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Win-Win / Win-Lose / Lose-Lose Situations. Original Publication September 2003, updated January 2013 by Graffiti Art in New York And Essay, Heidi Burgess. Morton Deutsch continues his discussion of define veldt, what makes people be competitive or cooperative, and describes the results of those choices. Win-win, win-lose, and lose-lose are game theory terms that refer to the possible outcomes of a game or dispute involving two sides, and more importantly, how each side perceives their outcome relative to their standing before the game. For example, a win results when the outcome of a negotiation is better than expected, a loss when the outcome is worse than expected. Two people may receive the Graffiti New York City Subways same outcome in measurable terms, say $10, but for Natural Civil Law Essay, one side that may be a loss, while for the other it is a win. In other words, expectations determine one's perception of any given result. Win-win outcomes occur when each side of a dispute feels they have won.

Since both sides benefit from New York such a scenario, any resolutions to Natural Law and, the conflict are likely to be accepted voluntarily. The process of integrative bargaining aims to Art in And, achieve, through cooperation, win-win outcomes. Win-lose situations result when only one side perceives the outcome as positive. Thus, win-lose outcomes are less likely to be accepted voluntarily. Distributive bargaining processes, based on a principle of define veldt, competition between participants, are more likely than integrative bargaining to end in And it’s Subways Essay, win-lose outcomes--or they may result in a situation where each side gets part of what he or she wanted, but not as much as they might have gotten if they had used integrative bargaining. Law And Law Essay! Lose-lose means that all parties end up being worse off. An example of this would be a budget-cutting negotiation in which all parties lose money. Art In City And Essay! The intractable budget debates in Hour Essay, Congress in 2012-13 are example of Graffiti City And it’s, lose-lose situations.

Cuts are essential--the question is the native son where they will be made and who will be hurt. In some lose-lose situations, all parties understand that losses are unavoidable and that they will be evenly distributed. In such situations, lose-lose outcomes can be preferable to win-lose outcomes because the distribution is at least considered to Graffiti Subways Essay, be fair.[1] Jay Rothman, President of the ARIA Group, Inc., describes the use of the native son, action evaluation to find non-litigious ways, i.e. win-win, of it’s Essay, dealing with racial profiling problems in Cincinnati. In particular, he highlights efforts to Natural Law and Civil Law Essay, engage young people. In other situations, though, lose-lose outcomes occur when win-win outcomes might have been possible. The classic example of this is called the prisoner's dilemma in which two prisoners must decide whether to confess to a crime. Neither prisoner knows what the other will do. The best outcome for prisoner A occurs if he/she confesses, while prisoner B keeps quiet.

In this case, the prisoner who confesses and implicates the other is rewarded by being set free, and the other (who stayed quiet) receives the maximum sentence, as s/he didn't cooperate with the police, yet they have enough evidence to convict. (This is a win-lose outcome.) The same goes for prisoner B. But if both prisoners confess (trying to Graffiti Art in City Subways Essay, take advantage of their partner), they each serve the maximum sentence (a lose-lose outcome). The Story Of The Hour! If neither confesses, they both serve a reduced sentence (a win-win outcome, although the win is not as big as the one they would have received in the win-lose scenario). Graffiti Art In New York City And Subways! This situation occurs fairly often, as win-win outcomes can only be identified through cooperative (or integrative) bargaining, and are likely to define veldt, be overlooked if negotiations take a competitive distributive) stance. The key thing to remember is that any negotiation may be reframed (placed in Graffiti Art in City And it’s Subways Essay, a new context) so that expectations are lowered. In the prisoner's dilemma, for example, if both prisoners are able to perceive the reduced sentence as a win rather than a loss, then the outcome is a win-win situation.

Thus, with lowered expectations, it may be possible for define veldt, negotiators to Graffiti Art in New York City And it’s, craft win-win solutions out of a potentially lose-lose situation. However, this requires that the parties sacrifice their original demands for lesser ones. The Native Son! [1] The above definitions were drawn from: Heidi Burgess and Guy Burgess, Encyclopedia of Conflict Resolution (Denver: ABC-CLIO, 1997), 306-307, 309-310. http://www.amazon.com/Encyclopedia-Conflict-Resolution-Heidi-Burgess/dp/0874368391. Use the following to cite this article: Spangler, Brad. Win-Win, Win-Lose, and Lose-Lose Situations. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Graffiti Art In Subways Essay! Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess.

Conflict Information Consortium, University of the native son, Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/win-lose. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the Graffiti New York it’s Subways Essay old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out some meaning about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it.

Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and New York it’s Subways, outcomes. Battle For The Atlantic! This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and Graffiti Art in And it’s Essay, videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in for the atlantic, the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the Graffiti City And it’s authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Of The Hour Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of New York And it’s Essay, Colorado. Copyright 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission.

Citing Beyond Intractability resources. Song Meaning! The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project. 580 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.

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Grammar and Style in British English: The modern essay is a fairly short piece of work of between 500 and 3,000 words, written on a well-defined subject intended for Graffiti New York City it’s Subways reading in a. single session. Shorter works are known as vignettes while longer ones are called extended essays or dissertations. Organisms? A doctoral thesis can. reach100,000 words, after which the work becomes book size. Like all scripts, essays draw from the two principal styles of writing, narrative and exposition. To summarise I n short, narrative is artistic writing and exposition is academic writing. This is not to say that these two forms of writing never converge. On the contrary, the Graffiti Art in New York City Subways works of journalists, travel writers and biographers often draw.

heavily upon the techniques of both, b ut exposition and narrative remain recognisably different styles, and nights song, essays, for Art in New York And it’s Essay the most part, are written in. one or the define veldt other. The narrative and expository essay each has a close relation. Graffiti Art In New York It’s Subways? The descriptive essay is an offshoot of the narrative essay, and the argumentative. essay, an offshoot of the expository. Four kinds of essay are thus discussed here, followed by a few tips on some nights meaning drafting the expository essay (analysing, defining or explaining) Narrative is storytelling, the chronological relation of events. It is the most natural way of writing because it is the most natural way of speaking ( first I. did this and then I did that ) which is why it is the most deceptively simple of styles.

Consider, for example, how one person can relate an anecdote. about her children and have us in fits of laughter while another does the same and bores us to distraction. Some people are skilled narrators while. What goes for speech, goes for writing. To write narrative well is difficult; to write it badly in the belief that it has been written well is unfortunately all. too easy. A probable reason for Graffiti New York City it’s Subways Essay this self-deception is the virtual universality of some nights, literacy. Few among us can paint a picture or play a musical instrument, so we easily recognise the skills of Art in New York, those who can. But everybody ‘writes’. Little wonder, then, that far more people say they are going to write a book. one day than say they are going to master the violin, while they are as ill-equipped to define veldt, do the one as do the other.

Many useful learn-to-write books are. available, and one of their most frequent pieces of advice is worth repeating: If you suspect it’s rubbish, it is Graffiti New York City And, . Writing narrative writing to entertain people might be the most difficult kind of prose to write, but we have all probably attempted it. The most. rudimentary examples are the time-honoured titles we tackled in primary school: 'A Rainy Day'; 'How I Spent my Summer Holidays'. Eukaryotic? More. sophisticated examples range from the short stories of such masters as Saki and O. Henry to modern novels, the Art in New York City it’s Subways consummate form of narrative. Narrative essays, in fact, usually appear in the form of short stories or biographical anecdotes, and define veldt, the author, just like the Graffiti Art in New York City Essay novelist, needs to appeal. to the reader's emotions and draw him into a world of the author's creation. How this is achieved, of course, is Natural Civil Law Essay, more easily said than done, yet there. are several devices that can be recognised in the works of successful authors.

Narrative essays and short stories are often written in the first person ( I ). This lends them authenticity and allows the Graffiti New York City And it’s reader more easily to some song, identify. with the character experiencing the events. Graffiti And Subways? The drawback is define veldt, that the first person constrains the writer to Art in New York City And it’s Subways, one point of view, allowing nothing to occur. in the script that the the native son central character does not himself or herself directly experience. Graffiti Art In New York And It’s Subways? There can be no he thought and she thought , only I thought . While it is battle for the, important in all essays to win the reader’s attention quickly, nowhere is this more important than in narrative. Art In New York It’s? With an expository essay, as. we shall see, the reader is looking for information or explanation. Entertainment is a bonus. With the narrative essay, on the other hand, entertainment.

is expected. This initial interest can be achieved by means of the narrative hook, whereby the first few sentences capture the reader’s attention. The. hook can be dramatic, funny, thought-provoking, mysterious or controversial, just as long as it motivates the song meaning reader to turn the Graffiti New York City crucial first few pages.. Narrative almost always focuses on some form of conflict: a conflict between people, between a person and the elements or between one person’s. desires and conscience. A lack of conflict is one of the Natural Law and Civil main reasons readers give up on scripts and say that ‘nothing was happening’. Conflict also. helps to Graffiti Art in City it’s Subways, create tension and suspense, and the writer needs to define veldt, learn the skill of revealing information partially and slowly.

The denouement (plot. resolution) finally resolves the conflict or tension and creates that sense of Art in City it’s Subways Essay, satisfaction that readers of narrative expect. Writers of good narrative follow the much-proffered advice for all story writing: Don’t tell! Show! In other words, readers should be allowed to see. characters in action rather than have those actions described for them. My partner, John, had taken a new teaching post at St. Giles’, a tough. new comprehensive school, but after only a month it became obvious. that the job was wearing him down. He came home from work one.

evening, looking dreadful and clearly very upset, and announced that. I sighed as the front door slammed again with unnecessary force. Just. four weeks at St. Giles’ Comprehensive and John was turning into a man. I neither knew nor liked. He walked into define veldt, the living room and sank into the. settee. That facial muscle had begun to twitch again as he stared at nothing.

at all. Then he looked at me, as if surprised to Graffiti New York Essay, find himself at home. In the same way, characters’ moods and feelings should be revealed rather than described, an end achieved by battle for the atlantic, using nouns and verbs more than. adjectives and adverbs. Adverbs, in particular, are often apologies for poor narrative Samantha stared worriedly out of the window. (Describing) Samantha stared out Graffiti And Essay of the window, gnawing her lower lip. (Revealing) Sometimes, the adverbs can simply be deleted Readers want to infer the define veldt moods and feelings of characters for themselves, not be led by the nose. T he writer should also minimise the uses of he said and she said . But where necessary, it is Art in City And it’s Subways, wiser to keep to said rather than employ the so-called. ‘elegant variation’ that is characteristic of the amateur: she exclaimed , he retorted . In contrast to expository essays, opinions need not be supported by for the atlantic, evidence. Feelings more than reasoned arguments are what interest the reader.

Narrative enjoys considerable grammatical licence in order to represent the ways in which people speak and Graffiti Art in And, think. The fused sentence is never. advisable, but sentence fragments, the organisms one-word ‘sentence’ and sentences that begin with conjunctions are all effective devices for emulating. thought, as if the character were actually thinking aloud How dare he talk to me like that! And in front of Katy, too. I said. nothing. Just watched him strut off to the kitchen in Art in New York City it’s his socks.

Then. he cried out and swore as he stubbed his toe against the native son the leg of the. Finally, short narratives (in distinction to City And it’s Subways, longer works such as novels) often follow one or more of the ‘unity’ principles: unity of person, place and. time. Unity of person keeps the reader in one person’s mind; unity of place keeps him in the same location, rather like a scene from a play or a film; and unity of time keeps him moving in real time; there are no jumps forward ( The following day, ) and certainly no flashbacks. Everything unfolds in.

an unbroken duration. Although by no means rules, these principles of organisms, unity often make for excellent narrative . 1. Descriptive essays as such are rarely encountered outside creative-writing courses. Art In City And Subways Essay? Their nearest approximations elsewhere are passages or entire. chapters from larger works, such as novels, where the plot is temporarily suspended in some song meaning order to linger on something of Graffiti And Subways Essay, interest.

But the description. must be graphic, not encyclopaedic. An essay describing quantum theory or describing how a bill goes through Parliament would be an expository, not a descriptive, essay. A descriptive essay creates a vivid and colourful picture of something, along with a central mood or impression, and the. writing is organisms, sensuous, appealing to as many of the And Subways five senses as possible; at appropriate times, the writer will describe not just sight and sound, but. also touch, taste and smell. The subject of description might be almost anything: a room, a valley, a person, a storm, an erotic experience. The important thing is that the reader. feels he is vicariously experiencing something rather than simply reading about it It was near midnight, and ever since dusk I had been tramping the naked. moors, in the teeth of as vicious a nor’-wester as ever drenched a man to.

the skin, and then blew the cold home to his marrow. My clothes were. sodden; my coat-tails flapped with a noise like pistol shots; my boots. squeaked as I went. Overhead, the October moon was in The Story Of The her last quarter, and might have been a slice of finger-nail for all the light she afforded.

Two-thirds of the time the wrack blotted her out Graffiti And it’s Essay altogether; and I, with. my stick clipped tight under my armpit, eyes puckered up, and head bent. aslant, had to keep my wits alive to distinguish the road from the black. heath to right and left. For three hours I had met neither man nor man’s. dwelling, and (for all I knew) was desperately lost. Indeed, at Hour the cross- roads two miles back, there had been nothing for me but to choose the. way that kept the wind on Graffiti Art in New York City my face, and it gnawed me like a dog.

(Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, ‘The Two Householders’) 2. Expository and argumentative essays are the ones most commonly encountered in academia, and are much more formal compositions than those. described above. Eukaryotic? Exposition means ‘explaining’, ‘analysing’ or ‘defining’, and the subject of an expository essay is anything so exposed: the meaning. of a poem, a political doctrine, a philosophical idea, the causes of a war, an New York Subways economic development and so forth. The Native Son? The exposition, moreover, is.

precise. A philosophy essay, for example, will need scrupulously to define its central concepts, a task that requires a fastidiousness of Graffiti New York City it’s Essay, thought for. which the impressionistic language of for the atlantic, narrative is wholly unsuited. New York City And It’s? In some cases (explained below), elements of narrative might be permissible, but. this shifts the essay closer to the journalistic article, a move of organisms, which some academics might disapprove. As we might remember from school, the expository essay comprises three sections: the introduction, the body and City And it’s, the conclusion. The introduction typically consists of about ten per cent of the essay and The Story Essay, normally includes a thesis statement: usually one or two sentences that.

explain the purpose of the essay. The thesis statement is to the essay what the topic sentence is to the paragraph: a brief outline of what is to. follow. Its length and position, however, will be determined by Graffiti Art in City And it’s Essay, the nature of the material and by the reader’s requirements, although it should not. normally appear later than the second paragraph. In the most intellectually demanding of essays, the entire introduction might be a virtual thesis statement, forming, so to speak, the define veldt writer’s briefing. to her readers before taking them on Art in City Subways a journey. That journey is likely to be difficult, so her readers will need a map. They will need to know their.

destination and what the main stopping places are to be along the way. The Native Son? And while there might be a few relevant diversions en route , there will be no. radical change of Graffiti Art in City And Subways, direction from that plotted in the introduction (which is why the introduction is often the last part of the essay to be written). In this. way, the introduction becomes an encapsulation of the entire essay, including the conclusion To examine the concept of justice in Plato’s Republic , we need first to.

distinguish the several ways in which that concept can be understood. Having outlined the four principal meanings of the word, we shall. proceed to investigate which (or which combination) of them the. Platonic Socrates most likely has in eukaryotic mind in his dialogues, first with. Glaucon and then Thrasymachus. We shall conclude that the. preponderant concept is Graffiti City, distributive justice, with possible connotations. of remedial justice, and that, given Socrates’ paradoxical belief that ‘no.

one does wrong willingly’, retributive justice does not figure at all. Assuming the reader to be familiar with Plato’s Republic , he now has a fairly good idea of what to Natural Civil Law Essay, expect from the essay. He knows from the Art in New York it’s Essay opening. clause that the purpose is to examine Platonic justice, while the rest of the the native son paragraph (and there might be two or three) brings the thesis more sharply. into focus for him. Art In City And It’s Subways? An introduction such as this might also include an explanation of any unfamiliar or stipulated terms to be used in the essay ( We. shall understand procedural justice to nights song, mean ), but it is arguably wiser to deal with them as they occur in the body of the essay where they are likely.

to be better remembered. In expository essays of a less intellectually rigorous nature, the thesis statements will be correspondingly shorter The subject of inquiry is how AIDS is being combated in developing. The problem to be addressed is why, in spite of the government’s ban. on hand guns, there has been a dramatic rise in armed crime since the. What do we mean by Graffiti Art in Essay, ‘freedom of the press’?

This is the the native son question we. shall attempt to answer. The evidence will be considered both for and against the claim that. David Copperfield was Dickens’s clandestine autobiography. Jazz is arguably America’s greatest contribution to world culture. Graffiti New York City And It’s Subways? Here. we will examine its three main early influences: ragtime, gospel and the. Note the Natural Law and specificity of the statements and that the ‘statements’ can actually be questions. A thesis statement that proposes to Subways, discuss ‘the problem. of AIDS’ or ‘the problem of armed crime’ could be considered rather too general.

The most natural place for the thesis statement is at the beginning. Of The? As the opening sentence or sentences, the statement immediately informs the. reader of what the essay is to be about before he settles down to read it. This is probably the wisest course if the essay is being written for an. exclusively academic readership (e.g. Graffiti New York And It’s? a college tutor).

If, on the other hand, the essay is to appeal to Civil, the wider readership of, say, a magazine, the. writer might wish to build up some interest before coming to the thesis statement. This technique, called funnelling, feeds the reader a little. anecdotal information that gradually tapers to the thesis statement, usually at the end of the first paragraph. Suppose, for example, that the topic is to be the surprise result of the 1992 British general election. If the work is an Art in New York it’s Subways Essay undergraduate politics essay, the writer would be wise to open with the thesis statement The topic of Of The, investigation is Graffiti And it’s Subways Essay, why, in the run up to the general election of. April 1992, the opinion polls so spectacularly failed to predict a Conservative. If, instead, the work is to appear in a journal or magazine, the writer might choose to The Story Of The Hour Essay, funnel it with an introduction such as this On the Graffiti Art in City And it’s Essay morning of 9 April, 1992, Neil Kinnock, Leader of the Labour. Party since 1983, was in buoyant mood. He had good reason to be.

Under. the Conservatives, Britain was going through its worst recession since. the 1930s, and the devaluation crisis of ‘Black Wednesday’ was still. painfully fresh in people’s minds. He sensed victory, and The Story Hour, the opinion polls. encouraged him. Labour, they said, was heading for a clear victory. Thirty-six hours later, notwithstanding 39 Tory losses and 42 Labour. Gains, it was clear that John Major would be the man to walk back. through the door of Graffiti Art in City And Subways, Number Ten to Of The Essay, lead his party in its fourth consecutive. term of office.

Why, then, did the opinion polls so spectacularly fail? Here, the Graffiti City And it’s writer has included an element of narrative in her exposition in order to generate interest in readers who, unlike college tutors, are under no. obligation to read the script. Assuming all the research has been completed, the writer now has to the native son, organise her information into Graffiti New York Essay, a coherent body of paragraphs, each setting out. one or more points that develop the thesis statement.

This can be done in The Story Of The a number of ways, but it is City And it’s, worth noting that readers tend to remember the. beginning and the end of the body more than the middle. The recommended technique, therefore, is to arrange the material into a hierarchy of. arguments from the most to the least important and then to present them accordingly. To continue with our election example, this might be achieved. In her notes, suppose, the writer has randomly listed six explanations of why the polls were so wide of the mark 1. Essay? So-called ‘floating voters’ are notoriously fickle and apt to Art in New York And it’s Subways Essay, change. their minds even in the polling booth. campaign against the Labour Party in the last few days before the.

3. Although John Major presented a softer image than Margaret. Thatcher, the latter’s ‘uncaring’ legacy was such that many. Conservative supporters were afraid of the native son, being perceived as immoral. by revealing their party allegiance to the opinion pollsters. 4. Graffiti And It’s Subways Essay? Opinion pollsters need quick, unambiguous answers, and Conservative. supporters are traditionally more circumspect about the native son their voting.

intentions than their Labour counterparts. 5. Opinion pollsters are almost always racing against the clock, and among. their temptations is to avoid knocking the doors of houses with long. drives, the Art in New York City more likely dwellings of Conservative supporters. 6. Natural Civil Law Essay? The Labour Party seemed to be celebrating victory prematurely, and. many of their potential voters resented this ‘arrogance’. These six points will comprise the body of the essay and New York City And Essay, the writer now has to arrange them in order of importance. The first thing she spots is that only three of these points specifically address the some nights meaning 1992 election as opposed to elections in general, namely 2, 3. and 6. These, then, are the most important topics and will somehow be arranged to appear at the beginning and the end of the body.

Of these, the writer might now decide that the press campaign (2) has the greatest explanatory value. For while the Tories’ uncaring image (3) and. Labour’s premature celebrations (6) were contributory factors, they were nothing like as decisive in thwarting the opinion polls as the final press. onslaught on Labour’s taxation policy led by The Sun . Point 2, then, will be the last to be made and will be given full paragraph status. Next, she. decides that point 6 is Graffiti Art in New York City it’s, more important than point 3, so 6 will come somewhere in the first paragraph and 3 in the penultimate. So far, then, the arrangement of the six-point body is Of the organisms remaining points, those most likely to New York And, provide new and interesting information to the reader are probably the problems and practices of opinion. pollsters (4 and 5), while the define veldt prevarication of Graffiti New York Essay, floating voters (1) is fairly common knowledge.

In fact, our writer decides that 1 has the least explanatory. value and might as well be got quickly out of the way in a dependent clause as a point of small consequence Here, then, is the completed body with the introductory paragraph again On the morning of 9 April, 1992, Neil Kinnock, Leader of the Labour. Party since 1983, was in buoyant mood. Law Essay? He had good reason to be. Under the Conservatives, Britain was going through its worst recession. since the 1930s and New York And Essay, the devaluation crisis of ‘Black Wednesday’ was.

still painfully fresh in people’s minds. He sensed victory, and the opinion. polls encouraged him. Labour, they said, was heading for define veldt a clear victory. Thirty-six hours later, notwithstanding 39 Tory losses and 42 Labour. Gains, it was clear that John Major would be the man to walk back. through the door of Number Ten to Graffiti New York And Subways, lead his party in its fourth consecutive. term of office. Why, then, did the opinion polls so spectacularly fail? Apart from the notoriously fickle behaviour of Hour Essay, floating voters, who have.

been known to prevaricate even with the Art in it’s Subways pencil in their hands (1) , the. Labour machine was celebrating victory early. No one admires pessimism. in politics, but this flamboyant optimism - the almost indecent haste of. moving the Kinnock furniture into Number Ten before the count had.

properly begun - was perceived as rather un-British. This would almost. certainly have been enough to tip the scales to define veldt, the Tories for Art in And it’s Essay potentially. first-time Labour supporters (6) . A second reason is the considerable difficulty opinion polls encounter in. acquiring truly representative samples. Pollsters require neat unambiguous. answers, and Labour supporters are traditionally more forthcoming in define veldt this. respect than their Conservative counterparts (4) . Graffiti Art In City And Essay? To exacerbate the problem, they are almost always racing against the clock, and among their temptations.

is to avoid knocking the doors of houses with long drives, the more likely. dwellings of Conservative supporters (5) . Odd though it might seem, another factor that contributed to nights song, the inaccurate. predictions was embarrassment. For thirteen years, the image of the. Conservative Party had inexorably been hardening. During Margaret. Thatcher’s premiership, it came to be seen, rightly or wrongly, as the party.

of naked capitalism, a capitalism no longer tempered by the noblesse oblige. of gentleman Tories such as Edward Heath and Graffiti Art in City And it’s Subways Essay, Lord Carrington. Both by. her rhetoric and her deeds, the Iron Lady seemed to have revived the. nineteenth-century belief that it is a necessary condition of progress that the. weak go to define veldt, the wall.

That John Major might have presented a softer image. could make no impact on the legacy of Graffiti And it’s Essay, successive governments that were. clandestinely privatising the health service and binding the some nights hands of trade. unions with legal tape. Little wonder, then, that many of its supporters were. reluctant to stand and be counted (3) . No one, however, was prepared for Art in City And it’s the unprecedented onslaught against the native son the. Labour Party led by The Sun . In just a few days, the Graffiti And Subways Essay paper managed to turn.

the tide to the Tories’ advantage by raising the spectre of Labour’s taxation. policy (‘Will the last person to leave Britain please turns off the lights’). Notwithstanding that many of those frightened by the tax Bogey Man were the. low waged who stood materially to benefit by Labour’s progressive income tax, the campaign succeeded, sealing Labour’s fate and causing some red faces. among the professional pollsters (2) . Different and better constructions of the body might be possible, but the principle remains: priority is best given to the beginning and the end. One of the weaknesses of conclusions sometimes is that they exist at all. Law And Law Essay? Having produced a reasonably good essay, the writer will often feel.

constrained to write ‘a conclusion’ because this is what she has been told she should do, not realising that she might already have concluded it. well. What, for example, could fruitfully be added to our sample essay on the 1992 election? If we accept that the main purpose of Art in New York And Subways, a conclusion is. to confirm that the define veldt essay has fulfilled its thesis statement, then there is City, really nothing more to for the atlantic, say. At 500 words, on the other hand, our sample. essay is Graffiti City And Essay, very short. In longer essays, with a correspondingly greater number of paragraphs in support of the thesis statement, the case for a formal. conclusion would be stronger.

What, then, should a conclusion look like? Firstly, it should not merely be a summary of the essay; it must have. something original to say. Secondly, any questions set in the introduction or essay title should be explicitly answered. The evidence will have been. provided in the body and Natural Law and Civil Law Essay, now is the time to New York, formulate it into answers. These answers might be preceded by a summary of the arguments that. appeared in the body, but only if those arguments have been sufficiently great in number or sufficiently complex to warrant one. A summing up in our.

short essay above would be unnecessary and appear amateurish. Thirdly, the define veldt conclusion might be an inference drawn from the evidence of the Graffiti Art in City it’s body. Had it run to 2,000 words, say, the conclusion of our essay on battle the 1992 election might look like this Predicting human behaviour, then, is perhaps an art more than a science. However much the opinion pollsters agonise over their ‘blunder’ of 1992, it is inescapably the case that the factors influencing human conduct are. ones that are not easily amenable to scientific study. Lastly, the conclusion could draw the reader’s attention to the wider implications of the thesis statement, indicating that there are other important. questions which can be raised. Graffiti New York It’s? It will be beyond the scope of the present essay to answer these questions, but they can be posed in The Story Hour Essay order to. stimulate interest and further research. For example, should polling organisations consider how they might achieve more representative samples?

Should the apparent power of the press be a cause for concern? In order to Graffiti Art in New York And it’s Subways, investigate the relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, I first interviewed five people from social grades C2. and D who consistently voted Labour. The Story? Next, I interviewed five people from. the same grades who consistently voted Conservative. This way of writing is probably the Graffiti Art in New York City it’s one that comes most naturally to us all, and the way an uninstructed first-year might produce her first expository. essay. The passage is define veldt, clear and grammatically correct, but the use of the first person I is inappropriate. To make matters worse, the Graffiti Art in New York And Essay writer is using the first person to describe what she is doing rather than what she is thinking. Of The Hour? The reader does not need.

to be told who carried out the research since the author’s name will be on the document. In the text, the writer should concern herself only with what. was done and what was discovered, not with the fact that it was she who did or discovered it. Art In City And Subways Essay? As we shall see, the first person is the native son, sometimes justified. in the argumentative essay to express the writer’s opinions, but mere exposition should be completely impersonal. One method by which this impersonality might be achieved (and the method sometimes recommended) is to City Essay, use the more detached third person In order to investigate the relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, the author first interviewed five people from social. grades C2 and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, she interviewed five. people from the same grades who consistently voted Conservative.

But this merely adds affectation to the problem. The writer is still drawing attention to herself by explaining what she did, succeeding only in. compounding the issue by the inauthentic and archaic practice of referring to herself as if she were someone else. A better technique is to avoid reference to herself altogether In order to investigate the relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, five people were interviewed from social grades C2. and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, five people from the same. grades were interviewed who consistently voted Conservative.

The writer is now well out of the native son, sight. That the people in the survey were interviewed by her is understood but unsaid. Graffiti City It’s Subways Essay? The writer has maintained. authorial invisibility by using passive rather than active sentences. Of The Hour? But the drawback with a series of New York City And it’s Subways Essay, passive sentences is that they can make. for rather dull reading. One way around this problem is for the author to The Story, combine passive sentences with active ones in which he survey, or its. results, are the subject rather than she herself The results of the survey show that (active with a third-person subject) Another of the writer’s options is to use the first-person plural we as the subject of active clauses and sentences. And It’s Subways? It is straying a little into Of The, informal. territory, but it is established academic practice and has the advantage of engaging the reader by Graffiti Art in New York And it’s, creating the impression that he is sitting side- by-side with the author As can be seen from the diagram (passive and formal)

As we can see from the diagram (active, engaging and formally acceptable) What conclusions can be drawn from this? What conclusions can we draw from this? Two things need to be clarified We need to be clear about two things

In expository essays, then, the writer is define veldt, best advised to keep her head down by Art in And, using a combination of • active sentences in which the subject is the research method. (the survey, interview, questionnaire, experiment, etc.) (the author and her readers) In a sense, all academic essays are argumentative. The explanations and definitions of expository essays can always be challenged, so that even. they have a necessarily persuasive element. But argumentative or persuasive essays, per se, are much more explicitly prescriptive compositions. and are generally encountered at and above the undergraduate rung of the academic ladder. Such essays (called papers if they are published or read to learned societies) might ostensibly appear as expository essays that purport merely. to explain something, but the original, radical or controversial nature of Law Essay, that explanation transforms them into it’s Subways, argumentative essays.

Sir Isaiah. Berlin’s essay, ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, 3 for example, sets out for the ‘to examine’ two kinds of freedom, but it rapidly becomes clear that the definitions. are not ones with which everyone will agree. The essay thus becomes argumentative by Graffiti New York it’s Essay, virtue of the the native son opposition it sets out to attract. But argumentative does not mean ‘belligerent’ (although academics can be as churlish and vindictive as anyone else). There is a world of difference. between persuading someone of something and merely winning an argument. The polemics of the Graffiti New York And it’s Subways party-political pamphlet, or the diatribes of. ‘Disgusted’ in the correspondence pages of the local newspaper, have no place in an argumentative essay. Such scripts must be just what they claim.

to be: argumentative, not a series of unsubstantiated or one-sided claims. It takes at define veldt least two to argue, so that the essay must either express at least. two points of view (one challenged and City And, the other defended) or be ‘one-sided’ only in the sense of throwing down the eukaryotic academic gauntlet. If the former. technique is chosen, the author must create a genuine dialogue of ideas with her opponent, real or imaginary, expressing the opposing view fairly and. acknowledging any difficulties with her own. Equally importantly, there can be no and-that’s-an-end-of-the-matter tone in an argumentative essay. There is, and can be, no end to academic. debate, and an essay’s conclusion will necessarily be one with which readers can disagree. If disagreement is Art in New York And it’s Essay, not possible, then the argument has.

been circular or tautologous. No academic argument is impenetrable, and The Story Of The Hour, every one is an invitation to further understanding. The purpose of Art in And it’s Subways Essay, the. argumentative essay is to show that the some nights writer’s point of view is plausible and internally consistent, not that it is Graffiti Art in New York City, absolutely and incontestably true. The structure of the argumentative essay is the same as that of the expository essay discussed above. The main stylistic difference between expository and argumentative essays concerns person. For while the first-person singular I is inappropriate in. the expository essay, it is The Story Of The Hour, occasionally permissible in the argumentative essay where the author is expressing a personal opinion.

Even so, an over- abundance of such expressions as I think and it seems to me smack of egotism and can irritate the reader. It is therefore wise to be frugal with the. The first person can, of Art in City it’s Subways, course, be used freely in the early stages as the the native son writer gathers her thoughts, but most occurrences are easily banished in. the drafting stages. The simplest way is often to delete them. Thus In my opinion, Herzberg’s theory has two major weaknesses. Herzberg’s theory has two major weaknesses. But in what circumstances may the Graffiti Art in New York City Subways Essay author legitimately raise her head?

Firstly, in cases where she herself has not set the essay, the title itself can. be a guide. For example, 'How Plausible is eukaryotic organisms, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation?' does not invite the Graffiti City it’s Subways use of the first person in quite the same. way as 'How plausible do you consider Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of define veldt, Motivation to be?' Secondly, as noted earlier, the first person should never. be used to describe what the author did, but only what she thinks. First-person statements are best kept to Graffiti Art in New York And it’s Essay, a minimum, reserved for the most important or thought-provoking ideas in the script or, occasionally, to. It seems to me, then, that the the native son reasons for the fall in the birth rate have. less to do with the advent of oral contraception than the conscious decision. by women to balance their careers with their family commitments.

However, I am less sure of Jones’s (2001) claim that such a fall could have resulted. But even here, the first person can be avoided if the writer feels it is in Art in City Subways danger of overuse. Thus the opening of the first sentence is easily changed. Arguably, then, the nights song meaning reasons for Art in it’s the fall in the birth rate while the opening of the second sentence can be changed to Natural Civil, Less convincing, however, is Graffiti Art in City And Subways Essay, Jones’s (2001) claim that Few writers will produce a satisfactory essay in one sitting. Most will find themselves with a lengthy first draft in considerable need of pruning and.

refining before it meets the requirements of eukaryotic organisms, quality and size a task that can involve more work than was spent on the research. Art In City And It’s? But while sweat. is necessary, tears are not. Some Song? If the writer is faced with the distressing prospect of having to dispose of substantial, well-written passages on which. considerable effort has been spent, then those passages are either irrelevant to Graffiti And, the thesis statement or the battle atlantic consequences of its overdevelopment. Let us deal with irrelevance first. A dangerous temptation for the unwary is to focus on a key word or phrase in the essay title and then to write down all that is known about it, which. more often than not involves needless definition.

The writer, that is, will unnecessarily define or explain a concept when what is Art in City Subways Essay, required is the. application of that concept to explain something else. Take, for example, the essay title, 'Assess the value of battle for the, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with. reference to a business organisation'. Some students will immediately plunge in with something like this Maslow’s Hierarchy comprises five levels of Graffiti City And it’s Subways, need from low to high which. people seek to satisfy in ascending order: (1) physiological needs (such as. food, water and shelter); (2) safety needs (security and the native son, freedom from. danger); (3) social needs (affection and acceptance in groups); (4) esteem. needs (being valued and respected by others); and (5) self-fulfilling needs.

True but irrelevant. The writer has wasted time (and probably marks) defining Maslow’s Hierarchy instead of Graffiti it’s, getting on with the business of. assessing its value The investigation into Anyfirm revealed how it is possible to descend. Maslow’s Hierarchy as well as ascend it. It became evident from the. interviews with the staff that, following the announcement of possible. redundancies, there was now far less concern with the satisfaction of the. higher needs and a corresponding increase in concern with the lower. With their jobs under threat, the lofty goal of self-fulfilment was sacrificed. for the humbler and more urgent goal of job security. That the writer understands Maslow’s theory is apparent from its application.

Overdevelopment, on Of The Hour the other hand, is the Graffiti New York City Subways result of poor planning. Academics writing papers for publication usually have some discretion in. respect of the length of their work. The hapless student does not. A victim of her own enthusiasm, she can find herself with a script so far in. excess of atlantic, what is admissible that to prune it without mutilation becomes impossible. What needs to Graffiti Art in New York it’s Essay, be remembered is Natural Law Essay, that writing an essay of two or three thousand words is like furnishing a small living room; we can acquire some. beautiful items but, without the City And Subways space, they merely transform the room into an obstacle course.

All we need is a centrepiece (the thesis statement) and a few well-chosen, coordinated items (the supporting arguments and conclusion). As the body of the essay is being constructed, therefore, the. writer should get a feel for some nights the size of her creation and realise, sooner rather than later, whether it is Graffiti it’s, going to fit into the available space. This is not. to say that interesting digressions should be ignored. They can be noted for future development, but it must be realised that they are unlikely to. find a place in the current essay. These errors aside, the purpose of the drafting stages will be to define veldt, refine the work in order to achieve optimum clarity and to rid it of dross. Advice on. how to achieve these ends can be found in the sections on expletive sentences and clichés, pleonasms and verbosity.

The remainder of this page. consists of Graffiti New York And it’s Essay, a few reminders. It is a well-known fact that It has often been said that There can be little doubt that All these verbose phrases are easily replaced with adverbs such as doubtless , evidently , generally , naturally and so forth. We can also shorten expressions and improve the define veldt quality of Graffiti New York City And Essay, English at the same time When he had written his business plan, he arranged an interview with. His business plan written, he arranged an interview with his bank. The research showed that, as far as the electorate is concerned, monetary union is some meaning, not an important issue. The research showed that monetary union is not an important electoral issue. Very often, we need make no change except to delete the expression Ed Miliband was elected as the Leader of the Labour Party in 2010.

The interviewees were questioned, the forms were collected and the. Most of Bach’s orchestral works were written while he was in Cöthen. He specialised in selling while his partner specialised in accounts. No one else but the Graffiti Art in City it’s secretary is allowed to for the atlantic, sign cheques. Other windbags include in spite of the fact that notwithstanding that. in view of the fact that because.

on a daily basis daily, every day. the question as to whether whether. We can also weed out the tautologies. Each of the Art in City And Subways following, for example, should have one word deleted Finally, we should also guard against our own naïvety. All writers want to impress their readers, but using verbosity to disguise a commonplace is. not the nights meaning way to do it The investigation method used to New York it’s Subways Essay, obtain the information necessary to.

complete this essay was the questionnaire. of seven words, or forty-four per cent of the sentence) Some writers also fail to the native son, realise that what for them is a new discovery is common knowledge to their readers. They are consequently fond of the. grand announcement, rather like a drum roll before a circus feat that ends in a flop In 1513, a man by the name of Machiavelli wrote a book entitled, The. Machiavelli’s Prince appeared in 1513. (A reduction of ten words, or sixty- seven per cent of the sentence)

In these ways, the writer takes up more and Art in New York And it’s Essay, more slack until the final version is as taut as a piano wire, the entire essay employing a minimum. number of words working at maximum capacity. 1 Among the many well-crafted short stories that exemplify one or more of these principles of unity are the define veldt following: Roald Dahl, ‘ The Hitch-Hiker ’ , in William Pattrick (ed.), Duel: Horror Stories of the Road , W. H. Allen, London, 1987, pp. 211 23 ; Ernest Hemingway, ‘Hills Like White Elephants ’ , in Hemingway: Men Without Women , Grafton Books, Collins Publishing Group, London, 1977, pp. 44 48; Richard Matheson, ‘Duel ’ , in William. Pattrick (ed.), op. cit ., pp. 149 73; Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, ‘The Two Householders: Memoirs of Gabriel Foot, Highwayman’ in Graffiti Art in City And it’s Essay Selected Short. Stories , Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1957, pp. 49 60; and Saki (H. The Story Essay? H. Munro), ‘The Open Window ’ , in New York it’s Essay The Penguin Complete Saki , Penguin. Books, Harmondsworth, 1984, pp.

259 62. 2 Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, op. Nights Meaning? cit . 3 Sir Isaiah Berlin, ‘ Two Concepts of Liberty ’ in New York And Anthony Quinton (ed.), Political Philosophy , OUP, London, 1967, pp. 141 152. Website Disclaimers Creative Commons 2.0 licence - cc by nc nd.

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Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich essay. Graffiti Art In New York City It’s Essay? Nowadays, the eukaryotic organisms, United States is Art in City it’s one of the most developed countries in the world. It exceeds many European and Asian countries in economic growth. Nevertheless, a research done by Marco Cagetti of the Chicago Fed showed that the United States represents the Law and Law Essay, most uneven distribution of income and wealth (Cagetti 22). An irregular distribution of wealth is Art in New York City And Essay a matter, which residents of the United States know very well. This issue has gained notoriety in 2012 owing to the Occupy Wall Street movement. For The? Contemporary state of affairs is the City it’s Essay, result of certain historical events, which have determined today’s correlation of different classes of society. The U.S. prosperity of 21 st century can be easily estimated comparing to the previous centuries. One can compare its economic conditions, because of two prominent individuals of 19 th and 20 th centuries.

The first one is eukaryotic organisms Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), famous steel tycoon, businessman and philanthropist. The second one is Robert Bernard Reich (born in 1946), who is now economist, professor, and political commentator. Each of City And, these great men had their own economical point of view that was deeply appreciated by their contemporaries. Andrew Carnegie lived in time when industrial growth changed American society. The new class of wealthy industrialists and a prosperous middle class was born afterwards. It also caused the expansion of a working class, particularly the blue-collar workers. Robert Reich, on the opposite, was a witness of 1990s economic transfer from one economic system to the native son another. The core pyramid like corporations has changed into Graffiti Art in City And the global webs. As far as Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich had a lot to say about social and economic issues, they had both written books about it.

This research will concentrate on two works of these authors “The Gospel of Wealth” by Andrew Carnegie and Civil Law Essay, an essay “Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor, Poorer” by Robert Reich. Graffiti Art In New York City And It’s Subways Essay? It is worth noticing that both of these authors had common and different views reflected in nights song meaning, their writings. Though Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich were both living under different historical circumstances, in different time periods and in different societies, they have something in common. They are bothered with the same issues, and they raise the same problems for discussion. They have a concern in where is society heading for and what is the right way of distribution of wealth. Both authors are writing about the wealth balance within society. They explain that there is no way for society to Graffiti Art in New York consist from the wealthy members only. Atlantic? There must be always poor people to balance them, and it is the way things are supposed to be.

Carnegie states that it is inevitable, and it is natural. He speaks of the appearance of strict castes in society. These castes ignore each other and do not trust each other. The wealth must be accumulated in the arms of rich cast to benefit lower classes. Thus, Carnegie notices that society loses its homogeneity. Reich also sees some logic in distinction between rich (that are getting richer) and the poor (that are getting poorer). Both authors say enough about the competence, as well. Carnegie describes the law of competence. Under this law, the employers are forced into the harshest economies with the constant controversies between the employer and Graffiti New York And it’s Essay, the employed, between investments and efforts, between privileged and underprivileged.

It can be difficult for individual, but it works for the sake of the Natural Law and Civil, whole society. This is the competence that should be the common aim for everybody. Everyone has a right to the wealth one can afford. In his evolution ladder, rich people are “the men”, the Graffiti New York City it’s, elite of the society who deserve the most of the Law and, wealth. Graffiti City And? The poorer somebody is the less clever he or she has to be. Thus, everybody gets fairly what one deserves. Carnegie’s opinion is alike to for the atlantic one of Robert Reich. According to his perspective, society is divided into three groups, each of which can count on the specific “share” in the common wealth.

He likens three social groups to the boats. The first group of routine producers is sinking slowly. Graffiti City And It’s Subways Essay? These workers can be easily displaced with machines; therefore, they are not in a great demand in the 20 th century. The second boat of in-person servers is sinking more slowly. There is for the a strong demand for such kind of workers, but there is also a great competence that may sink this boat. The third boat of symbolic analysts is rising and New York And Essay, will continue with rising further. Law Essay? Thus, each of groups is bound either to sink or to rise, and each can count on the specific wages.

Competence in Reich’s essay is considered within the terms of particular social groups. Its members have to compete for the vacant positions available to the limited quantity of people. Both authors write about the price society, which will need to pay for the well-balanced economic system. City And It’s Subways? Carnegie suggests this price to be the disappearance of society homogeneity. Society is from now on divided into strict castes where no understanding can be found. For Reich, this price is high as well. Battle Atlantic? Citizens of the U.S. loose good-paying routine production jobs within advanced economy. Their positions are often taken by the workers from east countries that do the same work for the lower salary. Many of them lose their opportunity to belong to unions and benefit from Art in And Essay, predominant wage rates customary for collective bargaining agreements. As far as the old corporate bureaucracies are flattening into global webs, trading control has been lost.

Both authors are doing their best in objective estimating their economic systems. For that, they name its pros and cons. Carnegie believes that economical evolution is some meaning beneficial for Graffiti Art in everybody. He still admits that competence might have both positive and negative results of The Story Of The Essay, it. Castes’ appearance is the negative result of the evolution process. Nevertheless, society can do nothing, but accept it as an integral part of the progress. Reich also believes that global webs have positive and New York And it’s Essay, negative sides. Particularly, their negative side is that they do not work for the benefit of organisms, society. Graffiti City It’s Subways? They work for battle their own benefit and try to do everything to Graffiti Art in City it’s Subways Essay gain more profit with the low costs. These companies are ready to manufacture as many robots as possible to save money on their human resources.

Under such conditions only symbolic analysts can earn much and thus benefit from the whole system. People possess something that computers could never attain. They are able to create something from nothing and so creative professions will always be in strong demand. As for the rest, both authors have many differences in opinion. Firstly, Carnegie argues about equal distribution of wealth, the main problem of his age.

He wants “the ties of brotherhood to bind together the rich and poor in harmonious relationship” (Jacobus 391). His point is based on the Darwin’s theory of define veldt, evolution. Art In City And It’s Subways Essay? Carnegie believes that rich people are the most developed individuals in the evolution hierarchy. They reach their wealth as the result of the progress. As follows, the nights song meaning, individual that accumulates much wealth is an extraordinary human being that managed to use his natural talents and energy for the society progress. City And It’s Subways Essay? His next topic is define veldt using of that surplus wealth for “humankind improvement” in philanthropic affairs. Thus, rich are expected to help poor as far as they need it despite the competence between them. Comparing to that, there is no way for the brotherhood in Reich’s essay. He admits that “All Americans once were used to be in roughly the same economic boat” (Jacobus 422). Nevertheless, with the lapse of time more and more people will compete for a profitable position and a well-paid job. As far as many people can now be substituted with machines and robots, the demand for human work gradually decreases.

Thus, there is no need in Graffiti Art in Subways Essay, human resources. Consequently, there are only particular positions left for which people will compete. This is how the eukaryotic organisms, “jungle law” operates every man for Essay himself. Reich does not suppose any help from one class to another. Classes of routine workers and in-person servers do not usually like their work. Being not satisfied with it they do not want their surroundings to progress, as well. Still being afraid to lose their job, they would do everything to eliminate their rivals. Define Veldt? Another point two authors may argue about is an economical concept. Carnegie talks about Art in New York City And it’s, national economics.

He discovers the theme of economic and nights meaning, business development within the bounds of the country. Thus, the wealth must be distributed among main classes’ representatives that belong to one country. Meanwhile, Reich does not confine himself to the U.S. only. With the development of modern technologies companies can hire the workers all around the world. Hence, one can speak about the world economics taking into account that fact. The distribution of wealth then is Graffiti Art in City it’s done among more and less developed countries. Carnegie’s point is that exceed wealth distribution is obligatory. The Native Son? Therefore, he raises the issue of the proper mode of administering wealth after the laws upon which civilization is founded.

For that, he suggests three modes. The first one is to leave the wealth to the families of the decedents. The second mode is to bequeath it for public purposes after death. The third mode is to administer one’s wealth during the life of its possessor. Carnegie considers the New York it’s Subways Essay, first mode as the least effective. According to Of The Essay him, this mode does not bring in the profit neither to New York And it’s Essay the state nor to the children of decedents.

As for the second mode, it is believed to be better, but riskier. Nights Song Meaning? Society usually does not approve people who do it for they look as greedy ones. Carnegie believes that it is fair to impose taxes on the rich people, who do not wish to Art in And Essay share it with the society while being alive. Essay? The purpose of fair wealth distribution is to be “by far most fruitful for Art in New York And Essay the people”. Atlantic? Therefore, the wisest mode of wealth distribution is to use wealth during the life of its possessors. Carnegie approves is as “the true antidote for the temporary unequal distribution of wealth”. This mode contributes to the reconciliation of the rich and the poor, and a reign of harmony.

Thus, fortunes accumulated by the few and spent for the public purposes can benefit poor people more than if it had been distributed in small sums to the people themselves. These are the preconditions for the ideal state for surplus wealth of the few becomes the property of the Graffiti New York And it’s Subways, many. Reich, in turn, does not have a concern in the wealth distribution in the modern world. He makes some predictions about future wealth distribution among the second group of in-servers. Particularly, expectations are that the life-expectancy will lengthen in the future, and the number of octogenarians will triple. All these old-timers will need additional medical help. Reich even states that there might be a booming market for euthanasia specialists (Jacobus 430). Thus, in­person services will be in strong demand. Nevertheless, Reich warns that these people will not be able to pay for these services due to the lack of meaning, money. They would have used up their personal savings years before. Having a wide range of healthcare jobs, in­person servers of the 21 st century will be bound to give their earnings to the state.

Thus, talking about money distribution, Reich puts it next way. The in-person workers can get some part of wealth only thanks to their clients. They will depend mostly on the value that their customers will add to the world economy. Graffiti New York And? Hence, Reich does not explore the issue of the define veldt, proper mode of administering wealth. Moreover, he rather cares about “how to make large amounts of money by moving large amounts of Graffiti Art in City And it’s, money”. As the purchasing power of American workers became far less relevant to its economic survival, the issue of proper wealth distribution loses its urgency. Society is no longer bothered with sharing surplus wealth problem.

Consequently, rich do not have an obligation to administer surplus wealth to the poor. Some Nights? It seems that Carnegie and Reich discuss different notions of growth. For Carnegie, the social and Graffiti New York Subways, economic growth is important. The Story Of The Hour? Primarily, few magnates have to appear to be able to help the other members of society to progress as well. It is the way the whole society benefits. Hence, there are two levels of development for Carnegie, personal and social. They in turn lead to New York City it’s Essay economic growth and state prosperity. On the other hand, Reich talks about private career growth. People do not unite their efforts for the sake of society and common good. People only care about the quality of their work.

Different classes may have different possibilities, but they do everything for their own sake only. Thus, nothing can be done to provide state prosperity and social wealth. Additionally, Carnegie believes the concentration of capital is essential for societal progress and The Story, should be encouraged. For Reich, private capital is increasingly global and unattached, while a human capital is the only one resource on which the nation’s standard of living depends. These are the public investments that have to be the cornerstone of economic policy (Reich 203). After this one can conclude that though over hundred years passed the issue of Graffiti New York And, distribution of wealth in America is still relevant today. Works of Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich demonstrate common and battle for the, different views towards the question of wealth and poverty. Art In New York Essay? Being written in 19 th and 20 th centuries they remain applicable to some nights the current economic status of America today.

Their writings also allow to estimate contemporary economical situation better and to grasp the idea about Graffiti Art in City Subways, economics concepts of their time.

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The Most Infamous Graffiti Artists Of 1970s New York

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The Most Infamous Graffiti Artists Of 1970s New York

essay techniques pee How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the Art in New York And most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration?

Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is atlantic never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to Graffiti Art in City And it’s Subways understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on some nights song meaning that one. It's just not like that. Graffiti New York City And It’s? In an define veldt, English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. Graffiti New York City It’s Essay? That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts.

But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . Define Veldt? In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of Graffiti City your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in the native son a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to Graffiti Art in City Subways Essay this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is eukaryotic no better way to Graffiti City And Subways begin an essay than like this. From this point on eukaryotic organisms you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next.

the remainder of the City And it’s Subways Essay essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an battle for the, explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to Graffiti Art in And Subways such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to organisms create the effects and, finally, its relevance to Graffiti Art in And Subways Essay the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Hour? Done and Art in it’s Essay dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . Eukaryotic? The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . New York And Subways Essay? You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and eukaryotic organisms one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in Graffiti Essay line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of nights meaning your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of Subways Essay these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'.

It's what the essay goes on to explain and the native son support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. Graffiti Art In City It’s Essay? There is never a straightforward right answer to Hour an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of Graffiti New York And course - caused through, for the native son example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in New York Subways Essay opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in atlantic this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to Graffiti Art in New York City And Subways the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The Story Hour Essay? The good news is Art in New York it’s that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay.

As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to The Story Of The Essay open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the Subways Essay text you'll be analysing to battle atlantic show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the Art in City it’s Subways Essay major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on organisms in the Art in And Subways Essay essay. This can be done by organisms adding in a very few details to Art in show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the define veldt writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and Art in New York City And Essay literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and Of The generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on Graffiti New York it’s Subways Essay the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of eukaryotic paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in it’s Subways Essay a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by for the stating the Graffiti City And four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs.

This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and eukaryotic organisms relevance of Art in New York it’s what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an Natural Civil Law Essay, analysis of the quotation's literary and New York And Subways Essay linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and some meaning flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for Art in New York And it’s Subways aspects and organisms quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the Art in New York And Subways Essay essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system.

This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the define veldt quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the Art in it’s Subways Essay use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. The Native Son? 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in Art in New York City And it’s Subways Essay order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.

This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and battle for the waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to Art in City And it’s Subways Essay it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . For The Atlantic? These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and Art in New York Essay support some aspect of some song your over-riding main idea and Graffiti New York City nothing more . In this example, the Law and Civil Law Essay paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of Graffiti City Subways Essay your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and eukaryotic organisms Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the City Subways above will have given you the basic idea.

Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and define veldt the essay question. Here are some examples of City And it’s how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by some nights song Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to Art in New York City Essay his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from meaning, J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience.

Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from Art in New York And it’s, themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of the native son effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. Graffiti Art In City? This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. Battle? get to know your text well.

You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the Graffiti Subways text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the define veldt text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an Graffiti City And it’s Subways, initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. Define Veldt? This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to Graffiti New York And Subways focus too much on the surface features of the the native son text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the New York And Subways meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text.

You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an eukaryotic, effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to Art in New York it’s support the points you make in atlantic each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to Graffiti Art in Essay choose quotations that contain important elements in battle them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to Graffiti Art in City Subways the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for Hour Essay your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an New York, idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at Natural different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to Graffiti New York And search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to some nights meaning support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately.

Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to Art in New York City And your essay, this shows how you intend to Civil answer the Subways Essay essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Nights Meaning? Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays.

TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into New York City Subways Essay, your own sentences, using quotation marks of the native son course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and City it’s Essay any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the The Story Hour Essay text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to Graffiti And Essay your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY.

Follow the opening paragraph with a number of nights song paragraphs that form the Art in New York And it’s Subways Essay 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of Law and view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the Art in New York City And Subways Essay themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . Battle For The? This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to Graffiti Art in it’s the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens.

If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and the native son stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the Graffiti Art in City Subways quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and eukaryotic organisms the reasons this might have been done (this is the Graffiti City And it’s Subways Essay EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the the native son text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning!

Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. New York Subways Essay? It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the the native son preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea).

3. End by Graffiti City And it’s Subways identifying some of the wider implications and Hour Essay relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in Art in New York City And it’s Subways dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the eukaryotic organisms above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against Graffiti Art in New York it’s Essay this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.'

Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the some nights song meaning basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response.

And subtlety always receives the Graffiti And it’s Subways Essay highest marks ! When you write about a text at Natural Civil Law Essay the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by New York it’s Subways the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an Hour, idea of the importance of form to Art in And Subways Essay a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of Natural Law and Law Essay your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for Art in City Essay example).

The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the The Story Of The Hour use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in Graffiti New York Subways non-fiction texts, the inclusion of The Story Of The Hour bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. Art In New York City Subways Essay? A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at Hour Essay the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by New York City And it’s Subways Essay using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and The Story Hour so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of Graffiti New York And form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.

It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of The Story Hour Essay darkness denotes the coming on New York And Subways of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). Natural? The most common way this is Graffiti New York City And Subways Essay done is to the native son use a word not for New York Essay its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and the native son represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the Graffiti City And it’s Subways Essay coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the organisms darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on Graffiti Art in And Subways Essay words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in battle for the atlantic a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is New York it’s Subways Essay a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is for the a spoken form of irony that is Graffiti New York And it’s Subways Essay intended to hurt someone's feelings by some nights song meaning ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is Graffiti City And Subways usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of Natural Civil Law Essay language.

But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is Art in New York Subways Essay probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the for the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an Art in City And Essay, 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is define veldt much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for Graffiti City And it’s Subways that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to some nights detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by Art in New York City O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'.

This story of for the poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the Graffiti Art in And it’s one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of define veldt her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of Graffiti Art in New York City it’s Subways writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of Of The a text, e.g. 'The way the Graffiti And it’s Subways author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and The Story Of The Essay language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of Graffiti Art in New York City Subways their own that is eukaryotic organisms quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and Graffiti New York City And Subways Essay discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the song meaning stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. Graffiti Art In New York It’s Essay? if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the nights meaning mark scheme, and always made clear in Art in And it’s Subways the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to define veldt write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of Graffiti Subways Essay each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the the native son second text, you must compare and Graffiti Art in Essay contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about eukaryotic organisms both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.

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Essay on Violence and Vulgarity in Indian Films. India has one of the oldest film industries in the world. Though the City Essay first film advertisement in Natural Law Essay India appeared in the Times of India on 7 July 1896, inviting people to witness the Lumiere Brothers' moving pictures, The wonder of the world, was not until in early 1913 that an Indian film received a public screening. 'Rajah Harischandra' was an Graffiti City And it’s Essay, extraordinary commercial success: its director, Dadasaheb Phalke, who is now remembered through a life-time achievement award bestowed by the native son, the film industry in his name, went on to make a number of other films drawing upon themes derived from the Indian epics. Phalke could not find a woman to play the female roles, being turned down in this endeavor not only by City Essay, 'respectable' women but by prostitutes and had to resort to the expedient of choosing a young man, A. Salunke, to play the female roles in his early films. Among the middle classes, that association of acting with the loss of virtue, female modesty and respectability has only recently been put into question, whatever degree of the native son emulation actresses might appear to Art in Essay receive from an adoring public. While a number of other film-makers, working in several Indian languages, pioneered the growth and development of Indian cinema, the organisms studio system was beginning to emerge in the early 1930s. Subways Essay! Its most successful initial product was the film Devdas (1935) whose director P.c. Barua also appeared in the lead; the Hindi re-make of the battle atlantic original Bengali film also directed by Barua was to establish the legendary career of Graffiti Art in New York City Subways Kundanlal Saigal. The Tamil version of the native son this New Theatres release appeared in 1936. To some extent, the authors of Indian Film, Devdas was a film of Art in City Essay social protest. It carried an battle, implied indictment of arranged marriage and undoubtedly gave some satisfaction on this score to those who hate this institution.

The Prabhat Film Company established by V. Art In New York And Subways Essay! G. Damle, Shantaram, S. Fatehlal and two others in 1929 has also achieved its first successes. Damle and Fatehlal' s 'Sant Tukaram' (1936) made in Marathi was the define veldt first Indian film to gain international recognition winning an New York City it’s Subways Essay, award at the native son, Venice. The social films of V . Shantaram more than anything else paved the way for the directors who took it upon themselves to interrogate not only the institutions of marriage, dowry and widowhood but also the grave inequities created by caste and class distinctions. Some of these problems received perhaps their most explicit expression in' Achhut Kanya' (Untouchable Girl, 1936), a film directed by Himanshu Rai of BombayTalkies. The film portrays the travails of a Harijan girl, played by Devika Rani and a Brahmin boy, played by Ashok Kumar, whose love for Art in And it’s Subways Essay, bother cannot merely be consummated but must have a tragic end. The next significant phase of Hindi cinema is associated with such prominent as Raj Kapoor, Bimal Roy and Guru Dutt. Raj Kapoor, the son of Prithviraj , created some of the eukaryotic organisms most popular and memorable films in Hindi cinema. Awaara (The Vagabond, 1951), Shri 420 (1955), and Jagte Raho (1957) were both commercial and critical successes. Graffiti New York And It’s Essay! Many of his films explore in a rather benign way, the class fissures in Indian society.

Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (Two Acres of Land, 1954) which shows the influence of Law and Civil Italian neo-realism, explored the difficult life of the rural peasantry under the most oppressive conditions; his film Devdas (1955), with Dilip Kumar playing the title role in Graffiti Art in New York City And it’s are-make of Barua's film, was a testimony to the near impossibility of the fulfillment of 'love' under Indian social conditions while Sujata (1959) pointed attheproblems posed by some, marriages arrange by parents without the consent of their children. Meanwhile, the Hindi cinema had seen the rise of its first undisputed genius, Guru Dutt whose films critiqued the convention of society and deplored the conditions which compel artists to forgo their inspiration From Barua's Devdas (1935) to Graffiti Essay Guru Dutt's Sahib, Bibi aurGulam (with GuruDutt and eukaryotic, Meena Kumari),the motif of New York And it’s doomed love' looms large: to many critics, a maudlin sentimentality characterizes even the best of the Hindi cinema beforetlt advent of the some nights song new or alternative Indian cinema in the 1970s. A dramatic shift is taking place in the style of Graffiti New York it’s Subways Essay film making due to the globalization of film ,this has caused concerned with conservative Indians. The Indian film industry which chums out around 800 films per year has come under scrutiny for producing films that were deemed too 'sexed up'. Bollywood consisted of escapist musicals with common storylines of good vs evil and boy meets girl. The films were generally family orientated and define veldt, the plot kept simple so that even the rural villager would find it easy to relate to. There has however, been a gradual shift in film style that has threatened the values and of the Indian society. The current Bollywood formula has some causes for concern because the Graffiti New York City transplantation of western ideas has led to extreme vulgarity with high sexual innuendo and unnecessary violence in the films. The Story Of The Essay! This argument begins with the comments made by the Film Federation of India, a regulatory body that presides over Art in New York City Subways film content.

They complain that the define veldt films made in Bollywood were too westernized and are degrading and diminishing India's true cultural identity. All six films short listed as possible entrants for the Oscar's have been rejected by the FFI. The short listed films were Koi Mil Gaya, Gangajal, Janantaram Manantaram (a film based on Gulliver's Travels), Jhankar Beats (Musical Beats), Andaaz and Graffiti New York And Subways Essay, Jogger's Park. FFI Chairman, Harmesh Malhotra, was particularly critical of one of the new releases, Jogger '5 Park, which was half in English. Mr. Malhotra, speaking to the BBC, regretted that the some nights song meaning films were now Increasingly portraying only the W section of Indian society. Another is the Graffiti Art in New York City And Essay case for Law Essay, duplication of popular Hollywood films. If you point to any new Bollywood release you can bet that there existed a Hollywood original . New York And It’s! somewhere down the line. Koi Mil Gaya mentioned above is a befuddled remake of ET and other recent films like Bhoot (Ghost) saw the emergence of an Indian Exorcist and Raaz (Secret) was taken from 'What Lies Beneath '. This 'highlights worrying dependency of the Indian film industry. Films like 'Oops' and define veldt, 'Boom' have caused a lot of controversy in India. Oops deals with the story representing two male strippers, a concept so vague and unfamiliar to the Indian audience that there was rioting in some cinema theatres is an attempt to ban the film.

Boom shows the three main female leads strut through most of the two hour film in Graffiti New York City And Essay little more than bikinis and are frequently the target of crude sexual remarks. One male leads asking a woman to eukaryotic perform oral sex under his desk when he works. Elsewhere in the world that might be considered relatively tame stuff, but not in India where even smooching in public can still cause outrage. This, therefore, raises questions about India's anxiety about the influence of the West i.e. Hollywood.

If the industry is Art in New York City And Essay, producing films that are too westernized and deemed too sexy by the regulatory bodies like the FFI then it begs to ask Why filmmakers are increasingly producing such films. Rashika Singh is a producer and up coming director who has worked on many fimprojects as assistant director including Devdas which won critical acclaim at the Cannes Film Festival. Hour! She believes that filmmakers in India are increasingly targeting a minority youth audience who are based in cities. She comments that the younger viewers want their idols to dance like Michael Jackson, swagger like Tom Cruise, fight like Jackie Chan-and still croon to their beloved in Swiss meadows, and New York Subways, deliver hetorical dialogue with panache! It is like having your Indian cake and licking the forbidden western icing too. Therefore, it can be speculated that there is a westernized audience that is catered for but what about the traditionalists with opposing values. India's rural population of farmers and villagers provide vital contribution to the economy of the 6lmindustry.They cannot possibly understand the values and issues expressed in a Hollywood style. The criticism to the change in film style also comes from the religious groups who feel that Bollywood.films are degrading traditional values. Battle Atlantic! Recently separatist guerrillas in India's north-east have called for a ban on the Krtening of Bollywood films, claiming they are too racy for young people and 1Ireaten local culture.Nine rebel groups, all fighting for independent homelands in seven States in the region, say the film industry is a bad influence because of its erotic and And Subways, dance and the imposition of Indian culture. Manish Pandya, a local Hindu priest in some nights song the UK agrees with the Graffiti New York it’s vie adopted by The Story Essay, the religious far right in India.

He argues that Young people are not interested in City it’s Subways their traditions any longer and the lifestyle portrayed in Natural Law and Law Essay films is the root of the problem he asserts. Graffiti New York City And It’s Essay! Yes you can be westernized and make films of high quality but not by portraying a culture that diminishes out our values and traditions. Young British Asians living in UK can be taken as ideal examples of an audience that has had to cope with merging their traditional and westernized values. Eukaryotic! You would have expected British Asians to welcome the idea that Bollywood films are more westernized and in tune with the changing culture. A few of them revealed that there were some young British Asians who felt that films with sex and Graffiti Art in City And it’s Subways Essay, nudity distorted traditional values. The globalization of both east and west film styles can be seen to be a success when Hollywood takes on the ideas of Bollywood.

When Australian director Baz Lurman was filming Moulin Rouge he commented that his intention was to The Story Of The apply the 'Bollywood masala' formulae. When director Shekhar Kapur shot Elizabeth he insisted that it have all the kinetic color of a Bollywood film. Kapur was also the producer for the recent Bollywood style romantic comedy The Guru complete with. dance numbers and dream scenes. New releases like Bollywood Queen and Graffiti Art in New York Subways Essay, Brideani Prejeduice also intend to apply this formula. The Indian industry should learn a lesson that when they stick to their own techniques, films like Lagganare produced to get nominated for Of The, an Oscar. Art In New York It’s Subways! The current duplication and imitation only produces excessive and unnecessary sex and violence which does not suit well with the majority of the Indian audience. Concerning with over define veldt growing violence in films, the government told the Rajya Sabha it was considering seeking a review of the guidelines of the Central Board of Film Certification; Stating the government did not have much role to Graffiti New York City And it’s Subways Essay play and it was for the Censor Board to curb sex and violence in films, Information and Broadcasting Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said that last year the Censor Board cut as much as 12,000 metres of film reel in942 Indian films. May be, there is a requirement to review the guidelines of 1991. Define Veldt! I am thinking in these terms though the government dose not come into picture, Prasad said while stating that there had to be a blend of New York Subways Essay both creativity and censor cuts.The freedom of expression should also be taken into consideration while undertaking any cuts in the films, the minister said. Prasad said, The consultative committee of the meaning Central Board of film censor had at least two women members to monitor objectionable portions films.

If there is any uncalled for domestic violence in films, the consultative committee would deal with it, he said. Actor Amipam Kher who has just been appointed Chairman of the Censor Board, plans to bring TV under censorship rules. I have discussed with the Information and Graffiti Art in City And, Broadcasting Ministry to bring TV under the Cinematographer's Act, Kher said. TV wiII be my main concern,said the act of; who is also chairman. of the National School of Drama. Television is Natural Law and Law Essay, a meciium wliere families get together. Sometimes when I watch TV programmes related to films or remix does make me cringe a little. Art In New York City Essay! I don't think the picturisation of Natural Law Essay these videos should cross the limit of decency, he said. TV videos like Kamlta Laga and Chadti Javani, among others have recently been the subject of much controversy owing to their alleged vulgarity. On common issues that have come under the censor's knife in Graffiti New York Subways the past: kissing, violence, skimpy outfits, Kher remains noncommittal.

It's too early to talk in finality. We will select people from Law and different walks of life for the board, They will be properly briefed and I do not expect them to Graffiti Art in New York And it’s Essay be rigid, said Kher, I am from films and understand the song meaning medium of expression. The response wiII depend upon the intention of the Graffiti New York And filmmaker. Out of300 films a year, only two or three run into controversy and we remember only those. On his part, Kher is clear that double standards are unacceptable. Some Song! I have no fixed ideas on how films should be censored, he said, But I understand Indian ethos and feel that what applies to our home, should apply to our culture.

With the Graffiti New York City And it’s appointment of Anupam Kher as Chairman of the Censor Board, Mid Day asked filmmakers and producers what are their expectations from him. Battle! Mahesh Bhatt, whose film Zakhm on Hindu-Muslim differences stirred a controversy due to censorship, said it's the best thing to have happened. Art In Subways! He (K.her) comes from the National School of The Story Of The Drama and has 20 years of solid experience in feature films. He still an understanding of the Indiari ethos. As a practicing actor, lives with the concerns and aspirations of filmmakers. He will probably have learn with filmmakers Iike me but he has the conviction to stand by his beliefs and Graffiti New York City And it’s Essay, could not spare even me. Pritish Nandy, whose film Hazaron Klzwaishen Aisi (Sudhir Mishra) recently landed into censor trouble.

Anupam brings with him the nights song meaning experience and exposure contemporary cinema all over the world. I'm sure someone with his kind of ledge and experience wiII completely transform Neanderthal censorship prevailing in India. I'm sick and tired of censorship issues. If anybody a1ified to bring about a critical change, it will be Anupam. Anupam is a highly intellectual, liberated thinker. I hope he can translate this attitude to help upgrade, if not abolish, archaic censor guidelines.

He should work towards liberating the thinking process of members of the Censor Board which is a set of convoluted ideas of Graffiti Art in New York Essay various people who are not always clear and focused. He will have to get more involved in the work on the native son a policy level. Children are also molded on New York And it’s Subways what they are fed, not just physically, brutal mentally and emotionally. Children's tastes are built by what they are exposed to The Story Of The Hour Superficial forms of entertainment are always quickly digested,just like junk food. healthy, balanced diet of wholesome entertainment is the Graffiti New York And Subways need of the hour. The present day picturisation of the native son sex and violence in Graffiti Art in it’s Subways Essay films is not only against Of The Hour Essay, the long charis Indian traditions, but also effecting the young generation and the children of country adversely. The increase in sex crimes and other criminal activities are result of sex and violence supplied through the films to a great extent. To save young generation from this deprivation and degeneration, some suitable result actions are required to be initiated urgently. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.

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