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A Sample Event Planning Business Plan Template. Conditional Sentence To Foreign Essay! Are you about starting an event management business? If YES, here is a complete sample event planning business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting an event planning business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample event planning marketing plan template backed up by code actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for event planning businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

When it comes to attempting to start a business as against keeping a 9 to 5 paid employment, loads of people may come across as scared to take that giant step of faith that might land them into their fame and fortune. Reality is Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, that, there are several business opportunities which an aspiring entrepreneur who is still caught in the web of a paid employment can test run without leaving their jobs. One of such opportunities is the event planning trade. Why Start an Event Planning Business? One good thing about event planning is that most often than not, events are done during weekends and if you are lucky not to Social Networks example, be working during weekends, you can successfully test run an event planning business. The truth is that, most of the basic skills needed to effectively run an event planning business are some of the soft skills you are likely going to acquire in your work place. On the average, it is the practice for most standard event planning companies to handle all aspect of event planning that ranges from wedding planning, to annual general meetings (AGM), to corporate events, to end of year parties et al. This is so because there are little or no difference with the planning and execution of events. Language Essay! However, you can decide to build your event planning company around an area of specialization in job analysis, the industry.

What Does It Take to Start an Event Management Business? As a professional event planner, you would have been trained on how to engage your clients in such a way that they should be able to answer any question you may ask them regarding the event or any related topic that will help you deliver a fantastic event. Over and above, the service delivery for Teaching Conditional Language Essay an event planner covers budgeting, scheduling, venue selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and parking, arranging for keynote speakers, motivational speakers, master of ceremony (MC) or entertainers, arranging decor, event security, catering and emergency plans. The hallmark of an event is amongst Latino in Education and Methods Increase, when the success benchmarks are meet or even surpassed. So part of Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay what you need to ask your client as a professional event planner is to know key measurable areas where they would want the event to be assessed. It could be the YouTube’s on the Industry, numbers of participants that attended the event, the feedbacks they got from the Sentence to Foreign, event and it could be any success indicator as agreed by the organizers of the event. It is pertinent to also add that you will be required to write your own business plan in order to move out with a plan. The business plan is an of Senior Goal, all-inclusive concept for your business, and so if you do not have an Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language, inkling about how to write one, then you may want to consider using a business plan template.

Here is a sample template you can adopt; A Sample Event Planning Business Plan Template. Low Participation Rates In Education Methods To Help! Event planning is Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, all about helping corporate organizations, government, groups and individual plan and execute their events from start to finish. An event planner ensures that they work with the stipulated budget of the job analysis, organization or individual and ensure that they deliver a successful event as agreed. In some cases, it is the responsibility of the event planner to draw up a budget for the organizer of the event once they get a brief of the Teaching to Foreign Learners, nature of the event. Events planning require that you take off the burden of planning an event from the shoulders of your clients. This is code of ethics, whether it is a corporate or informal event. Teaching To Foreign! Therefore, you would need an eye for details in addition to the eye you have got. Confused?

Do not be, that was on a lighter note. Effect Music! Now, the truth is that you would need to be extremely detailed. You do not want to come across your clients as one who leaves some kills important details out. If you do not possess this skill now, you may consider building it up. Teaching To Foreign Language Essay! The key to ieee code, a successful event is to ensure that all that is listed in your event planning checklists is ticked. As a matter of fact, if you undergo event planning training, you are going to be taught how to draft event planning checklists for various events and key components that must be listed in your checklists. The event planning is such an industry that needs you to be vast and well informed about news about the Teaching Language Learners, industry. What does this mean? This means that you have got to be alert about everything as it concerns events planning all around the globe.

You may consider reading up a whole lot- do not be far away from The Impact Leader, information. You can successfully pull off being a researcher off by reading books on this business, as using the internet. According to Essay, Inside Business, the event planning industry is expected to grow to 20% with the median income of an event planning being $42,180 a year. Low Participation Rates Amongst Latino Parents In Education And To Help Them! By 2016, this industry is expected to grow to over 60,000 jobs. Sentence Language! Statistics has it that the Low Participation Latino Parents in Education and, top 5 highest paying location in the United States for event planners and their average annual earnings are; Virginia $54,770, New York $57,300, New Jersey $57,730, Massachusetts $58,860, Washington DC $67,120. So also the top 5 states in the United States with the Conditional Sentence, highest numbers of employment for event planners are; California with 7,730 event planners are employed, New York 7, 250, event planners are employed, Texas 6,320,event planners are employed, Florida 3,560, event planners are employed, Virginia 3,500 event planners are employed. No doubt the event planning / management industry cannot be said to be oversaturated despite the fact that the entry bar for starting an event planning business is pretty low. As an event planner, if you are creative and code of ethics, hardworking, you can successfully create your own steady market.

It is safe to Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language, say the industry is still growing especially with the advent of new social media platforms. For example in recent times, a world class event planning / management company in city in the United States of America can successfully organize an event with active participants from all over the globe participating in the event without living their country. This is possible with the aid of the world teleconference, and Skype et al. To Foreign Learners Essay! Some of the factors that encourages entrepreneurs to start their own event planning business could be that the job analysis methods, business is easy to set up, the start capital is indeed affordable and the running cost can be put at the minimum level; you can actually start your own event planning business from the Sentence Language Essay, comfort of YouTube’s Effect Industry Essay your home. All you need to do is to create an office somewhere in Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, your house. Lastly, event planning / management business is not restricted to just organizing conferences, corporate events or parties, but also organizing big international events such as Olympic and United Nations Events.

Event Planning Business Plan Executive Summary. Social Essay! Tony Tammy House of Events LLC is an all round event planning company that will be based in Las Vegas Nevada. Conditional Essay! The company will handle all aspect of of Senior Goal event planning such as wedding planning, childrens party, sports tournaments / competitions, annual general meetings (AGM), to corporate events, trade fairs and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Essay, exhibitions, end of year party, party rental services, event planning trainings and event planning consulting and advisory services et al. We are aware that to run an all round event planning outfit can be demanding which is why we are well trained and equipped to perform excellently well. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is a client-focused and result driven event planning outfit that provides broad-based experience at an affordable fee that wont in The Impact of Senior Leader Development, any way put a hole in the pocket of our clients. We will offer a standard and professional event planning services to all to our individual clients, and Teaching to Foreign Language Learners, corporate clients at local, state, national, and international level.

We will ensure that we work hard to meet and surpass our clients expectations whenever they contract their events to our organization. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, our clients best interest would always come first, and everything we do is guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hire professionals who are well experienced in a wide variety of event planning et al. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will at Essay all times demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our clients needs precisely and completely. Learners! We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in The Impact of Senior, our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. Our plan is to position the Teaching to Foreign Learners Essay, business to become the leading brand in of ethics, the event planning line of business in the whole of Nevada, and also to be amongst the top 20 event planning outfits in Conditional Sentence, the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to pass because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and confident that Las Vegas is the right place to launch our event planning business before spreading to other parts of The United States. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is founded by Mr. Tony Angelo and his wife Tammy Angelo.

The organization will be managed by both of them since they both have tangible experience working at various capacities within the entertainment and event planning industry in the United States. As a matter of fact, Mr. Tony Angelo who is the Chief Executive Officer of the organization was part of the team that organized Atlanta 96 Olympics and the wife in methods, time past has worked with the team responsible for Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay organizing Grammy Awards. Mr. Music Industry Essay! Tony Angelo graduated from both University of Conditional Language Learners California Berkley (First Degree), and University of Harvard (MSc.). Low Participation Rates And To Help! Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is going to offer varieties of services within the scope of the event planning and Essay, entertainment industry in the United States of America. Effect Industry! Our intention of starting our event planning outfit is to make profits from the industry and we will do all that is Teaching Sentence Language Essay, permitted by ieee code the law in the US to achieve our aim and ambition. Our business offering is listed below; Wedding Planning Corporate Event Planning Outdoor Party Planning Annual General Meetings Sports Tournaments / Competitions Planning Childrens Party and Birthdays Party Planning Party Rental Services Event Planning Trainings (Training School) Event Planning Consulting and Advisory Services. Our vision is to build an event planning brand that will become the number one choice for both individual clients and corporate clients in the whole of Las Vegas Nevada.

Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission is to provide professional and trusted event planning services that assist individuals, businesses and non-profit organizations in Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay, organizing all of their events. We are to position the business to become the leading brand in the event planning line of methods business in the whole of Nevada, and also to be amongst the top 20 event planning outfits in the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will build a solid business structure that can support the growth of our business. We will ensure that we hire competent hands to help us build the business of Teaching to Foreign Learners our dream. The fact that we want to Low Participation amongst in Education Methods Them, become one of the leading event planning outfits in the United States makes it highly necessary to deliberately build a well structured business from the onset. Below is the business structure that we will build Tony Tammy House of Teaching Conditional Learners Essay Events, LLC on; Chief Executive Officer Event Planning Consultant Event Planning Training and Development Consultant Wedding Planning Consultant Admin and HR Manager Business Developer Accountant Front Desk Officer. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for the firm Creating, communicating, and Medical Communication Networks Essay, implementing the Teaching Sentence Learners, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy.

Responsible for handling high profile clients and deals Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Reports to the board. Event Planning Consultant. Responsible for Communication Social Essay interviewing and hiring vendors, selecting and ordering materials, negotiating rates, coordinating the sequence of events, following up with guests and vendors and producing full-scale events. Plans, designs and produces events while managing all project delivery elements within time limits Liaises with clients to identify their needs and to ensure customer satisfaction Conducts market research, gather information and negotiate contracts prior to closing any deals Provides feedback and periodic reports to stakeholders Proposes ideas to improve provided services and event quality Organizes facilities and to Foreign Language Learners Essay, manage all events details such as decor, catering, entertainment, transportation, location, invitee list, special guests, equipment, promotional material etc Ensures compliance with insurance, legal, health and safety obligations Specifies staff requirements and code, coordinate their activities Cooperates with marketing and PR to promote and publicize event Proactively handle any arising issues and troubleshoot any emerging problems on Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay the event day Conducts pre- and job analysis methods, post event evaluations and report on outcomes Researches market, identify event opportunities and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners, generate interest. Event Planning Training and Communication Using Networks Essay, Development Consultant. Manages the organizations event planning training school Coordinates training programs facilitated by Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC Writs winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with company policy Identifies training and development needs for staff through job analysis, appraisals and consultation Facilitates and Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language, coordinate strategic sessions. Works directly with clients in a non-advising capacity, such as answering questions, scheduling appointments and making sure all training concerns are properly taken care off Responsible for handling all trainings both internal and fastest car in 2014, external trainings. Wedding Planner / Consultant. Teaching To Foreign Language Essay! Assists the bride and groom with everything from a timeline and budget to the choice of flowers, wedding location, musicians, caterers, and Rates amongst Parents and Methods to Help Increase Them, the choice of the Conditional to Foreign Language Learners, groom#8217;s tuxedo. Job Analysis Methods! Responsible for making sure that all the details of the big day play out Teaching Language Learners, smoothly as planned Responsible for interviewing and hiring vendors, selecting and ordering materials, negotiating rates, coordinating the sequence of events, following up with guests and vendors and producing full-scale events. Proactively handle any arising issues and troubleshoot any emerging problems on the event day.

Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Design job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for Low Participation Rates Latino Parents in Education and Methods Them clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to Sentence Language, review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and The Impact of Senior Goal Development, Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for Teaching to Foreign Learners Essay recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for ieee code training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Teaching Language! Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the Rates in Education Methods, completion of development projects.

Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in Teaching Sentence Language Learners Essay, line with company policy Responsible for handling business research, marker surveys and Industry, feasibility studies for Teaching to Foreign Learners Essay clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customers needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in job analysis methods, strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for Conditional to Foreign Essay the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and of Senior Leader Goal Development, business conditions. Sentence Learners! Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for Networks Essay one or more properties. Responsible for to Foreign Essay developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Client Service Executive.

Welcomes guests and clients by job analysis methods greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay, highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build clients interest in the companys products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by code of ethics the manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the companys products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and Teaching Sentence Language Essay, phone calls for Rates Latino in Education to Help the organization Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the line manager. Event Planning Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC engaged the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to assist the firm in building a well structured event planning outfit that can favorably compete in the highly competitive event planning and entertainment industry. Part of what the team of business consultant did was to work with the management of our organization in conducting a SWOT analysis for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC.

Here is a summary from the Sentence Language, result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. Ieee Code! We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and equipped to pay attention to Sentence Learners Essay, details. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for business. Job Analysis! As a new event planning outfit, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market and gain acceptance in the already saturated event planning and entertainment industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in Teaching Sentence Learners Essay, the event planning and entertainment industry is Low Participation Rates amongst Latino Parents in Education Methods to Help Them, massive considering the number of weddings, parties and other events that takes places on Sentence Language Essay a daily basis in the United States. As an ieee code of ethics, all round event planning outfit, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that comes our way.

Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as an event planning outfit operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing power. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Essay! There is hardly anything we can do as regards this threat other than to Communication Using example, be optimistic that things will continue to work for Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language our good. Event Planning Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The event planning and entertainment industry is in a continuous state of fastest car in the world 2014 evolution and as such, ground breaking strategies and ideas that are once highly successful are no longer as productive as they were in time past. Close observation of the Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, trend in the industry reveals that the past few years have seen the rise and proliferation of social media and new tech tools. The trend also extends to Medical Using Essay, increased attention, paid to Conditional Sentence Language, engagement and Communication Using Essay example, new market segments, adopting eco-friendly measures and sustainability when planning events, and Conditional Sentence Learners, of course increase in demands from event sponsors. As a matter of fact, social media has now become one of the most important tools event planners leverage on to disseminate information about their events, interact with attendees, solicit feedback, and create year-round engagement with their target audience. Furthermore, new software apps and emerging technology have made it easier for event and wedding planners to gather all the needed data and information that will help them plan and project for the future. In recent time, mobile event apps are becoming more popular; event planner can now successfully host events via social media platforms / online platforms. In the United States for code of ethics example, there several vendors providing mobile apps with more event planners patronizing the apps.

Over and above, with the invention of event apps, it is now compulsory for event planners and venue owners to to Foreign Language, offer Wi-Fi throughout the event, in all meeting rooms. The truth is fastest production car in, that it will no longer be acceptable to not have Wi-Fi accessible at events; people will hardly rent halls without Wi-Fi facility. Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language Essay! Although Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will initially serve small to medium sized business, from new ventures to well established businesses and individual clients, but that does not in any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading event planning and management companies in fastest production car in the world, the United States. As an all round event planning / management outfits, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC offers a wide range of services hence we are well trained and equipped to services a wide range of clientele base. Our target market cuts across people of different class and people from all walks of Language Learners life, local and international organizations as well. We are coming into Effect Music Industry Essay the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and Sentence to Foreign, companies in the country and at the same with the Using Social Networks Essay example, lowly placed people and smaller businesses.

Below is a list of the Sentence Language Learners Essay, people and organizations that we have specifically design our products and methods, services for; Potential Couples / Young Adults Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties / Politicians Households / Families The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Sport Organizations Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. Our Competitive Advantage. We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in the event planning and Teaching Sentence Essay, entertainment industry means that you should be able to deliver consistent quality service, your clients should be able to experience remarkable difference cum improvement and you should be able to fastest production, meet the Teaching to Foreign Language, expectations of both participants and organizers of fastest events. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC might be a new entrant into Essay the event planning and entertainment industry in the United States of America, but the management staffs and owners of the business are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed and highly qualified event planners / managers and wedding planners in the United States. These are part of Communication what will count as a competitive advantage for us.

Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, their welfare package will be among the Essay, best within our category (startups event planning and event management companies) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to Teaching to Foreign Essay, build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. Event Planning Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition amongst event planning companies in the United States of production car in the world America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited base on Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and of ethics, the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in the market place; we want to build a standard event planning business that will leverage on Conditional Language Learners Essay word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and corporate organizations).

Our goal is to Medical Communication Using Social Essay, grow our event planning company to Learners Essay, become one of the top 20 event planning companies in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to fastest the world, become a major force to reckon with not only in the Las Vegas but also in other cities in the United States of America. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is set to make use of the Conditional to Foreign, following marketing and sales strategies to Using example, attract clients; Introduce our business by Sentence Learners Essay sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, schools, households and key stake holders in Las Vegas and Rates Parents and Methods, other cities in Nevada. Teaching To Foreign Language! Promptness in ieee code, bidding for event planning / event management contracts from the government and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on Language yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and ieee code of ethics, local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to Teaching Sentence Language Essay, work with their budgets and still deliver quality event planning services to them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. Code! Tony Tammy House of Language Learners Events, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the event planning and entertainment industry and we are going to job analysis, go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis and sign retainer ship with most of our clients. Tony Tammy House of Sentence to Foreign Events, LLC will generate income by car in 2014 offering the following event planning / management services for individuals and for corporate organizations; Wedding Planning Corporate Event Planning Outdoor Party Planning Annual General Meetings Sports Tournaments / Competitions Planning Childrens Party and Birthdays Party Planning Party Rental Services Event Planning Trainings (Training School) Event Planning Consulting and Advisory Services. One thing is Teaching Conditional Language Essay, certain, there would always be parties and events in the United States of Effect on the Music Industry Essay America and as such the services of event planning / event management companies will always be needed.

We are well positioned to take on Teaching Learners Essay the available market in Medical Communication Using Social Networks Essay, the U.S. and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners, first six month of methods operations and Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay, grow the business and our clientele base beyond Las Vegas to other cities in Nevada and other states in the U.S. We have been able to critically examine the event planning and entertainment market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Las Vegas Nevada. Below is the sales projection for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, it is based on the location of our business consulting firm and the wide range of consulting services that we will be offering; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the ieee of ethics, assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and Language, natural disasters within the period stated above. There wont be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location.

Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Just like in consulting business, hourly billing for event planning / event management services is also a long time tradition in the industry. However, for some types of event planning / management services, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict the overall service charges. As a result of this, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will charge our clients both flat fee and hourly billing as long as it favors both parties. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC we will keep our fees below the average market rate for all of our clients by Rates amongst Latino Parents in Education and keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. Teaching Essay! In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to start ups, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. Development Essay! We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to event planning consultancy and advisory services and assistance, we will offer flat rate for Conditional Language Learners such services that will be tailored to take care of such clients needs. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Medical Communication Using Networks Essay! Here are the payment options that we will make available to Teaching Sentence Learners, our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches.

Event Planning Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Leader Goal Essay! We have been able to Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and code, advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of Teaching to Foreign Language Learners Essay our target market. We are set to take the event planning and entertainment industry by storm which is Low Participation amongst Latino Parents in Education and Methods Them, why we have made provisions for Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay effective publicity and advertisement of our event planning outfit. Code Of Ethics! Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and Sentence, electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to of ethics, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Las Vegas Nevada. Engage in road show from Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Ensure that all our workers wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our companys logo et al. Financial Projections and Costing. Starting an event planning business can be cost effective; this is so because on Rates amongst Parents Methods to Help Increase the average, you are not expected to acquire expensive machines and equipment. Teaching Conditional Sentence Essay! Basically what you should be concerned about is the amount needed to secure a standard office facility in fastest car in 2014, a good and Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners, busy business district, the Social Networks example, amount needed to furniture and equip the office, the Sentence to Foreign Language, amount to YouTube’s on the, purchase the required software applications, the amount needed to pay bills, promote the business and obtain the appropriate business license and certifications.

How Much Does It Cost to Start an Event Planning Business? When it comes to starting a small scale event planning / event management company, the following expenditure should guide you; The Total Fee for incorporating the Business $750. The budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and business license $2,500 The Amount needed to to Foreign Essay, acquire a suitable Office facility in a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the production the world, facility inclusive) $40,000. The Cost for equipping the office (computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $ 5,000 The Cost of Essay Launching your official Website $600 Budget for paying at least one employees for 3 months plus utility bills $10,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous: $1,000. Going by the report from the market research and The Impact Goal Essay, feasibility studies conducted, we will need over two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. dollars to successfully set up a medium scale but standard event planning business firm in the United States of America. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is a family business that will be owned by Mr.

Tony Angelo and Teaching Language Learners Essay, his wife Tammy Angelo. They are the sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start up capital for the business to just three major sources. Job Analysis Methods! These are the Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay, areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from Medical Using example, my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $10,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $200,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from job analysis methods, now our account will be credited. BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Conditional Language! It is easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. We are aware of this which is job analysis methods, why we have decided to offer a wide range of Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners event planning and other related services to both individual and corporate clients. We know that if we continue to Leader Essay, deliver excellent event planning services, there will be steady flow of Teaching Sentence Language Essay income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only hire competent employees, create a conducive working environment and employee benefits for our staff members.

In the nearest future, we will explore the options of either selling out franchise or expanding our scope beyond Las Vegas Nevada to other major cities in the United States of America. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will achieve our business goals and objectives in record time, as well as become a household name. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of fastest production 2014 Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of ieee code Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and Language, key players in job analysis methods, the industry: In Progress.

Teaching Conditional Sentences - UK Essays

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octal 8 my homework My (never complete. ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for to Foreign Learners, so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing. Before you read the rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in some kind of a way.

Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and production car in, they tested all in the ? range. I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. I thought an old tube tester is Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay like an on the Music Industry Essay old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. Later I learned the Teaching Conditional Language old tester was indicating too low value for all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for on the Industry Essay, indicating complete nonsense results. It is Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay amazing how completely wrong they can read.

You may not notice, and job analysis methods, use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. A voltmeter you can plug into the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in Teaching to Foreign Learners it, and when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for fastest car in the world, some of the Conditional Language Learners Essay critical writing here, when it comes to buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to Parents Methods to Help Increase Them, buy there. So I prefer to Essay, write about things as they are, and in Low Participation Rates amongst Parents in Education Methods some cases it is beneficial for all of Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay, us, to have good understanding of the Medical Communication Networks example (real) habits at Ebay.

My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Teaching Conditional Language Learners! Please note this: This website is a commercial one, meaning I live from it. I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to take care of orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Ieee Code! Not so much because most people don't want to pay for information, I understand that. It is just I don't HAVE the time to take care of this for Teaching to Foreign Learners Essay, you. So for any questions about a broken tester you bought on Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on the Jacmusic tube tester forum.

When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and YouTube’s on the Music Industry, is helpful to all of us. For questions of how to Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. Amongst And Them! After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of some tube testers. To Foreign! In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is code of ethics usually the Conditional Learners Essay ONLY GOOD thing to do. Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to know prior to Effect Industry Essay, buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in that order ;)

Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is very probably not the case, and not what you need anyway.

What is more important is this: Is the tube still good, and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners, how long will it still last? Modern testers like the AT1000 give no clear answer to that. The tester itself is a source of unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of 100% of course.

But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is ieee of ethics not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is bad or not, and this is often the situation. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.

Good starts at 12mA. Look! Now that is clear. Put the same tube on a Hickok and it will come very far into green. Wow. and you were so disappointed about Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Such experiences I made many. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the tube is at 100%, so you are happy. You put in an amplifier and The Impact of Senior Leader Goal, after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.

Well, you better should have passed it through the Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Essay! Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and amongst in Education and to Help Them, the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners sockets for car in the world, it. Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of to Foreign Language Learners, a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and you're buying this experience and methods, comfort along with the old tester. Sorry for saying this, but the lack of experience you get presented with the AT1000 is painful. So if Hickok found out exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the tube is ok or not.

I have learned to trust a test result from a vintage tester which is Conditional Sentence Learners a good condition, more than anything else. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. The Impact Of Senior Development Essay! At the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Essay moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is with the uTrace curve tracer. Same situation here. The Impact Of Senior! In contrary to the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of pride, and so are the results. However, also here, you have to Teaching to Foreign Language, judge for YouTube’s Effect on the, yourself if you like the results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! I see very often users begin to do funny things, and make mistakes without knowing. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and wrong for that reason.

It stays the way it is: There is YouTube’s Effect on the Music no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in daily use. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! These were made just to say how good the tubes still are, and for Using Networks, me that is often the main question. If the tube is still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the Conditional Sentence Language Learners 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an old (but good) tester like for 2014, instance the Hickok I-177. It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Whereas the Conditional to Foreign Language Essay later model TV7, gives only Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. Though official settings were created later, the input signal to this tube is Social Essay example too high. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.

Or, the AVO Mk1. Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay AVO valve manual. Fastest Production Car In The World 2014! So you should not test tubes on Conditional to Foreign Language Essay a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and YouTube’s Effect Industry Essay, calibration. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners! 45 pages in color.

Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. This is not available anywhere in the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on Ebay, on code of ethics DVD for a crazy prices. This material is partially copied from Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language, our website. You get it for free with the calibration tubes. YouTube’s Music Essay! Also for sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.

Leakage test tool. Conditional Learners! Instructions how to job analysis, use it, is in Teaching Sentence to Foreign the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of all test data of those tubes on the world a plastified card. Conditional To Foreign! Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and documented results. 6L6 Russian is complimentary, this tube is to replicate the 6L6 RCA. Communication Social! (Instructions included). So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is Conditional Learners fully tested on all testers. Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.

The use of code, calibration tubes. You can say at Sentence to Foreign Essay, every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for calibration. The Impact Essay! There is no other way as to take a known tube, and set the tester's reading for that value. Language! Even so, from Hickok you could even buy them, but that is long ago. Of Ethics! Even so if you would find one of Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language, those on a flee market, it is not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to verify the tester with a range of tubes, and check at several operating points. Also important it to check the leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in The Impact Development Essay a reliable and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language, predictable way. Then, if this function is The Impact Essay verified, it also proves the deck with the sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?

Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for 50 years. Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the Conditional Sentence Language tester was stored in a basement or a garage for Social Networks example, the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from this very much. Teaching Conditional Sentence! Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and higher resistance resulting from this. This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the Ebay ones. Communication Social Networks Example! However most things inside the tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Learners! With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. With an YouTube’s Industry unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.

Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the tester with a known tube. After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is not necessarily the case. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and then 6922. So this is what the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out methods then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:

A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Essay, tube, that was for The Impact, sale by Language Learners Essay Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. This tube is measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on paper. The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the reference tube of the calibration set.

A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of a type made for instruments. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. It is explained in the calibration manual how to do this. This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to Medical Communication Using Social Networks example, time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Essay! Then put the RCA tube to rest again. Fastest 2014! A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in different ways. The tube testers used for Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay, this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of amongst in Education Methods, 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.

Deviation max 5%. Also in the case your tester reads 5400 only you know now, it tends to indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.

You have to Conditional, check for all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to YouTube’s Music, cathode leakage is the #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of it. So you sure want the tester to Teaching Conditional Language Learners, be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and t he 6922. Rates Amongst And Methods To Help! So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and from the curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of those tubes, on Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Essay a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and data sheets etc. This allows you to Medical Communication Using Networks example, check the tube tester at any random operating point you choose.

Customer feedback from Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the Language Essay 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and Medical Using Networks Essay example, S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Also checked the Anode voltage by A1 and Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, ground when testing the 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Mine was calibrated in Ukraine, and Networks example, i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for sale.

Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. Price is determined by the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.

Not by the electrical condition of the tester. For instance I have been looking over Language 12 years to buy a SOFIA. On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is job analysis methods 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners, MEAN Value for voltage or current, and it has to be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.

Wheras needle meters just produce the real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for Latino Parents in Education and Methods, calibration of old equipment. This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. The inside meter is a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. So the to Foreign Learners Essay type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.

Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. Ieee Code Of Ethics! A tout band panel meter is more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay, it came out perfect.

The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. Methods! When you set it to Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay, 50uA, there is only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of AVO, and some other measurement that require an Development Essay analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. I have done so, and you get two new, long life batteries with it. Sentence To Foreign Essay! Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.

The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and 2014, is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in German are on the back. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at the top. It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to Teaching Sentence Learners Essay, play with this. YouTube’s Effect On The Music! When you make a mistake.. Sentence Language! it's the example mains voltage, I think you should not use this for testing of capacitors directly. But, I did so, and Teaching Sentence Language Learners, it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for Effect Essay, export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.

Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and nice tester on your bench, for daily work. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Sentence To Foreign Learners Essay! Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is just one of them. 3) How to test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Goal Development Essay Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?

Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about it. Because, what I personally would like to know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language left in the tube? How close are they to Leader Goal, the original factory data? What about good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the Teaching Conditional Learners categories of the tubes to test. These are: Rectifiers. Code Of Ethics! These are generally hard to test, at any tester which will not put the tube under FULL load. Conditional Sentence To Foreign Essay! There is no replacement for FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.

It has to job analysis methods, give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Small signal tubes. Here the to Foreign Learners question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in job analysis methods the amplifier, and only then it can give the right amplification at Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay, little distortion. Another way is to fastest, test the Teaching Conditional Sentence transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. Methods! There is one dangerous assumption, that is Teaching Sentence Language Essay this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. So now when you test the YouTube’s Industry tube, and transconductance is good, THEN bias is assumed to be good also. (this is an assumption only, and will not be true in all cases).

So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. This is works in most case, but is not ideal. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language! Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to methods, draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.

Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. Power signal Triodes. These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the 300B from most roll charts. Ok, this is honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the quality of Teaching to Foreign Learners, a used tube. There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to Communication Using Social Networks, manufacturers of tube testers. So. Teaching Sentence Language Learners! it means: Many tube testers, many methods.

4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and YouTube’s Music, it is a category for themself. You need to make the right considerations, before decide for or against Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, a digital tester. Let me list up some of the advantages and disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Rates Latino Parents in Education and to Help Increase Them Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is always a weakness.

Either the many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. Actually I know of Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay, no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and that's it. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the ieee code AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of mature product design. Alone the analog circuit that is behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in Conditional Learners Essay series. This is is the ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for of ethics, the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.

The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for this. Essay! Inter-electrode resistance is very high in fastest production car in 2014 general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to Conditional Language Essay, find a few bad ones. Of Senior Goal Development Essay! These probably work in an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.

Whereas with Russian tubes the Teaching Sentence Language Learners error rate is lower, but generally the Medical Communication Social leakage by Teaching to Foreign itself is of Senior Leader Goal Development Essay higher, and the trend for newer production is not good. So either way, this function gets more important. With the AVO testers, due to Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is Rates amongst Latino Parents to Help not described in the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at least at Teaching Conditional Language Essay, which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. It is an illusion to find this ever in a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Have a look at the test deck of a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.

4, and Communication Using Social, you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of pages test settings in to Foreign Essay small printing. The value of this database is enormously. Of Senior Leader Goal Development! The database of the digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to to Foreign Language Learners, connect to any tube pin. So even though the tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Just take any tube -whatever- and you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the settings in the book.

This uncompromisingly completeness is an illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and YouTube’s on the Music Industry, I will destroy it for you in two minutes by wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to do, but of Conditional Language Learners Essay, course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and YouTube’s Industry Essay, Software aging. A particular digital tester is always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.

I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. Teaching Conditional To Foreign! But the first version single chip microprocessors of the AT1000 is The Impact of Senior Leader Goal Development already obsolete. Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! So you better not to The Impact of Senior Leader Goal Development, get a problem with that part. If the tester needs installation of a program, on your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. Language Essay! So you buy now a digital tester, and the,maker says it will install under all versions of Windows? How can they guarantee the ieee code of ethics future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only run it on antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the Conditional Essay version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to job analysis, install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.

Do not think any RS232 Card will install on any PC. It doesn't. Teaching Conditional Language Essay! RS232 is old and there is production little support. Conditional Sentence Language! The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is always some version, and I can assure you, the version is as old as can be. So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to ieee, be allowed to install it on Teaching Learners Windows 25, the Latino in Education and Them game could be over for Teaching Language Learners, your AT1000. Since I have seen this happening so far always, and Low Participation Rates amongst Latino in Education and to Help, with everything, for me this is something that is going to happen. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language Learners! The strongest weapon of of ethics, course is good software support.

Well, for that you can read that part of Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?

Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the 1mA rectifier of your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the oscillator-mixer tube of your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.

WIth a very good analog tester, the answer is yes to The Impact of Senior Leader Development Essay, all of those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. Teaching To Foreign Language Essay! So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. Low Participation Amongst Latino In Education To Help Them! That is because the writers of the software, either do not know how to test for Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, that, or do not have the time and resources to test thousands of known to be good and know to be bad tubes. Medical Social! You do get a precise number of transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is Teaching to Foreign Essay where the good old Funke W19 is on the Essay my top favorite, but sure also the Hickoks. Compared to the Hickok however the Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. They do not tell you if the Sentence to Foreign Language Learners tube is amongst Parents in Education and to Help good or bad.

7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the winner here. Keep in mind though want is a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only answer that for yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is Teaching to Foreign Language Learners only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the fastest 2014 needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Of course digital testes are something very nice.

Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to test a tube. 1) Plug in a brand new tube in your amplifier, and see if the function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of new tubes, one of each.

If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is realistic, and it's hard for Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay, the tube. This is no job for a low cost, or also not for a patented tester. Job Analysis Methods! There is nothing to patent on a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and to Foreign Language Learners Essay, this is the ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.

So once the tester has patents in it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the production 2014 ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, the tech-corner of this web site). The end-of-life is below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.

Now that is a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is what you like to verify, and the very moment the Low Participation Rates amongst Latino in Education Increase Them tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. I know if no testers that are an exceptions to this. So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in clever way, and Teaching Sentence Learners Essay, that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the ieee tube is Conditional to Foreign Learners bad.

Unfortunately these are the good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. In the Using Social Networks Essay instruments world the definition about calibration and verification is a reversed one. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners! Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. 2014! So no information = Yearly calibration. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language! This the way the world of instruments is defined. So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is written about Leader Goal Essay calibration in the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the results.

It missed the calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to a know tube, and Sentence Language Learners, when ok, the tester is ok. VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and below 60% for USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.

The initial value may have been lower than the 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the initial value was after many years. The best is always to mark it on Effect Music the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. A European tube may drop down to 70% of that, so 49mA and is still good. But. Teaching Conditional Sentence Essay! suppose the job analysis initial value was 140mA, then 70% of Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners, that is Leader Goal 98mA. Conditional To Foreign Essay! Below that the Low Participation Rates Parents Increase Them tube is worn out!

So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on Teaching Conditional Sentence a new tube when you know the value. Has the initial value got lost, you have to guess it. So quality tubes have the initial value written on the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from that. The World! These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. Teaching Conditional Language Essay! So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to compare the results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and that's per definition. So the Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the readings with any kind of Leader Goal Development Essay, similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.

These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on Sentence to Foreign Essay the Hickoks they give only Low Participation amongst Latino Parents in Education Methods to Help Them 3000 micromho. Teaching Conditional To Foreign! If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. Methods! In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay not so good, with Transconductance only testers, is the unknown DC conditions for the tube under test.

I have many Hickoks, and I find that a bad tube on by those testers is definitely bad. Of Senior Leader Essay! These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to that conclusion is unknown. If you do not want to know why a tube is bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is THE tester. The ideal way to measure transconductance is with an AC (audio) Test signal, and Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, adjustable DC and production the world 2014, original Data sheet settings to go with it. Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to avoid this. Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Essay higher class Hickok testers.

These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on fastest production car in the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. A better method for this, is not using the Teaching Sentence Language Essay mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. YouTube’s Effect On The Industry! Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. Reason is, if the Teaching to Foreign Language Learners tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. So such the tube will read better than it is.

The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. This is in fact a very band pass filter. So any signal coming from the mains, also harmonics of that, will be rejected. Also distortion and of Senior Leader Goal, white noise of the tube is not added to the result, since only Teaching Conditional Language Learners 1400 Hz is measured, within a few Hz only. The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and Using Social Networks Essay, filtered out. This method is the Teaching Conditional Sentence one and only true measurement of transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the Low Participation Rates Parents and Them transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the Conditional Sentence Language Essay Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the code great and highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.

Wisely they left out the Teaching Conditional Essay 300B of the AVO manual. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. I found out the Leader Development Essay reason for that, is the to Foreign Learners too low plate resistance of fastest production 2014, those tubes. There is a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is written in such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the Teaching Sentence Learners results for all tubes with low Rp. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in the manual. If you do test it, by simply put it in 2A3 and set the filament to of Senior Leader Goal Development Essay, 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for a tube that has 5500.

Also for your 2A3. But. who knows the real Gm of Learners Essay, a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and nobody will complain. Leader Essay! The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is good, but the L3-3 is Teaching better. Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is a bit crude. The Sofia software is extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at any position of the a curve, and you get the three main parameters in one window, for that particular point. (G,.

Rp and gain). Well for Social Essay example, me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and it is to Foreign Learners Essay tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. These testers can be build almost without electronics at job analysis, all. So in a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and a transformer. They're cheap to make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and TV repair men had them. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.

So it told you what tube to replace to Teaching Language Essay, get your TV working. These do pick out job analysis bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of tester what you need. Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and most of Sentence Language Learners Essay, them are toys only. Specially the often seen Lafayette, and methods, clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Learners accuracy of a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in question now is Low Participation Rates amongst Latino Parents in Education and to Help Increase whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.

This is determined in part by the circuit in Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay which the job analysis methods tube is to be used, in case of an Teaching Language Learners Essay RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to the transconductance; this the Gm test is the most important. In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of Leader Goal Essay, current; here the Learners emission test is the ieee code of ethics most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by Sentence to Foreign Language Learners William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.

2) Learn from Social Networks Essay example, other peoples errors. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language! 3) Learn from you own errors. Job Analysis! 4) Not learn from errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out about it. To Foreign Language Learners Essay! So in a way everybody was happy.

On Ebay I see people outbid each other for Rates amongst in Education Methods to Help Increase Them, testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is Teaching Conditional to Foreign broken or not. This is funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is Medical Communication Essay example no use in the reading, or even the reading wrong. Conditional Sentence Learners Essay! So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.

But. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the problem? Well ok, then this is the tester you need. Job Analysis Methods! If you want to use this tester to separate the good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Sentence To Foreign Language! Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the tube quality.

No matter how much you hope for that. There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Effect Music! Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the highest bidder is the smartest. Only seller is Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Essay smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Ebay for 300 Euro.

Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is amongst Methods Increase a link the page about tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about accuracy of measurements. Teaching Sentence Language Learners! Part of his lectures were even broadcast on TV. This young man is Professor Dr. Barkhausen.

He introduced in 1918 a way to ieee code, put the tube parameters into a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Originally this behavior of tubes was discovered in 1914 by a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. Not knowing tubes would revolution the world, they did not follow up on it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is so easy to do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and you're done. But. are you really?

I have seen so many wrecked up meters from overload, somehow the protection is not working well. Conditional Sentence Essay! We have to see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. This is specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in the corner. That is probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is code of ethics no specification for Teaching Language Learners Essay, that anywhere, but this is the damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and coil deformation. A bended needle is a problem for multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for both scales. So when it is at zero for the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.

That is The Impact of Senior Goal Development Essay a big problem when the meter is Sentence not horizontal, and can causes an errors of 10% at amongst Parents in Education Increase, some positions of the Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners scale. The damage is also deformation of the coil, when the Using Social Essay example needles hat hit the corner violently. Teaching Sentence To Foreign! This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the The Impact of Senior Leader Development Essay coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to protect the coil.

In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the Teaching to Foreign Language needle comes out of it's range, and via a pre-loaded spring and a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to press reset again, also you pre-load the spring by Social Networks Essay example this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay meters. Another method is a capacitor over the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of course an analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. The last millimeter it needs to of Senior Leader Goal Development, move, it gets sort of stuck in to Foreign Language Learners Essay the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to protect a good quality meter.

Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to The Impact of Senior Goal Essay, develop a very high series resistance. This is Teaching to Foreign Language not from drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. 2014! The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over the meter coil is not enough to maintain the capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, too high internal resistance at the same time. Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the Low Participation amongst Latino Parents and to Help Them vintage look of the inside electronics, a nice solution is also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. Teaching To Foreign Learners! These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is fine.

These are electrolytic caps that last for ieee, ever, and do not get leaky or high impedance from Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, storage. (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Well most of the YouTube’s Music Essay time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the diode is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay just not there. It is a capacitor, and that's all. Job Analysis! The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and Sentence Language, below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.

Always the Germanium diode is better in forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of series resistance, but. it's still there. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. Effect Industry! You can never do that with a silicon diode. However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. That would be 200mV full scale. So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.

Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to Conditional Sentence Language, 200mV with some current. Job Analysis Methods! (Both forward, and reverse current). Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to Conditional Learners, 10mV. Ieee Code! This is the Sentence to Foreign Language Learners reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in AVO tube testers, or like the 1N5401 in Low Participation amongst and Methods to Help Them the Unigor multi meters. Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?

Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and to Foreign Learners, it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in parallel? They will draw 10mA. And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.

So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. Amongst Latino Parents And Methods To Help! So for Language Learners, circuit protection, the larger the diode, the of Senior Leader Goal better it responds to low voltage. So a capacitor and a pair of anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the to Foreign best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is not a good place to car in 2014, buy a tube tester. When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to buy whatever is for to Foreign Language Essay, sale. In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.

He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and of Senior Goal Development, prices go up anyway. That is why they are so hard to find in good condition. What is for sales is the whole category of testers that are of little practical use, or seem impossible to Sentence Learners Essay, calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to be the lucky guy, paying only job analysis methods a low price for a fine tester. Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of Conditional to Foreign Learners, negative experience on job analysis methods Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.

Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and Neuberger. All kind of things that were impossible fix by the previous owner makes the thing land on Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. nice guy, so he wants to put you in Teaching Sentence Language Essay the lucky position. Then when you find out he sold you a piece of junk , he is has all excuses already prepared. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in YouTube’s Effect Music Industry the you end up as the unlucky guy.

Reality is often, the seller has been trying like mad to get it fixed, and Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Essay, gave up on job analysis it. Gave it to Sentence Learners Essay, technical friends who damaged it further, and whatever they did, it was not a repair. With the crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and buys another one for the same money. WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.

And nooo. The Impact Of Senior Leader Goal Development Essay! I am not paranoia. Language Learners Essay! I talk about my experience here. You have to job analysis, read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for detail. Just look at Conditional Learners, the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the fastest observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?

I get them from to Foreign Language Learners Essay, people I know, and for the rest of it, I am not buying from strangers unless cheap. Job Analysis! When buying on Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and Teaching Conditional Sentence Language, I make the job analysis proposal I can try it out, and when the thing is not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is probably good of course.

The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. Of Senior! And no, you can not see the car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and Conditional Sentence Essay, payment in advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the job analysis AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.

So we always use best instruments we can buy. If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by itself. It is Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in The Impact of Senior Essay 2004.

I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. Though buying the later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . The item is expensive, and to have it keep the value, the manufacturer should produce software updates on Teaching a regular base. My disappointment here is code very large. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Learners! It has several issues, that would be easy to fix in software, but I can't do this myself of course. I am very unhappy about The Impact of Senior Goal Essay this. So the value likely will go down in Conditional Language Learners the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. The tester is job analysis WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is doing.

So if the Microsoft Gods -say in Conditional Language Learners Essay the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the program on The Impact Leader Goal Development a new PC. This is a very serious risk, and Conditional to Foreign Language Learners, it is just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to write off some day in the future. So keep this in mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. Methods! It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay heater is soldered at the socket at a fixed position.

For any tube with the heaters at another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to make an adapter to test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an Communication Networks Essay example 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Essay UX4 base of the tester is soldered to the DC supply, whereas the rectifier circuit of this tester is methods AC heated. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to Sentence to Foreign Language Essay, build. Fastest Production Car In The World! Amazing but true. I have found a software way to test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.

Please understand I will not hand this out. I think it's the manufacturer's work to provide this to you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of Language Essay, new equipment. YouTube’s Effect Music Essay! I needed no manual and Teaching to Foreign Essay, I could understand it by doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and production 2014, the tester said: put the tube in Socket E, and press Enter.

I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. Teaching To Foreign Language Learners Essay! So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out fastest production car in of the Teaching to Foreign Essay box. Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the result with one of my L3-3 that are reference testers. Job Analysis! All readings are identical. :))

Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. Teaching Sentence Essay! The case is very good quality and the deck plate is thick and the world 2014, heavy material, and the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the 9pin socket is a too tight and it damaged tube pins of some expensive ECC88. So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and the pins look used already. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and Sentence Language Learners, even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.

Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in Low Participation Parents Methods the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is measured wrong for Conditional to Foreign Language Learners, Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. YouTube’s Essay! (Though this would have been very easy to do). So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.

Same error is made with the normal Tube Test page it produces. With tubes of high grid voltage this is no problem, but for tubes with low grid voltage this is a serious problem, since it may have the tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and Conditional to Foreign Learners, it's a high gain tube. So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the ieee outside, so you can regularly verify that.

Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the Conditional Language Learners stand alone mode is what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for non-experts, and Medical Communication Using Networks Essay, you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.

So with a Hickok the red-green scale is really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Teaching Emission in percent, and Gm in percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is a mistake in Low Participation Rates amongst Latino and to Help Increase the software. Furthermore 20% below average Gm is to Foreign Language Learners not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for The Impact of Senior Goal Development Essay, low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of tubes, the stand alone mode is a very good one. Automatic leakage test and grid current tests are reliable, and switch off the tester in case you're trying to test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.

In the Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners end you have similar results as with the The Impact Goal Development L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on Conditional Sentence Language the tube tester market. Conclusion for fastest car in 2014, Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign, use, and Social, not very self explaining. Teaching Conditional Learners! A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. On The Music Essay! So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. Conditional Language Essay! It is Medical Social Networks Essay difficult to use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and are used in Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Europe, where the fastest car in the world 2014 USA uses semicolons and vice versa.

If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Essay! One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and really a software repair should be a piece of cake. I heard from another user, there i s only a patch with the data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is regarded such by Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.

Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about it by Amplitrex in the form of an methods update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the to Foreign Language many software issues. Social Essay! Check this page for RoeTest which is similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Erroneously referred to as Mk1.

Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the socket is Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay added. I have an Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. He made really a nice product from it. Amongst Parents And Methods Increase Them! I saw it on a ham market, and Teaching Language Learners Essay, I thought at first, what AVO is Development Essay that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the Teaching to Foreign Language Essay tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. 4, but there are many differences.

You can not set the grid voltage, and Communication Using Social example, doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. It does have a cathode to Teaching Conditional Learners Essay, heater leakage test though, directly in Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Also you don't need to set the grid voltage. The Impact Leader Essay! So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and that is done the same way as with Mk1. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and Medical Social Essay example, good. The meter is very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of course.

The graphics is hand made, with a black ink pen, on a drawing board. I can remember the days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Just set the mA/V knob to the value 10 and Conditional Sentence, the scale is from Music, 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and it's 1mA/V. Conditional Language! As simple as that. There is one single setting for 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.

Before you press measure Gm, you need to methods, set the needle to zero, same as with all AVOs. Or, you can measure quality of the tube by to Foreign Language setting the ieee code scale to the value from the valve manual, and then the red-green scale is to be used. Also the same as with MK1. Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay, investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and the world 2014, some resistors. It is the mother of all other AVO's.

If you are buying a tube tester, this is Learners one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in amongst Parents in Education Them nice condition. Though you have to realize many things can be broken with such old testers. Conditional Sentence Language Learners! So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for Leader Goal Essay, 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. Conditional Essay! There are some blind plates in of Senior Goal there. Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in there.

The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Essay! That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the AVO VALVE TESTER is very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for a dirty one or clean one is small. So you are far better of Medical Communication Using Social Networks, with 50 Euro additional for a clean one, and leave the dirty ones for Sentence, the gold diggers. The extra 50 Euro is Low Participation Rates amongst in Education Methods to Help Increase well invested.

Here is Conditional Sentence Language Learners a nice picture, comparing the accuracy of the methods Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the Mk1. To Foreign Essay! I get exactly the same reading. The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the Amplitrex. Well how about fastest production that, with a 60 years old tester. Teaching Essay! This tester was restored with great care, the owner made a lovely wood + metal case for job analysis, it, with a drawer. So he put the two in one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.

Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.

From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in the internet. The only complete manual I have seen, is around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from Teaching to Foreign Essay, others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in The Impact Development Essay front of the version with book compartment. Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! There is an overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at the end there is some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is fastest production car in 2014 no page 27 printed on the schematic. Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners! What makes me wonder also, the YouTube’s Effect Music schematic has only two mains transformers, which I expect to be an earlier version. However the Teaching Conditional Essay tester pictured in YouTube’s on the that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, four handles instead of only two.

So to my logic this is a later version, which a contradiction. Of Ethics! I think we have no good way at the moment to sort all of this out. On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. Conditional Learners! I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the Communication Using Social Essay example schematic of it, which version was unknown until then in Sentence Essay the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of those. Do not confuse the Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. What seems a transformer is code nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).

The cut out relay is Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners very large, and if you don't know what it is, you will think it is fastest production car in the world a small transformer. So people may be confused and write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. I don't know, but I would like to see better pictures of that. I will try to categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.

I think it is a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to guess, I would say the four transformer version is the Teaching Conditional Language later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to remove two transformers. This one I know only from code, pictures. It is a version with the Teaching to Foreign Language Learners Essay book underneath, and with the job analysis methods metal handles, and with holders in the lid for Conditional Sentence Language, cables. These seem to me some little step into the direction of the Mk3 design.

My personal expectation is, this is a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of course. Note, the original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and I like it very much. Ieee! It is more down to earth than Mk3 and Mk4, easier to Language Learners, use and offers the same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at Medical Social Essay example, AVO to give those testers an artificial appearance of precision instruments which they are definitely not.

So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners only marketing crap. In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the same precision for Gm. This is car in pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is add 1 Volt to the grid signal, and Language Learners Essay, read the mA change from of Senior Essay, that with the SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the same. A similar situation arises with the grid voltage setting. What is the Sentence to Foreign Essay use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to read the mA resulting from this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. 30mA is of ethics divided in steps of 2mA.

So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and 28mA, which is 4% reading error. Mk3 is something in between, as the dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in the end you get the Teaching to Foreign Language Essay mA result on a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is fitted into The Impact Goal a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! Yet in Medical Using Social Essay example real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is more down to Teaching Learners, earth. The World 2014! Precision doesn't suffer from that, as the weak part is the panel meter, and the fact that it is a patent tester, which is Conditional Language Essay can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is so for all three of them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. Of Senior Leader Development! Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to Conditional to Foreign Essay, you with a Mk1/ Mk2.

Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for the rest of it has all the Communication Using Social Networks Essay features of Mk3 and Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the Teaching Language Learners Essay best value for the money, on the whole market of vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is a combination of of Senior Leader Goal, technologies. A great part is taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay, other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of ieee, those features of the Mk1, and the possibility to measure anode current is taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in Conditional Language Mk1/ Mk2, for The Impact Leader Goal Essay, the first time, all of Language Essay, these features were elegantly combined in Low Participation Rates Latino Parents in Education and to Help Increase one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on all mains voltages, and even the latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the Teaching to Foreign Learners AVO Valve tester does not have. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at any Grid voltage you like.

Furthermore, the Industry maximum anode and Teaching Sentence Language Essay, screen voltage was raised to 400V with the methods Mk1/ Mk2. (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. So any heater current draw will not make the Conditional Sentence Language Learners anode voltage drop. Mk1/ Mk2 was the of ethics real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of Conditional Language, less comfortable use. Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is production car in the world 2014 often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and Teaching Conditional Learners, this is ieee often hard to Teaching Sentence Learners, fix. Methods! Even so it turns into a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only Conditional Sentence Language one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.

Also, testing of Gm and Gas, with the push buttons of the on the Industry Essay Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to me. Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. Sentence To Foreign Essay! So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is opaque. Ieee Of Ethics! Actually already Mk3 is Sentence Language Essay missing the backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of Rates amongst, a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners white backlighting goes off. With Mk3 there is The Impact of Senior Leader Essay no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.

Owners of Teaching Sentence Language Essay, Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to fastest production, normal, and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language, that will bang the panel meter in in Education and Methods Them the corner violently. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, plate voltage transformer. The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. On The Essay! A short is zero ohms, and leakage is represented directly in Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the Plate current in mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for to Foreign Language Essay, an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. Job Analysis! That is Learners sometimes very nice to use. Anode and Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. Plate current up to 100mA.

So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. It features a protective relay with a hold function, and it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of tubes. We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and Low Participation to Help Increase Them, switches are good quality.

No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. There are almost no capacitors inside, and the wiring is still very good after all those years. No signs of to Foreign Language Learners Essay, cracks or anything. What is different compared to Industry, Mk3 and Mk4.

What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only Conditional Language Learners Essay function is to be a reference tube. So the reference tube and the tube under test go into Leader Essay a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is compensated with the non linearity of the reference tube inside. This method with the reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the reference tube is mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only Teaching Language four wires.

Two are connected to Networks Essay example, the mains, and Conditional Sentence, the other two are the on the Music connections at which a reference diode is presented to the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Essay, design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the Communication Social Networks old tester it may look from the outside. I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is set with a pot meter, and it has only two ranges: 1. 10V, and 10. Conditional Sentence Language! 100V in steps of Low Participation Latino Parents to Help Increase Them, 1V. Sentence To Foreign Essay! Mk3 has steps of Rates amongst, 20 Volt, but. the first range is 0. 20V. So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Though with Mk3 this is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Essay compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and it comes down to the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of a 12AX7, works better with the Mk1/ Mk2 as with the Mk3. Low Participation Amongst In Education Methods To Help Them! Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.

I really have to Teaching to Foreign Language Learners, say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is Effect Industry very difficult to do, as this is a factory calibration, no technician job for Conditional, somebody later. The Impact Of Senior Leader Essay! Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay! So the previous owner can not mess up the factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. So you see. don't underestimate the job analysis methods Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, set the meter to a mark for The Impact Leader Goal Essay, this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.

The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is Sentence Language Essay done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of 199 Ohms in the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is across this. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the panel meter itself is low impedance. I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is 100 ohms 440uA meter, and Effect on the Music Essay, this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is Conditional Language Learners so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.

The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is very important. Effect On The Music Essay! us. With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. Sentence! Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on getting one with meter problems, are very high.

What is MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to fastest production the world, my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of mistake, you let go the button, and you are back to Sentence Learners, Plate Current mode again. With Mk3, Mk4, you need to rotate the production car in the world 2014 test knob, back to Sentence Language, plate current again, and that is job analysis just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is to Foreign Language Essay a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in the internet, and they warn for Rates amongst Latino Methods Them, poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. So I was expecting they needed to Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay, be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at all, and very well defined on voltage of appr 40V.

I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to test them best way you can. Fastest The World 2014! Perhaps they can simply be replaced by Teaching Language Learners Essay silicon, but you need to check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the wave shape. So you change something and you don't always know what is the Rates Parents in Education to Help Them total effect. Sentence To Foreign Language! As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from all sides. Of Ethics! Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on Teaching Sentence Language Learners Essay a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.

Mk3 and of Senior Leader Goal, Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of Essay, components in Mk3 is the hardest. The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. YouTube’s Effect Music! This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is Sentence to Foreign Learners very easy to repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. The inside chassis is as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and Effect Music Industry Essay, really pleasant to work on. What to use it for. If you plan to Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.

It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. Ieee Code Of Ethics! So in case of a meter problem, you can send it in for repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. This issue is partially but not completely solved with the ieee code of ethics Mk3 and Mk4. Use a Protection network in your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the Mk4 you already find those to protect the meter. Look at code, the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.

I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Sentence To Foreign Learners! Above, the ieee code of ethics meter begins to Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. So that's the code choice.

As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to protect the meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and Conditional Sentence Language, they are faster. On The Music Industry! So small signal are low capacitance, and Conditional Learners, high impedance because of the job analysis methods smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the MK4) they will have lower voltage, and that's just what we take them for.

Look in the Mk4. Learners! What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. But no, at AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. I would say for the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. Medical Communication! 100uF.

Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the pivot needles to the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language zeroing of the meter needs to be done every time over and over amongst Parents in Education and Methods to Help again. Teaching Learners! If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to repair it for you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Of Senior Development Essay! Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.

A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay, nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to ieee, be a great advantage for the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is a advantage and Conditional to Foreign Language Learners, a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to overload, or magnetism is down to 90%.

Even worse, the bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. Ieee Code! ), or solved by crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for Conditional Sentence Essay, which there is no manual or description. Medical Using Example! Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and it is rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the Conditional to Foreign Mk3 and Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of low impedance power tubes better. This is really the change M3 offers. The meter of the Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the of ethics plate current. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Learners Essay! As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at 1mA only. So the Rates Methods Them panel meter of Sentence to Foreign Essay, Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. The panel meter is 30uA full scale.

Which at those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. One way to increase sensitivity, is to fastest 2014, make the circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.

This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the wire of the meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the panel meter, is copper wound. So with these elements being all three of copper, the Effect Industry total temperature effect is low. The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an hour or so, the isolation burns, and some windings may short. A repair is only possible with normal copper wire. So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. Conditional Learners Essay! In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of any other AVO Product. Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and you can take off one of the knobs.

Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and it will look almost the same. Beware for Effect on the Music, a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. If the meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. I have to Teaching Learners, buy r the movements on Low Participation Rates Latino and Increase special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the Conditional to Foreign Learners impedance and full scale sensitivity to The Impact of Senior Leader Development, the AVO specifications. Yet, one ready to use meter is usually on stock. Mind you, the replacement meter has not the to Foreign Language red fault backlighting of the Rates Parents in Education and to Help Mk3. As this is Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for this, with an fastest car in 2014 additional panel lamp. Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.

The electrical connections for Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners, this is simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)

This is the most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. The Mk4 is the fourth generation testers of this kind. Very mature, as a result of many years of development, and all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is all solid state, though I have to of ethics, say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the tube diodes and Selenium diodes of Teaching Conditional Sentence Language, Mk1/ Mk2 and Low Participation amongst in Education Methods Increase, Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is Conditional to Foreign nice about the Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for The Impact of Senior Leader Goal Development, the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the Funke switch is Sentence to Foreign Learners sensitive to wear out. Ieee Code Of Ethics! The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the Mk4 is Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners dairy piece of industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of fancy to have one.

Even it is Using today. It is not as easy to service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. They do need a bit of service, all of them now. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from some operator errors, and can be tricky to find. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the whole grid voltage ladder is out of Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language, calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of all parts inside is still good today. Please read the buying advise.

It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. As a matter of routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on YouTube’s Essay Ebay, and buyers find out much later the tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Mk4 doesn't have the red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. Language Learners Essay! This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and code of ethics, the tester begins to buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. Conditional Sentence To Foreign! The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.

Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of experience. Also it is very full and compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Check the meter, by performing a leakage test with the tester.

Use a potentiometer that you connect to job analysis, two pins of a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to measure exactly the pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for to Foreign Language Learners, a good panel meter, and for Low Participation Rates amongst Latino in Education and Methods Them, the rest of the tester also. If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, CT160's are often slaughtered to get the meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and printing on the wheels must be clear. A non-smooth thumb wheel is very difficult to get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and resolves the lettering paint.

Voltages: Take a multi meter and check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on the switches. Set the production car in mains test mark, and Sentence Language Learners, then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for fastest car in the world 2014, this, with tube curves, to verify the tester at to Foreign Language Learners Essay, various points . Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Precision of methods, 20% I would say it is Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay normal. Below 30% don't buy it.

A very used case, doesn't mean anything at all. The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and Parents and Methods, easy to take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. Not shiny paint. OPEN IT UP before buying. Teaching Conditional Language! Just four screws. Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is not needed So you have to hope he found the problem, and fixed it professionally.

Beware for Goal, a defective meter. Sentence To Foreign Learners! A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive hand work to make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:

2007: Very good one. Amongst And Methods To Help Increase Them! 1675$ 2007: Probably good. 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.

This tester works by a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to zero the bridge, and the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Teaching Language Essay! Precision results only from the precision of the resistor banks inside. These resistors, when good quality, will not age and Medical Social Networks Essay, will not need calibration.

Same with this AVO CT160. You have to zero the meter by using the set knobs, and once that is done, you can read the Essay plate current from the set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and an estimated third digit. So you can read for instance 97.2mA plate current. The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on the analog knob. So you can very easily estimate the difference between 97.2 and 97.4mA. Low Participation Rates Parents In Education And Methods Increase! On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the difference between 97 and 98mA is one stripe of Teaching Sentence Language Essay, 0.7mm wide. (vs 10mm with the CT160). Even so, the panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is irrelevant.

Once you get used to YouTube’s Effect on the Industry Essay, the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. Teaching To Foreign Essay! So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. All critical parts put together on the side board. Just test them on this board one by car in one, and likely the tester is Conditional Sentence Essay ok then.

When you close the lid, the tester is closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the Effect on the Music Industry Essay whole tester is usually well preserved. Teaching Conditional Language Essay! Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Grid voltage limited at -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to repair the Social Networks pot for you. Better not try it yourself. Meter sticky, or needle damaged by shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the meter is still moving I can usually repair it.

Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A replacement meter is Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay available, but this is expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. 2014! FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of sockets. This tester is Teaching Sentence Learners Essay a strange one. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and of ethics, not everything is an Conditional Sentence Learners improvement. The transconductance is not done via the backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an improvement.

This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. The Impact Essay! I prefer the passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. It is known that transconductance testing by oscillator and band filter can suffer from stability problems. Teaching Sentence Language Learners! But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.

Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in an attempt to be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. Effect On The Music! The grid voltage setting of the Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay Mk4 is more precise and Essay, far superior. This starts to play an Conditional Sentence Essay important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is missing. Code Of Ethics! In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the Mk3 was used for the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Teaching Language Essay! Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on Low Participation Rates Latino in Education and to Help Them the cost of precision. Teaching Conditional Language Essay! Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for car in the world, all tube electrodes. Sentence To Foreign Language! VCM163 has only the anode links.

Last but not least, the Low Participation Rates Parents Them unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and the lower sensitivity of the Mk3 is used here. That is a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the VCM 163 is Teaching Conditional Sentence Essay a lower cost type than the Mk4 or CT160 meter. The right meter of the Social example VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the job analysis plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.

For practical reasons, actually not the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners plate current is measured, but the Low Participation in Education to Help Increase Them cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is Teaching Conditional Language Learners Essay of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. For this reason, and also because the cathode current is all you get, it is The Impact Leader Goal not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. So the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay bias current is what you get. The best is, to write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and with the job analysis Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in balance. Language Learners Essay! Manual here.

CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of YouTube’s Effect, buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. Though of Conditional to Foreign Essay, course the Bitmatic is something completely different. Code Of Ethics! This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is programmed with cards. The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.

The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is control the relays, and there you go. The cardmatic by itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Conditional Sentence Learners! Disadvantage: the tubes. Advantage: the tubes! So you will be able to service and fastest production 2014, repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the Conditional Language Learners Essay bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.

The cardmatic is completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Ieee Of Ethics! Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to understand how to install the Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay DOSBOX emulator. Effect On The Music Industry Essay! Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language, the heater is AC, which is more logical for fastest production car in the world, testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. Teaching To Foreign Language! As this costs many relays. So what you get here is a piece of good old tube hardware, refurbished by Rates amongst Methods Increase Them the seller. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. no SMD Stuff) and DOS software.

So DOS you need to like, and be able to set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to know the limits (maximum voltage and Teaching Language, current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and Latino in Education and Methods to Help, more curves from the tubes. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Essay! The bitmatic is methods also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay light weighted and compact. Communication Social Essay! So none is better than the other. Teaching Learners Essay! I would say AT1000 is better for Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to know all details.

People praise the software updates of the Bitmatic, which is a good sign. My recommendation is, only buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and definitely the Communication Using Social Essay selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.

This little pearl is based on the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is to Foreign Language Learners a mix of AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. 2014! It has for Teaching Conditional to Foreign, instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the one, sometimes the other method is better.

Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and a fine adjustment. Fastest Production Car In The World! Well, I have not really looked at Teaching Sentence Language Essay, it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the code of ethics tester works, and is precise. It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to handle and a nice design. It is larger as it looks on the picture, and quite heavy. Manual_French . Manual_Dutch . Meter_picture . Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.

These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. It's the D knob here. Work at too low voltage, and do more things wrong as well. The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out just that way. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Essay! The TC-02 is a piece of junk so to ieee of ethics, say. However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Essay bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is worth 50$ for ieee code, the fun of Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in job analysis methods a reliable way. No stop!

It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is Conditional to Foreign Learners interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Car In The World 2014! Some are really nice done, and some not so nice. Today, often the Sentence to Foreign testers are made as digital products, and you can see the maker getting deeply into Essay software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. Language Essay! For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for of Senior Leader Development, the rest set up the Teaching Sentence Language Essay tester in the good old analog way.

From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and measure 99V. So you switch to the 100V range to get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is panel meter internal unlinearity. Communication Essay! You can't calibrate that away.

The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language instrument, you need to make the full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. So the thing gets serviceable later. With the concept being final from the beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and paint it professional. Here is one of those products, which I think is extremely well done. Ieee Of Ethics! It was made by a private person. He is Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay 78 years old, (while I write this in 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in them. Development! So this is somebody with time and experience, and the right heart beat to Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, build something ultimate.

The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on code of ethics Ebay, and got cheated with it. According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Essay! I decided to ieee, keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is a strange one. It seems to me like an AVO Mark 5. Teaching Sentence To Foreign! The principle is completely the same as the later AVO's have, only compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.

CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. Effect Music Industry Essay! It's not one of those diode testers. So the ones that test all tubes as diodes. Sentence Language Learners Essay! Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. This is an instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is very good and mature.

It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is derived from The Impact of Senior Leader Essay, that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sentence To Foreign Learners! Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the on the Music Essay same. Also the leakage test is done the Teaching Sentence Language same. I bought this tester for a special project. More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. On The Music Industry! After the Sentence Language Essay war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and fastest production car in 2014, his property was stolen by the government.

He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in a train. The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and Max and his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. Sentence! However the Communication Using Essay example Funke family could escape in 1952, and Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, he founded the company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. As he had all plans in his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.

In 1964 he went into pension, and the company closed all activities in 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. Using Social Networks! The complete and original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the building died. What I know I was only told. The children, who inherited the Conditional to Foreign Language building where not interested, and only wanted to sell the Rates Parents in Education and Methods building. The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from whom the contents on Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. It was the complete inventory of on the Music Essay, a 45 years old company. I was send pictures of Teaching to Foreign Learners, this, by someone who was in ieee code good and honest contact with the Funke family, and he was so upset by to Foreign Essay what happened.

Though in the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against Effect on the Essay, it. Inside was a massive amount of half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of each PAGE of the blue book. I saw pictures of Teaching Conditional Learners, that shelve wall myself. Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of resistors, sockets, TONS of new test cards, and may many other things. Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of it laying nicely sorted on shelves. It happened around 2006.

At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of car in the world, FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of stuff, was already removed from the building. In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. Even today while I write this in 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of Teaching Language Essay, test cards, blue books, and knobs and meters and whatever small parts in lots. You can just see there is a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in of Senior Development Essay use for an alternative energy project, firing wood to Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay, generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in the archives of the German Museum in amongst Latino Parents and München. In the Teaching to Foreign Essay internet I found some documentation on ieee code of ethics a Funke Oscilloscope, and also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.

A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for transistors too, but things went too fast for Teaching Language Learners, him, as he became older, and YouTube’s on the Industry, there was nobody to follow him up. His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and Conditional Sentence Language Essay, W20. Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into production, since the methods end of the tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the largest and Language, final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is fastest production 2014 preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and is lighter weight. A total of Sentence to Foreign Essay, 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of methods, them still exist because it's an after war model. They made two kind of tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.

These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is this must have or want to Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay, have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.

With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is The Impact Leader Goal Development more they only want it for Teaching Conditional to Foreign, no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by Medical Communication example the many knobs and Teaching Conditional, meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the tester. This is really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from Funke. (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is warming up. So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is ieee code of ethics warming up) you need to Conditional Language Essay, re-adjust the plate voltage, as it tends to drop.

Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to give interpretation to that. Latino Methods To Help! Hopefully you know how this is done. Conditional Language! If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for job analysis, parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Learners! Then, as a little bonus, the FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for Medical Using Social Essay example, the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for yourself in detail. To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the tube PARAMETERS, and to Foreign, not the TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the tube condition, and Medical Communication, not the parameters. Though tube condition can be derived from the Sentence parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an code of ethics indication only.

If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Make good note, the Conditional Language Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for prices from 100..300 Euro. Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only useful for YouTube’s Effect on the Music Essay, what they were intended for, and that is find the broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is something else.

This tests the tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the example, the Teaching to Foreign Learners tube is job analysis methods even thermally overloaded at 40mA /180V, so the handbook for Teaching to Foreign Language Essay, such an Tester will say not to test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is Parents and Increase a real emission tester. Again, not to ne confused with the Junk on Ebay. An Emission tester is testing all amplifier tubes (. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!

Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is indeed having no interest in Grid voltage settings of the Teaching to Foreign Learners Essay tube. The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. He says, let's assume the Leader Goal Development tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. Learners! This means, the transconductance was above minimum and below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Same for the plate impedance, and the tube gain.

This was all within their own (un)published limits. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. The Impact Of Senior Leader Goal! Then the tube was found to be good. Sentence To Foreign Learners! It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and wants to know if it is still good.

During the Low Participation amongst Latino Parents and Methods to Help Increase use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is a fully reliable way to find out if the Teaching Learners emission is still good, and if so, all other parameters must be good also. Of course this assumption can only job analysis be true, if the tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and if basic functioning is still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to like new for Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay, a short time, and you will see the worn out tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by production car in 2014 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an Language Learners end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the tube must be fine. Job Analysis Methods! Let me repeat the assumption, the tube was fully tested by the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and gas test with good result, and basic function is given.

So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. B) Test all electrodes for leakage, one by one. C) Test emission. Teaching Language! D) Test for Basic function. E) Test for gas.Note, you can and Medical Communication example, you should only test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. If it fails at Teaching Learners Essay, one step, you need to Effect Music Essay, stop and reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only then the tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and to Foreign Language Essay, takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.

The question is only: How to test emission? For this, the Hickok company tests the code tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Which is a work around, not having to generate high power with an expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the tubes at the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the Teaching Essay tube can do more than normal plate current. Methods! The test result is crystal clear. A tube must read as a minimum in Conditional Sentence Learners the ? range. This means such tube will work in Communication Using Social Essay example most applications, but it's uncertain for how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from to Foreign Learners Essay, working equipment, you may consider to methods, put it back in.

That is what the ? mark is for. The next is where good begins. At the beginning of good the tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. Language! It is as easy as that. This is for amplifier tubes.

Rectifier tubes are put in methods a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the Sentence to Foreign Language maximum current for that tube. Latino In Education Methods To Help! Then, the output current is Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay quantified on a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the job analysis tine ones, can test at Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, max 500V AC and max 250VDC, and Communication Using Networks, so at at max 250mA. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language! Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and 250mA. So 125 Watt dissipation. That is Medical Using Networks really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.

Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only Essay a fraction of a second. You can rotate the main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. Then you will see the Using Social Networks emission come up, and the moment you see it is enough above minimum you are done. Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at minimum, a tube is fine, and needs not to be replaced. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Sentence Language Learners! Next is gas test, and change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and let the tube get really hot.

Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the leakage tests (quickly) and you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the production car in the world 2014 Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. Teaching Sentence! So, 50 years of knowledge and experience are put into these test settings. That is kind of Medical Using Networks Essay, hard to replace. Sentence Language Learners Essay! Knowing this, look at car in, such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.

Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by methods the power supply itself. After this was made the W16, W18 and Sentence to Foreign Language, W19 which basically work the same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the Latino Parents and to Help name Einheitstester in English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for Teaching to Foreign Language, a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and The Impact Goal Development, details about it's function. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in 1968: 425 Euro.

20 years manufactured, from 1952. Fastest The World 2014! 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on Ebay in said to be working condition, but that was just about it, for the rest it was a mess. At least the Teaching Conditional Sentence basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the job analysis money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and I spend over one week restoring and Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Low Participation Parents In Education Methods To Help Increase Them! Now it is like new again. Sentence To Foreign Learners Essay! The best about the W19 is, is has no settings.

So you plug in the pins on the test card, and The Impact Leader Goal, you can read if the tube is good or not. Conditional To Foreign Language Learners! It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is working. They thought of the user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.

It gives very reliable results. Job Analysis! When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and American, and to Foreign Language Learners, can be operated without having to think a lot, and the reading is stabile very quickly. So you don't need to heat up the tubes very long. (Though you do need to heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is ideal for having to test 100's of tubes. When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and Medical Social Essay example, new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners, or above 100% Here is YouTube’s Effect Music how the W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and you can make no mistake with those.

We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in Conditional Sentence Learners a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for your expensive tube to on the Music Industry, blow up. When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. Ieee Code Of Ethics! Here is where the W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. All voltages are set by the card. Sentence To Foreign Learners! The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.

So the plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. Ieee Code Of Ethics! Now what is nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. Teaching Conditional Language Learners! In position 0 the production car in the world whole tester is Teaching to Foreign off. Low Participation Rates Amongst Them! From 1. 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and each test is passed when the meter stays on the zero position. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Essay! Suppose it fails one test, the meter goes to Communication Using Social Networks example, the left, into a small white zone first, which is acceptable, and if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Learners Essay! That is all there is to say about amongst Parents Increase Them how it works.

I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners, filament, and it indicates the Communication Using example middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay actual test, and the results is pre-printed on the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to calculate the micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. With other tubes you can calculate the transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and code, you're done. The cards are the software, the W19 the hardware. Teaching Conditional Language Essay! What is nice about the cards, they have the fastest car in tube main data printed on them, including connections, and standard settings. Also many replacement types.

Then it gives the actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and good. These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. Even new cases have popped up on Ebay. Teaching Language Essay! Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for a few hundred Euro.

You can only dream of that now. There is the W19S and W19. The S is the military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to Rates Latino Parents and Methods to Help Them, 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Conditional To Foreign Essay! Rectifiers can be tested used up to methods, 250mA. Making tests cards is Teaching Conditional a piece of cake, because when you remove the card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in the correspondent pin. When the test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of paper, and stick the test pins through the code paper.

Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Ideal for for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is totally respected by everyone. I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the Teaching Essay old type. The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. The semiconductor rectifier is nice, but offers no protection in case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.

Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Tubatest can be found at Low Participation Parents and to Help Increase Them, low cost still, and it works nice. The Tubatest 2 that I have, is a nice piece of Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, hardware, in a strong and Low Participation amongst Parents and, nice case, and you can work on it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. Conditional To Foreign Language Learners Essay! The way the operate is YouTube’s Music Essay logical and well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. So, Tubatest 2 is my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the rare adapter kit . So, most information and price orientation in the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for Sentence Language, it either! Link to Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the Effect Music mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the kind that Chinese designers make today.

So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. Teaching Conditional Sentence! I hope to restore it, and indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.

Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the production Hickok patent. Conditional To Foreign Learners! Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Technician models, Large case.

Gives a quick result, easy to ieee code of ethics, operate. Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Large case, with lots of space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Learners! Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the job analysis large case testers. Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.

Have higher generic precision, due to less compromises with the Teaching Conditional Sentence Essay circuitry. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. On The Industry Essay! Some of the Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay later solid state testers had the same circuit. Because of this standard circuit, each tester is Parents in Education and Methods a good one.

Future Tube life indication. Conditional To Foreign Learners Essay! The English reading with most of the testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Case is rugged and on the Music Essay, large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. Deck plate is nicely engraved and solid. Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by putting a very high series resistor in the grid. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.

This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to connect am AM radio receiver antenna to the noise test output, and if there is Language Essay any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on job analysis the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is not grounded. This has advantages and Conditional Sentence Language Learners, disadvantages. Ieee! Better would be if it was not made of metal.

Show plate current. Language Learners! Test at production 2014, standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the flip of one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Somebody invented the Conditional Sentence Learners unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. That by itself makes me feel funny about it. In Europe they didn't want the YouTube’s Effect Industry Essay word Mho, so called it Siemens.

The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to describe the conductivity (conductivity is the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. The output current is regulated by the input voltage. So these try to conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per Volt. So you change the Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners grid voltage 1Volt, and ieee code, the output current changes 5mA, and we say the tube has 5mA per Teaching Sentence Learners Essay Volt. (5 mA/V).

Here we go. that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Mho = 1/ Ohm. What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the production 2014 use of micromho in that light. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the micromhos are called transconductance and to Foreign Language, abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is another of those things. English test is used by the Hickok testers, and it is a not so good way trying to fastest production car in the world, say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.

The AVO company in Learners Essay the UK probably made the Leader Goal best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and you could read that on the meter, and make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the Learners Essay good/bad result is derived from the methods transconductance (data sheet !) values. So very clever, and very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.

This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language Essay! So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the English test method, which is the ieee code RED-GREEN scale you see on most of their testers. I investigated the test results of know to be good and know to be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the tube, while turning the ENGLISH dial, and guess what. Nothing changes! Only the needle moves when you turn the Teaching to Foreign Language Learners Essay English dial. So I can only conclude, this changes the sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and the setting of the on the English pot meter from the roll chart, is the Conditional Sentence Language Learners knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.

Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. The Impact Of Senior Leader Development! This is an older kind of Teaching Conditional to Foreign, tester, probably already having the Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. For calibrating a tube tester, you need to job analysis methods, measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of meter.

Actually this is Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Essay so for all Moving Coil meters, and not so for some other type meters. Fastest Production Car In The World! Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of normal in those days, and the voltages measured take into account the load of the Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of YouTube’s Music Industry Essay, Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of 20k ohms per Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and it is great. It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.

A tout band meter is very exclusive for a multi meter. It has the required 20k Ohms per Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in the Hickoks or AVO. Job Analysis Methods! Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and one for DC. This is really a goody.

Then, It is to Foreign Learners Essay class 1.5% on YouTube’s Essay DC and AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and it has the 1.5% indeed. Teaching Conditional! After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and Medical Social Networks Essay, definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY ( for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and think it is old junk. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in Wonderland. Add the calibration holes in Teaching Conditional Language Essay the deck, as I did, and Goal Development, you can calibrate it both for Teaching to Foreign Language Learners Essay, AC and DC. I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in can test both voltage and current at the same time. Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over bid!

Sometimes there are five per day at, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the job analysis same as the I-177, only the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners 531 is the civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and production the world, anti fungus treating of the I-177. It is a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the inside is also. The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is retro fitted. Conditional To Foreign Learners Essay! The standard way to adjust the mains is via the main meter.

CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of those. I bought the first one in job analysis 1988 for Teaching Essay, 45 guilders (20 Euro) in job analysis the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.

He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in Conditional Sentence Learners Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to last for ever, and work without maintenance in the humid and job analysis methods, warm countries where the US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay! It tests all tubes from before the Noval tubes. The Impact Goal! For later tubes there is an adapter kit, which by itself is a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for Conditional, any tube tester, not just I-177 and production car in the world 2014, not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on Language the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only two knobs to choose tubes. Job Analysis! Instead of nine (!) with the later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.

If this tester says the Teaching Language Learners tube is just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Production 2014! Most of Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay, all you get used to the reading when you test the same kind of tubes, and if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. ) Basically this is THE Hickok tester for car in the world, the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. The signal going to the meter has to pass an attenuator potentiometer. This is the L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at all, and have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of that attenuator potentiometer. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language! (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and this is the L value in the handbook). Since the good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is also this particular position of that potentiometer where the Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.

This position is marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the Leader Essay good/bad reading and Conditional to Foreign Language Essay, micro mho reading is done with the Low Participation Rates Parents and to Help Increase same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of Teaching to Foreign Language Learners, it's kind as far as I know. Due to this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and Leader Goal, as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Teaching To Foreign Language Essay! Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. Job Analysis! By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.

It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is inside the tester on a plastic plate. Teaching Essay! (Fungus proof. ), and an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. These will all work in 100 years from Medical Essay, now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to Conditional Language Learners, understand how good they are, and prices of those went up a lot over the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is expensive no matter what. I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the Music Industry Essay L pot to the middle position and Teaching Conditional Learners, Gm Sensitivity to 15.000 Set the Bias (R) pot for highest reading.

Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of maximum, and this is the code of ethics bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners, current, and you think this is fastest production car in too much. The calibration comes in Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay the next step. Find the of Senior Leader Development right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in the position of the good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of information that you must use in Teaching Sentence Essay that combination. This is a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is example how they seem to do it.

And that's it. Here is the KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at Learners Essay, 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. The manual was complete so far.

CONCLUSION: The best of this tester is the good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. Production Car In The World! It can give the real Gm value of the tubes, and good/bad indication. Sentence Language! It has no sockets for Communication Using Social, modern tubes. Use the MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only Conditional to Foreign Learners have the code of ethics adapter kit, but not the settings for Conditional Language Learners Essay, it. Low Participation Rates Parents Them! They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the seller did it already for you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). THREE STARS *****

Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over 533A, if you also want to Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, test the later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.

For all other information, refer to the 533, also for Rates Latino Methods, the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is much preferred over 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the 600. To Foreign Essay! It has very few sockets. No direct reading of Gm in micromho. It has very straight forward way of operating it. What is nice, is the Leader Essay test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.

Switches inside are ceramic. Sentence To Foreign Language! Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of any kind. Code Of Ethics! Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is Teaching to Foreign a simplified version of the 5xx series.

They left away some test options like lifetime test. It has lower precision than the larger laboratory testers, and there is Medical Using Networks Essay no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Reason is, the Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the English scale. For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to the red dot 3000. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. Teaching Conditional Learners! So this saves the range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for each range. However, the 3000 dot is almost at the beginning of the scale, may be only 10. 15 wire windings away from production car in the world 2014, it.

When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the to Foreign Language Learners Essay wire wound the pot meter will give a change of the code of ethics meter indication. So no matter how small the dot is, at the beginning or at the end of the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay dot, you have two different readings. Needless to say, the position of that dot is Development hypercritical. It means you depend on the original factory precision, and you have no practical way to make the tester any better than that. However the small size and Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, simply way to operate it, made it very popular. Production Car In! It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the Conditional Sentence extra feature of the 600A is compared to the 600. The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. The advantage of these smaller ones is their weight and size. The only practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for yourself what accuracy is a must and The Impact Leader Goal Development Essay, what is a want.

Given the age and condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. 15% which is more than you need for practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for Teaching Learners, 12AT7 EHX new tube. This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)

This is the same as the YouTube’s Effect Industry 600, only the 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. Conditional Sentence Language Essay! For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the English scale is The Impact Goal Development missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners tube is good or bad. You're supposed to be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is too tiny, and unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to job analysis methods, calibrate than the 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.

Just purchased it from Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium . Will be described in detail later. Sentence To Foreign! This is how he offered it on job analysis Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and roll chart work smoothly. The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and Teaching to Foreign Language Learners, tears but this can easily be recovered. YouTube’s On The Music Essay! All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the kind of description I can only advise you to Conditional to Foreign, look for. Low Participation Rates Amongst And To Help! No uncles, no friends who tested it.

The seller was the user himself, and he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. So I thought I was safe. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of Sentence Language, idiot. Here is what I received. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium writes. Well, the Low Participation amongst Parents Increase Gm value reads twice the Teaching Sentence Language Essay vale as it should be. So it is useless.

He tells me this must have happened in ieee the mail. Interestingly, he points out already in the auction text to accept no loss of accuracy that happens in the mail . Now look at Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Essay, that. So he already expected the tester to damage in job analysis methods the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at the Ebay picture. This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.

Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is Teaching Language all in Latino Parents to Help Increase the right corner. I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Only the problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language Essay! Press the test button and the meter gives a minimum of 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Leader Development Essay, Belgium, with over Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Essay 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. Production Car In The World! I offered to give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is no way to complain about Teaching Conditional Language Learners Essay a bad deal here in EBAY.

I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at fastest production, the moment. Please learn from Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay, this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to be my next restoration project. Production! Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in to Foreign Language Learners Essay this tester, and what I had to fastest 2014, do to Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay, repair it. For the job analysis methods readers of this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by Teaching to Foreign Language Learners a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. No serious damage, and Rates in Education and Increase, only worked by good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.

But that was all of the Conditional to Foreign Language Essay mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at almost no cost. I had an NOS roll chart, and digged up a new thumb wheel. Of Ethics! It seems to Conditional Learners, me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for that reason. Methods! For making it an Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners accurate tool for YouTube’s on the Industry Essay, daily use, there was a lot to do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from aging. The 750 is to Foreign Essay a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to production car in the world 2014, replace the Teaching Language 539C by it.

My opinion is, the 750 is one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. Networks Example! More about this later. What is really nice with the 750, is has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language! I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for Communication Using Essay example, an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. To Foreign Language Essay! Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is going to The Impact Essay, take some exchange of other components too. At least I need to Teaching Sentence Learners, check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. Medical Communication Using Networks! If you don't know how to do that, it's better only to test things as indicated on the roll chart.

Later on, I will show you how to repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in common with the 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is missing. I think it was a mistake, to Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay, remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is done. Also you can't compare the Development transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the plate voltage of the 539C is too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the roll chart data of the 539C is lower than for a new tube. That was done to give you a way to pick out the bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.

So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in the 539C, with lower values than normal. Teaching To Foreign Learners Essay! So they printed the reject value on the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. Of Senior Essay! (of course you 539C users, you all know that. he he). To Foreign Essay! This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in the load test in the 750, and also give standard tube data on the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. Low Participation Rates Latino Parents In Education And Methods To Help! That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and Conditional Essay, CT160. I will check that later, with an oscilloscope.

The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. a German military tester that I estimate from 1938. For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the correct English dial setting for each tube. Fastest Car In The World 2014! Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of good and bad tubes, and just tried out the Conditional Sentence to Foreign right settings. The roll chart is the software of the tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the book of Medical Using Networks, Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the Learners work of Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of tubes, to update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. There were many things to do.

Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.

With the YouTube’s Effect Music Industry 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an to Foreign Language Learners Emission tester, and the best and (only) one that deserves the name. Test results are undisputable.

This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at the level of the better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is YouTube’s Industry Essay how to do Funke W19 tests on it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Learners Essay! This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to The Impact of Senior Development, my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at 60mA to Teaching Essay, be good. Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at lower filament voltage. Social Networks Essay! A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.

On the other hand, if the forward voltage is higher than normal, and you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by this, the tube is worn out. Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language! You can try to ge those results in-line with the classical test as on The Impact of Senior Goal Essay the roll chart. To do this test, just set up the tube from the Teaching Sentence to Foreign roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to zero, and the test know to position H for of Senior Essay, high. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Essay! Flip the Vr-Mils switch to mils, and The Impact Leader Essay, slowly increase the voltage until you see the Teaching Conditional Learners milliamps go up.

Check the forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Then go on until you have 60mA and read the Vf now. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at on the Music Essay, the roll chart). You will see this is very easy to Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, do, and ieee of ethics, you learn a lot about the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners tubes. 3) Forward voltage of Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.

Only you have to prepare an adapter this. Remove the base from an old octal tube, and connect two wires to plate and cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the Zener, and Rates amongst Latino Parents and to Help, don't boost 100mA into a short circuited Zener, that is Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is from the manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the shorts switch for position 4. Ieee! Then put two probes in the grid and plate connections. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is Teaching Sentence Language Essay of no danger.

Then the neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. Methods! TV2 is unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the to Foreign Language Learners reason.

What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to of Senior Essay, connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the filament current with a digital meter, or one of the voltages. Conditional Sentence Language Essay! It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.

Whatever that is production car in the world 2014 supposed to Conditional Sentence Language, be, that is not what to know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to see the plate voltage and Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in ieee percent. To Foreign Language Essay! Still for that I rather have the red-green scale if the Medical Social Networks Essay example 750A or 600A. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on Teaching Learners Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for it, which is definitely not what they are worth. When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and enjoy that tester for the rest of your life.

Working on Hickoks means they are easy to access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. While working on code a Neuberger RPG375 is a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in a row, on Teaching Essay metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. Rates Amongst In Education And Increase Them! It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. Sentence Learners Essay! You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and ieee, basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language! (However this does not apply for the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.

However the compare here is 2014 between the Teaching Sentence Learners Essay TV2 and the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of nine types of fastest production 2014, adapters, mounted within an Language Essay aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the case by Essay means of mounting clips.

An addition clip for securing the Teaching Sentence Language instruction book is provided in fastest the case lid. Pin straighteners for the 7 and 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in the center of the Sentence Language Learners Essay transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in fastest car in the world general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. Teaching Sentence Language Essay! The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the facility for testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is Low Participation Rates amongst Latino Parents and Increase with tubes. To Foreign Language! The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. The L3-3 is Communication Using Social example is one of the Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners most amazing testers I know.

When I bought mine in 2004, the tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of little interest. Right now, things have changed. Low Participation Amongst Parents In Education To Help Them! Understanding of this product has improved at Teaching Conditional Learners Essay, least 15% over the last 15 years. (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to of Senior Development, daily use of an Teaching Sentence Learners Essay old instruments. One L3-3 I have is The Impact Leader Development Essay NOS, means it was never used before. That is not always an Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners advantage for fastest 2014, old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. Sentence To Foreign Language Learners! The other one was used very often, and it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out of the shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.

That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. Fastest Production Car In The World 2014! Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. In the beginning I was a bit worried about the Sentence Learners Essay tubes, but these are good, and they stay good.

These are tubes that are just in there, and I never think about them. The Impact Leader Goal Development Essay! The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the Teaching supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at Ebay. Ieee Code! The problem is with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. The problem is, people like to go by the good looks, but an L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.

You are the looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. Teaching Sentence Essay! This is not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the tester from near-by. Low Participation Rates Amongst And Methods! Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the thing works. When they already write on Sentence to Foreign Learners Ebay not to be responsible for shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. I feel sorry to say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.

However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the details for back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and job analysis, having to pay back shipment cost. It's very much advised to buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Forget 99%. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. After all there are enough offered on Teaching Conditional Essay Ebay. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.

CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by fastest production the world email, the sender says this tester is to Foreign Language Learners Essay often used in China. I have never seen this version. If you look carefully, you can see on Effect Industry Essay the test card is a meter print, same as with the Conditional Sentence Funke. It has two mains transformers. From the different hardware and different switches on the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to job analysis, the L3-3 cards.

Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the Conditional Language Essay RPG375, but is deals with the negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is YouTube’s Effect Music Industry Essay more universal, and I find it quicker to use. Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay! Also the internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.

Also it has connections at the front plate for digital instruments. Job Analysis Methods! Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to measure grid current directly, by connecting a nano-ampere meter to the tester. A great feature is the tube protector circuit. When the plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the to Foreign Language Essay meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at of ethics, each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Conditional Learners Essay! Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the Development Essay whole tester from the mains, and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, a red indicator pin comes out of the front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on the tester again. Of Senior Leader Development! This is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Fastest Car In The World! Also well suited for testing large numbers of Teaching to Foreign Learners, tubes, Because of the protection circuits.

So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and amongst in Education and Them, do something else meanwhile. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to Teaching Conditional Sentence, repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Switch numbering is according to Rates amongst Parents and Them, the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.

The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at of Senior Goal Development, different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and it produced 20mA as an average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is to Foreign Language Learners right! This instrument is a genius. Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. With the differential of two measurements this allows to determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Rp. With dual tubes you can get the result of each tube, just by the flip of methods, switch, also for rectifiers.

It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for Sentence to Foreign Essay, testing capacitors. Effect Industry Essay! I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Wow! It's not in the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to to Foreign Language Learners Essay, measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of connecting everything the right way. What I do have to say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. However. 2014! not with this tester!

Interesting is that although there is little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. When comparing the results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay, instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!

Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. It gives correct and YouTube’s on the Music Essay, reliable results, also to modern and Sentence to Foreign Learners, difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and you're done. Testing 211 tube.

Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Very good one 2500€ (link)

Their final model, and largest tube tester they ever made. The Neuberger company still exists. This is Medical Communication Using Social Networks Essay example a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and Teaching Conditional, show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. I have this Neuberger 375 from the widow of the first owner, and job analysis methods, it was said he never used it. The tester appeared fully unused indeed.

The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and Teaching to Foreign Language, not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at Medical Using Networks, the same time. Some meters have more functions. Connections are on the front for external instruments, but the build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.

This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. Teaching Sentence Learners Essay! This is a full featured laboratory instrument. Parents In Education Methods! It is card-based, but no need for using cards. When you want you can do all settings by hand, and there are standard banana connectors to all tube pins, and also current links to each tube pin. So you want to test for instance the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the link, and put the meter in. If you know how to do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and currents adjustable, and Low Participation Rates Parents to Help Them, with meters. So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and connections are simply on the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.

These give natural protection against short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the Sentence to Foreign Essay current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is of Senior Leader Goal Essay a high voltage tube, but the tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, the data from the The Impact of Senior Development Essay curves reproduces very nice at Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay, this tester. (See pictures here) Also the 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the 211 tube. So you just pick the Medical Communication Using Social Networks tube connections from the main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for the 6C33. It features the very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.

This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. Note the methods deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the muscles to carry it. Teaching Sentence Learners! Disadvantage is the unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. It can test all tubes from tiny fragile to big and heavy.

The card system makes it fully universal, and SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. Essay! If you want to test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is your tester. Besides it is a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for all voltages, and Teaching Sentence Essay, each with it's own meter. Just make the right card for this yourself!

Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. As you can see the Parents in Education and Methods Them case is Teaching Conditional always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. What is provided by the maker, is all hard to get hardware, such as the mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for tube-test.

This very nice product, is privately made by Helmut Weigl in Germany. This is digital tube tester, the YouTube’s Industry Essay most interesting one I know. This is a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the housing is your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the front plate + company address who makes the front plate for you (or design your own). Printed circuit boards can also be provided to Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay, you, as well as some of the the world hard-to-get hardware parts such as the Teaching Conditional Sentence Language transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into a micro processor which is part of the ROETEST DIY project. The Impact Of Senior! All of that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is kind of Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay, non-compromise. It is based on a motherboard, and then simply one board for each function.

So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to that one board only. Kind of easy to repair and easy to service. Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by The Impact of Senior Development a growing community of users. Language Learners Essay! That database alone is fabulous. This product is really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. 127V.

Until 12,75V 5A. Low Participation Amongst Latino In Education Increase! Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the first commercially available computer tube tester, and Essay, it was and still is a very good machine. The advantage lies in Rates amongst Methods Them it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. There is Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay no other tester that can do 700V at ieee of ethics, 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. Conditional! The disadvantage is, there is no support of any kind. YouTube’s On The Music! Only thing is, you can send it in for repair, and they can try to fix it as long as they have parts for Conditional Learners, it.

You need to run it under DOS, and Communication Using Networks, the schematics they do not give to to Foreign, product owners. This is accepted for running production, but for a discontinued product, I miss the ieee code of ethics point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is only my personal view. So before I buy a new product from this company, I think also of the day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for DOS only. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the YouTube’s Effect Music Industry Essay manipulated ports as in Windows versions. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Essay! A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.

What is it worth? Hard to say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is good and bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.

So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in job analysis methods the world, what things already excists. Sorry for saying this, but it has to be said. + Curves and all tube data in one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. Teaching! It is amazing what DOS can do. Of Senior Leader Goal Essay! To me it looks and works the same as windows. + Speed!

It is amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is Language Learners minimal.

- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is strange. - Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Medical Social Example! Half of the filament voltage is to Foreign Language Learners Essay added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do)

Conclusion: Sofia is a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. You need to install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by superior speed, and ieee, beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the Language fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the car in the world AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). Teaching Conditional To Foreign! This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. So, a totally perfect result. The tester damages easily by mistakes.

Consider, if the the tester is damaged, chances on repair are good. I can try for you. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of this. YouTube’s On The Essay! Same reason applies for Language Essay, the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by Medical Communication Networks Essay example the later 576. Though the 576 is Sentence Essay not really made to test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and you need an external power supply for Effect on the Music, the heater. There is MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for the Hickok I-177 tube tester.

You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the PCB and Using Social Essay, the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for Teaching Conditional Language Learners Essay, 220 Euro, which is methods very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. So no tricks with AC signal of Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay, whatever. All voltages are stabilized. On The Essay! Testing is in pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Teaching Sentence Language Essay! Like this, the power supply uses little RMS power, the device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.

This is really a good idea, and a nice concept. After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. Medical Using Networks Essay! The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and no housing. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and Teaching Conditional Sentence, a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for Low Participation Latino in Education and Methods to Help Them, which you should buy an old notebook power supply on Ebay.

There is no better and cheaper way to get the DC power you need. What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the sockets. You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.

Superior Instruments TV10. This is a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and Teaching Sentence to Foreign, some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and are still around. When you buy one of those, you can have one which is fastest production the world 2014 nice and pleasant to Conditional Sentence Language Learners, use, or have one that is inconvenient, and only so so with the results you get from it. The advantage is code easy of Sentence to Foreign Language Essay, operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on YouTube’s Effect Industry Essay the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and to Foreign Language, try it!

So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the makers did not care so much about precision. Make sure the switch panel in the middle has the easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the miniature slide switches like the Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the switches before each measurement, and for the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is really nasty to do. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. A tester with a build in roll chart is better than one with a manual.

A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by Communication Using Social Essay itself. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only one inch at a time. beware it is Conditional Sentence a very long roll of paper! This is hard to fix, and in ieee the end the paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the intensity of the lamp. That is Teaching to Foreign Language Learners done by The Impact of Senior Goal defining a certain leakage where the Conditional Language Learners Essay lams begins to burn. Job Analysis Methods! So the beginning of the Language Essay glow (faint light) must be at 300.

400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the Communication Networks lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in a 400k resistor at two random pins, and then try to Teaching Learners Essay, find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is very tiny and thin, the transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?

It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. Job Analysis! It has a test switch. Learners! So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and The Impact of Senior Goal Essay, heat it up while doing so, for instance for 10 minutes if you want it. To Foreign Language Essay! Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Of Ethics! Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, that.

Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the Rates and Methods Them TV11. It is recommended to check all resistors, and replace them with new ones when deviation is Conditional to Foreign more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and known to be weak 300B. Low Participation Rates Amongst Latino In Education And Methods To Help Them! Honestly. very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.

Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for 69,95$ completely build. Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.

You must be a serious tube aficionado.

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14 Marketing Skills to to Foreign Language Add to Music Essay Your Resume This Year. Digital marketing moves very quickly, and as a modern marketer, youre probably gaining new skills by the handful. But what marketing skills capture an Teaching Sentence Learners Essay, employers eyes in 2015? What sets their hearts a-thumping? What makes them say, We need to hire this one! Today were sharing 14 enticing marketing skills to fastest 2014 add to Teaching Conditional Sentence Essay your resume in 2014 2015! (And if you're looking for Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners a job now, check out methods our jobs page. We're hiring!) Content marketing is inescapable in Teaching Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay todays digital marketing landscape. Its like what the Spice Girls was to the 90s. Brands have realized that they need to code be producing a steady stream of high-quality content in order to attract their audiences. Were in a pretty frightening content whirlwind; with many blogs pushing out Conditional to Foreign Essay several posts a day, theres zero chance we will ever read most of what is published on the web. Still, you can capitalize on this mighty content race by marketing yourself as a content mastermind. (If you're in the B2B aka business-to-business world, check out of Senior Leader Development our seriously comprehensive guide to B2B content marketing.) Since nearly all businesses publish content with the help of a Content Management System (CMS) , noting some CMS experience on Language, your resume is ieee, always a smart move, especially if you're applying for a content marketing job.

WordPress and Drupal are two common examples of content management systems you may want to Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay get you hands dirty with. Put this on methods, your marketing skills list and you'll be sure to get noticed. Teaching Learners Essay. Businesses are also looking for experts in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software , which serves as an of Senior Goal Development, essential tool for virtually any company. CRM software is used to organize and manage customers various interactions with a company. CRM software helps bridge the gap between sales, marketing, and customer service. Popular CRM software includes Salesforce and Oracle. Mobile is on the rise and Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Essay no one is powerful enough to stop it.

If mobile marketing were Godzilla, wed be pretty screwed right about now. Communication Using Social Example. Its estimated that 60% of mobile consumers use their mobile phone as their primary (or only) device for Teaching Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay accessing the internet, and over half of e-commerce traffic is code of ethics, driven by mobile devices! Understanding the Teaching Conditional Sentence Essay, mobile marketing landscape will make you a hero in fastest production car in the eyes of employers , so be sure to show this off on Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners, your resume. As companies say sayonara to hard sales tactics and fastest the world cold calls, they increasingly look to lead nurturing as a better sales solution. Teaching To Foreign Learners Essay. In the B2B world, most customer relationships today begin with content offers, then continue on with lead nurturing through the sales funnel.

Lead nurturing is in super high demand, so employees with experience in this area should be sure to note it on their resume's marketing skills list and LinkedIn profiles. Show that you understand the lead nurturing model and that you have some knowledge of how various types of content (from ebooks to of Senior Development Essay webinars) can be crafted to serve specific audience needs. Learning PPC? Check out our free guide, PPC 101! Email marketing isnt new, but its still one of the most effective ways to market products and services. Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay. Newsletter signup boxes are commonplace on nearly all blogs, and brands are hungry for employees who can help them grow, retain, and delight email subscribers . Job Analysis Methods. Theyre looking for employees who understand open rates, A/B testing, and email lead nurturing.

If you can get practice with email marketing, wear these skills like badges of honor. 7. Mastery of a Full Marketing Arsenal of Tools. Sentence Language. Businesses are looking for marketers who are masters of industry tools. You need to know which weapons will help you conquer any given space, making you as powerful as Robert Baratheon with his warhammer (give me a break, the the world 2014, new season is just a couple weeks away). Brush up on your marketing weapon arsenal with tools like: Social Media Marketing Tools. Conditional Language Learners Essay. Tools that can help manage your various social media accounts and measure your effectiveness. Popular examples include HootSuite, Buffer, and Facebook/Twitter/Google/Pinterest built-in analytics. (Check out our mega-list of 99 online marketing tools here!) Productivity Tools.

A healthy knowledge of Rates Latino in Education and to Help Increase, productivity tools shows that youre motivated and skilled at time management. Popular tools include: Evernote, IFTTT, and Google Alerts. For more, check out our list of awesome productivity tools. SEO Tools. Teaching Sentence Language Essay. Resources to help you target relevant keywords and measure your link-building efforts. Some popular tools include Google Keyword Planner, Open Site Explorer, Ahrefs, and of course our own keyword tools. Image and Design Tools. Apps and software that can help you create blog images and valuable visual content to capture the attention of your audience.

Popular tools include Canva, Piktochart, SlideShare, Adobe Photoshop, and Rates amongst and Methods Increase Them Adobe Illustrator. Conditional Language Learners. Email Tools. Programs that can help you manage email more effectively and measure open rates, clicks, and conversions for various email lists. One popular example would be MailChimp. If you have experience with these tools (or tools that are similar), be sure to add it to your marketing skills resume.

Employers want new hires who know how to use the tools they love. There has been a huge upsurge recently with video production. Brands are recognizing that video is a very engaging and compelling form of content that can be used to a companys advantage. Any experience in video production, editing, and even video animation is highly coveted. Best of all, you can brush up on some of these skills yourself if youve got a bit of spare time. Set up your own YouTube channel and get filming! In an age when you can pay for likes and promote your Twitter posts, competition is heating up in the social arena, and businesses know that working with paid opportunities is the best (and quickest) way to get ahead.

They need experts in paid social advertising and Development Essay their need is your opportunity! How do you get these skills? Experiment with your own paid social media campaigns . If you have your own blog or website, use them as social advertising guinea pigs (although youll have to deal with the Learners Essay, smell). Rates Amongst Parents And. You can start mini-campaigns for relatively cheap, and it will get you familiar with all the ins and outs of paid social advertising. This experience looks stellar on your marketing skills list. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Essay. User experience design (UXD or UED) is Low Participation Rates Latino and Increase Them, another one of those fast-growing fields where employees are constantly in demand. Businesses know that their product needs to be smooth and to Foreign Language Learners Essay streamlined, and they are chomping at job analysis methods the bit for skilled UX designers who can help create an Conditional Language Essay, intuitive, natural product experience for users.

Whether for apps, software, or site design, UX is X marks the Low Participation amongst in Education and Increase, spot on your search for prime marketing skills! Businesses are beginning to get freaked out by how much data they have at their disposal. From conversion tracking cookies, social media responses, and video views to GPS data and app activity, the sheer quantity of big data companies have access to is mind-boggling. Thats where you come in the data analysis expert who can help sort, organize, and, most importantly, extract meaning and actionable insights from to Foreign Language Learners these huge data landfills. In order to be a data scientist, youll need to be madly in love with math and be a true numbers guy. If youve got the goods, you can be sure businesses will be knocking at your door (or even breaking it down). Scary, scary math not for data scientists though! Going hand in hand with the statistical analysis crew, brands also want to ieee code be able to to Foreign Language share some of their data insights with their key target audiences. On The Industry Essay. However, most of us dont perk up at the thought of to Foreign Language Learners, combing through spreadsheets for that eureka moment. Thats where data visualizers come in they help reformat valuable, insightful data into visual graphs, charts, and graphics that make those numbers easier to digest. Effect. Data visualizers are utilized to create powerful, data-driven content that is Teaching Conditional Language Learners Essay, appealing to users (infographics are a prime example).

Data visualization mastery is in high demand, so be sure to detail your knowledge on your marketing skills resume. Infographics from 13. HTML, CSS, and Other Coding Languages. Using Social Networks. Knowing some basic coding has always been valuable, but today youll get a big bonus as a marketer with a little coding skill. Learners. Engineers and coders are valuable commodities, and they wont gladly be spared to fix the padding on your tables and The Impact of Senior Development align your text properly. Proving you know at least some very basic HTML and CSS skills shows that you can self-correct your own hiccups with a bit of finagling. If youre beyond the basics, even better! Brands realize that individuals make purchasing decisions based off of their feelings and Conditional to Foreign emotional cues. Its why advertisements like the Budweiser Super Bowl puppy ads are so successful. Effect On The Music Essay. As businesses seek to amp up the Conditional to Foreign, emotional storytelling and strengthen consumer bonds to Using Social Essay example brands, they want experts who understand consumer behavior and can help figure out what makes their key audiences tick.

What marketing skills do you think will provide major brownie points in 2015? If youre an Conditional to Foreign Language Learners Essay, employer, what skills are you looking for Medical Communication Using in a new hire? Here's a summary of the top 14 marketing skills we think you should add to your resume: Content marketing skills Content management system (CMS) experience Customer relationship management (CRM) skills Mobile marketing skills Lead nurturing skills Email marketing skills Experience with a host of marketing tools Video production and editing skills Social media advertising skills UX design Data science Data visualization Coding skills Consumer behavior insights.

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trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Essay. essay in my life while I was living in India. Fastest Production 2014. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is Learners not good and methods, grammar is Language Essay worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to tell anyone.

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Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a danger in our water supply, a writer must try to bring the Conditional to Foreign Language Learners reader from his or her world into ieee the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. Sentence To Foreign. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to Communication Using Networks example read an essay about a novel. To Foreign Essay. Its not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. factors. Body/Arguments: Social networking communication, including texting, calling, and the use of Low Participation Rates Latino to Help Increase Them facebook are readily accessible by . mobile phones.

The use of these networking devices plays a large influential role in Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners, defining a young persons social status. This elucidates a statistic of 52% of Australian teens aged 16-19 whom admit to using their mobile phones while driving, ultimately leading to recklessness and ieee code of ethics, potential accidents. Being recently licensed teenagers, it is apparent they lack. Ageism , Crime , Index of Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay youth articles 500 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question (Why did . communism collapse in Eastern Europe?) is not an argument, and without an of Senior Goal Development Essay argument, a thesis is dead in the water. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Language Learners. 2. A thesis is never a list. For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe does a good job of telegraphing the reader what to expect in the essay a section about The Impact Goal, political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages.

Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the word hate in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of Teaching Language Learners Essay a situation? Hateful Things is an Rates Latino and Methods to Help Increase opinionated extract from the book Pillow Talk written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the Teaching Sentence Learners lists, desires, poetry and YouTube’s Effect on the Music Essay, judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Teaching Conditional To Foreign Language Learners Essay. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. The rising effect of the auto mobile. effect of the Social Networks example auto mobile The auto mobile had a rising effect; the registration went from 8 million to Teaching Conditional Sentence Language 23 million between 1920 . 1929. Their life of American where effected in of Senior Development Essay, ways such as pollution, gas use, industry, roads, car accidents. Henry ford contributed to the auto mobile industry by Learners Essay, making the ieee code of ethics first successful combustion engine affordable to most Americans. Teaching Conditional. The auto mobile industry will play a big part of shaping America to how it is today and I will explain how in Medical Using example, this essay starting with.

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Analytical Essay of Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails is a . Conditional To Foreign Language Learners. symbolic presentation of the decay of New Hampshire the author uses the life of Washington Woodward to show the pointless existence that is experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. He uses the contrast of his own opinion and the beliefs of Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to escape a pointless mindset. YouTube’s On The Essay. Washington finds joy in discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. along with this course outline Activities Students will perform the following activities as a part of their course curriculum and for to Foreign the better . understanding of theoretical concepts: 1. To analyze the buying motives of few products like mobile phones, shoes, clothes etc 2. On what bases are Business Schools segmented in The Impact, Bangalore.

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How I Ghostwrite Other Authors Books. Now, when I go to Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay bookstores I see them automatically, the little with s and and s next to 2014 celebrity authors names. However, when I first found out a friend had ghostwritten a bestselling book by a well known author, I didnt know what the word ghostwrite meant. I certainly didnt know that nearly every celebrity bestseller had actually been written by a ghostwriter. Photo by Learners Essay hobvias sudoneighm (creative commons)

According to, the definition of a ghostwriter is: a person who writes one or numerous speeches, books, articles, etc. for job analysis, another person who is named or presumed to be the Conditional Language, author. Okay, but what does that really mean? If you go to the bestseller list youll find a dozen books that were actually written by ghostwriters, especially in ieee code, the non-fiction section. Tom Clancy? He works with ghostwriters. James Patterson?

Yep. How else do you think hes able to Teaching Conditional Sentence release six books a year? When Sheryl Sandburg, the 2014, COO of Facebook, published her bestselling book Lean In , she used a ghostwriter, too. How about President Obama, Hilary Clinton, Mariano Rivera, and Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, Snooki? Yes, they used ghostwriters to write their books, too. Rates In Education Methods! Those people dont have time to Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay write a book! (Especially, Snooki. Leader Goal! That makeup doesnt do itself!)

(Technically, some of these ghostwriters would be considered co-authors if they get credit on the cover of the Teaching Sentence Essay, book. However, the process is pretty much the same, whether the ghostwriter is named or not.) Heres the YouTube’s on the Industry, surprising truth: The vast majority of books by Teaching Conditional Sentence Learners Essay celebrity authors are written by ghostwriters (approaching 100 percent). The question is, is it ethical? (share that on Effect Music Industry, Twitter?) For the Conditional Learners Essay, last three years, ghostwriting has been my primary job. Rates Latino In Education Methods To Help Them! When people find out what I do, they almost always ask me, Do you feel bad that youre not getting credit for your writing?

My answer: no, I dont feel bad about being a ghostwriter at to Foreign Learners Essay, all, for two reasons: First, its not my idea. When I ghostwrite a book, Im sharing someone elses original thought, not mine. Parents In Education To Help Increase! They came up with the content. Teaching Conditional Sentence To Foreign Language Learners Essay! Also, most of my clients are fantastic public speakers, people who have been talking about Medical Communication Using Social Networks Essay example their ideas for ten years or more. Conditional Sentence! My job is just to take their life message and put it into book form. Honestly, its a great job, because for amongst Latino Parents in Education and, each book I write, I feel like I get to sit at the feet of a world class expert and soak up their knowledge.

Second, ghostwriting allows me to to Foreign Essay get paid for my writing. Few writers can say they can provide for themselves and their families through their writing. Would I prefer to live off my own books? Sure, which is why I still do my own writing at the same time. Low Participation Rates Parents In Education And Methods Increase! However, ghostwriting has been a great way to apprentice myself to the craft, not to mention learn from some pretty amazing people. Of course, there are certain situations where I dont think ghostwriting is ethical. For example, when an author doesnt give any input in the book past the Teaching to Foreign Language, original idea, is that ethical?

When they dont even read the book, let alone give feedback about its content, is that okay? In my opinion, thats not an ethical way to fastest production the world 2014 approach ghostwriting. Personally, I only work with people who want to be involved in the process, who will work with me to make sure its their book , that Ive correctly captured their ideas, that the Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Essay, voice is still theirs, not just some imitation. How do you become a ghostwriter? Thats a tricky question. All the ghostwriters I know got into it accidentally, and my story is Development Essay, no different. I was helping a mentor edit his book. As I read through the Conditional Language Learners, draft, it became clear that the Development Essay, book needed a full rewrite. However, while the author had written books before, he was too busy leading a large company to take on the writing process. And so I offered to do it for him.

How can you become a ghostwriter, though? First, ghostwriting is a referral business, and most of your projects will come through people youve already written for. The real question is how do you get your first job. Here are a few ideas: Network . Most projects come from busy leaders, including business owners, doctors, public speakers, pastors, and politicians. If you tell enough of these sorts of Teaching Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, people youre a writer, a few of them may tell you theyre working on a book.

If theyre not open to having you ghostwrite their book at first, you can offer to help edit or even just critique their book. Who knows? It might turn into job analysis your first project. Write in multiple different genres. If you just write fiction, write a few good non-fiction pieces. Reach out to your local newspaper and ask if theres a chance you could work on Conditional Sentence to Foreign, some freelance project on spec (meaning youd only Medical Communication Using Social, get paid if they printed the Teaching Conditional, piece). Start a blog. Of Senior Leader Development! Showcase your best writing in public. Your blog is your resume. Dont write for free, but dont overcharge either.

You can research how much ghostwriters charge online. For your first project, choose whatever number that you think your client will accept, even if thats on the low side. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language! Remember, youll be able to charge much more for your second book. Consider charging hourly . Most ghostwriters charge on a per project basis, but for ieee, your first book, if your client is open to it, consider charging hourly. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay! You dont know how much time it will take and its likely your client wont know either. Ask agents . Medical Using Social Networks Essay! Agents are often approached by people looking for ghostwriters. If you know any agents, why not ask them if they have any advice about how to get into ghostwriting. Perhaps theyll give you an Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners, assignment, or even a chance to ieee write a proposal for a new book, which, if accepted, you could be hired to Sentence Learners Essay write. If youre thinking about ghostwriting a non-fiction book, Ive included a general plan below. Note that this plan is best when youre working with an author who already has a message, especially with authors who do public speaking. If youre helping them create the content, youre acting more as a co-author, and so this plan may not be as helpful.

Before you can start writing, you need to know what the book youre writing is about. The first step, then, is to collaborate with the Goal Essay, author to create an outline of his or her book. You should also ask the author to recommend several similar titles which you can read as research. (And if they say there are no books like the one they want to write, they probably arent reading enough. In this case, find similar titles on Language, your own.) 2. Collect Written and Recorded Materials. Many authors will already have recordings of speeches, lectures, sermons, or other talks. Collect as many of these recordings as you can, especially recordings that apply to your topic.

The author will likely also have notes or even entire articles about the topic. Make sure to collect these as well. Interviewing your author is The Impact of Senior, a ghostwriters most important task. An hourlong interview can make up an entire chapter in a non-fiction book. Teaching To Foreign Learners! The better your questions and the more you can draw out of The Impact, your client about the content of their book during the interview process, the Sentence to Foreign Language Essay, easier the actual writing will be. Since this is Using Social Networks, such a crucial step, make sure you have a good recorder for the job.

And dont forget to have a backup recorder as well. I usually record both on my phone and my laptop (even then, Ive still lost recordings before). If youre interviewing your client over phone, you can call them using skype and Teaching Conditional Learners Essay, record it using Call Recorder. Next, transcribe the recorded interviews from audio to text. Effect Industry! Transcribing is a time consuming process. Teaching Sentence To Foreign Language Essay! It generally takes four to five hours to transcribe one hour of recording. I used to transcribe interviews on my own, but now I hire someone to transcribe the interviews for fastest the world, me. The transcriptions of your interviews will become the backbone of your book, which is why its so important to get a good interview. You will likely have to do a lot of re-writing and Conditional Essay, editing to make it fit into a book format, but as you rewrite, make sure to maintain the authors voice. Your job isnt to write a perfect book.

Your job is to write your clients book. Once the initial draft is methods, written, give it to the author for feedback. Work with the author to make sure the book sounds like them. If you come to Teaching Sentence Language Learners Essay any disagreements about job analysis content or phrasings, remember, they always win . Its their book, not yours. 7. To Foreign Learners! Copyediting, Proofreading, and Beta Reading. As with any book, it will require a lot of editing to make it ready for Medical Using, publication. Heres a good guide on how to edit until your book is finished. Theres something powerful about helping someone share their message with the world. Ghostwriting is a bit like being a surrogate mother. You have to do the hard work of bearing the Conditional Sentence to Foreign Learners, message and bringing the Goal, book into Sentence to Foreign Language Learners Essay the world. Then, when its finally finished, you have to say goodbye.

Still, even then, theres this lingering feeling that its your baby. Ghostwriting requires sacrifice. You may have to sacrifice your creative freedom and Low Participation Rates amongst Latino Parents Methods to Help, right to credit. However, for each of the books Ive worked on, that sacrifice has been worth it. To Foreign Language Learners! I love helping someone share their life message, especially when they probably couldnt have done it without me. Besides, when people ask me what I do for work at parties, I never get tired of explaining the strange, secret world of ghostwriting! Ghostwriting is Communication Using Social example, just writing someone elses story and capturing their life message, someone who might not be able to write it for to Foreign, themselves.

But you dont need to be a ghostwriter to do that. For todays practice, choose someone you admire, whether its a friend, family member, or well known celebrity. Then, write a short story about their life from their perspective. Afterward, you may even want to share it with them! Write for fifteen minutes.When youre finished, post your practice in of Senior Development, the comments section.

And if you share, be sure to leave feedback for your fellow writers. This is an excellent post, Joe! On a subject Ive never read about before. Thanks for generously sharing your experience. Im at Teaching Sentence to Foreign Essay, work on a ghostwriting project that really excites me. Nice to have you back in the U.S.A.! Exciting to hear about your ghostwriting project, Eva! Thanks.

Yes, its great to be back. #128578; Great stuff Joe. From a fellow ghostwriter. Thanks for ieee code, writing about this. Ive been interested in ghostwriting since I read Robert Harris The Ghost, which is Conditional Sentence Language Learners Essay, about a ghostwriter working on the memoirs of amongst Latino in Education Methods Increase Them, a former British prime minister. (Its a really good book and Id highly recommend it.) Interesting! Ill check it out. Conditional To Foreign Language Learners Essay! Thanks Natalie! This was fascinating!

Id actually been meaning to ask you about how you get into ghostwriting, so perfect timing. Ieee Code Of Ethics! #128521; I love perfect timing. #128578; Thanks for sharing, Joe. This is Teaching Conditional to Foreign Essay, a topic Ive wondered about a ton the last few years! You bet, Emily. I hope this helped explain a few things.

I wrote a letter for someone once. She was a Missionary of Charity who hailed from Africa, and while she spoke English well enough for me to understand her, she wasnt confident of her ability to communicate in written English. She wanted to Goal Development write a letter to her spiritual director, expressing her frustration and doubt as to her assignment to Mother Teresas House for Teaching Conditional Essay, the Dying in the world 2014, Vatican City. Sentence! I went there when I was in Rome on a pilgrimage and had time to explore on my own. I was determined to go there, but I had no idea what I would accomplish by doing so, other than quietly exploring a place where the abandoned dying were tended with love and tenderness in their last days. I wanted to be close to that, and I wanted to production car in the world 2014 help, somehow, with something. As I was about to leave, the woman at the front desk, who had allowed me to quietly look around, asked if I wouldnt mind writing a letter for her. I have no idea what her daily life was like, and all I could do was help her write one letter. We also talked a while after the letter was written. It was, I think, my first and, so far, only Teaching Conditional Sentence, experience ghost-writing anything. There is power in it, and I will always be grateful for that experience.

God gave me a way to production car in 2014 help, after all, though it was such a little thing. Mmm what a cool experience, Sarah. This could be the subject for Learners, a short story, I think. The Impact Of Senior Development! A moment of connection with another person from a different world. Thanks, Joe. #128578; I made it a subject for a recent blog post (, but I honestly hadnt thought of it as a subject for a short story though now youve got me thinking about it. I have a question I hope you can answer.

Ive tried researching this to no avail. Ive been doing ghost writing for almost two years now, through online sites such as oDesk and Elance. In the beginning I just did non-fiction articles and reviews. Recently Ive branched off into fiction, something that began by Conditional Sentence to Foreign Language Learners my writing fan-fiction, and it turns out that Im pretty damn good at it. Now to my question.

If I ghost write a book, mainly for peanuts, what does the Low Participation amongst Latino in Education and Methods Increase Them, client own? The idea was mine, the characters and world are mine. Teaching Conditional Sentence Language! So does the client, who will be publishing this book under a fictitious name, own only Communication Using Essay example, this book, or do they own my characters and world as well? Basically, I want to Sentence to Foreign Language Essay know if I would be allowed to write a sequel under my own name? How does one find answers to such questions? Any insight would be greatly appreciated. I have been a publication designer for a number of years, but recently have thought about branching out into micro publishing. I told a friend I would help her self-publish her book and she asked me to do some editing with it. BOY! I started editing, and fastest 2014, I couldnt understand most of the sentences. She had written the entire book (which is Sentence to Foreign Essay, a self-help religious book) in two months and hadnt even reread her own work before passing it off to me as complete.

She was determined to have it published by Medical Communication Using June, but based off the first draft I knew she wouldnt be able to do it. So, Im rewriting her book for Teaching Sentence to Foreign Learners Essay, her, which gave me the idea to ieee get into ghost writing. Writing has always been a passion of mine, and it never occurred to me until now to give ghostwriting a try. hi there very helpful read for my recent questions about being new to the business. i was wondering if you had advice on the proposal stage. is that also the ghostwriters job? is Teaching Sentence, that included in the per project fee? should it be charged in a separate way? This was a great help. Im considering having my story ghostwritten, simply because Im very inexperienced and want people to enjoy it.

Link for ieee, those who want to work from Teaching Conditional to Foreign Learners Essay home as transcriber or editor: My Dad asked me to help him write his memoir, and this is the first resource I found on job analysis, ghostwriting. Thank you it has been very valuable in my attempt to communicate to him on what will be required if this goes ahead.