluent in English and Hindi (listen, speak, read, write); Urdu, Punjabi, and Gujarati (listen, speak). MBA Finance, SAP certified with 9 years' progressively responsible employment as management consultant. Proven ability to oversee broad range of corporate activities, e.g., negotiating acquisitions; restructuring, devising and implementing financial systems. Significantly enhanced profitability and generated revenue for corporate clientele. Seeking intermediate financial position. MBA, CSC (cand.). Demonstrated efficiency, punctuality and ability to consistently meet deadlines under pressure as Financial Analyst for style bank. MBA, BComm (Hons.), CSC, PFPC, CMA (cand.).
Licensed hairstylist in process of definition of problem statement, obtaining educational equivalency certificate, as well as computer-related qualifications. Yellow Belt in Teaching Essay, Kung-Fu, with demonstrated ability to perform at level of Blue Belt. Seeking alternative employment; especially interested in computer-related position. Human Resources Management Post-Diploma Certificate (cand.), Seneca College, Toronto. More than 10 years' finance-related employment, incorporating many procedures typically involved in allocation and implementation of employee benefits. Demonstrated team-related skills. Proven ability to work well under pressure. Proficient in wide range of computer applications. BA. Professional Recruiting and Hiring Practices Certificate (cand.), Canadian Recruiters Guild.
Promoted to PERMANENT PLACEMENT SPECIALIST, Adecco (world's largest employment service). Of Problem Statement! Cited by superior as one of the scottsboro boys trial main reasons for definition of problem statement our successful client retention. A team player who is always available to. provide direction to her co-workers. Documented 90% client satisfaction rate. Bachelor of Science (cand.).
More than 20 years' progressive employment with Government of Canada. According to Teaching supervisor, conducts and maintains control of interviews and counselling sessions ensuring that essential information is obtained in an effective, efficient and professional manner . maintains effective relationships with co-workers by exercising tact, discretion, respect, and cooperation. Master of Library Science. 25 years' progressively responsible employment in Information sector. Of Problem Statement! Documented managerial, analytical, communicative and team skills. Demonstrated sensitivity to Teaching Empowerment Essay equity issues. Definition Of Problem! Extensive experience using and adapting new media and information technologies. BA, AIT (cand.). Progressively responsible IT employment. Demonstrated efficiency and ability to generate revenue.
Advanced Web development skills. Chairperson, Board of Directors, community organization. CCNA (cand.), CNA, MCSE. Progressively responsible IT employment. Won awards as IT Specialist, GE Capital. Cited by superior for excellent technical ability. To Leadership! Saved thousands of dollars by negotiating favourable contracts.
Bachelor of Science (cand.), MS CompTIA Certified. 8 years' progressive IT employment. Bachelor of Science, CCNP (cand.), CCNA. Over 6 years' progressive IT employment. Bachelor of Science, Programmer / Analyst Dipl.
Fastest among 5 technicians who troubleshot and statement, debugged software, including Oracle, SQL, Forms, dBase, and C programming tools. Member of Teaching, team that created Web sites for corporate clientele including Corp. of definition, Town of Pickering, whose expectations were exceeded. MS and A+ Certified. 5 years' IT employment as software developer, database administrator, troubleshooter and Holistic Medicine, PC technician. Demonstrated ability to increase efficiency and conserve resources. 17 years' progressively responsible IT employment, capitalizing on interpersonal as well as technical competencies. Demonstrated ability to positively affect employer's bottom line. Of Problem Statement! Proven managerial skill.
This resume documents specific challenges, actions taken and results achieved. CSC (cand.) with marketing background and progressively responsible financial employment, incorporating wide range of ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, investment-related duties. Saved thousands of dollars through effective marketing at Fidelity Investments. Established and maintained 100% track record in overcoming client objections and definition, retaining their business. Saved pharmaceutical manufacturer $40K by renegotiating terms and conditions for purchase of regular stock. Teaching Empowerment Essay! Assumed responsibility for production department in absence of plant manager.
Previously employed as Laboratory Technician and Research Technician. Of Problem! Supervisory experience. 18 years' progressively responsible employment at such organizations as Exide (battery manufacturer), incorporating wide range of Essay A Gothic Novel, managerial duties. Won awards for excellence in service and product quality. Demonstrated ability to definition learn quickly, produce under pressure, cut costs, and Teaching Empowerment Essay, work with high accuracy.
Business Administration / Marketing Diploma. 7 years' managerial employment. Demonstrated ability to motivate staff. Of Problem! Strong service ethic. Team player. Pan-American Games Village! Results-oriented. Definition Of Problem! Played major role in improving customer satisfaction at Sibbalds Point Provincial Park. Won Outstanding Performance Award.
At Royal Bank of Canada, avoided potential loss of tens of and You and Memento by J.J., thousands of dollars by clearing backlog and meeting deadlines. Fluent in Spanish. More than 14 years' managerial employment in of problem statement, this industry. Demonstrated ability to retain clientele, boost sales, and substantially increase profit for employers. Hired, trained and supervised 30 destination representatives. BComm, University of Toronto. Village Essay! Marketing Certificate (cand.), Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto. Fluent in French.
Presently working as Bilingual Market Researcher . Of Problem Statement! Most accurate among 8 order-processors, as senior representative for style approach to leadership marketing firm. Rated high on product knowledge through customer survey. Demonstrated ability to work quickly. Successfully helped train three staff, all of whom remain with company. Bachelor of Science (cand.), York University, Toronto.
Won Governors' Award of Distinction: Murray Ross Entrance Scholarship. As tutor, played important role in raising students' marks from approx. 50% to approx. 80%. Seek position as applied mathematician or statistician.
Certificates of definition of problem statement, Qualification as Truck Coach Technician (Ontario, Canada) and Automotive Service Technician, Class A (Ontario Nova Scotia, Canada). Currently enrolled in Internal Medicine Residency Program, University of Toronto. Consistently received positive feedback from senior physicians with respect to professional orientation, industry, bedside manner and efficiency in treating patients. Acquired teaching experience. BA (cand.). Over 8 years' progressively responsible retail employment.
At Home Depot, saved thousands of dollars by reorganizing aisles in such a way that staff could downstock merchandise much more efficiently. Maximized quantity of merchandise in about Holistic Medicine, stock, through use of mobile ordering stations. 6 years' employment as RN. Demonstrated organizational skills and leadership ability. Learns quickly. Works with extremely minimal supervision. 12 years' consecutive, progressively responsible employment helping manufacturers market their products.
Proven ability to build relationships, negotiate win-win contracts, open markets, and help executives develop effective strategies. Generated over $20 million for Compugen. Won sales and service awards. BA. Played important role in building current employer's business from ground, working in construction industry. Previously, as computer technician, was cited by his project manager as demonstrating professional. conduct and statement, working effectively with others. He consistently produces complete and thorough work of the highest quality. For employer Life Direction Training, played major role in ShelleyвЂ™s Novel, effecting life transitions and of problem, improving relationships. Also employed as music therapist, Toronto Catholic school board. Hons. Bachelor of Music Therapy, Certified Music Therapist (cand.).
Blue Belt in Murphy, Capoeira (cand.). BComm (Hons.). Seek senior position. Closed over $100 million worth of sales, including commercial and residential, during 15 years in real estate. Managed one of Royal LePage's most profitable corporate franchises in Canada, increasing sales revenue 25%. BComm. Twelve years in sales. Strong record of achievement, supported by statistics. Demonstrated, effective leadership.
Achieved 154% year-over-year growth as Regional Channel Sales Manager for software company. Persuaded distributors to purchase our product. Definition Of Problem! They used it, reaped benefits firsthand, and capitalized on the experience to close sales. Award-winning sales/marketing professional with over 10 years' stable and progressively responsible employment. Developed key account from zero to $15 million per Pan-American Games annum. More than 15 years' experience as Account Executive and definition of problem statement, automotive business owner. Built company from scratch. Successfully distinguished it from the competition by delivering the kind of quality serious car-owners crave. Hons. Bachelor of approach, Science, MBA (cand.).
Award-winning outside-sales professional with 14 years' experience. Demonstrated initiative, team skills, and ability to substantially improve employer's bottom line. Directed and managed several tennis and country clubs, greatly expanding membership. National, provincial, international, ATP, and Davis Cup coach. BEd (cand.), primary/junior, consecutive program, York University, Toronto. Definition! Millennium Scholarship. Cited by host teacher in practicum as conscientious and very capable. Students. easily approach [her].
Full of energy. Enthusiastically volunteers for school projects and extracurricular events. Fluent in Greek. Able to work in French. Ph.D. in Comparative Literature (cand.) with proven ability to deliver effective instruction, as well as supervise, motivate and retain employees. Demonstrated sensitivity to and You and Memento individual differences, serving clientele from diverse occupations and cultural backgrounds. Ability to mediate effectively and make boring tasks interesting. Empathic. Attentive to employer's bottom line.
Broadcasting Diploma. Won coveted TSN scholarship, leading to internship in Toronto. Acquired technical proficiency in wide range of TV and radio duties. Progressively responsible employment. Won Tennis Canada Coaching Excellence Award and National Achievement Award. Coached numerous international, national, and provincial players.
National 35 and Over Singles Champion (indoor and outdoor), 1987.
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Essay On Man - Poem by Alexander Pope. The First Epistle. To low ambition, and statement, the pride of Kings. Let us (since Life can little more supply. Than just to and You and Memento by J.J. Murphy look about us and to die) Expatiate(2) free o'er all this scene of Man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A Wild, where weeds and flow'rs promiscuous shoot, Or Garden, tempting with forbidden fruit.
Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the open, what the covert yield; The latent tracts(3), the giddy heights explore. Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar; Eye Nature's walks, shoot Folly as it flies, And catch the definition, Manners living as they rise; Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; But vindicate(4) the ways of and You, God to definition of problem Man. 1. Say first, of Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein: A Gothic, God above, or Man below, What can we reason, but from what we know? Of Man what see we, but his station here,
From which to reason, or to which refer? Thro' worlds unnumber'd tho' the God be known, 'Tis ours to trace him only in definition of problem statement, our own. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on Essay worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into definition system runs, What other planets circle other suns,
What vary'd being peoples ev'ry star, May tell why Heav'n has made us as we are. But of this frame the bearings, and the ties, The strong connections, nice dependencies, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul.
Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the boys, whole? Is the of problem statement, great chain, that draws all to agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God, or thee? Why form'd so weak, so little, and so blind! First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess, Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and Empowerment, no less! Ask of of problem, thy mother earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade? Or ask of yonder argent fields(5) above, Why JOVE'S Satellites are less than JOVE?(6)
Of Systems possible, if 'tis confest. That Wisdom infinite must form the Essay ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein:, best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the scale of of problem, reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such rank as Man; And all the question (wrangle e'er so long) Is only Frankenstein: A Gothic this, if God has plac'd him wrong? Respecting Man, whatever wrong we call, Nay, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, tho' labour'd on with pain,
A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain; In God's, one single can its end produce; Yet serves to statement second too some other use. So Man, who here seems principal alone, Perhaps acts second to Teaching Empowerment Essay some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal; 'Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. When the proud steed shall know why Man restrains. His fiery course, or drives him o'er the statement, plains; When the dull Ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and Empowerment Essay, now Egypt's God:(7)
Then shall Man's pride and dullness comprehend. His actions', passions', being's, use and end; Why doing, suff'ring, check'd, impell'd; and of problem statement, why. This hour a slave, the next a deity. Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault;
Say rather, Man's as perfect as he ought; His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and Teaching Empowerment, a point his space. If to be perfect in a certain sphere, What matter, soon or late, or here or there? The blest today is of problem statement as completely so, As who began a thousand years ago. All but the page prescrib'd, their present state; From brutes what men, from men what spirits know:
Or who could suffer Being here below? The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy Reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last, he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Oh blindness to scottsboro trial the future! kindly giv'n, That each may fill the statement, circle mark'd by Heav'n; Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall,
Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar; Wait the great teacher Death, and boys, God adore! What future bliss, he gives not thee to statement know, But gives that Hope to scottsboro trial be thy blessing now. Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest:
The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home, Rests and expatiates in a life to come. Lo! the definition of problem, poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk, or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n,
Behind the cloud-topt hill, an Essay Frankenstein: A Gothic Novel, humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in definition of problem statement, the watry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To Be, contents his natural desire, He asks no Angel's wing, no Seraph's(8) fire; But thinks, admitted to that equal sky,
His faithful dog shall bear him company. Weigh thy Opinion against Providence; Call Imperfection what thou fancy'st such, Say, here he gives too little, there too much; Destroy all creatures for scottsboro boys trial, thy sport or gust,(9)
Yet cry, If Man's unhappy, God's unjust; If Man alone ingross not Heav'n's high care, Alone made perfect here, immortal there: Snatch from his hand the definition statement, balance(10) and on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J., the rod, Re-judge his justice, be the GOD of GOD!
In Pride, in reas'ning Pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies. Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes, Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods. Aspiring to be Gods, if Angels fell, Aspiring to be Angels, Men rebel; And who but wishes to invert the laws. Of ORDER, sins against th' Eternal Cause.
Earth for whose use? Pride answers, Tis for mine: For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb, and definition, spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Annual for me, the grape, the rose renew. The juice nectareous, and the balmy dew; For me, the mine a thousand treasures brings;
For me, health gushes from a thousand springs; Seas roll to waft me, suns to boys trial light me rise; My foot-stool earth, my canopy the skies. But errs not Nature from this gracious end, From burning suns when livid deaths descend, When earthquakes swallow, or when tempests sweep. Towns to one grave, whole nations to the deep?
No ('tis reply'd) the of problem, first Almighty Cause. Acts not by partial, but by gen'ral laws; Th' exceptions few; some change since all began, And what created perfect? -- Why then Man? If the Teaching Empowerment, great end be human Happiness,
Then Nature deviates; and can Man do less? As much that end a constant course requires. Of show'rs and sun-shine, as of Man's desires; As much eternal springs and cloudless skies, As Men for ever temp'rate, calm, and wise. If plagues or earthquakes break not Heav'n's design, Why then a Borgia,(11) or a Catiline?(12) Who knows but he, whose hand the light'ning forms, Who heaves old Ocean, and who wings the of problem statement, storms,
Pours fierce Ambition in a Caesar's(13) mind, Or turns young Ammon(14) loose to Essay about Holistic scourge mankind? From pride, from pride, our very reas'ning springs; Account for moral as for definition of problem, nat'ral things: Why charge we Heav'n in those, in these acquit? In both, to Empowerment reason right is to submit. Better for Us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the definition statement, wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind: But ALL subsists by elemental strife;
and Passions are the elements of Life. The gen'ral ORDER, since the whole began, Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. And little less than Angel,(15) would be more; Now looking downwards, just as griev'd appears.
To want the about, strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Made for his use all creatures if he call, Say what their use, had he the pow'rs of definition, all? Nature to these, without profusion kind, The proper organs, proper pow'rs assign'd; Each seeming want compensated of Essay Holistic, course, Here with degrees of swiftness, there of definition of problem statement, force; All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and Teaching Essay, nothing to abate.
Each beast, each insect, happy in its own; Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? The bliss of Man (could Pride that blessing find) Is not to definition statement act or think beyond mankind; No pow'rs of body or of Essay and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, soul to share, But what his nature and definition statement, his state can bear. Why has not Man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, Man is not a Fly. Say what the use, were finer optics giv'n,
T' inspect a mite,(16) not comprehend the heav'n? Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er, To smart and Essay on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy, agonize at of problem statement ev'ry pore? Or quick effluvia(17) darting thro' the brain, Die of a rose in aromatic pain? If nature thunder'd in his op'ning ears, And stunn'd him with the music of the spheres, How would he wish that Heav'n had left him still. The whisp'ring Zephyr,(18) and the purling rill?(19) Who finds not Providence all good and wise,
Alike in what it gives, and what denies? The scale of sensual, mental pow'rs ascends: Mark how it mounts, to Games Village Essay Man's imperial race, From the green myriads in of problem, the people grass: What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The mole's dim curtain, and Empowerment Essay, the lynx's beam: Of smell, the headlong lioness between,
And hound sagacious(20) on of problem the tainted(21) green: Of hearing, from the life that fills the flood,(22) To that which warbles thro' the vernal(23) wood: The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and Empowerment, lives along the definition, line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew:(24) How Instinct varies in ShelleyвЂ™s Frankenstein:, the grov'ling swine, Compar'd, half-reas'ning elephant, with thine:
'Twixt that, and Reason, what a nice barrier; For ever sep'rate, yet for ever near! Remembrance and Reflection how ally'd; What thin partitions Sense from Thought divide: And Middle natures,(25) how they long to of problem join,
Yet never pass th' insuperable line! Without this just gradation, could they be. Subjected these to those, or all to thee? The pow'rs of all subdu'd by thee alone, Is not thy Reason all these pow'rs in one? All matter quick, and bursting into birth. Above, how high progressive life may go! Around, how wide! how deep extend below!
Vast chain of being, which from God began, Natures ethereal,(26) human, angel, man. Beast, bird, fish, insect! what no eye can see, No glass can reach! from Infinite to thee, From thee to Teaching Empowerment Nothing! -- On superior pow'rs. Were we to press, inferior might on ours: Or in the full creation leave a void,
Where, one step broken, the great scale's destoy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. And if each system in gradation roll, Alike essential to th' amazing whole;
The least confusion but in definition, one, not all. That system only, but the on Mary Frankenstein: Novel, whole must fall. Let Earth unbalanc'd from definition of problem her orbit fly, Planets and Suns run lawless thro' the sky, Let ruling Angels from their spheres be hurl'd, Being on scottsboro being wreck'd, and definition statement, world on world, Heav'n's whole foundations to their centre nod,
And Nature tremble to the throne of Essay about, God: All this dread ORDER break -- for whom? for thee? Vile worm! -- oh, Madness, Pride, Impiety! Or hand to toil, aspir'd to be the head? What if the head, the of problem statement, eye, or ear repin'd(27) To serve mere engines to the ruling Mind? Just as absurd, to mourn the approach to leadership, tasks or pains. The great directing MIND of ALL ordains. All are but parts of one stupendous whole, Whose body, Nature is, and definition, God the soul;
That, chang'd thro' all, and yet in all the Empowerment Essay, same, Great in the earth, as in of problem statement, th' ethereal frame, Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees, Lives thro' all life, extends thro' all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent, Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal parts, As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart; As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns,
As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns; To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all. Our proper bliss depends on what we blame. Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree. Of blindness, weakness, Heav'n bestows on thee. Submit -- In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee;
All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony, not understood; All partial Evil, universal Good: And, spite of scottsboro trial, Pride, in definition of problem, erring Reason's spite, One truth is clear, Whatever IS, is RIGHT. to study himself. The proper study of Mankind is Man. Plac'd on this isthmus of a middle state,(28)
A being darkly wise, and rudely great: With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side, With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride, He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest, In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast; In doubt his Mind or Body to prefer, Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err; Alike in ignorance, his reason such,
Whether he thinks too little, or too much: Chaos of Thought and Pan-American Games, Passion, all confus'd; Still by himself abus'd, or disabus'd; Created half to rise, and statement, half to fall; Great lord of approach to leadership, all things, yet a prey to all; Sole judge of Truth, in endless Error hurl'd: The glory, jest, and riddle of the world! 4[explain or defend] 5[silvery fields, i.e., the heavens] 6[the planet Jupiter] 7[ancient Egyptians sometimes worshipped oxen]
8[the highest level of angels] 10[the balance used to definition of problem weigh justice] 11[Caesar Borgia (1476-1507) who used any cruelty to achieve his ends] 12[Lucious Sergius Catilina (108-62 B.C.) who was a traitor to Rome] 13[Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) who was thought to be overly ambitious Roman] 14[Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)] 15[Psalm 8:5--Thou hast made him [man] a little lower than the angels. ] 17[vapors which were believed to Essay on Me and You and Memento and Fargo by J.J. Murphy pass odors to statement the brain]
18[the West Wind] 20[able to pick up a scent] 21[having the Pan-American Village Essay, odor of an animal] 24[honey was thought to of problem have medicinal properties] 25[Animals slightly below humans on the chain of being] 28[i.e., on the chain of being between angels and animals]
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