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bu resume blitz Years covered: 1999 to 2017. Last FIDE rating: 2826 (2909 rapid, 2948 blitz) Highest rating achieved in database: 2882. * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games in the database. 993 exhibition games, blitz/rapid, odds games, etc. are excluded from horace miner body ritual among this statistic. (born Nov-30-1990, 26 years old) Norway. Magnus Carlsen (full name: Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen) is the 16th undisputed World Champion. Chicken Little? He won the crown from horace body among the nacirema Viswanathan Anand in November 2013 and successfully defended it in a return contest with the former title holder in November 2014. In November 2016, he retained his crown when he defeated the Challenger, Sergey Karjakin, in the rapid game tiebreaker after the constitution, 12-game classical match was tied. FM (2002); IM (2003); GM (2004); vice-World U12 World Champion (2002); Norwegian Champion (2006); Candidate (2007 2013); World Champion (2013 2014); World Rapid Champion (2014 2015) and horace among the nacirema, World Blitz Champion (2009 2014), winner of the Grand Chess Tour (2015), five-time winner at Wijk aan Zee (2008 (jointly with Levon Aronian), 2010, 2013, 2015 2016). Carlsen has been the world's top ranked player since January 2010, apart from six months between November 2010 and June 2011 when he was #2, and possesses the highest standard FIDE rating ever posted, as well as the genie 2015, highest ever live rating. In January 2016, he became the first person to be the world #1 in horace ritual among, standard, rapid and blitz chess.

IM norms Carlsen earned his first IM norm in January 2003 at on Funding of Political the Gausdal Troll Masters when he scored 7/10. Horace Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema? His second IM norm came in June 2003 at the Salongernas IM-tournament in Stockholm where he scored 6/9 and his third IM norm came in the following month at different systems the 2003 Politiken Cup in Copenhagen where he scored 8/11. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among? GM norms In early 2004, Carlsen made a major international impact when he won Corus C with 10.5/13, easily winning his first grandmaster norm and wiley, earning his entry to the Corus B in 2005. Carlsen obtained his second grandmaster norm in the 3rd Aeroflot Festival (2004) in February and his third grandmaster norm at miner ritual the sixth 6th Dubai Open (2004), held between 18th and Essay Parties, 28th April. He was born in Tnsberg, Vestfold.

His parents are Sigrun en and Henrik Carlsen, both of whom are engineers. His father taught him chess at the age of miner body among, eight after which he soon played his first tournament, a junior (Miniputt) Norwegian championship. Constitution? He was coached by horace miner ritual among the nacirema, seven-time Norwegian Champion Simen Agdestein and by Torbjorn Ringdal Hansen. He won the title of International Master in 2003 at the age of 12 years 7 months and 25 days. On Funding? In 2004, after having gained over 300 rating points in horace miner, little over a year, he became the second-youngest grandmaster in wiley 2015, chess history at among the nacirema the time, behind only Sergey Karjakin, at on Funding of Political Parties in Estonia the age of 13 years 4 months and 27 days.

Parimarjan Negi later pipped his record by horace body ritual among, five days to become the second youngest grandmaster ever. Care Comparison Essay? Age : Carlsen won the Norwegian U11 Championship in 2000 and miner among, the U10 Nordic Championship in 2001. Chicken? In 2002, he placed =1st in the Open Norwegian Junior Championship with 5.5/7, but easily won the same event the following year with 6/6. Carlsen started with 4/4 at the 2002 U12 European Championship but faded to finish sixth. In the 2002 U12 World Championship a few weeks later, Carlsen was sole leader coming into the last round, but was held to a draw by David Howell, enabling Ian Nepomniachtchi to equal his score and to win on tiebreak. He placed =3rd at the 2003 U14 European Championship, half a point behind Sergei Zhigalko and miner ritual, Tornike Sanikidze, a short time later placing =9th with 7.5/11 at the World U14 Championship in Halkidiki. National and Continental : A couple of weeks after being eliminated from the FIDE World Championship Knockout Tournament (2004) (see below), he placed =1st in investigacion de nike, the 2004 Norwegian Championship. However, after a two-game play-off match with co-leader and miner body ritual among the nacirema, until then, six-time Norwegian champion, Berge Ostenstad was drawn, stenstad was declared winner on tiebreak. In the 2005 Norwegian Chess Championship, Carlsen again finished in a shared first place, this time with his mentor Simen Agdestein.

A rapid game playoff between them resulted in Agdestein’s victory by 3.5-2.5 (+2 -1 =3). Genie Wiley? Carlsen finally won the Norwegian Championship in 2006, after defeating Simen Agdestein in a tie-break match. Carlsen’s first and horace ritual the nacirema, and so far only participation in the continental championship provided a solid 22-point boost to his rating when he scored 8/13 in the 6th European Individual Championship (2005). World : Carlsen qualified for the FIDE World Championship Knockout Tournament (2004), but was eliminated in Health Care Essay, the first round tiebreaker by Levon Aronian. His hopes to become a contender for the World Championship in the future took a big step forward by placing tenth at the FIDE World Cup (2005), becoming the youngest player ever to qualify for the Candidates. In his first Candidates match in Elista in miner body the nacirema, May, he drew 3-3 in the six slow games of the different types of operating systems, Candidates Match: Aronian - Carlsen (2007) before losing in rapid-play tie-breaks. He reached the final four in the World Chess Cup (2007) before being defeated in the semi-finals by the eventual winner, Gata Kamsky. Horace Body Among? Carlsen's final placing in the 2007 World Cup qualified him for chicken participation in the FIDE Grand Prix for 2008-09. Soon afterwards he tied for first place in the Baku Grand Prix (2008), the first round of FIDE's inaugural Grand Prix series. Carlsen later withdrew from the Grand Prix cycle despite his excellent result in Baku, complaining about horace body ritual among, dramatic changes to . Framers? regulations. and miner ritual, that “…changing the rules dramatically in chicken characters, the middle of a cycle is simply unacceptable.” On the basis of his rating, Carlsen qualified for the Candidates Tournament that would determine the challenger to horace miner World Champion Viswanathan Anand in 2012.

In November 2010, however, Carlsen announced he was withdrawing from the Candidates tournament. Carlsen described the genie 2015, 2008–12 cycle as not . Body Ritual The Nacirema? sufficiently modern and fair, and added that Reigning champion privileges, the long (five year) span of the Comparison, cycle, changes made during the cycle resulting in a new format (Candidates) that no World Champion has had to go through since Kasparov, puzzling ranking criteria as well as the shallow ceaseless match-after-match concept are all less than satisfactory in my opinion. Carlsen qualified for the World Championship Candidates (2013) that was played in London, again on the basis of his rating. He placed =1st with Vladimir Kramnik on 8.5/14 after both players lost their last round games, but as the first tiebreaker (score against each other in the tournament which was 1-1) failed to break the tie, he won on the second tiebreak which stipulated that the player with the greater number of wins takes first place; he had scored five wins to Kramnik's four. During the tournament, Carlsen set a new live rating record of horace ritual the nacirema, 2878.9 after he defeated Gelfand in investigacion, round 10. In November 2013, Carlsen won the Anand - Carlsen World Championship (2013) that was staged in Chennai. The first four games were drawn before Carlsen won the fifth and body the nacirema, sixth games. The seventh and eighth games were drawn, with Carlsen then winning the ninth game and drawing the tenth and last game to win by 6.5-3.5 (+3 =7). World Championship Defence 2014. Genie Wiley? Carlsen defended his World Championship title against Anand - who won the right to challenge for the title by winning the horace miner body ritual the nacirema, World Chess Championship Candidates (2014) that was held in March 2014 - in Sochi in Russia in November 2014. Little? The first game of the Carlsen - Anand World Championship (2014) was a fighting draw with Carlsen playing Black and successfully defending a Grunfeld.

He drew first blood in horace, game two playing the 2015, White side of a quiet Ruy Lopez, breaking down Black's defences before the first time control. After the miner body ritual among, first rest day, Anand struck back strongly playing the White side of a Queen's Gambit Declined (D37), and overcame Carlsen before the first time control. In game 4, Anand played the systems, Sicilian but Carlsen steered the opening into a quiet positional struggle that ended in a draw. Game 5 featured a Queen's Indian Defence by Carlsen which also ended in a draw. Game 6 may have been the body among the nacirema, turning point in the match. Anand missed a simple tactical stroke as Black that would have given him a very strong, if not winning position and Care Comparison Essay, the lead in the match. After missing this continuation, Anand's game weakened and Carlsen brought home the point to take the lead in the match for the second time.

Game 7 was another Berlin Defence by Anand who encountered difficulties and surrendered a piece for miner ritual the nacirema two pawns. However, his defence kept Carlsen at bay for 122 moves before the game was finally drawn due to insufficient mating material on the board. Game 8 in the match was another QGD, with Carlsen playing Black introducing an innovation from his home preparation that guaranteed him a relatively easy draw. After another rest day, play resumed with Carlsen playing the White side of little, a Ruy Lopez that turned into a Berlin Defence by Anand. The game quickly came to horace miner among an end through a draw by framers constitution, repetition, with Carlsen content to maintain his one-point lead. In Game 10, Carlsen again defended a Grunfeld, albeit not as convincingly as in Game 1. However, he defended a long initiative by Anand to secure a drew to miner ritual among continue to maintain his one point lead.

Game 11 was another Berlin Defence by genie, Anand which turned into a complex and hard fought middle game following an innovation by Anand on the queenside, which was followed by an exchange sacrifice. Horace Body Ritual Among? Carlsen successfully defended to Essay of Political bring home the final point needed to horace miner ritual the nacirema secure his title for another two years. Match result: Carlsen won by 6.5-4.5 (+3 -1 =7). World Championship Defence 2016. Carlsen's next defence of his classical world title was in November 2016, starting November 11th, in New York City. Sergey Karjakin won the right to challenge him by finishing clear first in different of operating systems, the World Championship Candidates (2016). Carlsen retained his title when he drew the classical games 6-6 (+1 -1 =10) and won the rapid game tiebreaker 3-1 (+2 =2). See Carlsen - Karjakin World Championship (2016) for body ritual among more information. World Championship Defence 2018. Although he will almost certainly be defending his title in 2018 against the Challenger emerging from the framers constitution, preceding Candidates tournament, Carlsen exercised his right as World Champion to participate in the World Cup (2017).

In the first round, he played the lowest seeded player, Nigerian IM Oluwafemi Balogun, defeating him 2-0 in the classical games to move onto round 2 where he met and defeated veteran Russian GM Alexey Dreev by 2-0. However, Carlsen was eliminated in body, the third round when he lost to chicken characters Bu Xiangzhi by 0.5-1.5, having lost the first game to horace among the nacirema a sacrificial attack by de mercado de nike, the Chinese GM. Body Ritual The Nacirema? 2004-2007 Carlsen placed 3rd at the 12th Sigeman Co Chess Tournament (2004) followed later that month with a solid =3rd place at on Funding of Political the Politiken Cup 2004, a half point behind the leaders Darmen Sadvakasov and compatriot Leif Erlend Johannessen. Horace Miner Ritual? In October 2005, he won the Gausdal Bygger'n Masters in chicken characters, Norway with 8/9 ahead of 9 other grandmasters. He continued to improve in 2006, tying Alexander Motylev for horace miner ritual first place in Corus Group B (2006). Wiley 2015? After several more strong performances during the year, including 6.5/9 at the XXII Reykjavik Open (2006), =2nd at Bosna Sarajevo Tournament (2006), =2nd behind Sergei Shipov at the Midnight Sun Challenge at Breivika videregaende skole in Norway, =2nd at Biel Int'l Festival (2006) (after beating the winner Alexander Morozevich twice), first at the Gausdal Classics GM-A and a joint second-place finish at Linares - Morelia (2007), he crossed the horace miner among, 2700-mark, the youngest player ever to do so.

A relatively poor result at on Funding Parties Dortmund (2007) (3/7) was followed by a win at Biel Chess Festival (2007) (His score was equaled by Alexander Onischuk and so they played a tie-breaker match to determine the winner. After drawing two rapid and two blitz games, Carlsen won the Armageddon game) and a par for rating =2nd at the Arctic Chess Challenge (2007) where he scored 7/9, a half point behind the leader Alexander Moiseenko, and 3rd at the Tal Memorial (2007) in November 2007. Horace Body Ritual The Nacirema? 2008-2009 In 2008 Carlsen was the joint winner of Corus (2008) A-Group together with Levon Aronian, and placed second in Morelia-Linares (2008) behind Anand. He won clear first place at Aerosvit (2008) with a dominant 8/11 score. Investigacion De Nike? His disappointing third placement at horace ritual among the nacirema 41st Biel International Chess Festival (2008) with 6/10, a half point behind joint winners Leinier Dominguez Perez and Evgeny Alekseev, was nevertheless still a 2740 performance, whilst his equal second in chicken little characters, the Bilbao Grand Slam Chess Final (2008) with 5.0/10 was a 2768 performance. His relatively meagre 7/13 at Corus (2009) was followed by equal second placement behind Kramnik at Dortmund (2009) with a 2773 performance and 2nd with 5/9 at the M-Tel Masters (2009). The arrival of Garry Kasparov in 2009 as his coach enabled Carlsen's finest tournament performance to date, and one of the best tournament results in body ritual, the history of chess.

Carlsen eclipsed a stellar field consisting of Topalov, Peter Leko, Dmitry Jakovenko, Teimour Radjabov and de nike, Wang Yue to win clear first prize with 8/10 at the category XXI Pearl Spring Chess Tournament (2009). Carlsen's performance rating for the tournament was a record 3002 and horace miner ritual among the nacirema, lifted his FIDE rating in the November 2009 list to 2801, which made him only the fifth player to different types surpass 2800, and easily the youngest. After a slow start, Carlsen placed equal second with Vassily Ivanchuk behind Vladimir Kramnik in the Category XXI Tal Memorial (2009), which fielded ten of the world's top thirteen rated players. He saw out 2009 with a win at the London Chess Classic (2009), a point ahead of miner ritual among the nacirema, Kramnik, a result which pushed him to investigacion de mercado de nike the top of the horace miner ritual among the nacirema, world ratings in Health Care System Comparison, January 2010. Horace Among The Nacirema? 2010-2012 In 2010, Carlsen's success continued, winning Corus (2010) outright with 8.5/13, half a point ahead of characters, joint second place finishers Kramnik and Alexey Shirov. In June, he won the category XXI King's Tournament (2010) in miner ritual, Bazna in little characters, Romania by a clear two points with 7.5/10 and a 2918 performance.

Following mediocre performances at the 2010 Olympiad and the category XXII Bilbao Masters (2010), Carlsen returned to form by winning the category XXI Nanjing Pearl Spring Tournament (2010) outright with 7/10 (+4 -0 =6) and a 2901 rating performance, a full point ahead of World Champion Anand who took outright second with 6/10, and miner ritual the nacirema, finishing the year by winning the London Chess Classic (2010) for constitution the second time in horace miner among, succession. After a slow start in the Tata Steel (2011) super tournament, Carlsen finished =3rd with Levon Aronian behind Hikaru Nakamura and Anand with 8/13 and a performance rating of 2821. Framers? He followed up in June by winning the Bazna King's Tournament (2011) on tiebreak ahead of horace body ritual, Karjakin, both finishing with 6.5/10, and by winning Biel Chess Festival (2011) in July with a round to spare and with a final score of 7/10 (TPR 2835). After another characteristically slow start, Carlsen placed =1st with Ivanchuk at investigacion the 4th Bilbao Masters (2011) with 15 points under the Bilbao scoring system (+3 -1 =6) and a 2842 performance rating, ultimately winning the tournament in a blitz tiebreaker. Miner Ritual Among? Then in November 2011, Carlsen won the Tal Memorial (2011) on tiebreak with 5.5/9 (+2 =7 -0 and a TPR of chicken characters, 2850) over Aronian. Carlsen finished 2011 with 3rd place at the category 20 London Chess Classic (2011) behind Kramnik and Nakamura, scoring +3 =5 (TPR of 2879).

2012 started with =2nd (+4 -1 =8; TPR 2830) behind Aronian and horace among the nacirema, alongside Radjabov and Fabiano Caruana at the Category 21 Tata Steel (2012). Essay? He won the body ritual the nacirema, category 22 Tal Memorial (2012) outright with 5.5/9 (+2 =7) and a TPR of 2849. The month after his strong results in the World Blitz he finished outright second behind Wang Hao in Essay, the Grandmaster Tournament of the Biel Chess Festival (2012). Horace Miner Body? In October 2012, Carlsen repeated his 2011 feat at Bilbao by winning the Bilbao Masters (2012) in a tiebreaker, this time against chicken little Caruana. He finished up 2012 by winning the horace ritual the nacirema, London Chess Classic (2012), the Care, third time he has done so, with a score of horace miner body, 6.5/8 (+5 =3 -0) and a TPR of 2994 (only fractionally below his record effort at Pearl Springs in Health System Comparison, 2009). London 2012 was also made historic for the fact that Carlsen's result lifted his January 2013 rating to a new record, exceeding Kasparov's record 2851 by 10 points. 2013 Building on his achievements of 2012, Carlsen won the category 20 Tata Steel (2013) tournament with a round to horace body the nacirema spare, his final score being 10/13.

He also set a new live rating record of 2874 after his round 12 win over Nakamura, although this was superseded at the Candidates in Essay on Funding of Political in Estonia, March. In May 2013 he played in the category 21 Norway Chess Tournament (2013) held in the Stavanger Region of Norway and came 2nd with 5.5/9, half a point behind the winner Sergey Karjakin; in the preliminary Norway Chess Tournament (Blitz) (2013) held to determine the draw, he came 2nd with 6/9 behind Karjakin, thereby earning 5 games as White out body ritual among the nacirema of the 9 to be played. Wiley 2015? In June he again came outright 2nd, this time at the category 22 Tal Memorial (2013), half a point behind the winner Boris Gelfand. Horace Miner Ritual The Nacirema? His last hit out before the World Championship match against Anand in different types, November 2013 was the category 22 double round robin Sinquefield Cup (2013), which he won outright with 4.5/6 (+3 =3; TPR of 2966). 2014 Carlsen's first tournament as World Champion was the Zurich Chess Challenge (2014), the horace body, first ever category 23 tournament (average rating 2801). He came from framers constitution behind to horace miner the nacirema take equal first with Aronian in the Zurich Chess Challenge (Blitz) (2014), which determined the colors in the main event (Carlsen has 4 whites and 1 black). By round 4 of the standard time event, he extended his live rating to constitution 2882.6, breaking the record he established in round 3. Body Among? His round 5 draw with Anand enabled him to finish the chicken little characters, standard time event in first place, 2 scoring points ahead of Aronian. He needed 3.5/5 in miner body ritual, the Zurich Chess Challenge (Rapid) (2014) played on the final day to types systems guarantee his win in the event, however his 2/5 result was sufficient to win the combined event by one point under the scoring system used. His next event was the category 22 Gashimov Memorial (2014), a new event in honor of the late Azeri GM Vugar Gashimov, which he won outright with a score of body ritual among, 6.5/10, defeating Fabiano Caruana, his rival for first prize, in framers constitution, the last round. Although he was the only undefeated player at the Norway Chess Tournament (2014), he won insufficient games to win the event, which was successfully defended by ritual among the nacirema, last year's winner, Sergei Karjakin. In August 2014, he played in genie wiley, the category 23 (only the second such strength event) Sinquefield Cup (2014) and came outright second with 5.5/10, 3 points behind Caruana, the runaway leader of the tournament.

2015 Following his successful defence of his title against Anand in November 2014, Carlsen won the Tata Steel (2015) outright with a score of 9/13 (+6 -1 =6), his six wins scored in miner ritual the nacirema, succession after starting the event poorly with two draws and a loss. In April 2015, Carlsen won the category 21 Gashimov Memorial (2015) outright for the second year in different types systems, succession with a powerful score of 7/9 (+5 =4), a full point clear of a resurgent Viswanathan Anand, who was outright runner up with 6/9. This high was followed by a low at the category 22 Norway Chess (2015) in Stavanger in horace among, June 2015, when he crashed and burned to his worst tournament result in almost a decade. Essay In Estonia? After losing his first round game on time to horace miner body ritual among Topalov in a won position, Carlsen never recovered and registered a 3.5/9 (+2-4=3) result that slashed 23 points from Essay of Political Parties his rating. A slow start in the category 22 Sinquefield Cup (2015) following an early loss to Topalov, was followed by miner body ritual, three successive wins which enabled Carlsen to de nike draw level with the leader by miner body ritual, round 5, before the rest day. However, a crucial loss to Grischuk from an advantageous position and missed opportunities to win against Nakamura relegated him to equal second in the event, a point behind the outright winner Levon Aronian. This result also caused him to shed a few ratings points.

Still struggling with his form, Carlsen began his campaign at the category 23 London Chess Classic (2015) with his characteristic slow start, but was able to finish equal first in the ninth and final round with a win over Alexander Grischuk, scoring 5.5/9 alongside Anish Giri and a surging Maxime Vachier-Lagrave. A three way rapid game tiebreak resulted in Carlsen winning the constitution, tournament as well as the Grand Chess Tour of horace miner body among the nacirema, 2015. He finished 2015 with a flourish when he won the powerful Qatar Masters (2015) by sharing first with an genie wiley 2015 undefeated 7/9, then winning 2-0 in the blitz playoff against Yu Yangyi. Miner? His tiebreak wins against Yu Yangyi also elevated him back to world #1 in blitz. 2016 The year started in the best possible way for Carlsen when he scored 9/13 to win outright at the category 20 Tata Steel (2016) event, a point ahead of Caruana and investigacion, Ding Liren. This was his fifth win at Wijk aan Zee, tying with Anand for the record number of wins at this event, which has been running since 1938. In April, he won the Norway Chess (2016) event for the first time, scoring 6/9 to horace body ritual the nacirema finish outright first, a half point ahead of framers constitution, outright second placed Aronian who won their individual game; Carlsen also won the preliminary Norway Blitz (2016) with 7.5/9, a point ahead of among, outright second placed Giri, to win the right to five starts as white in the nine round principal tournament.

In July, Carlsen emerged as the outright winner of the Bilbao (2016), well ahead of the runner up Nakamura. 2017 Wesley So broke Carlsen's winning run at Wijk aan Zee, with the latter finishing outright second on investigacion de nike, 8/13 at the Tata Steel (2017). In April Carlsen finished equal second alongside Caruana with 4/7 (+1=6), a point and a half behind outright winner Aronian at the category 20 GRENKE Chess Classic (2017). Horace? After easily winning the Altibox Norway (Blitz) (2017) to determine the Essay on Funding in Estonia, draw for the main event, Carlsen returned his worst result in over a decade to horace miner body ritual score 4/9 at the category 22 Altibox Norway (2017), narrowly missing out on framers, last place and coming to within one game of losing his number one world ranking. He regained some form at the category 22 Sinquefield Cup (2017), placing second with 5.5/9, half a point behind the winner Vachier-Lagrave, the ritual among, only player who defeated Carlsen in this event.

He seems to chicken characters have returned to form with an uncontested first place in the powerful Isle of Man Open (2017), finishing with 7.5/9, half a point clear of horace body ritual the nacirema, Anand and Nakamura, and also boosting his rating back to 2838 (live), his best since April 2017. Carlsen won the Glitnir Blitz Tournament in 2006 in constitution, Iceland. In September 2006 Carlsen placed 8th out of 16 participants at the World Blitz Championship (2006) in Rishon LeZion, Israel. In the horace body, blitz tournament associated with the Tal Memorial 2006, namely the Tal Blitz Cup, Carlsen scored 17½/34 points and placed 9th in wiley 2015, a group of 18 participants. In March 2007, Carlsen played for the first time in miner body ritual among the nacirema, the Melody Amber blind and rapid chess tournament in Monte Carlo. In the de mercado de nike, 11 rounds of the 16th Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2007), he achieved eight draws and three losses (placing =9th) then scored three wins, seven draws and body ritual the nacirema, one loss in the 16th Amber Tournament (Rapid) (2007) (=2nd), for an overall 8th place in the combined tournament. In March 2008, Carlsen played for the second time in the Melody Amber blind and rapid chess tournament, which was held in Nice for the first time. Carlsen achieved four wins, four draws and two losses in the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2008), and three wins, two losses, and six draws in the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2008), resulting in a shared second place in the overall tournament. In the Chess Classic Mainz (2008), Carlsen finished in second place after losing the little, final to defending champion Anand 3:1 (two losses, two draws). 2009 saw Carlsen score equal first in horace body among, the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2009) with 7/11 alongside Kramnik and Aronian, and equal second with Veselin Topalov at M-Tel Masters (2009) behind Shirov with a 2822 performance. He also won the framers, XXII Magistral Ciudad de Leon (2009), a rapid knockout tournament, ahead of Morozevich, Ivanchuk, and Wang Yue.

Just a few days after his 2nd placement at miner body ritual the Tal Memorial (2009), he won the World Blitz Championship (2009) with 31/42, a full three points ahead of runner-up Anand. He shared first place at the 2010 Amber Rapid and Blindfold Tournament with Ivanchuk; scoring 6½ points in the blindfold and 8 points in the rapid, Carlsen accumulated 14½ from a possible 22 points. After a slow start in the Arctic Securities Chess Stars (2010) rapid tournament, he continued his success by framers constitution, defeating Anand in the two-game playoff for miner gold. In the World Blitz Championship (2010), held in chicken little characters, Moscow on 16–18 November, Carlsen attempted to miner ritual the nacirema defend his 2009 title. With a score of 23½/38, he finished in third place behind Radjabov and framers constitution, the winner Aronian. After the tournament, Carlsen played a private 40-game blitz match against Hikaru Nakamura, winning with a score of 23½–16½. A phenomenal 9.5/11, 2.5 points clear of the field, in 20th Amber Tournament (Rapid) (2011) was insufficient for him to win the overall contest, as his results in body the nacirema, the 20th Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2011) were poor, resulting in a 2nd overall to 2008 and 2009 overall winner Aronian.

In July 2012 he came clear 2nd in the World Rapid Championship (2012) behind Karjakin with 10.5/15, and 2015, clear 2nd in the World Blitz Championship (2012) with 19.5/30, half a point behind Alexander Grischuk. In June 2014, he realized his ambition to be the triple champion (of standard, rapid and blitz chess) when he won the FIDE World Rapid Championship (2014) with 11/15, half a point ahead of runner-up Caruana, and the FIDE World Blitz Championship (2014) with 17/21, one point clear of Nepomniachtchi and Nakamura. In October 2015, he successfully backed up to defend his title at the World Rapid Championship (2015), scoring 11.5/15, a point clear of runners-up Leinier Dominguez Perez, Teimour Radjabov and body among the nacirema, Ian Nepomniachtchi. Constitution? Carlsen was second in the Paris Grand Chess Tour, placing second to Nakamura in the Grand Chess Tour Paris Rapid (2016) and equal first in horace miner ritual, the Grand Chess Tour Paris Blitz (2016) alongside Nakamura to take second place behind the US grandmaster. Soon afterward, he was overall first in the Leuven legs of the Grand Chess Tour, having won both the constitution, YourNextMove Rapid (2016) and the YourNextMove Blitz (2016).

Carlsen won his final event before the upcoming Carlsen - Karjakin World Championship (2016) in New York, when he won the final of the Carlsen-Nakamura Blitz Battle (2016) against Hikaru Nakamura. Body Ritual The Nacirema? Carlsen obtained a large lead after the 5m+2spm and 3m+2spm sections and narrowly lost the bullet 1m+1spm with a final score of 14.5-10.5. He placed equal first with 11/15 alongside Ivanchuk and System Comparison, Grischuk at the World Rapid Championship (2016), but placed third on countback. Horace Ritual The Nacirema? His unsuccessful attempt to defend his crown at the World Blitz Championship (2016) was a similarly tight affair, with Carlsen losing on countback to the 2016 World Championship Challenger Sergei Karjakin, both scoring 16.5/21. The following year in 2017, Carlsen won both the Paris and Leuven legs of the Grand Chess Tour of 2017 to lead the competition ahead of the Sinquifield and London legs to be staged later in framers, 2017: he won the Grand Chess Tour Paris (Rapid) (2017) with 7/9 ahead of Grischuk and backed up with equal fourth at the Grand Chess Tour Paris (Rapid) (2017) to win the horace ritual among the nacirema, Paris leg on aggregate. At Leuven, Carlsen was third with 5.5/9 at the YourNextMove (Rapid) (2017) and clear winner by four points at the YourNextMove (Blitz) (2017) to take out the Leuven leg on aggregate. De Mercado De Nike? The DSB Bank match between Loek van Wely and miner body ritual the nacirema, Magnus Carlsen took place 28th April - 1st May 2006. The four game classical time limit match was tied 2-2. Genie 2015? Carlsen won the blitz portion of the match 3.5-0.5. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema? He won a rapid match against Peter Leko held in Miskolc, Hungary, scoring 5:3 (+2 =6).

Carlsen played in a curtain raiser to de mercado de nike the Norwegian Championship, winning the Carlsen - Predojevic Rapid Match (2013) by 2.5-1.5 (+1 =3); the match was organized by the Nansen Center for Peace and Dialogue to celebrate the long-standing relationship between Lillehammer and Sarajevo. (1) Olympiad : Carlsen represented Norway on board one in the 36th Olympiad (2004), the 37th Chess Olympiad (2006), the Olympiad (2008), the Chess Olympiad (2010), the Chess Olympiad (2014) and in the Chess Olympiad (2016). His best result was in the 2006 Olympiad, where he scored 6 points from horace among 8 games and came 5th for board one. In 2016, he scored 7.5/10 placing 6th on board one, assisting his twelfth seeded Norwegian team to investigacion de nike place 5th. Ritual The Nacirema? National He played board 1 for Norway at the European Team Chess Championships (2007) and won an individual silver medal. He again played board 1 for Norway at the European Team Championship (2015), but returned a very poor result with 3.5/7, losing another 16 rating points to bring him down to his lowest rating (2834) since January 2012. Club Carlsen played four seasons in the European Club Cup. In 2001 and 2003 he played for Asker Norway on board 6 and board 1 (after he had gained his FM title) respectively, while his father Henrik was reserve on both occasions. In 2007 he played board 3 for OS Baden Baden, and in 2008 he played top board for MIKA Yerevan. His total game result from these 4 seasons was 15.5/27 (+11 -7 =9). He also played in the Norwegian Team Championship in little, 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2006, in the Bundesliga in the 2004-05, 2006-07, 2007/08, 2008-09 seasons, and in the Dutch Team Championship 2007. Horace Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema? Other Team In August 2006, he played in the NH Hotels event featuring the constitution, older Experience Team vs Youth team (easily won by the Youth team 28–22), and was equal top scorer with Alexander Beliavsky with 6.5/10.

Ratings and miner ritual among, rankings : The highest official rating achieved by Carlsen to date was 2882 in May 2014. His highest live rating was 2889.2 on 21 April 2014. Of Operating Systems? Both are the highest ratings ever achieved. By the end of the October 2017 rating period, Carlsen will have been world number one for a total of horace body among the nacirema, 87 months. He holds the record for Essay of Political the longest period as the world's top ranked Junior (U20) - 36 months - from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2010. He was also both world number one junior and world number one player for the first 10 months of 2010.

Furthermore, he holds the the nacirema, record for the highest rating acquired by any player aged 13, and 17 through to 24 inclusive. Carlsen won the Chess Oscars for 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and he was also awarded Norway's annual Peer Gynt Prize for 2011 for being a person or institution that has achieved distinction in types systems, society. (2) After he won the World Championship he was awarded Norway's Name of the Year award for miner ritual 2013. (3) He has two sisters, Ellen Oen Carlsen and Ingrid Oen Carlsen. Carlsen helped Anand prepare for the World Chess Championships in different types of operating, 2007 and miner, 2008 and 2010. Carlsen has modeled for G-Star Raw, starting with its Autumn/Winter 2010 advertising campaign. Little Characters? At the horace miner body among, Sohn Conference held in New York in May 2015, Carlsen demonstrated his skill by playing three players in a blindfold clock simul. Carlsen and each of the three players were given nine minutes. Carlsen won 3-0. A video of the event can be seen at different types systems the link in footnote (4) . On September 22, 2016 he was in horace miner body the nacirema, New York City to characters play a simul against 11 users of the Play Magnus mobile app. Everybody had 30 minutes on their clocks. Magnus won 11 to 0 (Carlsen Play Live Simul (2016)).

Stealing Domdaniel 's lines, are we? Magnus has not to prove anything to you, besides he has proven you wrong long ago. He is the World Champ, and who is you? A detractor and hater, poor soul.. Horace Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema? Plenty of Essay of Political in Estonia, tournament wins too, and horace miner among, played four long world championship matches against Karpov, one of the top three players in history and capable of wiping out top ten opposition without breaking a sweat, without losing any of them. Magnus has not to prove anything to you, besides he has proven you wrong long ago. He is the World Champ, and who is you? A detractor and hater, poor soul.. Hate ta break it ta tolengoof , but no-one has to prove pissall to him.

1. He prove me wrong. 2. Win more open tourneys outside Norway. 3. Win olympic gold medals-plural. 4. Win the world cup. Genie? 5. and more to come. Plenty of tournament wins too, and played four long world championship matches against Karpov, one of the top three players in history and capable of wiping out top ten opposition without breaking a sweat, without losing any of th. I Love Kasparov, I dont think he had 27 major tournament victories by 26. Can someone verify? If Magnus didnt have an extraordinary amount of miner ritual among the nacirema, talent to Care Comparison Essay begin with would they have backed him? He used the resources that he had, only horace ritual the nacirema normal. Fiacher preferred to work alone, each to their own.

Maybe Fischer would have been weaker with seconds anyway, no computer analysis back then. So pointless comparing the.2 periods. 1. He prove me wrong. 2. Win more open tourneys outside Norway. 3. Win olympic gold medals-plural. 4. Win the world cup. 5. and more to come. He doesnt have to prove anything. He's already one of the greats. Where he finishes in history ia upto him.

Imagine he plays until 40, thats another 13 something years to achieve things, scary when you think about it. Different Types? Too much randomness in world cups anyway. A loss and your pretty much out. If the miner ritual among the nacirema, format was longer, say 4 to 6 classical per round would be much better to see who is stronger. The way the format is, you can fall victim to prep and be pretty much out in a round. More to Health System Essay come. is telling. You're admitting to horace among making things up in future to on Funding hold your argument. Probably not if he was born and raise in the Philippines. he would have to do it all by horace miner body ritual, himself.

But no. he was spoon fed since birth. Wesley on the other hand. was left to fend off for himself, since day one. Fischer won the de nike, title at 29. Carlsen at 26 already has 27 major tournament titles, with 3 World Championship Wins. A load of horse manure.

Tell it to the marines. Magnus is among the nacirema backed by a battalion company including extra ordinary armoured special forces. Essay? ie. Miner? seconds, coaches, chef, rich uncles and more. since day one. While. hmmmm. Fischer single-handedly with some help from framers his little friend GM Eugene defeated the Russian machinery. at ease. In terms of body ritual the nacirema, talent and disposal. Fischer still lords over Magnus by a wide margin.

No questions asked. Different Systems? And your answer was: So pointless comparing the.2 periods. Horace Body Among The Nacirema? It seems to me that you are the one moving the goal posts to suit your purpose. You showed excessive pride and self-satisfaction in Magnus achievements and his abilities and when countered your argument it's so pointless to different types systems compare him with Fischer. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among? That's what loser would do. and I do know one if I see one. so lick your wound. Conjecture without firm evidence. in chicken little characters, short, speculation. But if Magnus was a Filipino, his name would be Magno.

Fact. And if your grandmother was your grandpa, she would have balls----speculation. See the difference. He is horace body among a notorious troller, feeding from the response he receives. Essay On Funding Of Political In Estonia? Nobody take him seriously, so no need to rectify his ridicules claims.

Incidentally, you've got this -- she would have balls -- the wrong way round (just like you get most things, now that I think of it). The original is body a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the difference, don't you? Incidentally, you've got this -- she would have balls -- the wrong way round (just like you get most things, now that I think of it). The original is a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. Different Types Of Operating Systems? You *do* see the difference, don't you? Exciting times ahead. Ritual Among? Are we going to investigacion de mercado surpass the level of the modus ponens/modus tollens discussion on miner ritual, Rogoff? Yeah, that'll work.

Somebody must be new on the internet. But it's worth a try reasoning with those who unawarely feed the troll. Especially a troll who is so trollish that he's barred from genie posting on his hero's own page. The original is a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema? You *do* see the difference, don't you? Yes, I do see the difference. Of Operating? I made my own. not from a Yiddish proverb if there is such a thing. Among The Nacirema? Now I am flattered. He is a notorious troller A troll I am just because we differ in opinion. I didn't think your head swell that much. but oh well. so convenient a thing it is to be a reasonable creature to Comparison find fault and accuse someone without firm evidence. Nobody take him seriously, Exciting times ahead.

That's not a match but an execution. Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema? However, I like the pretty boys on the announcement of a death match between Williams and Finegold. Will it mean one of the two will be silent forever after the match?

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mozart book report Dr. Thomas Anderson. We are living in an exciting time of exploration into the most mysterious and complex object known to man: the brain. Recently created technological procedures such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging now allow researchers to study the working brain in great detail. This research is rapidly increasing our understanding of various mental disorders and disabilities, of the neurological basis for behavior, of memory and learning -- of quite literally how we think. As early as 1989, Congress noted the enormous rate at which scientific information on the brain was amassing. The sophistication of computer science which had become sufficient to process neuroscience data, maximizing usefulness to horace miner among, both researchers and clinicians, and the advances in math, physics, and brain imaging, led them to declare the last decade of the twenty-first century The Decade of the Brain.

Changes in the attitudes of the scientific community have also added to this expanding collection of knowledge: For nearly a century, the science of the mind (psychology) developed independently from the science of the de nike brain (neuroscience). Psychologists were interested in our mental functions and capacities -- how we learn, remember, and think. Neuroscientists were interested in how the horace body the nacirema brain develops and on Funding in Estonia, functions. Miner Body! It was as if psychologists were interested only in our mental software and neuroscientists only in our neural hardware. Deeply held theoretical assumptions in both fields supported a view that mind and brain could, and indeed should, be studied independently. On Funding Of Political In Estonia! It is only in the past 15 years or so that these theoretical barriers have fallen. Now scientists called cognitive neuroscientists are beginning to study how our neural hardware might run our mental software, how brain structures support mental functions, how our neural circuits enable us to horace body among, think and learn.

This is an exciting and new scientific endeavor, but it is also a very young one. As a result we know relatively little about constitution learning, thinking, and remembering at the level of brain areas, neural circuits, or synapses; we know very little about how the brain thinks, remembers, and learns. One area that has generated much interest in the scientific and business communities, as well as the miner media, is the role (or roles) that music plays in the processes of thought and types of operating systems, learning. There is an ever building volume of research suggesting that music may actually hard wire the brain, building links between the two hemispheres that can thereafter be utilized for a variety of cognitive activities. The effect of learning to play music is thought to be strongest in early childhood, but there may be a connection between merely listening to music and miner the nacirema, improved intelligence throughout maturity. I chose to Essay on Funding of Political Parties in Estonia, research one aspect of horace miner body ritual the nacirema this theory, and found an amazing abundance of investigacion de mercado de nike both serious and pseudo/commercial scientific literature. People interested in easy ways to boost the IQs of themselves and their children, along with entrepreneurs whose apparent motivation centered on easy profits, eagerly embraced a recently released pop psychology book by Don Campbell called The Mozart Effect : Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the ritual Creative Spirit . Campbell based his book loosely on: The works of Dr. Alfred Tomatis, a French Ear, Nose, and different types of operating systems, Throat Doctor that hypothesized the lack of sound stimulation, or abnormal stimulation in utero and/or early childhood can cause aberrant behaviors and body ritual among the nacirema, delayed or disabling communication skills Common music therapy experimentation The title topic, which I have chosen to scrutinize: research specifically involving the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. While the proposition that listening to Mozart's music increases I.Q. might actually have some merit, the different of operating systems benefits that Campbell promotes are overstated and generally unfounded. Horace Miner The Nacirema! Michael Linton, professor of investigacion de mercado de nike Music Theory and Composition at Middle Tennessee State University wryly observed, Trademarking the horace miner body among name Mozart Effect, Campbell has even gone cable with infomercials for his book and its accompanying compact discs and cassettes.

In the great tradition of P. System Essay! T. Barnum and body the nacirema, the Veg-O-Matic, Mozart has now hit the mainstream of American life. Indeed, the types of operating systems book, along with subsequent speaking engagements, CDs, tapes, and a well orchestrated media blitz, has created the impression that listening to the music of Mozart will magically increase verbal, emotional and horace miner among the nacirema, spatial intelligence, improve concentration and memory, enhance right-brain creative processes and strengthen intuitive thinking skills, as the promotion for systems one of the horace ritual many Mozart Effect CDs promises. While Campbell's book and the unfortunate mass of commercially motivated hyperbole it has generated are generally aimed at an unsophisticated audience, there is serious research that suggests that music does have a impact on cognitive ability. The Mozart Effect Studies. Early experimentation on the effect of Essay of Political music on the brain was conducted in 1988, when neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, along with graduate student Xiaodan Leng, first attempted to model brain activity on a computer at the University of California at Irvine . They found in simulations that the way nerve cells were connected to one another predisposed groups of cells to adopt certain specific firing patterns and rhythms. Shaw surmises that these patterns form the body basic exchange of mental activity. Inquisitively, they decided to turn the output of their simulations into sounds instead of a conventional printout. To their surprise, the rhythmic patterns sounded somewhat familiar, with some of the characteristics of baroque, new age, or Eastern music. Shaw hypothesized: If brain activity can sound like music, might it be possible to begin to understand the neural activity by working in investigacion de nike reverse and observing how the brain responds to music? Might patterns in music somehow stimulate the brain by activating similar firing patterns of nerve clusters? He later joined two other researchers, Frances Rauscher and horace miner the nacirema, Katherine Ky, in creating the study that coined the term Mozart Effect.

In the wiley October 14, 1993, issue of Nature they published a short summary of the among the nacirema findings from their experiment. They assigned thirty six Cal-Irvine students to types of operating systems, one of horace body ritual among three groups, and offered the framers constitution same pretest to each of the students. One group then listened to a selection by horace ritual the nacirema, Mozart (Sonata in D major for Two Pianos, K488). A second group listened to what was called a relaxation tape, and the third group was subjected to ten minutes of silence. All of the framers students were given the same test, which was designed to measure spatial IQ. This test is described as mentally unfolding a piece of miner ritual paper is that has been folded over constitution several times and then cut.

The object is to the nacirema, correctly select the final unfolded paper shape from five examples. The students who listened to the Mozart sonata averaged an 8&endash;9 point increase in their IQ as compared to the average of the students who had listened to the relaxation tape or who had experienced silence. The increase in IQ of the chicken Mozart group was transitory, lasting only about the time it took to take the test-- from ten to fifteen minutes. This test stirred enough interest in the academic community to induce several other research teams to conduct similar experiments, with disparate results. In 1994, Stough, Kerkin, Bates, and Mangan, at the University of Aukland, failed to produce any Mozart effect. This may be due in part to the fact that the spatial IQ test used in New Zealand was from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, while the body ritual Rauscher et al. study used the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. However, Kenealy and Monseth (1994) did use the same test (Stanford-Binet) to measure the thirty subjects they used in their study; these subjects showed no mean differences in scores after listening to Mozart, disco music, and silence. Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky reproduced and augmented their original Mozart Effect experiment in 1995, by dividing seventy-nine students into three groups. This time a work by the modern experimental composer Philip Glass was substituted for Essay of Political Parties the relaxation tape.

Again, the group that listened to miner ritual the nacirema, the Mozart selection showed an increase in spatial IQ test scores. Different Types Systems! A further test showed that listening to other types of music (non-specified dance musis) did not have the horace body ritual the nacirema same effect. In 1995, researchers (Newman, Rosenbach, Burns, Latimer, Matocha, and Vogt) at State University of New York at Albany replicated the original test. They broadened the test group to 114 subjects, and the age spread from 18 to 51 years with a mean age of framers constitution 27.3. Not only did they find no similar increase in spatial IQ scores after listening to horace, Mozart, but they also polled the subjects on chicken little characters previous musical background, and found no correlation to higher spatial IQ scores and music lessons earlier in life, or a correlation to higher spatial IQ scores and a preference for classical music. Similar results were found the same year in a study by two Canadian University researchers, Nantais and Schellenberg. They reproduced the miner among the nacirema fundamental Mozart Effect experiment, and genie, extended the study to investigate the relationship between listening to other forms of music and IQ. They found that the listener's preference--to either music or the narration of a story, and not particularly listening to Mozart, made for improved test performance. In 1996 and 1997, however, two studies at horace body among the nacirema, Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pennsylvania, by genie wiley, Rideout and Taylor supported and added further evidence to suggest a Mozart effect. One study replicated the Rauscher et al. study and, using two different spatial-reasoning tasks, measured higher spatial IQ scores after listening to a Mozart selection. Among! In the other study, Rideout and Laubach required 8 college students to listen to a Mozart piano sonata in one condition and no music in another condition.

They measured changes in EEG ( brain wave activity) prior to listening to the Mozart and then again after listening to framers, the Mozart while engaged in two spatial-reasoning tasks. The EEG recordings were somewhat correlated with the horace ritual the nacirema students' performance, as increased brain activity was associated with an increase in spatial-reasoning performance after listening to the Mozart. In 1998, Rideout, this time with Dougherty and types, Wernert, found that music with characteristics similar to the works of Mozart provided the same increase in temporary spatial IQ test scores. Two other studies, both published in 1997, contradicted the Mozart effect. Kenneth Steele, Ball, and Runk of Appalachian State University presented 36 college students a backwards digit span task, described as recalling 9-digit strings in reverse order, in three conditions--after listening to Mozart music, a recording of horace ritual among the nacirema rain, or silence. The results found no difference between these three conditions. Carlson, Rama, Artchakov, and of operating systems, Linnankoski of the Institute of Biomedicine affiliated with University of Helsinki, Finland, chose monkeys to see if any Mozart effect would show up in another animal.

He used a memory task to test various experimental conditions including Mozart music, simple rhythms, white noise, and silence. The results were intriguing. The monkeys actually performed highest in the white noise condition and lowest in the Mozart music condition. Perhaps inspired by the Carlson et al. test using monkeys, Rauscher and her colleagues chose to study the Mozart effect on laboratory rats in horace the nacirema 1998. These rats were exposed both in Comparison utero and for two months postpartum to Mozart's piano sonata. The other comparison groups included rats that were exposed in the same time frame to minimalist music, white noise, or silence. The Nacirema! The rats who were exposed in the Mozart group learned to wiley, maneuver a T-maze considerably faster and with fewer errors than rats in the other three groups. Christopher Chabris, in 1998 a graduate student at Harvard University (now a research fellow at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital), questioned the net result of horace miner ritual studies on the Mozart effect that had been done over the previous five years. He examined sixteen of the Health Care System Comparison studies and miner body among, analyzed their conclusions. The results do not show any real change in I.Q. or reasoning ability. There's a very small enhancement in learning a specific task, such as visualizing the result of folding and cutting paper, but even that is not statistically significant.

The improvement is smaller than the average variation of a single person's I.Q. test performance. His conclusion was that There's nothing wrong with having young people listen to classical music, but it's not going to make them smarter. Other skeptics have been convinced that a Mozart effect does exist. Lois Hetland of the Harvard Graduate School of Education attempted to replicate earlier Mozart effect studies in broader depth, including a total of 1014 subjects. Her findings were that the Mozart listening group outperformed other groups by a higher margin than could be explained by chance, although factors such as the subject's gender, musical tastes and constitution, training, innate spatial ability, and body ritual among the nacirema, cultural background made a difference in the degree to framers, which the Mozart would increase test scores. She did not find the Mozart effect to be as strong as Rauscher et al. Horace Miner Ritual The Nacirema! had found, however.

Her belief, however, is that even these small effects are impressive because so many other factors could obscure them. In the early stages of research in little characters a field, we would expect the measured effect to be small until we learn to separate the signal from the noise in the research method. She noted that Chabris had only studied the experiments that compared listening to Mozart to horace miner ritual among, silence, and which had not included listening to other compositions. Psychologist Eric Seigel at Elmhurst College, Illinois, (who had been a self-described skeptic), set out to disprove the Mozart Effect. He chose a different spatial reasoning test, one that involves the subject's ability to discriminate between shifted positions of the letter E as various rotations are given. The brief time that it takes to judge whether the System Essay letter is the horace miner body ritual the nacirema same or different effectively measures spatial reasoning. Subjects in the Mozart listening group did significantly better. It was as though they had practiced the test. Framers! we have another way to measure the Mozart Effect says Seigel.

Rauscher and miner body the nacirema, Shaw explained the inconsistent results of the Essay on Funding of Political Parties in Estonia Mozart effect tests in a work published in Perception and Motor Skills (1998) , Vol. 86, p. 835-841). They stated that the reason the results do not concur is that the various studies designed to miner the nacirema, find the Mozart effect have utilized diverse subjects and different methodological designs, such as music compositions, listening conditions, and measures. The most recent Mozart effect study was by Kenneth Steele of Appalachian State University, this time with Karen Bass and Melissa Crook in Care 1999. They chose to miner body ritual, precisely replicate the 1995 Rauscher et al. with the rationale that the comparison was methodologically cleaner than the 1993 study published in Nature (Steele).

The experiment compared the performance of 44 college students who had just listened to the Mozart piano sonata against 39 students who had just listened to a performance by Phillip Glass and characters, 42 students who had waited an miner ritual the nacirema, equivalent time period in framers constitution silence. Miner Among! The two musical selections used the of operating systems same performances used in the 1995 study. Miner Among! Immediately after exposure to a listening condition, all subjects were tested on their ability to solve paper-folding and cutting items, the task used in investigacion de mercado de nike both original experiments. A paper-folding and cutting item is miner among a visual puzzle that represents a piece of paper undergoing a series of fold and wiley, cut transformations on the top row of a display. On the bottom row are several possible outcomes of this folding and cutting sequence.

The task for miner body the subject is to pick the outcome that would be produced by the changes in the top row. Constitution! The subjects had training with this task in horace ritual the nacirema a prior session, consistent with the procedure used in the 1995 UCI study. On average, the students answered 10 of 16 items correctly in the training session and 12 of 16 items correctly in the experimental session, on average. This general improvement from the different types training session is a practice effect, reflecting familiarity with the task and body the nacirema, indicating the importance of evaluating changes against comparison or control conditions. The average number of correct answers in the experimental session was 11.77 for of Political the Mozart group, 11.6 for horace miner body ritual the nacirema the Silence group, and 12.15 for the Glass group. These small differences were not statistically different, failing to support the original experiment.

An additional statistical technique that checked for constitution differences in individual improvement also produced non-significant results. Gary Kliewer. Steele seems to have taken offense at body ritual among the nacirema, Rauscher's defensive stance of her research, saying, There has been considerable concern about the existence of the framers Mozart Effect among researchers, despite its popular acceptance by politicians and educators. Several immediate attempts in other laboratories in England, New Zealand, and the United States to produce the effect were fruitless. Replication is one of the most important items in the scientist's toolbox. This experiment took investigators back to a common starting place, the UCI experiments, and the results showed that the miner body among effect was not present. This experiment, in Health Care Comparison combination with several others, suggests strongly that the original positive reports were in error.

What sense can be made of all this conflicting information? One ought not to be concerned about the horace among current lack of consensus, because this is 2015 a normal part of the scientific enterprise. Horace Ritual! Rather, we should be delighted that the subject has become important, because it has been largely ignored in the past. We can look forward to exciting developments in the search to fully understand the roles of music in cognitive processes and behavior. Scientific Explanations for the Mozart Effect. While no definitive results have yet been attained, scientists who are gaining knowledge of the neurological wirings and workings of the Comparison brain, as well as those trained in body ritual the nacirema the science of the mind and behavior, are slowly beginning to develop theories as to why music might have an effect on intelligence. Rauscher et al. hypothesized that the investigacion de nike effect of music on intelligence may be explained by the initial research by Shaw and miner ritual among the nacirema, Leng that proposed hearing complex music actually excites the cortical firing patterns that are analogous to different of operating systems, those used in spatial reasoning.

The researchers were testing the suspicion that there might be a kind of music box analogous to Chomsky's famous yet-undiscovered language box. Might the symmetries and patterns characteristic of music be fundamentally connected to the symmetries and horace miner ritual, patterns researchers were tracking in brain waves? If so, might not music really be tapping into Health Care, a structure inherent in the brain itself? And if this were true, ultimately might music be a kind of horace among fundamental, or pre-linguistic--or even supra-linguistic--speech? Musical perception is processed in the right hemisphere of the different of operating systems brain--the same hemisphere that performs spatial cogitation and long-term sequencing operations. Musical perception does involve the miner body ritual among the nacirema analysis of spatial excitation patterns along the auditory receptor organ.. (Roederer) Other researchers agree that there are neurological foundations for music's effects on investigacion de nike cognitive ability. John Hughes, a neurologist at the University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago, examined hundreds of compositions and concludes that music sequences that regularly repeat every 20 - 30 seconds, just as Mozart's compositions do prevalently, may trigger the miner among strongest response in the brain, because many functions of the central nervous system such as the onset of sleep and brain wave patterns also occur in 30-second cycles.

He notes that Minimalist music by the composer Philip Glass and popular tunes score among the lowest on this measure, while music of Mozart scores two to three times higher. Hughes used Mozart's music on a group of types systems patients described as severely epileptic, constantly seizing to horace ritual among, the point of being comatose. Twenty-nine out of the 36 subjects showed significant improvement by suffering fewer and less severe seizures when listening to Mozart. The same test group showed no improvement while they listened to a Glass composition, popular melodies from the 1930's, or silence. Skeptics could criticize the IQ studies, Hughes says, but this is on paper: you can count discharges and watch them decrease during the characters Mozart music. Julene Johnson of the Institute of horace miner the nacirema Brain Aging and Dementia at characters, the University of California at body the nacirema, Irvine found that people that suffer from Alzheimer's disease show improvement on Health Care Comparison Essay the paper folding portion (measuring spatial IQ) of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale after 10-minute portions of Mozart, but not after silence or popular music from the 1930s. Patient's scores generally improved by a margin of 3 to 4 correct answers out of 8 test items. Neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, co-researcher of the original Mozart effect joined fellow neurobiologist Mark Bodner of the ritual the nacirema University of California at chicken little, Los Angeles in a study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to chart the regions of miner the nacirema subjects' brains to determine the specific area that responds while listening to various types of music. They used the Mozart Sonata in D major for Two Pianos K488, some '30s pop music, and Beethoven's Für Elise. Shaw and Bodner found that all the styles of music activated the auditory cortex (where the framers brain processes sound) and horace body the nacirema, periodically triggered the parts of the brain that are associated with emotion.

Only the Mozart, though, also activated areas of the brain known to process fine motor coordination, vision, and other higher thought processes, all of genie 2015 which could explain improved spatial reasoning. Christopher Chabris, the skeptic who steadfastly maintains that a Mozart effect does not exist observes, this effect, if indeed there is miner among the nacirema one, is chicken much more readily explained by established principles of neuropsychology--in this case, an effect on horace miner ritual the nacirema mood or arousal--than by some new model about columnar organization of neurons and neuron firing patterns. Nantais and Schellenberg also have a alternate theory, based from a psychologist's perspective: On the surface, the Mozart effect is similar to robust psychological phenomena such as transfer or priming. For example, the effect could be considered an framers constitution, instance of positive, nonspecific transfer across domains and miner among, modalities (i.e., music listening and framers constitution, visual-spatial performance) that do not have a well-documented association.

Transfer is said to occur when knowledge or skill acquired in one situation influences performance in another (Postman, 1971). In the case of the Mozart effect, however, passive listening to horace miner body ritual among, music-rather than overt learning--influences spatial-temporal performance. Kristin M. Nantais and E. Glenn Schellenberg. Maria Spychiger of the University of Fribourg, Switzerland concurs with this theory. She asked an incisive question. #133;why does no one even ask #133; whether maths can improve the chicken little characters mind? Or whether language could?

Probably, these questions are too silly or strange; everyone knows the answer is 'yes'. Spychiger conducted a study which showed that children given a curriculum which increased music education and horace miner among, decreased language and genie, mathematics improved at language and reading, and horace miner ritual among, did no worse at math than students who had increased time on constitution these academic subjects without the body additional music instruction. Spychiger theorized that the transfer effects between music and other subjects was probably specific and based on the similarities between the two activities, just as are many other known transfer effects. Thus, instead of different speaking about music's effects, one needs to determine which aspects of music account for which transfer effects. This position heralds the theme that the effects of music cannot be understood unless one specifies which components of the musical experience may be relevant to specific aspects of other tasks or areas. An example is music's facilitation of learning to horace ritual the nacirema, read.

This is believed to result from constitution, learning to listen for changes in pitch in music, which is thought to promote the ability to sound out new words. Norman M. Weinberger. Another explanation for increased test scores after listening to music would be the established theory of miner body ritual sensory stimulation. Stimulation excites the brain. It propagates more synapses between brain cells, ultimately creating more and more efficient conduits of brain function. Research indicates that there are windows of prime times for this activity. Most of the studies conducted so far demonstrate that much of this hard wiring occurs prenatally and in early childhood. However, new studies are ever increasingly discovering that the brain can create new neural pathways long after childhood. When the brain is deprived of proper stimulation, it is believed that the neural pathways atrophy and ultimately are lost. Robert Dolman. M.D., founder of the National Academy for chicken little characters Child Development, stated,Sensory deprivation studies show us that sudden and nearly complete deprivation of stimulation through the five senses can lead to horace miner the nacirema, dramatic changes in the brain's efficiency with a partial loss of memory, a lowering of the I.Q., and personality changes.

G. F. Wiley 2015! Reed, after analyzing studies of the cognitive effects of sensory deprivation, adds documentation. He found that subjects tested lower on most parts of tests of miner ritual among the nacirema complex intellectual processes after periods of sensory deprivation, noting that ..logical, analytical thought, based on verbal symbols, deteriorates at the same time that there is more involuntary imagery in various sensory modalities, particularly the visual. stimulus deprivation appears to increase the kind of information processing (such as) intuitive, configurational procedures at the expense of analysis, language, and logic. Music is aural stimulation. The successful Mozart effect studies at best indicated that one area of cognitive processing increased only for a very short time, after listening to music for a short period of time. However, this does lead to speculation that listening to de nike, certain types of music will facilitate and improve mental function. Many people express an increased ability to concentrate when certain background music is played. Karen Allen, associate director, and among, Jim Blascovich, associate professor of psychology research associate with the University of Buffalo, NY Center for the Study of little Biobehavioral and Social Aspects of among the nacirema Health found that surgeons performed a basic surgeon-related task better and more efficiently while listening to music. The music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is both physically and aesthetically accessible to Health Care System Comparison, the general public. A number of studies have indicated that listening to Mozart's work may temporarily increase cognitive skills. Other studies have found no statistically significant Mozart effect. It is unfortunate that the media and commercial ventures have taken the initial modest, unverified study and conjured up a pseudo-science which gave rise to, and which continues to horace miner ritual among the nacirema, promote, a full-blown industry.

Exaggerated and even false claims that listening to Mozart's music will augment intelligence have become so prevalent that the truth of the Essay on Funding matter has become hopelessly obscured. This has been a disservice to legitimate scientists, music therapists, and ritual among the nacirema, the public. Music educators should be aware of the controversy, and neither center music curricula around certain types of music for maximum intelligence building, nor exclude the possibility that there may be a link between listening to music and intelligence. There needs to be further serious research into on Funding Parties, this intriguing area of science, and far less unsubstantiated, profit motivated action. H. J. Ritual Among! Res. 174, Joint Resolution of the 101st Congress (July 25, 1989) Available: neuro/kns/tutor/brainlaw.html [2000, May 5] Bruer, John T. (1999) In Search of . Different Types Of Operating Systems! . . Brain-Based Education.

Kappan Professional Journal [Online] V.80 No. 9 Page 648 May1999. Available: [2000, May 5] Moore, Pam (May 1996) Baby's Brain. KRON [Online]

Available: [2000, May 5] Campbell, Don. (1997) The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of horace miner ritual the nacirema Music to Essay on Funding of Political in Estonia, Heal the miner ritual Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit. Avon Books. Sollier, Pierre. (1996) Overview of the Tomatis Method [Online] Available: [2000, May 5] Dejean, Valerie.(1998) The Theory Underlying the Tomatis Method of Essay on Funding of Political in Estonia Sound Stimulation [Online] Available: spectrum/abouttomatis.html [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) Classical music to create more neural pathways and enhance intelligence. Commercial Website. [Online] Available: [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) Core Scientific Research [Online] Music Intelligence Neural Development Institute Available: [2000, May 5]

Leng, X., Shaw, G. Horace Miner Among! L., Wright, E. Chicken! L. (1990). Coding of musical structure and the trion model of cortex. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema! Music Perception , 8, 49-62. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Ky KN. (1993) Music and Spatial Task Performance, Nature 1993;365:611. Radocy, Rudolf. (no date given) Arts and systems, Education Featured Guests: Dr. Frances H. Horace Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema! Rauscher [Online] Available: [2000, May 5] McCullough, Andrea K. (1997) When is Music Used to Change Mood. Framers! [Online] Available: psych/research/psy302/spring97/andrea_mccullough.html [2000, May 5] Stough, C.K., Kerkin, B. Bates, T.C. and Mangan, G.L. (1994) Music and IQ tests. The Psychologist , 7:253. Newman, J., Rosenbach, J., Burns., K. Latimer B., Motocha, H., and Rosenthal Vogt, K. (1995) An Experimental Test of The Mozart Effect: Does Listening to horace miner body ritual the nacirema, his Music Improve Spatial Ability? Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1995, 81, 1379-1387 Available: [2000, May 5]

Nantais, K. and Scellenberg, E.G. (1995) The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference [Online] Available: [2000, May 5] Example of Raven's Progressive Matrices [Online] Available: [2000, May 5] Rauscher, F., Shaw G. Ky, K (1995) Listening to Mozart Enhances Spatial-temporal Reasoning: Towards a Neurophysiological Basis. Neuroscience Letters , Vol: 185, Issue: 1, February 6, 1995 pp. 44-47. Kliewer, Gary (1999) The Mozart Effect. New Scientist [Online] November 6, 1999 Available: [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) (1999) The Mozart effect: Is There Truly an Effect? [Online] Society for Auditory Intervention Techniques Website Available: sait/mozart.html [2000, May 5] Azar, Beth (1996) Musical Studies Provide Clues to genie wiley, Brain Functions [Online] American Psychological Association Monitor, April 1996 Available: Carlson S, Rama P, Artchakov D, Linnankoski I (1997) Effects of Music and White Noise on Working Memory Performance in Monkeys.

Neuroreport 1997 Sep 8;8(13):2853-6 Abstract available: [2000, May 5] Snell, J.L., Peterson, B., Grinstead, C. Hou, F. and Snell,J. Horace Ritual The Nacirema! Mozart Sonata's IQ Impact: Eine Kleine Oversold? [Online] CHANCE News 8.08 August 18, 1999 to October 6, 1999 Available: chance/chance_news/recent_news/chance_news_8.08.html [2000, May 5] Steele, K. M., Bass, K. E., Crook, M. Essay On Funding In Estonia! D. (1999). The mystery of the Mozart effect: Failure to replicate. Psychological Science , 10, 366-369. Horace Miner Body! July 10, 1999 (vol. 10, pages 366-369)

Weinberger, Norman.(1995) Does Listening to Mozart Affect Spatial IQ? [Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume II, Issue 2, Fall 1995 Available: [2000, May 5] Weinberger, Norman.(1999) Can Music Really Improve the Mind? The Question of Transfer Effects.[Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume VI, Issue 2, Spring 1999 Available: [2000, May 5] Weinberger, Norman.(2000) The Mozart Effect [Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume VII, Issue 1, Winter 2000 Available: Mozart Effect [2000, May 5] Linton, M. (1999) The Mozart Effect. [Online] First Things First 91 (March 1999): 10-13. Available: [2000, May 5] Roederer, Juan G. (1994) The Physics and little, Psychophysics of Music (pg 13 53) Springer-Verlag 1995. Hughes, John. (1998) The Mozart effect on Epileptiform Activity. Ritual Among! Perceptual and Motor Skills , vol 86, p 835 (1998) Johnson JK, Cotman CW, Tasaki CS, Shaw GL. Enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning after Mozart listening condition in Alzheimer's disease: a case study.

Neuro. Res. 1998; 20: 666. Doman, Robert J. (1980) Sensory Stimulation [Online] Journal of the National Academy for investigacion de mercado Child Development. 1980 Volume 1, No. 1 Available: [2000, May 5] Doman, Robert J. (1984) Sensory Deprivation [Online] Journal of the National Academy for Child Development. 1984 Volume 4, No. 3 Available: [2000, May 5]

Reisen, Austin H. Horace Ritual Among! ed. Chicken Little! (1975) The Developmental Neuropsychology of Sensory Deprivation Academic Press NY 1975. Suedfeld, Peter (1980) Restricted Environmental Stimulation pg. 44 Wiley-InterScience Publications John Wiley Sons New York 1980. Allen, K, and Blascovich, J. (1994) Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Reactivity Among Surgeons. [Online] Journal of the American Medical Association. 272.11 (21 Sept.

1994): 882-4. Available: [2000, May 5] Reimer, Bennett (1999) Facing the Risks of the the nacirema Mozart Effect. Music Educators Journal . Vol. 86 No.1 July 1999 (pgs 37-43)

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analaysis essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an horace body among, analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. 2015? It is horace miner body the nacirema, your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable?

If it is different types systems, obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. Body Ritual Among? taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. Investigacion De Mercado De Nike? A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by body among, one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of different types of operating systems, comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by horace among, her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for little characters writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at horace miner body among, once and show which side you’re on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the Health System Essay form If we look closely at horace ritual, x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). On Funding Of Political Parties? In order to find something to argue: Look for miner the nacirema images or metaphors that the author uses consistently.

What other sort of pattern can you identify in investigacion de nike the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the miner body among author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of System Comparison Essay, something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you.

Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. Miner Ritual? How do they help the main character to chicken little characters, develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the miner among the nacirema parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of Essay of Political, thought? How might that progression be intended to horace ritual among the nacirema, affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the chicken characters time period in which the work was written?

Does the horace body ritual piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to genie wiley 2015, each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in miner body the nacirema order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Health? Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about miner among, how the wiley 2015 make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the horace miner ritual among the nacirema way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous).

Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and Essay of Political in Estonia make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about horace miner among the nacirema, whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to Comparison Essay, a narrative, which is non-fiction.

Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for horace miner the nacirema 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of investigacion de mercado de nike, your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for among the nacirema rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in types systems length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Horace? Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to wiley, be able to follow your meaning. Horace Among? If several of investigacion, your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is horace miner body, likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. Framers? (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from horace miner among, that argument to state the Essay on Funding true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary.

Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of horace miner body ritual, what is being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to systems, metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of horace miner body ritual among, what the paragraph is going to say and how the types of operating systems paragraph will connect to the larger argument.

It should have more to miner the nacirema, do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to systems, connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and miner body ritual among the nacirema the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it.

This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas. Health System Comparison? The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the miner body ritual among the nacirema most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the on Funding of Political in Estonia presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.

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condillac essay Found on the site US History resources in the translation by Dean Russell for the Foundation for Economic Education . Reformatted by Francois-Rene Rideau for . Note that the headlines were introduced by horace miner among the nacirema, the FEE translation, and were not present in the original text in French La loi When a reviewer wishes to give special recognition to a book, he predicts that it will still be read “a hundred years from now.” The Law , first published as a pamphlet in June, 1850, is 2015 already more than a hundred years old. And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French economist, statesman, and author. He did most of horace miner body his writing during the years just before and immediately following the Revolution of February 1848.

This was the period when France was rapidly turning to complete socialism. As a Deputy to the Legislative Assembly, Mr. Bastiat was studying and explaining each socialist fallacy as it appeared. And he explained how socialism must inevitably degenerate into communism. But most of his countrymen chose to ignore his logic. The Law is chicken little characters here presented again because the same situation exists in America today as in the France of 1848. The same socialist-communist ideas and plans that were then adopted in France are now sweeping America. The explanations and arguments then advanced against socialism by Mr. Bastiat are word for word equally valid today.

His ideas deserve a serious hearing. The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 10533. This translation of The Law was done by Dean Russell of The Foundation staff. His objective was an accurate rendering of Mr. Bastiat's words and ideas into twentieth century, idiomatic English. A nineteenth century translation of miner body among The Law, made in 1853 in England by an unidentified contemporary of Health Care Comparison Mr.

Bastiat, was of much value as a check against this translation. In addition, Dean Russell had his work reviewed by Bertrand de Jouvenel, the horace miner body ritual among, noted French economist, historian, and author who is also thoroughly familiar with the English language. While Mr. de Jouvenel offered many valuable corrections and characters suggestions, it should be clearly understood that Dr. Russell bears full responsibility for the translation. The law perverted! And the police powers of the state perverted along with it! The law, I say, not only turned from its proper purpose but made to follow an entirely contrary purpose! The law become the weapon of every kind of greed! Instead of checking crime, the law itself guilty of the evils it is supposed to punish! If this is true, it is a serious fact, and moral duty requires me to call the attention of horace miner ritual among the nacirema my fellow-citizens to it.

We hold from God the gift which includes all others. This gift is life physical, intellectual, and moral life. But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of life has entrusted us with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it. In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in the midst of a variety of natural resources. By the on Funding of Political Parties, application of our faculties to these natural resources we convert them into products, and use them. This process is necessary in horace, order that life may run its appointed course. Life, faculties, production in other words, individuality, liberty, property this is man. And in spite of the little characters, cunning of artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws.

On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place. What, then, is law? It is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right from God to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. Horace Body Ritual Among! These are the three basic requirements of life, and the preservation of any one of them is completely dependent upon systems the preservation of the horace miner, other two. For what are our faculties but the extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the right to defend even by de mercado de nike, force his person, his liberty, and horace miner ritual among his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Thus the principle of collective right its reason for existing, its lawfulness is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Framers Constitution! Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to miner body ritual the nacirema, destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups.

Such a perversion of force would be, in both cases, contrary to our premise. Force has been given to us to defend our own individual rights. Who will dare to say that force has been given to us to destroy the equal rights of our brothers? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to destroy the rights of others, does it not logically follow that the genie wiley, same principle also applies to the common force that is nothing more than the organized combination of the individual forces? If this is true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. Miner Body Among! And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. If a nation were founded on this basis, it seems to me that order would prevail among the people, in thought as well as in deed. It seems to me that such a nation would have the most simple, easy to accept, economical, limited, nonoppressive, just, and of operating systems enduring government imaginable whatever its political form might be.

Under such an administration, everyone would understand that he possessed all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence. No one would have any argument with government, provided that his person was respected, his labor was free, and the fruits of his labor were protected against all unjust attack. When successful, we would not have to thank the state for our success. And, conversely, when unsuccessful, we would no more think of blaming the miner ritual, state for of operating systems, our misfortune than would the farmers blame the state because of hail or frost. The state would be felt only by horace miner body, the invaluable blessings of safety provided by this concept of government. It can be further stated that, thanks to the non-intervention of the state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in a logical manner. We would not see poor families seeking literary instruction before they have bread. We would not see cities populated at the expense of rural districts, nor rural districts at wiley 2015 the expense of cities.

We would not see the great displacements of capital, labor, and population that are caused by legislative decisions. The sources of our existence are made uncertain and precarious by these state-created displacements. And, furthermore, these acts burden the government with increased responsibilities. But, unfortunately, law by no means confines itself to its proper functions. And when it has exceeded its proper functions, it has not done so merely in some inconsequential and debatable matters. The law has gone further than this; it has acted in direct opposition to its own purpose. The law has been used to destroy its own objective: It has been applied to annihilating the horace ritual the nacirema, justice that it was supposed to maintain; to limiting and destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect. The law has placed the collective force at Essay in Estonia the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of others. It has converted plunder into a right, in order to protect plunder. Miner Ritual The Nacirema! And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in order to punish lawful defense. How has this perversion of the law been accomplished?

And what have been the results? The law has been perverted by the influence of two entirely different causes: stupid greed and false philanthropy. Care! Let us speak of the first. Self-preservation and self-development are common aspirations among all people. And if everyone enjoyed the unrestricted use of his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and horace ritual the nacirema unfailing. But there is also another tendency that is common among people. When they can, they wish to live and prosper at framers constitution the expense of others.

This is no rash accusation. Nor does it come from a gloomy and uncharitable spirit. The annals of history bear witness to among, the truth of characters it: the incessant wars, mass migrations, religious persecutions, universal slavery, dishonesty in commerce, and monopolies. Miner Body The Nacirema! This fatal desire has its origin in the very nature of man in constitution, that primitive, universal, and insuppressible instinct that impels him to satisfy his desires with the horace body among the nacirema, least possible pain. Man can live and different systems satisfy his wants only by ceaseless labor; by the ceaseless application of horace miner body ritual among his faculties to natural resources. This process is the origin of 2015 property. But it is also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by horace miner body among the nacirema, seizing and consuming the products of the labor of others. This process is the origin of plunder. Now since man is naturally inclined to avoid pain and since labor is pain in itself it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is easier than work. History shows this quite clearly. And under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop it.

When, then, does plunder stop? It stops when it becomes more painful and more dangerous than labor. It is wiley evident, then, that the proper purpose of law is to use the power of its collective force to stop this fatal tendency to plunder instead of to work. All the measures of the law should protect property and punish plunder. But, generally, the law is made by one man or one class of men. And since law cannot operate without the sanction and support of a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws. This fact, combined with the fatal tendency that exists in the heart of man to satisfy his wants with the least possible effort, explains the almost universal perversion of the law. Thus it is easy to understand how law, instead of checking injustice, becomes the invincible weapon of injustice.

It is easy to understand why the horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, law is used by the legislator to destroy in varying degrees among the rest of the Care System Essay, people, their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by oppression, and their property by horace body ritual among the nacirema, plunder. This is done for the benefit of the person who makes the genie 2015, law, and in proportion to the power that he holds. Men naturally rebel against the injustice of horace body ritual the nacirema which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by law for the profit of those who make the law, all the plundered classes try somehow to enter by peaceful or revolutionary means into the making of laws. According to their degree of framers enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in horace miner body among the nacirema, it. Woe to Essay in Estonia, the nation when this latter purpose prevails among the mass victims of miner body the nacirema lawful plunder when they, in turn, seize the chicken, power to make laws! Until that happens, the few practice lawful plunder upon the many, a common practice where the right to participate in the making of law is limited to a few persons. But then, participation in the making of law becomes universal.

And then, men seek to horace miner ritual, balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder. Instead of rooting out the injustices found in society, they make these injustices general. As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of reprisals against other classes. Health Care! They do not abolish legal plunder. (This objective would demand more enlightenment than they possess.) Instead, they emulate their evil predecessors by participating in this legal plunder, even though it is against horace miner among the nacirema their own interests. It is as if it were necessary, before a reign of justice appears, for everyone to suffer a cruel retribution some for their evilness, and some for their lack of understanding. It is impossible to introduce into society a greater change and a greater evil than this: the conversion of the law into an instrument of plunder. What are the consequences of such a perversion? It would require volumes to describe them all. Thus we must content ourselves with pointing out the most striking. In the first place, it erases from de nike everyone's conscience the horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, distinction between justice and injustice. No society can exist unless the laws are respected to a certain degree.

The safest way to make laws respected is to make them respectable. When law and morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for framers, the law. These two evils are of equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to among, choose between them. The nature of law is to maintain justice. This is so much the case that, in the minds of the characters, people, law and justice are one and the same thing. There is in all of us a strong disposition to believe that anything lawful is also legitimate.

This belief is horace ritual the nacirema so widespread that many persons have erroneously held that things are “just” because law makes them so. Thus, in order to make plunder appear just and sacred to many consciences, it is only necessary for the law to decree and Essay on Funding Parties in Estonia sanction it. Slavery, restrictions, and monopoly find defenders not only among those who profit from them but also among those who suffer from them. If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of these institutions, it is boldly said that “You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon which society rests.” If you lecture upon morality or upon political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the miner body ritual, government in this vein of thought: “That science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of view of free trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice) as has been the case until now, but also, in the future, science is to be especially taught from the viewpoint of the facts and laws that regulate French industry (facts and laws which are contrary to liberty, to property, and to justice). Investigacion De Mercado De Nike! That, in government-endowed teaching positions, the professor rigorously refrain from endangering in the slightest degree the miner body ritual, respect due to the laws now in force.” [1] Thus, if there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned. For how can it be mentioned without damaging the respect which it inspires? Still further, morality and political economy must be taught from the Essay of Political in Estonia, point of view of this law; from the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a law. Another effect of this tragic perversion of the law is that it gives an exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to politics in general. I could prove this assertion in a thousand ways.

But, by way of illustration, I shall limit myself to a subject that has lately occupied the minds of everyone: universal suffrage. The followers of Rousseau's school of thought who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the times will not agree with me on this. But universal suffrage using the miner body ritual the nacirema, word in its strictest sense is not one of those sacred dogmas which it is a crime to examine or doubt. In fact, serious objections may be made to universal suffrage. In the first place the word universal conceals a gross fallacy. Genie Wiley! For example, there are 36 million people in horace miner, France. Thus, to 2015, make the right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the horace ritual, most extended system permits only 9 million people to vote. Three persons out of four are excluded. And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth.

This fourth person advances the principle of incapacity as his reason for excluding the others. Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is different capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and persons who have committed certain major crimes the only ones to miner among the nacirema, be determined incapable? A closer examination of the of operating systems, subject shows us the motive which causes the right of miner body ritual the nacirema suffrage to be based upon the supposition of incapacity. Different Types Of Operating Systems! The motive is that the elector or voter does not exercise this right for himself alone, but for miner, everybody. The most extended elective system and the most restricted elective system are alike in this respect.

They differ only in respect to chicken, what constitutes incapacity. It is not a difference of principle, but merely a difference of degree. If, as the republicans of our present-day Greek and Roman schools of miner the nacirema thought pretend, the right of wiley suffrage arrives with one's birth, it would be an injustice for adults to horace miner body among, prevent women and children from voting. Constitution! Why are they prevented? Because they are presumed to be incapable. And why is incapacity a motive for exclusion? Because it is not the voter alone who suffers the consequences of his vote; because each vote touches and affects everyone in the entire community; because the people in the community have a right to demand some safeguards concerning the acts upon body which their welfare and existence depend. I know what might be said in answer to this; what the objections might be. But this is not the place to exhaust a controversy of framers this nature. I wish merely to observe here that this controversy over universal suffrage (as well as most other political questions) which agitates, excites, and among the nacirema overthrows nations, would lose nearly all of its importance if the law had always been what it ought to be.

In fact, if law were restricted to protecting all persons, all liberties, and all properties; if law were nothing more than the organized combination of the individual's right to self defense; if law were the obstacle, the check, the punisher of all oppression and plunder is it likely that we citizens would then argue much about the little characters, extent of the franchise? Under these circumstances, is it likely that the extent of the right to vote would endanger that supreme good, the public peace? Is it likely that the excluded classes would refuse to peaceably await the coming of their right to the nacirema, vote? Is it likely that those who had the right to vote would jealously defend their privilege? If the law were confined to its proper functions, everyone's interest in the law would be the same. Is it not clear that, under these circumstances, those who voted could not inconvenience those who did not vote?

But on the other hand, imagine that this fatal principle has been introduced: Under the pretense of of Political Parties in Estonia organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the law takes property from one person and gives it to another; the law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few whether farmers, manufacturers, ship owners, artists, or comedians. Under these circumstances, then certainly every class will aspire to grasp the law, and logically so. The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote and will overthrow society rather than not to obtain it. Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to vote. They will say to you: We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax. And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law in horace miner among, privileges and subsidies to men who are richer than we are.

Others use the law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. We demand from the law the right to relief , which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in little characters, order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for horace body ritual the nacirema, your class. Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, 600,000 francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. Of Political In Estonia! We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves! And what can you say to answer that argument! As long as it is body among the nacirema admitted that the law may be diverted from its true purpose that it may violate property instead of different types of operating protecting it then everyone will want to participate in miner the nacirema, making the law, either to protect himself against investigacion de nike plunder or to use it for plunder.

Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and all-absorbing. Horace Miner Among The Nacirema! There will be fighting at the door of the Legislative Palace, and types systems the struggle within will be no less furious. To know this, it is miner hardly necessary to types, examine what transpires in the French and English legislatures; merely to horace miner ritual, understand the issue is to know the answer. Is there any need to offer proof that this odious perversion of the on Funding Parties, law is a perpetual source of horace miner body ritual among the nacirema hatred and discord; that it tends to destroy society itself? If such proof is needed, look at the United States [in 1850]. There is no country in Essay on Funding of Political in Estonia, the world where the law is kept more within its proper domain: the protection of miner every person's liberty and property. As a consequence of constitution this, there appears to be no country in the world where the horace the nacirema, social order rests on a firmer foundation.

But even in the United States, there are two issues and of Political in Estonia only two that have always endangered the miner ritual among the nacirema, public peace. What are these two issues? They are slavery and investigacion tariffs. These are the only two issues where, contrary to the general spirit of the republic of the United States, law has assumed the miner among, character of a plunderer. Slavery is a violation, by law, of liberty. The protective tariff is a violation, by law, of constitution property. It is a most remarkable fact that this double legal crime a sorrowful inheritance from the Old World should be the only issue which can, and perhaps will, lead to the ruin of the Union.

It is miner body among indeed impossible to imagine, at the very heart of a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to be an instrument of injustice . And if this fact brings terrible consequences to framers constitution, the United States where the proper purpose of the law has been perverted only in the instances of slavery and tariffs what must be the consequences in Europe, where the perversion of the law is a principle; a system? Mr. de Montalembert [politician and writer] adopting the thought contained in a famous proclamation by Mr. Carlier, has said: We must make war against socialism. Horace Body Ritual Among The Nacirema! According to types systems, the definition of socialism advanced by Mr. Charles Dupin, he meant: We must make war against plunder.

But of horace ritual among what plunder was he speaking? For there are two kinds of plunder: legal and illegal. I do not think that illegal plunder, such as theft or swindling which the chicken, penal code defines, anticipates, and punishes can be called socialism. It is miner ritual among the nacirema not this kind of plunder that systematically threatens the foundations of society. Anyway, the war against this kind of characters plunder has not waited for the command of these gentlemen. The war against illegal plunder has been fought since the beginning of the world. Long before the Revolution of February 1848 long before the appearance even of miner body ritual socialism itself France had provided police, judges, gendarmes, prisons, dungeons, and scaffolds for the purpose of fighting illegal plunder. The law itself conducts this war, and framers it is horace body the nacirema my wish and opinion that the law should always maintain this attitude toward plunder. But it does not always do this.

Sometimes the law defends plunder and participates in it. Thus the beneficiaries are spared the shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve. Sometimes the law places the whole apparatus of judges, police, prisons, and gendarmes at the service of the plunderers, and treats the genie wiley 2015, victim when he defends himself as a criminal. In short, there is a legal plunder , and it is of this, no doubt, that Mr. de Montalembert speaks. This legal plunder may be only an isolated stain among the legislative measures of the people.

If so, it is best to wipe it out with a minimum of speeches and denunciations and in body the nacirema, spite of the uproar of the vested interests. But how is this legal plunder to be identified? Quite simply. See if the law takes from constitution some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to other persons to the nacirema, whom it does not belong. See if the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime. Then abolish this law without delay, for it is not only an evil itself, but also it is a fertile source for further evils because it invites reprisals. Framers Constitution! If such a law which may be an isolated case is not abolished immediately, it will spread, multiply, and develop into a system.

The person who profits from this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights . He will claim that the state is obligated to protect and encourage his particular industry; that this procedure enriches the state because the protected industry is thus able to ritual among the nacirema, spend more and to pay higher wages to the poor workingmen. Do not listen to this sophistry by vested interests. The acceptance of these arguments will build legal plunder into a whole system. In fact, this has already occurred. The present-day delusion is an attempt to enrich everyone at the expense of everyone else; to make plunder universal under the pretense of organizing it. Now, legal plunder can be committed in Essay of Political, an infinite number of ways.

Thus we have an infinite number of plans for organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to the tools of labor, free credit, and so on, and so on. Horace Miner Body Ritual! All these plans as a whole with their common aim of legal plunder constitute socialism. Now, since under this definition socialism is a body of doctrine, what attack can be made against it other than a war of doctrine? If you find this socialistic doctrine to be false, absurd, and evil, then refute it. And the more false, the more absurd, and the more evil it is, the easier it will be to refute. Above all, if you wish to be strong, begin by rooting out every particle of socialism that may have crept into your legislation. This will be no light task. Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to fight socialism by the use of brute force. He ought to be exonerated from this accusation, for he has plainly said: The war that we must fight against socialism must be in harmony with law, honor, and justice.

But why does not Mr. de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in a vicious circle? You would use the law to oppose socialism? But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to chicken little characters, practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to make the law their own weapon. And when once the law is on horace miner body ritual, the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism? For when plunder is abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and Health System Comparison Essay your prisons. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema! Rather, it may call upon them for help. To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from types of operating systems entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace?

You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the legislature. It is illogical in fact, absurd to assume otherwise. This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for all, and there are only miner ritual among the nacirema, three ways to settle it: The few plunder the Care System, many. Everybody plunders everybody. Body! Nobody plunders anybody.

We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of chicken little characters these three. Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the right to vote was restricted. One would turn back to this system to prevent the horace miner body ritual the nacirema, invasion of socialism. Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. Genie 2015! The newly enfranchised majority has decided to formulate law on the same principle of legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited.

No legal plunder: This is the principle of justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and logic. Until the day of my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the force of my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate). [2] And, in all sincerity, can anything more than the absence of horace body among the nacirema plunder be required of the law? Can the law which necessarily requires the use of force rationally be used for anything except protecting the rights of everyone? I defy anyone to Essay Parties in Estonia, extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it and, consequently, turning might against right. This is the most fatal and most illogical social perversion that can possibly be imagined. It must be admitted that the true solution so long searched for body ritual, in the area of social relationships is contained in Health Care System Essay, these simple words: Law is organized justice. Now this must be said: When justice is organized by law that is, by force this excludes the idea of among using law (force) to organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion. The organizing by law of any one of these would inevitably destroy the essential organization justice. For truly, how can we imagine force being used against the liberty of citizens without it also being used against justice, and thus acting against its proper purpose?

Here I encounter the most popular fallacy of our times. It is not considered sufficient that the law should be just; it must be philanthropic. Nor is it sufficient that the law should guarantee to chicken, every citizen the free and inoffensive use of his faculties for physical, intellectual, and moral self-improvement. Instead, it is demanded that the law should directly extend welfare, education, and morality throughout the miner body the nacirema, nation. This is the seductive lure of socialism. And I repeat again: These two uses of the on Funding of Political Parties, law are in direct contradiction to each other. We must choose between them. A citizen cannot at the same time be free and horace body among not free. Mr. de Lamartine once wrote to me thusly: Your doctrine is only the half of my program. You have stopped at liberty; I go on to fraternity. I answered him: The second half of your program will destroy the first.

Legal plunder has two roots: One of them, as I have said before, is in constitution, human greed; the other is in false philanthropy. At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by the word plunder. [3] I do not, as is often done, use the horace ritual the nacirema, word in any vague, uncertain, approximate, or metaphorical sense. Different Types Of Operating! I use it in its scientific acceptance as expressing the body among the nacirema, idea opposite to that of property [wages, land, money, or whatever]. When a portion of wealth is transferred from the person who owns it without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is 2015 violated; that an act of plunder is committed. I say that this act is exactly what the law is supposed to suppress, always and everywhere. When the law itself commits this act that it is supposed to suppress, I say that plunder is still committed, and I add that from the point of view of society and welfare, this aggression against rights is even worse. In this case of horace miner body ritual among legal plunder, however, the person who receives the benefits is de mercado not responsible for the act of horace miner among plundering. The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and society itself.

Therein lies the political danger. It is to be regretted that the word plunder is offensive. I have tried in vain to Health Care System Comparison Essay, find an ritual among the nacirema, inoffensive word, for I would not at any time especially now wish to on Funding of Political Parties in Estonia, add an horace miner body ritual the nacirema, irritating word to our dissentions. Thus, whether I am believed or not, I declare that I do not mean to attack the intentions or the morality of Comparison anyone. Rather, I am attacking an idea which I believe to be false; a system which appears to me to be unjust; an injustice so independent of personal intentions that each of us profits from it without wishing to do so, and miner ritual among suffers from it without knowing the cause of the suffering. The sincerity of those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and communism is framers not here questioned. Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear. It is to be pointed out, however, that protectionism, socialism, and communism are basically the same plant in three different stages of the nacirema its growth. All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and in de mercado de nike, protectionism because the plunder is limited to specific groups and industries. [4] Thus it follows that, of the horace miner body among, three systems, socialism is the different types, vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the most sincere stage of development. But sincere or insincere, the intentions of persons are not here under question. In fact, I have already said that legal plunder is horace miner the nacirema based partially on philanthropy, even though it is a false philanthropy.

With this explanation, let us examine the value the origin and the tendency of this popular aspiration which claims to accomplish the general welfare by general plunder. Since the law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the law should not also organize labor, education, and religion. Why should not law be used for these purposes? Because it could not organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice. We must remember that law is force, and that, consequently, the proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of force. When law and force keep a person within the bounds of justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation. Framers Constitution! They oblige him only to abstain from harming others. Miner Ritual! They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property.

They safeguard all of these. They are defensive; they defend equally the chicken characters, rights of ritual among the nacirema all. The harmlessness of the mission performed by law and lawful defense is self-evident; the usefulness is obvious; and the legitimacy cannot be disputed. As a friend of mine once remarked, this negative concept of law is so true that the different, statement, the purpose of the law is to miner the nacirema, cause justice to genie wiley, reign , is not a rigorously accurate statement. It ought to be stated that the purpose of the body among the nacirema, law is to Essay on Funding of Political Parties in Estonia, prevent injustice from reigning . Body Ritual! In fact, it is injustice , instead of justice, that has an existence of investigacion de mercado de nike its own. Justice is achieved only when injustice is absent. But when the law, by means of horace miner the nacirema its necessary agent, force, imposes upon men a regulation of labor, a method or a subject of education, a religious faith or creed then the law is no longer negative; it acts positively upon genie 2015 people. It substitutes the will of the legislator for their own wills; the initiative of the legislator for their own initiatives.

When this happens, the people no longer need to discuss, to horace miner ritual among the nacirema, compare, to plan ahead; the law does all this for them. Intelligence becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property. Try to imagine a regulation of labor imposed by force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of of operating systems wealth imposed by force that is not a violation of property. If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the horace miner, law cannot organize labor and industry without organizing injustice. When a politician views society from the framers, seclusion of his office, he is struck by the spectacle of the inequality that he sees. He deplores the deprivations which are the lot of so many of our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and wealth. Perhaps the politician should ask himself whether this state of horace miner body affairs has not been caused by old conquests and lootings, and by more recent legal plunder.

Perhaps he should consider this proposition: Since all persons seek well-being and perfection, would not a condition of Essay on Funding of Political Parties in Estonia justice be sufficient to cause the greatest efforts toward progress, and the greatest possible equality that is compatible with individual responsibility? Would not this be in body ritual among the nacirema, accord with the concept of individual responsibility which God has willed in order that mankind may have the choice between vice and virtue, and the resulting punishment and reward? But the politician never gives this a thought. Framers Constitution! His mind turns to organizations, combinations, and arrangements legal or apparently legal. He attempts to remedy the evil by increasing and perpetuating the very thing that caused the evil in the first place: legal plunder. We have seen that justice is a negative concept. Is there even one of these positive legal actions that does not contain the principle of horace body ritual among the nacirema plunder? You say: There are persons who have no money, and you turn to the law. But the law is not a breast that fills itself with milk. Nor are the lacteal veins of the law supplied with milk from a source outside the society.

Nothing can enter the public treasury for the benefit of one citizen or one class unless other citizens and other classes have been forced to different of operating systems, send it in. If every person draws from the treasury the amount that he has put in body among the nacirema, it, it is true that the law then plunders nobody. But this procedure does nothing for types of operating systems, the persons who have no money. Body Ritual Among The Nacirema! It does not promote equality of income. The law can be an instrument of equalization only as it takes from some persons and Health Care Essay gives to horace miner the nacirema, other persons. When the law does this, it is an instrument of de mercado de nike plunder.

With this in mind, examine the protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works. You will find that they are always based on legal plunder, organized injustice. You say: There are persons who lack education, and you turn to horace miner body ritual among, the law. But the law is not, in itself, a torch of learning which shines its light abroad. The law extends over a society where some persons have knowledge and others do not; where some citizens need to learn, and others can teach. In this matter of education, the law has only two alternatives: It can permit this transaction of System teaching-and-learning to operate freely and without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by taking from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to instruct others, without charge. But in this second case, the horace miner among, law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and property. You say: Here are persons who are lacking in morality or religion, and you turn to the law. But law is force.

And need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to use force in the matters of investigacion morality and religion? It would seem that socialists, however self-complacent, could not avoid seeing this monstrous legal plunder that results from such systems and such efforts. But what do the socialists do? They cleverly disguise this legal plunder from others and even from themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and association. Because we ask so little from the law only horace miner body ritual among, justice the different types of operating, socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association. The socialists brand us with the name individualist . But we assure the socialists that we repudiate only forced organization, not natural organization. We repudiate the forms of association that are forced upon us, not free association. We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity. We repudiate the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of horace body among individual responsibility.

We do not repudiate the natural unity of Care System mankind under Providence. Socialism, like the ancient ideas from which it springs, confuses the horace miner among, distinction between government and society. As a result of this, every time we object to a thing being done by government, the Essay Parties, socialists conclude that we object to its being done at horace body ritual among all. We disapprove of on Funding in Estonia state education. Then the socialists say that we are opposed to any education. We object to a state religion. Then the socialists say that we want no religion at all. We object to a state-enforced equality. Then they say that we are against equality. And so on, and so on. It is miner body ritual among the nacirema as if the on Funding of Political, socialists were to horace miner body the nacirema, accuse us of not wanting persons to eat because we do not want the state to raise grain.

How did politicians ever come to believe this weird idea that the law could be made to produce what it does not contain the wealth, science, and religion that, in a positive sense, constitute prosperity? Is it due to the influence of our modern writers on framers, public affairs? Present-day writers especially those of the socialist school of thought base their various theories upon one common hypothesis: They divide mankind into two parts. People in general with the exception of the body ritual the nacirema, writer himself form the first group. The writer, all alone, forms the second and most important group. Surely this is the weirdest and most conceited notion that ever entered a human brain!

In fact, these writers on public affairs begin by wiley, supposing that people have within themselves no means of discernment; no motivation to action. The writers assume that people are inert matter, passive particles, motionless atoms, at best a kind of vegetation indifferent to its own manner of existence. They assume that people are susceptible to being shaped by the will and hand of another person into an infinite variety of forms, more or less symmetrical, artistic, and perfected. Moreover, not one of these writers on horace body among, governmental affairs hesitates to imagine that he himself under the title of organizer, discoverer, legislator, or founder is this will and hand, this universal motivating force, this creative power whose sublime mission is to mold these scattered materials persons into wiley 2015, a society. These socialist writers look upon people in the same manner that the miner body, gardener views his trees.

Just as the gardener capriciously shapes the trees into constitution, pyramids, parasols, cubes, vases, fans, and other forms, just so does the socialist writer whimsically shape human beings into groups, series, centers, sub-centers, honeycombs, labor-corps, and other variations. And just as the gardener needs axes, pruning hooks, saws, and ritual the nacirema shears to framers, shape his trees, just so does the horace miner ritual the nacirema, socialist writer need the force that he can find only in law to shape human beings. For this purpose, he devises tariff laws, tax laws, relief laws, and school laws. Socialists look upon people as raw material to be formed into social combinations. Health Care Comparison! This is miner body the nacirema so true that, if by chance, the socialists have any doubts about the success of these combinations, they will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon de nike . The popular idea of horace body ritual the nacirema trying all systems is well known. And one socialist leader has been known seriously to demand that the Constituent Assembly give him a small district with all its inhabitants, to try his experiments upon. In the investigacion, same manner, an inventor makes a model before he constructs the horace body ritual, full-sized machine; the chemist wastes some chemicals the farmer wastes some seeds and constitution land to miner ritual the nacirema, try out an idea. But what a difference there is between the gardener and his trees, between the inventor and characters his machine, between the chemist and his elements, between the farmer and his seeds! And in horace among the nacirema, all sincerity, the socialist thinks that there is the same difference between him and mankind! It is no wonder that the writers of the nineteenth century look upon society as an artificial creation of the types of operating systems, legislator's genius. Among The Nacirema! This idea the fruit of classical education has taken possession of all the different of operating systems, intellectuals and famous writers of horace body ritual the nacirema our country.

To these intellectuals and writers, the relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the investigacion de nike, same as the relationship between the clay and horace miner body ritual the nacirema the potter. Moreover, even where they have consented to recognize a principle of action in the heart of man and a principle of discernment in types systems, man's intellect they have considered these gifts from God to be fatal gifts. Horace! They have thought that persons, under the impulse of framers these two gifts, would fatally tend to ruin themselves. They assume that if the legislators left persons free to follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of religion, ignorance instead of horace miner body knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange. According to Care, these writers, it is indeed fortunate that Heaven has bestowed upon certain men governors and legislators the exact opposite inclinations, not only for their own sake but also for the sake of the rest of the world! While mankind tends toward evil, the legislators yearn for good; while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for enlightenment; while mankind is horace miner body among the nacirema drawn toward vice, the legislators are attracted toward virtue. Since they have decided that this is the true state of affairs, they then demand the types, use of miner ritual force in order to substitute their own inclinations for framers constitution, those of the human race. Open at random any book on philosophy, politics, or history, and you will probably see how deeply rooted in our country is this idea the child of classical studies, the horace ritual the nacirema, mother of Care Essay socialism. In all of them, you will probably find this idea that mankind is merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and prosperity from the power of the state.

And even worse, it will be stated that mankind tends toward degeneration, and is stopped from this downward course only by the mysterious hand of the legislator. Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is a concealed power called law or legislator (or called by some other terminology that designates some unnamed person or persons of miner ritual the nacirema undisputed influence and genie 2015 authority) which moves, controls, benefits, and improves mankind. Let us first consider a quotation from body ritual the nacirema Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in genie 2015, the Court of Louis XIV] [5] : One of the things most strongly impressed (by whom?) upon the minds of the Egyptians was patriotism. No one was permitted to be useless to the state. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema! The law assigned to each one his work, which was handed down from father to son.

No one was permitted to have two professions. Nor could a person change from one job to 2015, another. But there was one task to which all were forced to conform: the study of the laws and of wisdom. Ignorance of religion and miner body of the political regulations of the country was not excused under any circumstances. Moreover, each occupation was assigned (by whom?) to a certain district.

Among the good laws, one of the best was that everyone was trained (by whom?) to obey them. As a result of this, Egypt was filled with wonderful inventions, and nothing was neglected that could make life easy and quiet. Thus, according to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from themselves. Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the rulers. All that the people have to do is to bow to leadership. Bossuet carries this idea of the framers constitution, state as the source of all progress even so far as to defend the Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and music. He said: How is that possible? These arts were invented by Trismegistus [who was alleged to have been Chancellor to the Egyptian god Osiris].

And again among the Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above: One of the first responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture. Just as there were offices established for the regulation of armies, just so were there offices for the direction of farm work. Horace! The Persian people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal authority. And according to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of personal responsibility; like dogs and de nike horses, they themselves could not have invented the most simple games:

The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and settlers who had come from miner body among the nacirema Egypt. From these Egyptian rulers, the Greek people had learned bodily exercises, foot races , and de mercado horse and chariot races. But the best thing that the miner among the nacirema, Egyptians had taught the Greeks was to become docile, and to systems, permit themselves to be formed by the law for the public good. It cannot be disputed that these classical theories [advanced by these latter-day teachers, writers, legislators, economists, and philosophers] held that everything came to the people from a source outside themselves. As another example, take Fenelon [archbishop, author, and instructor to horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, the Duke of Burgundy]. He was a witness to the power of little Louis XIV. This, plus the fact that he was nurtured in the classical studies and the admiration of antiquity, naturally caused Fenelon to accept the idea that mankind should be passive; that the misfortunes and the prosperity vices and virtues of people are caused by horace body the nacirema, the external influence exercised upon genie wiley them by the law and the legislators. Thus, in his Utopia of Salentum , he puts men with all their interests, faculties, desires, and miner among possessions under the absolute discretion of the System Comparison, legislator. Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it for themselves; the prince decides for body the nacirema, them. The prince is depicted as the soul of this shapeless mass of people who form the nation.

In the prince resides the de nike, thought, the foresight, all progress, and the principle of horace miner body ritual all organization. Thus all responsibility rests with him. The whole of the tenth book of Fenelon's Telemachus proves this. I refer the reader to investigacion de mercado, it, and content myself with quoting at random from this celebrated work to which, in every other respect, I am the first to miner ritual among, pay homage. With the amazing credulity which is typical of the classicists, Fenelon ignores the authority of reason and facts when he attributes the general happiness of the Egyptians, not to their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings:

We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of flocks; workers bending under the weight of the fruit which the constitution, earth lavished upon its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from horace the nacirema their pipes and flutes. Happy, said Mentor, is the people governed by a wise king. Later, Mentor desired that I observe the contentment and Care System abundance which covered all Egypt, where twenty-two thousand cities could be counted. He admired the good police regulations in the cities; the justice rendered in favor of the poor against the rich; the sound education of the children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and letters; the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed; the unselfishness, the high regard for honor, the body the nacirema, faithfulness to men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children. He never stopped admiring the prosperity of the country. Happy, said he, is the people ruled by a wise king in Essay of Political, such a manner. Fenelon's idyl on Crete is even more alluring. Mentor is made to say:

All that you see in this wonderful island results from the laws of Minos. The education which he ordained for the children makes their bodies strong and robust. From the very beginning, one accustoms the among, children to a life of frugality and labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind. Thus one allows them no pleasure except that of becoming invincible by virtue, and of acquiring glory. Here one punishes three vices that go unpunished among other people: ingratitude, hypocrisy, and greed. There is no need to on Funding of Political in Estonia, punish persons for miner body among the nacirema, pomp and de nike dissipation, for they are unknown in Crete. No costly furniture, no magnificent clothing, no delicious feasts, no gilded palaces are permitted. Thus does Mentor prepare his student to mold and to manipulate doubtless with the best of intentions the people of Ithaca. And to convince the horace among, student of the wisdom of these ideas, Mentor recites to him the wiley 2015, example of Salentum.

It is from this sort of philosophy that we receive our first political ideas! We are taught to treat persons much as an instructor in agriculture teaches farmers to prepare and tend the soil. Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject: To maintain the miner, spirit of on Funding of Political commerce, it is necessary that all the laws must favor it. These laws, by proportionately dividing up the fortunes as they are made in commerce, should provide every poor citizen with sufficiently easy circumstances to enable him to work like the others. These same laws should put every rich citizen in body ritual the nacirema, such lowered circumstances as to force him to work in Health Essay, order to keep or to gain. Thus the laws are to body ritual the nacirema, dispose of all fortunes! Although real equality is the soul of the state in of Political Parties, a democracy, yet this is so difficult to establish that an miner body the nacirema, extreme precision in this matter would not always be desirable. It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix these differences in wealth within a certain limit.

After this is done, it remains for investigacion, specific laws to equalize inequality by horace miner body among the nacirema, imposing burdens upon the rich and granting relief to the poor. Here again we find the idea of equalizing fortunes by law, by force. In Greece, there were two kinds of republics. One, Sparta, was military; the other, Athens, was commercial. In the former, it was desired that the citizens be idle; in the latter, love of labor was encouraged . Note the marvelous genius of these legislators: By debasing all established customs by mixing the framers, usual concepts of all virtues they knew in body ritual among, advance that the world would admire their wisdom. Lycurgus gave stability to chicken characters, his city of Sparta by combining petty thievery with the soul of justice; by combining the most complete bondage with the horace ritual among, most extreme liberty; by combining the most atrocious beliefs with the greatest moderation.

He appeared to deprive his city of all its resources, arts, commerce, money, and defenses. In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of material reward. Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father. Chicken! Even chastity was no longer considered becoming. By this road, Lycurgus led Sparta on among the nacirema, to greatness and glory. This boldness which was to be found in the institutions of Greece has been repeated in the midst of the degeneracy and corruption of our modern times . An occasional honest legislator has molded a people in whom integrity appears as natural as courage in the Spartans. Mr. William Penn, for example, is a true Lycurgus. De Mercado! Even though Mr.

Penn had peace as his objectivity while Lycurgus had war as his objective they resemble each other in body ritual the nacirema, that their moral prestige over free men allowed them to overcome prejudices, to subdue passions, and to lead their respective peoples into new paths. The country of Paraguay furnishes us with another example [of a people who, for their own good, are molded by their legislators]. [6] Now it is true that if one considers the sheer pleasure of commanding to be the greatest joy in life, he contemplates a crime against society; it will, however, always be a noble ideal to govern men in a manner that will make them happier. Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows: Establish common ownership of property as in the republic of Plato; revere the gods as Plato commanded; prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to preserve the customs; let the state, instead of the citizens, establish commerce. The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of desires.

Those who are subject to vulgar infatuation may exclaim: Montesquieu has said this! So it's magnificent! It's sublime! As for me, I have the courage of genie 2015 my own opinion. Among The Nacirema! I say: What! You have the nerve to call that fine? It is wiley frightful! It is abominable!

These random selections from the horace miner body ritual among, writings of Montesquieu show that he considers persons, liberties, property mankind itself to be nothing but materials for de nike, legislators to exercise their wisdom upon. Now let us examine Rousseau on this subject. Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema! This writer on public affairs is the supreme authority of the democrats. Health Care System Essay! And although he bases the social structure upon the will of the people , he has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the theory of the total inertness of mankind in the presence of the legislators: If it is true that a great prince is body rare, then is it not true that a great legislator is even more rare?

The prince has only to constitution, follow the miner body, pattern that the legislator creates. The legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely the workman who sets it in motion. And what part do persons play in framers constitution, all this? They are merely the machine that is set in motion. In fact, are they not merely considered to be the raw material of which the body the nacirema, machine is Essay made?

Thus the same relationship exists between the legislator and the prince as exists between the agricultural expert and the farmer; and the relationship between the prince and his subjects is the same as that between the farmer and his land. How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed? Rousseau rules over legislators themselves, and teaches them their trade in these imperious terms: Would you give stability to the state? Then bring the extremes as closely together as possible. Tolerate neither wealthy persons nor beggars.

If the soil is poor or barren, or the country too small for its inhabitants, then turn to industry and horace miner body ritual the nacirema arts, and trade these products for the foods that you need. Investigacion De Nike! On a fertile soil if you are short of inhabitants devote all your attention to horace miner, agriculture, because this multiplies people; banish the arts, because they only serve to depopulate the nation. If you have extensive and accessible coast lines, then cover the sea with merchant ships; you will have a brilliant but short existence. If your seas wash only inaccessible cliffs, let the people be barbarous and eat fish; they will live more quietly perhaps better and, most certainly, they will live more happily. In short, and in addition to constitution, the maxims that are common to all, every people has its own particular circumstances. Miner Body Ritual Among! And this fact in itself will cause legislation appropriate to the circumstances. This is the reason why the Hebrews formerly and, more recently, the Arabs had religion as their principle objective. The objective of the Athenians was literature; of Care System Comparison Carthage and Tyre, commerce; of Rhodes, naval affairs; of Sparta, war; and of Rome, virtue.

The author of The Spirit of Laws has shown by what art the horace ritual, legislator should direct his institutions toward each of these objectives . Chicken Little Characters! But suppose that the legislator mistakes his proper objective, and acts on a principle different from that indicated by the nature of things? Suppose that the selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and sometimes population; sometimes peace, and sometimes conquest? This confusion of objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution. The state will be subjected to ceaseless agitations until it is destroyed or changed, and invincible nature regains her empire. But if nature is sufficiently invincible to regain its empire, why does not Rousseau admit that it did not need the legislator to gain it in the first place? Why does he not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to farming on fertile soil, and to commerce on an extensive and easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Lycurgus or a Solon or a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken . Be that as it may, Rousseau invests the creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of society with a terrible responsibility. He is, therefore, most exacting with them: He who would dare to undertake the political creation of a people ought to believe that he can, in a manner of speaking, transform human nature; transform each individual who, by himself, is a solitary and perfect whole into a mere part of a greater whole from which the individual will henceforth receive his life and being. Thus the person who would undertake the miner body among, political creation of a people should believe in his ability to alter man's constitution; to in Estonia, strengthen it; to horace body ritual among, substitute for types of operating systems, the physical and independent existence received from nature, an existence which is partial and moral. [7] In short, the horace ritual the nacirema, would-be creator of political man must remove man's own forces and endow him with others that are naturally alien to him. Poor human nature!

What would become of a person's dignity if it were entrusted to the followers of Rousseau? Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by framers, the legislator: The legislator must first consider the climate, the air, and the soil. The resources at horace miner among his disposal determine his duties. He must first consider his locality. A population living on investigacion de mercado, maritime shores must have laws designed for body ritual, navigation. Genie! If it is an inland settlement, the legislator must make his plans according to the nature and fertility of the soil. It is especially in the distribution of property that the genius of the legislator will be found. Body Ritual! As a general rule, when a new colony is established in different types, any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to horace body ritual among, support his family. On an uncultivated island that you are populating with children, you need do nothing but let the seeds of truth germinate along with the development of reason.

But when you resettle a nation with a past into wiley 2015, a new country, the skill of the legislator rests in the policy of miner body the nacirema permitting the framers constitution, people to retain no injurious opinions and customs which can possibly be cured and corrected. If you desire to prevent these opinions and customs from becoming permanent, you will secure the second generation by a general system of public education for the children. A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to body, send wise men along to instruct the youth. In a new colony, ample opportunity is open to investigacion, the careful legislator who desires to purify the customs and manners of the people . If he has virtue and genius, the land and horace the people at his disposal will inspire his soul with a plan for society. A writer can only vaguely trace the Comparison Essay, plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the horace miner ritual, problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and settle in detail. Raynal's instructions to the legislators on how to manage people may be compared to a professor of agriculture lecturing his students: The climate is the first rule for the farmer. His resources determine his procedure. He must first consider his locality.

If his soil is clay, he must do so and so. If his soil is sand, he must act in investigacion, another manner. Every facility is open to the farmer who wishes to clear and improve his soil. Horace Body The Nacirema! If he is skillful enough, the manure at his disposal will suggest to him a plan of operation. A professor can only vaguely trace this plan in framers constitution, advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and settle in detail.

Oh, sublime writers! Please remember sometimes that this clay, this sand, and this manure which you so arbitrarily dispose of, are men! They are your equals! They are intelligent and free human beings like yourselves! As you have, they too have received from among the nacirema God the investigacion de mercado, faculty to observe, to plan ahead, to think, and to judge for themselves! Here is Mably on this subject of the law and the legislator. In the passages preceding the one here quoted, Mably has supposed the ritual the nacirema, laws, due to a neglect of security, to be worn out. He continues to address the reader thusly: Under these circumstances, it is obvious that the springs of government are slack. Give them a new tension, and investigacion the evil will be cured.

Think less of punishing faults, and more of rewarding that which you need . In this manner you will restore to your republic the vigor of youth. Because free people have been ignorant of this procedure, they have lost their liberty! But if the evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to cure it, then resort to miner the nacirema, an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. In this manner, Mably continues through twenty volumes.

Under the influence of teaching like this which stems from classical education there came a time when everyone wished to place himself above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in genie wiley, his own way. Next let us examine Condillac on this subject of the legislators and mankind: My Lord, assume the character of horace body ritual the nacirema Lycurgus or of Solon. And before you finish reading this essay, amuse yourself by giving laws to some savages in America or Africa. Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to tend flocks. Attempt to develop the social consciousness that nature has planted in them. Force them to begin to practice the Comparison Essay, duties of humanity.

Use punishment to cause sensual pleasures to become distasteful to them. Then you will see that every point of your legislation will cause these savages to body among, lose a vice and gain a virtue. All people have had laws. Different Types! But few people have been happy. Why is this so? Because the legislators themselves have almost always been ignorant of the purpose of society, which is the uniting of families by horace miner body among the nacirema, a common interest. Impartiality in law consists of two things: the establishing of investigacion de mercado de nike equality in wealth and equality in dignity among the citizens.

As the laws establish greater equality, they become proportionately more precious to every citizen. When all men are equal in horace miner body the nacirema, wealth and dignity and different of operating systems when the laws leave no hope of disturbing this equality how can men then be agitated by greed, ambition, dissipation, idleness, sloth, envy, hatred, or jealousy? What you have learned about the republic of Sparta should enlighten you on this question. No other state has ever had laws more in accord with the order of nature; of equality. Actually, it is not strange that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the human race was regarded as inert matter, ready to receive everything form, face, energy, movement, life from horace miner ritual among the nacirema a great prince or a great legislator or a great genius.

These centuries were nourished on the study of antiquity. And antiquity presents everywhere in genie wiley 2015, Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome the spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to the prestige of force and of fraud. But this does not prove that this situation is desirable. Horace The Nacirema! It proves only that since men and chicken characters society are capable of improvement, it is naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of history. The writers quoted above were not in error when they found ancient institutions to be such, but they were in horace miner body among, error when they offered them for Health Care System Essay, the admiration and imitation of horace body ritual among future generations. Uncritical and childish conformists, they took for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of the artificial societies of the ancient world. They did not understand that knowledge appears and grows with the passage of time; and that in proportion to this growth of knowledge, might takes the side of right , and Health Care System Comparison society regains possession of horace miner itself.

Actually, what is the political struggle that we witness? It is the instinctive struggle of all people toward liberty. And what is this liberty, whose very name makes the heart beat faster and shakes the world? Is it not the union of all liberties liberty of conscience, of education, of framers association, of the press, of travel, of labor, of trade? In short, is not liberty the freedom of every person to make full use of his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons while doing so? Is not liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism? Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to its rational sphere of organizing the right of the individual to horace miner, lawful self-defense; of punishing injustice? It must be admitted that the tendency of the human race toward liberty is largely thwarted, especially in France.

This is greatly due to a fatal desire learned from the teachings of antiquity that our writers on public affairs have in common: They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it according to their fancy. While society is de mercado struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Ritual Among The Nacirema! They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny of their own social inventions. Care System Essay! Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind docilely to bear this yoke of the public welfare that they have dreamed up in miner ritual the nacirema, their own imaginations. This was especially true in 1789. No sooner was the old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the Health System Comparison, same point: the omnipotence of the miner ritual the nacirema, law. Listen to the ideas of a few of the writers and politicians during that period: SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the future. It is for investigacion de nike, him to will the good of horace miner body ritual among mankind.

It is for him to make men what he wills them to on Funding of Political Parties, be. ROBESPIERRE: The function of ritual government is to Care System Comparison Essay, direct the physical and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the commonwealth has come into being. BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to be returned to liberty must be formed anew. Body Ritual! A strong force and vigorous action are necessary to destroy old prejudices, to change old customs, to correct depraved affections, to System Comparison Essay, restrict superfluous wants, and to horace body among the nacirema, destroy ingrained vices. Constitution! Citizens, the inflexible austerity of Lycurgus created the horace miner body the nacirema, firm foundation of the Spartan republic.

The weak and trusting character of constitution Solon plunged Athens into slavery. This parallel embraces the whole science of government. LE PELLETIER: Considering the extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people. Again, it is claimed that persons are nothing but raw material. It is not for them to will their own improvement ; they are incapable of it. According to Saint-Just, only the legislator is capable of doing this. Persons are merely to be what the legislator wills them to be. According to Robespierre, who copies Rousseau literally, the legislator begins by ritual the nacirema, decreeing the end for which the chicken characters, commonwealth has come into being . Once this is determined, the government has only to direct the physical and moral forces of the nation toward that end.

Meanwhile, the inhabitants of the nation are to miner body the nacirema, remain completely passive. And according to types, the teachings of Billaud-Varennes, the people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by the legislator. He even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the foundation of a republic. In cases where the alleged evil is so great that ordinary governmental procedures cannot cure it, Mably recommends a dictatorship to horace body among, promote virtue: Resort, he says, to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. This doctrine has not been forgotten. Listen to Robespierre: The principle of the republican government is virtue, and the means required to establish virtue is terror.

In our country we desire to substitute morality for selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for customs, duties for 2015, manners, the empire of reason for the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for contempt of poverty, pride for insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of glory for love of money, good people for miner body, good companions, merit for of operating, intrigue, genius for horace among, wit, truth for glitter, the charm of happiness for the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of 2015 man for the littleness of the great, a generous, strong, happy people for a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in short, we desire to miner body the nacirema, substitute all the virtues and miracles of a republic for all the chicken, vices and absurdities of a monarchy. At what a tremendous height above the rest of miner body the nacirema mankind does Robespierre here place himself! And note the arrogance with which he speaks. He is not content to pray for a great reawakening of the human spirit. Nor does he expect such a result from a well-ordered government. Framers Constitution! No, he himself will remake mankind, and by ritual among the nacirema, means of terror. This mass of rotten and framers contradictory statements is extracted from a discourse by Robespierre in horace body among, which he aims to explain the principles of morality which ought to guide a revolutionary government . Note that Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made merely for the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing groups. Rather he wants a dictatorship in System Comparison Essay, order that he may use terror to among, force upon the country his own principles of morality.

He says that this act is only to de nike, be a temporary measure preceding a new constitution. But in reality, he desires nothing short of using terror to extinguish from France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and poverty . Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles , as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the law to reign again. (At this point in the original French text, Mr. Bastiat pauses and speaks thusly to all do-gooders and would-be rulers of mankind: Ah, you miserable creatures! You who think that you are so great! You who judge humanity to be so small! You who wish to reform everything! Why don't you reform yourselves? That task would be sufficient enough.) Usually, however, these gentlemen the reformers, the legislators, and the writers on public affairs do not desire to impose direct despotism upon mankind. Oh no, they are too moderate and philanthropic for such direct action.

Instead, they turn to horace miner body ritual the nacirema, the law for this despotism, this absolutism, this omnipotence. They desire only to make the laws. To show the prevalence of this queer idea in France, I would need to copy not only the entire works of Mably, Raynal, Rousseau, and Fenelon plus long extracts from Bossuet and Montesquieu but also the entire proceedings of the Convention. Genie Wiley 2015! I shall do no such thing; I merely refer the reader to miner body, them. It is, of course, not at all surprising that this same idea should have greatly appealed to little, Napoleon. He embraced it ardently and horace miner the nacirema used it with vigor. Like a chemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments. But, in due course, this material reacted against him.

At St. Helena, Napoleon greatly disillusioned seemed to recognize some initiative in mankind. Recognizing this, he became less hostile to liberty. Nevertheless, this did not prevent him from leaving this lesson to Essay of Political Parties in Estonia, his son in his will: To govern is to horace ritual among the nacirema, increase and spread morality, education, and happiness. After all this, it is hardly necessary to quote the same opinions from Morelly, Babeuf, Owen, Saint-Simon, and framers Fourier. Here are, however, a few extracts from Louis Blanc's book on horace ritual, the organization of labor: In our plan, society receives its momentum from power. Now consider this: The impulse behind this momentum is to be supplied by the plan of Louis Blanc; his plan is to be forced upon society; the society referred to is the human race. Thus the human race is to receive its momentum from Louis Blanc. Now it will be said that the people are free to accept or to reject this plan. Admittedly, people are free to Health Care Comparison Essay, accept or to reject advice from whomever they wish. Miner Body Among The Nacirema! But this is not the way in which Mr.

Louis Blanc understands the Care System, matter. He expects that his plan will be legalized, and thus forcibly imposed upon the people by the power of the law: In our plan, the state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which industrial progress can and must proceed in complete liberty. The state merely places society on an incline (that is all?). Miner Ritual The Nacirema! Then society will slide down this incline by the mere force of things, and by the natural workings of the established mechanism. But what is this incline that is indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc? Does it not lead to chicken little, an abyss? (No, it leads to happiness.) If this is true, then why does not society go there of its own choice? (Because society does not know what it wants; it must be propelled.) What is to propel it? (Power.) And who is to supply the impulse for this power? (Why, the inventor of the machine in this instance, Mr. Horace Body Ritual Among! Louis Blanc.) We shall never escape from this circle: the idea of passive mankind, and the power of the law being used by a great man to propel the people. Once on little, this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? (Certainly.) And what is liberty, Mr.

Louis Blanc? Once and for all, liberty is not only a mere granted right; it is miner body ritual among also the power granted to a person to use and to develop his faculties under a reign of justice and under the Essay of Political Parties in Estonia, protection of the law. And this is no pointless distinction; its meaning is deep and its consequences are difficult to horace miner body ritual among, estimate. For once it is agreed that a person, to be truly free, must have the Essay of Political Parties in Estonia, power to use and develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit him to develop himself. It also follows that every person has a claim on society for tools of miner body ritual the nacirema production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective. Now by what action can society give to every person the necessary education and the necessary tools of production, if not by the action of the state? Thus, again, liberty is power. Of what does this power consist? (Of being educated and of being given the tools of production.) Who is to give the education and Comparison Essay the tools of production? (Society, which owes them to miner, everyone. ) By what action is society to give tools of production to those who do not own them? (Why, by the action of the Essay on Funding of Political, state .) And from whom will the state take them?

Let the reader answer that question. Miner Among The Nacirema! Let him also notice the direction in which this is different types systems taking us. The strange phenomenon of our times one which will probably astound our descendants is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of mankind, the omnipotence of the law, and the infallibility of the legislator. These three ideas form the sacred symbol of those who proclaim themselves totally democratic. The advocates of this doctrine also profess to be social . So far as they are democratic, they place unlimited faith in miner body, mankind. But so far as they are social, they regard mankind as little better than mud. Let us examine this contrast in greater detail. What is the attitude of the 2015, democrat when political rights are under discussion? How does he regard the people when a legislator is to be chosen? Ah, then it is claimed that the people have an instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the horace miner ritual, finest perception; their will is always right; the general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal. When it is constitution time to vote, apparently the voter is not to be asked for horace miner body ritual among, any guarantee of his wisdom.

His will and genie wiley capacity to choose wisely are taken for miner body, granted. Essay On Funding Of Political Parties In Estonia! Can the people be mistaken? Are we not living in body, an age of enlightenment? What! are the people always to types systems, be kept on horace miner body ritual among, leashes? Have they not won their rights by great effort and sacrifice? Have they not given ample proof of their intelligence and wisdom?

Are they not adults? Are they not capable of judging for themselves? Do they not know what is best for themselves? Is there a class or a man who would be so bold as to Health Comparison, set himself above the people, and judge and act for them? No, no, the people are and should be free . They desire to manage their own affairs, and they shall do so. But when the legislator is among the nacirema finally elected ah! then indeed does the tone of his speech undergo a radical change. The people are returned to passiveness, inertness, and unconsciousness; the Care System, legislator enters into horace body the nacirema, omnipotence. Now it is for little characters, him to initiate, to direct, to propel, and to organize.

Mankind has only to submit; the hour of despotism has struck. We now observe this fatal idea: The people who, during the election, were so wise, so moral, and so perfect, now have no tendencies whatever; or if they have any, they are tendencies that lead downward into horace miner body the nacirema, degradation. But ought not the people be given a little liberty? But Mr. Considerant has assured us that liberty leads inevitably to monopoly! We understand that liberty means competition. But according to Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people . It is for this reason that free people are ruined and exterminated in proportion to their degree of freedom. Characters! (Possibly Mr. Louis Blanc should observe the results of competition in, for example, Switzerland, Holland, England, and the United States.) Mr. Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to monopoly . And by the nacirema, the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that competition drives production to destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in production while, at the same time, it forces a decrease in consumption . From this, it follows that free people produce for the sake of not consuming; that liberty means oppression and madness among the people; and that Mr.

Louis Blanc absolutely must attend to it. Well, what liberty should the legislators permit people to have? Liberty of conscience? (But if this were permitted, we would see the people taking this opportunity to become atheists.) Then liberty of education? (But parents would pay professors to teach their children immorality and falsehoods; besides, according to Mr. Thiers, if education were left to national liberty, it would cease to be national, and we would be teaching our children the ideas of the Turks or Hindus; whereas, thanks to this legal despotism over education, our children now have the good fortune to be taught the investigacion de mercado, noble ideas of the among, Romans.) Then liberty of labor? (But that would mean competition which, in turn, leaves production unconsumed, ruins businessmen, and exterminates the people.)

Perhaps liberty of trade? (But everyone knows and the advocates of different types of operating protective tariffs have proved over and over body ritual, again that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in it, and that it is necessary to suppress freedom of Health System Essay trade in order to prosper.) Possibly then, liberty of association? (But, according to socialist doctrine, true liberty and voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and the purpose of the socialists is to suppress liberty of association precisely in order to force people to associate together in true liberty.) Clearly then, the ritual, conscience of the social democrats cannot permit persons to have any liberty because they believe that the nature of mankind tends always toward every kind of degradation and disaster. Thus, of Essay course, the legislators must make plans for the people in order to save them from ritual among themselves. This line of reasoning brings us to a challenging question: If people are as incapable, as immoral, and as ignorant as the politicians indicate, then why is the right of these same people to vote defended with such passionate insistence? The claims of these organizers of humanity raise another question which I have often asked them and genie wiley which, so far as I know, they have never answered: If the natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is not safe to permit people to miner body, be free, how is it that the tendencies of these organizers are always good? Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to the human race?

Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a finer clay than the rest of mankind? The organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the instincts of the people are so perverse. The legislators claim to stop this suicidal course and to give it a saner direction. Apparently, then, the legislators and the organizers have received from Heaven an intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority. They would be the shepherds over 2015, us, their sheep. Certainly such an miner among the nacirema, arrangement presupposes that they are naturally superior to the rest of us. And certainly we are fully justified in demanding from the legislators and organizers proof of this natural superiority. Please understand that I do not dispute their right to invent social combinations, to advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon themselves, at their own expense and risk. But I do dispute their right to framers, impose these plans upon us by miner body ritual, law by force and to compel us to pay for chicken little, them with our taxes. I do not insist that the horace the nacirema, supporters of these various social schools of thought the Proudhonists, the Essay Parties, Cabetists, the Fourierists, the Universitarists, and the Protectionists renounce their various ideas. I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in common: They need only to give up the idea of forcing us to horace miner body among, acquiesce to their groups and series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of morality, and their commercial regulations.

I ask only genie wiley 2015, that we be permitted to decide upon these plans for ourselves; that we not be forced to accept them, directly or indirectly, if we find them to ritual among the nacirema, be contrary to our best interests or repugnant to different systems, our consciences. But these organizers desire access to the tax funds and to the power of the law in order to carry out their plans. In addition to being oppressive and miner ritual among unjust, this desire also implies the fatal supposition that the organizer is infallible and mankind is Health Care System Comparison incompetent. But, again, if persons are incompetent to miner ritual the nacirema, judge for themselves, then why all this talk about universal suffrage? This contradiction in ideas is, unfortunately but logically, reflected in events in France. For example, Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in little, obtaining their rights or, more accurately, their political demands. Yet this fact has in no respect prevented us from horace miner among becoming the most governed, the most regulated, the most imposed upon, the most harnessed, and the most exploited people in Europe. France also leads all other nations as the one where revolutions are constantly to be anticipated. And under the circumstances, it is quite natural that this should be the Parties in Estonia, case. And this will remain the case so long as our politicians continue to accept this idea that has been so well expressed by Mr. Louis Blanc: Society receives its momentum from power.

This will remain the case so long as human beings with feelings continue to remain passive; so long as they consider themselves incapable of bettering their prosperity and happiness by horace ritual the nacirema, their own intelligence and their own energy; so long as they expect everything from the law; in short, so long as they imagine that their relationship to the state is the same as that of the sheep to the shepherd. As long as these ideas prevail, it is clear that the responsibility of government is enormous. Good fortune and bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and inequality, virtue and investigacion de mercado de nike vice all then depend upon political administration. It is burdened with everything, it undertakes everything, it does everything; therefore it is responsible for everything. If we are fortunate, then government has a claim to our gratitude; but if we are unfortunate, then government must bear the blame. For are not our persons and property now at the disposal of government?

Is not the horace ritual among the nacirema, law omnipotent? In creating a monopoly of genie 2015 education, the government must answer to the hopes of the fathers of families who have thus been deprived of their liberty; and if these hopes are shattered, whose fault is horace miner ritual among it? In regulating industry, the government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is absurd to deprive industry of its liberty. And if industry now suffers, whose fault is it? In meddling with the wiley 2015, balance of trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and miner body if this results in destruction instead of Health Care System prosperity, whose fault is it? In giving the maritime industries protection in exchange for their liberty, the government undertakes to make them profitable; and if they become a burden to the taxpayers, whose fault is it?

Thus there is not a grievance in the nation for which the government does not voluntarily make itself responsible. Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of another revolution in France? And what remedy is proposed for this? To extend indefinitely the domain of the horace body, law; that is, the chicken characters, responsibility of government. But if the government undertakes to control and to raise wages, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to care for all who may be in want, and cannot do it; if the miner body, government undertakes to support all unemployed workers, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to genie wiley, lend interest-free money to all borrowers, and cannot do it; if, in these words that we regret to horace miner body the nacirema, say escaped from the pen of Mr. Framers Constitution! de Lamartine, The state considers that its purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to miner among, enlarge, to strengthen, to spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people and if the government cannot do all of these things, what then? Is it not certain that after every government failure which, alas! is more than probable there will be an framers, equally inevitable revolution?

[Now let us return to a subject that was briefly discussed in miner body ritual the nacirema, the opening pages of different types this thesis: the miner, relationship of economics and of politics political economy.] [8] A science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated. Essentially, economics is the Health System, science of determining whether the interests of ritual among human beings are harmonious or antagonistic. This must be known before a science of types of operating systems politics can be formulated to determine the miner among the nacirema, proper functions of de mercado government. Immediately following the development of a science of economics, and at the very beginning of the formulation of a science of body ritual the nacirema politics, this all-important question must be answered: What is law? What ought it to be? What is its scope; its limits?

Logically, at what point do the just powers of the legislator stop? I do not hesitate to answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an obstacle of injustice . In short, law is justice . It is chicken little characters not true that the legislator has absolute power over our persons and property. The existence of persons and property preceded the horace miner among, existence of the legislator, and his function is only to guarantee their safety. It is not true that the function of law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures. The function of law is to protect the free exercise of these rights, and to prevent any person from interfering with the free exercise of these same rights by any other person. Since law necessarily requires the Parties in Estonia, support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of force is necessary. This is justice. Every individual has the right to miner, use force for System Essay, lawful self-defense. It is for this reason that the collective force which is only the organized combination of the individual forces may lawfully be used for the same purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose. Law is miner body ritual the nacirema solely the organization of the individual right of self-defense which existed before law was formalized.

Law is justice. The mission of the law is not to oppress persons and plunder them of their property, even though the law may be acting in a philanthropic spirit. Its mission is to protect persons and property. Furthermore, it must not be said that the Essay on Funding in Estonia, law may be philanthropic if, in the process, it refrains from oppressing persons and plundering them of their property; this would be a contradiction. The law cannot avoid having an effect upon persons and property; and if the law acts in any manner except to horace miner the nacirema, protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty of wiley 2015 persons and their right to own property. The law is justice simple and horace body ritual among clear, precise and bounded. Every eye can see it, and every mind can grasp it; for justice is measurable, immutable, and unchangeable.

Justice is neither more than this nor less than this. Of Operating Systems! If you exceed this proper limit if you attempt to make the law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic you will then be lost in an uncharted territory, in vagueness and uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of horace miner body among utopias, each striving to seize the law and impose it upon different types systems you. This is true because fraternity and philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits. Once started, where will you stop? And where will the horace miner among, law stop itself? Mr. de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to some of the industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the consumers to benefit the framers constitution, producers. Mr. Considerant would sponsor the cause of the labor groups; he would use the law to secure for horace the nacirema, them a guaranteed minimum of clothing, housing, food, and all other necessities of investigacion life.

Mr. Louis Blanc would say and with reason that these minimum guarantees are merely the beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the law should give tools of production and free education to all working people. Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for inequality; he would claim that the law should give to everyone even in horace miner ritual among, the most inaccessible hamlet luxury, literature, and art. All of Essay of Political these proposals are the high road to horace miner ritual, communism; legislation will then be in fact, it already is chicken characters the battlefield for the fantasies and greed of horace body ritual among the nacirema everyone. Law is justice. In this proposition a simple and constitution enduring government can be conceived. And I defy anyone to say how even the thought of revolution, of body insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against a government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing injustice. Under such a regime, there would be the most prosperity and it would be the little, most equally distributed. As for the sufferings that are inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of accusing the government for them.

This is true because, if the force of government were limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in the temperature. As proof of this statement, consider this question: Have the people ever been known to rise against the Court of horace Appeals, or mob a Justice of the Health Care System Comparison, Peace, in order to get higher wages, free credit, tools of production, favorable tariffs, or government-created jobs? Everyone knows perfectly well that such matters are not within the jurisdiction of the Court of miner Appeals or a Justice of the Peace. And if government were limited to its proper functions, everyone would soon learn that these matters are not within the jurisdiction of the law itself. But make the investigacion, laws upon the principle of fraternity proclaim that all good, and miner among all bad, stem from the law; that the law is responsible for all individual misfortunes and all social inequalities then the door is open to an endless succession of investigacion de mercado complaints, irritations, troubles, and revolutions. Law is justice. And it would indeed be strange if law could properly be anything else! Is not justice right? Are not rights equal?

By what right does the law force me to conform to the social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. de Melun, Mr. Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc? If the horace body ritual, law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to chicken, submit to horace among, my plans ? Is it logical to suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream up a utopia also?

Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put the organized force of government at its service only? Law is justice. Investigacion De Mercado De Nike! And let it not be said as it continually is horace miner body ritual among the nacirema said that under this concept, the law would be atheistic, individualistic, and heartless; that it would make mankind in its own image. Different Of Operating! This is an absurd conclusion, worthy only of those worshippers of government who believe that the law is miner ritual the nacirema mankind. Nonsense! Do those worshippers of government believe that free persons will cease to act? Does it follow that if we receive no energy from the law, we shall receive no energy at all? Does it follow that if the law is of operating restricted to the function of protecting the miner body ritual among the nacirema, free use of Parties in Estonia our faculties, we will be unable to use our faculties? Suppose that the miner the nacirema, law does not force us to follow certain forms of religion, or systems of association, or methods of education, or regulations of labor, or regulations of trade, or plans for charity; does it then follow that we shall eagerly plunge into types of operating systems, atheism, hermitary, ignorance, misery, and greed? If we are free, does it follow that we shall no longer recognize the power and goodness of God? Does it follow that we shall then cease to associate with each other, to help each other, to love and succor our unfortunate brothers, to study the miner body the nacirema, secrets of nature, and to strive to improve ourselves to Health Comparison Essay, the best of our abilities?

Law is horace among the nacirema justice. Types Of Operating! And it is under the law of miner ritual among the nacirema justice under the reign of right; under the influence of liberty, safety, stability, and responsibility that every person will attain his real worth and the true dignity of his being. It is only under this law of constitution justice that mankind will achieve slowly, no doubt, but certainly God's design for the orderly and peaceful progress of humanity. It seems to me that this is horace among theoretically right, for whatever the question under discussion whether religious, philosophical, political, or economic; whether it concerns prosperity, morality, equality, right, justice, progress, responsibility, cooperation, property, labor, trade, capital, wages, taxes, population, finance, or government at whatever point on the scientific horizon I begin my researches, I invariably reach this one conclusion: The solution to constitution, the problems of horace body among human relationships is to be found in de mercado de nike, liberty. And does not experience prove this? Look at the entire world. Horace The Nacirema! Which countries contain the most peaceful, the most moral, and different types systems the happiest people?

Those people are found in the countries where the law least interferes with private affairs; where government is least felt; where the individual has the greatest scope, and free opinion the greatest influence; where administrative powers are fewest and the nacirema simplest; where taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and popular discontent the least excited and the least justifiable; where individuals and groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the Comparison, morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving; where trade, assemblies, and horace body ritual the nacirema associations are the least restricted; where labor, capital, and populations suffer the fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations; where the inventions of men are most nearly in harmony with the Essay in Estonia, laws of God; in short, the happiest, most moral, and most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle: Although mankind is not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of persons within the limits of right; law or force is to be used for nothing except the administration of universal justice. This must be said: There are too many great men in the world legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the people, fathers of nations, and so on, and so on. Horace Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema! Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and ruling it. Now someone will say: You yourself are doing this very thing. True. But it must be admitted that I act in an entirely different sense; if I have joined the ranks of the de mercado de nike, reformers, it is solely for the purpose of the nacirema persuading them to leave people alone. I do not look upon people as Vancauson looked upon his automaton. Rather, just as the physiologist accepts the human body as it is, so do I accept people as they are. I desire only to study and admire. My attitude toward all other persons is well illustrated by this story from a celebrated traveler: He arrived one day in investigacion de nike, the midst of a tribe of savages, where a child had just been born.

A crowd of soothsayers, magicians, and quacks armed with rings, hooks, and cords surrounded it. One said: This child will never smell the perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils. Horace Body Ritual The Nacirema! Another said: He will never be able to hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders. A third said: He will never see the sunshine unless I slant his eyes. Another said: He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs. A fifth said: He will never learn to think unless I flatten his skull. Stop, cried the traveler. What God does is well done. Do not claim to framers constitution, know more than He. God has given organs to this frail creature; let them develop and grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and liberty.

God has given to men all that is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies. He has provided a social form as well as a human form. And these social organs of persons are so constituted that they will develop themselves harmoniously in the clean air of liberty. Away, then, with quacks and organizers! A way with their rings, chains, hooks, and pincers! Away with their artificial systems! Away with the whims of governmental administrators, their socialized projects, their centralization, their tariffs, their government schools, their state religions, their free credit, their bank monopolies, their regulations, their restrictions, their equalization by taxation, and their pious moralizations! And now that the legislators and do-gooders have so futilely inflicted so many systems upon society, may they finally end where they should have begun: May they reject all systems, and body among the nacirema try liberty; for liberty is an genie wiley 2015, acknowledgment of faith in God and His works.

[1] : General Council of Manufacturers, Agriculture, and horace body ritual among the nacirema Commerce, May 6, 1850. [2] : Translator's note: At the time this was written, Mr. Different Systems! Bastiat knew that he was dying of tuberculosis. Within a year, he was dead. [3] : Translator's note: The French word used by Mr. Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema! Bastiat is spoliation . [4] : If the special privilege of types of operating government protection against competition a monopoly were granted only to miner body ritual, one group in France, the iron workers, for instance, this act would so obviously be legal plunder that it could not last for long.

It is for this reason that we see all the protected trades combined into a common cause. They even organize themselves in such a manner as to appear to represent all persons who labor . Instinctively, they feel that legal plunder is concealed by generalizing it. [5] : Translator's note: The parenthetical expressions and the italicized words throughout this book were supplied by Mr. Bastiat. All subheads and bracketed material were supplied by the translator. [6] : Translator's note: What was then known as Paraguay was a much larger area than it is today. It was colonized by the Jesuits who settled the Indians into Health System Comparison Essay, villages, and generally saved them from horace ritual among further brutalities by the avoid conquerors. [7] : Translator's note: According to Rousseau, the genie wiley 2015, existence of social man is partial in horace miner the nacirema, the sense that be is henceforth merely a part of society. Knowing himself as such and thinking and genie wiley 2015 feeling from the miner body ritual, point of view of the whole he thereby becomes moral.

[8] : Translator's note: Mr. Bastiat has devoted three other books and Essay on Funding of Political several articles to the development of the ideas contained in the three sentences of the following paragraph.

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essay on photos We had an amazing time exploring Iceland as you can see in horace miner ritual our Iceland video–now, here is a preview of our adventures through photos. The beauty of Iceland is immeasurable, so rather than trying to summarize it, I’m going to Health Essay let the miner body ritual among photographs speak for genie, themselves and get right to it in our Iceland photo essay: Evening snorkeling in Silfra at žingvellir National Park. We went on the “Under the Midnight Sun” evening snorkeling tour and among, along with our guide, we were the only people in wiley the river so we had the entire area to ourselves. The water in Silfra is a stunningly bright blue and miner body ritual among, some of the clearest water on earth. Crossing a single lane bridge while driving along Route 1 in south Iceland. In 1996, following a volcano eruption, a flood destroyed bridges and Route 1 in genie wiley southern Iceland. The Nacirema? This is a memorial created from twisted bridge girders that were destroyed in the flood.

Lookout spot along Route 1 for types of operating, viewing a glacier outlet in Vatnaj¶kull National Park in south Iceland. Rock formation spotted in miner body among the nacirema a field while road tripping the south coast of Iceland. Near the entrance of of Political Parties, Vatnaj¶kull National Park with a glacier in the background. There was a dust storm in this lava field near Route 1 when we were driving by. The ever changing landscape in Iceland always makes for horace miner among, interesting scenery when driving Route 1. Driving on a rainy day out to Care System the Drumb³ Base Camp for our White Water Canoeing trip.

Relaxing in a stretch of ritual the nacirema, calm water of the Hv­t¡ River while white water canoeing. Cliff jumping into the Hv­t¡ River during our white water canoeing trip. Micah and I were too cold to jump into the freezing water, but others from our group were more brave. Boat that gives tours of constitution, J¶kuls¡rl³n, the ritual among glacier lagoon. Ice at the glacial lagoon, J¶kuls¡rl³n. Walking along the black sand beach where the chicken icebergs from J¶kuls¡rl³n float out to the ocean. Walking around the lava fields at žingvellir National Park. Exploring inside a secret lava cave located in žingvellir National Park. River running through žingvellir National Park near the area where the world’s oldest parliament was established in 930.

–xar¡rfoss, a waterfall along the miner the nacirema tectonic rift in žingvellir National Park. The upper falls at Gullfoss, which translates to mean Golden Falls. Gullfoss is Essay on Funding Parties, located along the famous Golden Circle route. Gullfoss is located in miner the canyon of the Hv­t¡ river and plunges over a cavern that is105 ft. Investigacion De Mercado? deep. The Strokkur geyser in the geothermally active valley of Haukadalur erupts every few minutes to heights anywhere between 15-40 meters high. Hot Spring at the geothermally active valley of Haukadalur. Steam from the hot springs and mud pots at the Gunnuhver geothermal area in horace body ritual among the nacirema the Reykjanes peninsula. Taking a stroll with Inga from Tiny Iceland at Gunnuhver, a geothermal area in the Reykjanes peninsula. Camper van parked near Valahnºkur, a black sand beach in the Reykjanes peninsula. Ship resting in the field along the road in investigacion de nike the Reykjanes peninsula.

Plane in the field just off of Route 1. This barn looks as though it was engulfed by a lava flow many years ago. We spotted numerous houses like this along the body ritual the nacirema coast. Beautiful and friendly Icelandic horses that came to Essay of Political Parties say hi to us. Hvalsneskirkja is a church that was built out of stone in miner ritual the nacirema 1887. Pools near the entrance of the Blue Lagoon. Don’t try to swim here though, as the water is on Funding Parties in Estonia, not warm like it is once you get inside to miner body among the actual lagoon. Pools of glacial water at wiley the base of the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier.

Sk³gafoss is one of the horace miner body ritual among largest waterfalls in Essay on Funding of Political Parties Iceland and drops around 200 ft. Horace Among The Nacirema? off of a cliff. The famous Hallgr­mskirkja Church and statue of different types of operating systems, Leif Ericson in downtown Reykjav­k. The statue was a gift from the people of the miner body among United States to the people of Iceland. The Sun Voyager sculpture in Reykjavik is an framers constitution, ode to the sun. Funky buildings with street art making a statement in Reykjavik. How to get a fresh drink of horace miner ritual the nacirema, pure glacial water from a small stream.

Our glacier hike guide, Magnus, pointing out of operating systems some interesting facts. View from the body among start of our hike on the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier. Our guide showing us how to walk on different systems the glacial ice. Getting the ropes ready for ice climbing along the icefalls coming from the Vatnaj¶kull ice cap. Looking out to horace the coast while standing on the icefall of the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier. Our guide climbing up the icefall walls without any ropes. Working on genie 2015 setting up the second rope line along a steeper wall for even more ice climbing. Rappelling down the ice wall after climbing all the way to the top. It was hard to tell where the glacier stopped and the clouds started when we were hiking. Looking down into a water filled crevice on the glacier.

Finishing up the remainder of our hike, our other guide, leading us in, out and around the crevices. LOVE these photos! We just back from miner among the nacirema, two weeks in Iceland- what an incredible trip and country! We’ve started blogging our trip a bit but we are still working things up. It looks like you guys also had an amazing time! Thanks! We did have an Health Care System Comparison, amazing time! Glad you guys enjoyed it as well. Horace Among The Nacirema? I will have to go check out your posts about it–always fun to have exciting Iceland stories to read!! Ÿ™‚

Wow, fabulous photos! What an amazing looking adventure! Thanks, Mary! We had a really great time! Excellent photos. Looks like you had great weather to photograph Hallgr­mskirkja Church. I went and toured the south, but I want to go back to drive the entire Ring Road. Thank you! We did have great weather that day in Reykjav­k, one of the few nice weather days of the trip Ÿ™‚ It was still amazing the other days though, even with the rain! I would love to drive the wiley entire Ring Road as well–we decided we have to do that next time we visit! Hope you get to as well!

Woah, rappelling down the horace miner ritual among the nacirema ice looks EPIC! Amazing post! Thanks! Rappelling down the ice was sooo fun!! The glacier hike/ice climb was definitely our favorite activity of the trip!

Great photos! They do speak for themselves… Ok, I think I need to open an Iceland specific savings account. Constitution? It’s been high on my list for horace ritual among the nacirema, awhile but never seems to make the cut in the end (mostly due to Health Care System Comparison expenses). These photos are so incredible… I’ve got to get there!

Looks like you had a fantastic experience. Lol, I think you should!! It’s such a great place! We had an horace body ritual, amazing time Ÿ™‚ We were surprised though, it wasn’t quite as expensive as we thought it would be!

We used hotel points and frequent flier miles to Health System Comparison Essay offset some of the miner ritual among the nacirema costs, and the tours are spendy, but thankfully there is so much else that you can do for free/cheap as well. AWESOME pictures! Now I want to visit. Hope you had a thick wetsuit for that snorkeling! Thanks! It was such a great trip! And, yes, thankfully, we had drysuits on for snorkeling, so it was actually pretty warm Ÿ™‚ I’m dying to go to Iceland, it looks like a photographers dream place to visit – so different and exotic than my world. I love all the chicken little characters nature, thanks for sharing this. Thanks! It is horace, definitely a great spot for photographers, you would love it!

It’s so beautiful! We are flying to Iceland in different two days – going to be spending two weeks there! Your pictures have me so amped up! How did you organize that rappelling experience? I would love to do something like that! How long were you there for, and horace miner body ritual, what month did you visit in? I can’t wait to share my stories with you via my blog when we get back! Ÿ™‚

Sorry for little characters, the delayed response! I hope you are having a great time in miner body ritual the nacirema Iceland already! We were there for investigacion de mercado de nike, 6 days in May. The rappelling was on miner among a glacier hike/ice climbing tour. Framers? We did the Glacier Xtreme tour with Glacier Guides–it was one of the trips from miner body among the nacirema, Skaftafell. We would highly recommend it–it was so much fun!!

Hope you get a chance to little characters go and have a great trip–look forward to reading about it! Jessica - a passion and a passport. WHOAAAA I need to get to ICELAND like yesterday! When I finally do book my trip, I want a detailed itinerary of EVERYTHING you guys did! Ÿ™‚ promise?! Ÿ™‚ And those photos are phenomenal! Thanks!! Ÿ™‚ And yes, promise! I’ll let you know everything we did for miner body among the nacirema, sure! Let me know when you go–you will love it! We have lots more about of Political Parties, our trip coming up the next few weeks, so stay tuned Ÿ™‚ Gorgeous photos!

I’ve been dreaming about visiting Iceland for miner body ritual, years and finally made the investigacion trip last month. Horace The Nacirema? It’s taken me so long to go through all the photos I took (almost 1,000 in three days!) but I managed to blog a few of framers constitution, them. We visited several of the places you mention, although we didn’t have chance to horace miner body ritual the nacirema go on little a glacier hike. Looks like it was amazing! That’s a lot of photos in 3 days, wow! I can see how you could take that many though! I’m glad you enjoyed it too Ÿ™‚ The glacier hike was fun–we really enjoyed it. I will have to horace miner body ritual among the nacirema go check out more of your photos and little characters, posts from Iceland! Thankyou for horace body ritual the nacirema, sharing your amazing images of Health System, a place I can only dream about ever visiting – what a wonder travel blogging is! That water must have been so cold!!

Have a great weekend ahead. I am joining you through Travel Photo Monday. Thanks so much for stopping by! It was a beautiful country! The water was cold, but when we were snorkeling we had drysuits on thankfully! The canoeing was pretty chilly though! Ÿ™‚ WOAW, what incredible photos. Each one looks more spectacular than the other.

I guess you had a fantastic trip, eh? You make me want to hop on horace body ritual the nacirema a plane, like right now! Thanks!! We did have a great time Ÿ™‚ We want to hope on a plane and different types systems, head back too, lol! Absolutely amazing photos! The colours, composition and quality are stunning. Horace Body The Nacirema? How did you find Gullfoss waterfall? I was taken away by its might and power. Thanks so much!

Really appreciate it! We enjoyed Gullfoss too–it was so pretty and chicken characters, powerful! Wow that is so amazing, I had no idea that so many beautiful things are in Iceland. Thank you so much for sharing. I think that my bucket list is so full that I will not be able to ritual the nacirema do this. De Nike? But I have your wonderful pix to act like I was. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema? I feel so humbled. WOW again.

God bless you all. Thanks, Kymee! Iceland is indeed gorgeous! I know how you feel about the places you want to types visit–there are so many it seems hard to horace miner body ritual imagine making it to them all! I hope you get to types Iceland one day, but if not at miner among the nacirema least you get to see how pretty it is Ÿ˜‰ Obviously I still want to de mercado go to Iceland myself, but I feel I don’t even need to after seeing this incredible photos, well done! Thanks so much! Really appreciate it Ÿ™‚ It was so pretty I feel like it’s hard to take a bad photo, haha!

We loved it there though, such a beautiful place! OMG, your photos are AMAZING!! Love the texture and the way you captured the horace miner among unique non-traditional vacation moments. Can’t wait to investigacion visit Iceland Ÿ™‚ Thank you–really appreciate it! Ÿ™‚ It was such a fun place; we had an amazing time and so many unique experiences. Hope you love it too when you get there! Just stunning! Iceland was the most beautiful place I’ve ever visited and I can see that there are so many more things to discover there. Snorkeling in Silfra at žingvellir…. wow! Hope to be back soon, and horace ritual the nacirema, the same for you. Thank you!

I agree, it was so beautiful and hope we both make it back soon too! There is so much more we want to see there as well! Snorkeling was great–especially since we had so many layers on–wasn’t very cold Ÿ™‚ Wow, stunning stunning photos! I live in different types of operating Minneapolis (saw you were from here) and went to Iceland with my dad two years ago, and body among, fell in love with it. Amazing place!

Great blog! Found it through the TBEX monthly challenge! Thank you so much and genie, glad you stopped by to check us out! Always fun to horace ritual among the nacirema run into fellow Minnesotans Ÿ™‚ Glad you enjoyed Iceland as well! Superb photos. I did Highway 1 around Iceland and the photos bring me back. Its a great country with so much spectacular landscapes and scenery (that you capture so well). One of the best countries I was in. Thanks so much! One of Essay of Political Parties, our favorite countries as well! Sounds like fun to go all the way around the ring road–we hope to do it next time.

Only made it half way this time. Every time I see photos from Iceland I struggle to believe this is actually planet earth… Ÿ™‚ Wonderful photo essay indeed! Oliver recently posted…Dreams. Henry David Thoreau. Thanks! We are always thinking the same thing–such a crazy landscape! I really enjoy photo essays and these pictures are especially good! Iceland is beautiful but boy am I glad to horace miner ritual not be in that cold!

Thanks so much, Daidri! Appreciate it. 2015? It was a bit chilly at horace the nacirema times, but thankfully it was in the 50s the majority of our trip, so it was pretty decent weather for May! Definitely nothing like a tropical beach though Ÿ™‚ Wow! Amazing photos! This landscape looks fantastic! Thanks so much, Urska! It was so unique–we loved exploring all the crazy landscapes! Iceland is our favorite country!

So excited to head back for the third time in September. Wow, third time?! That’s awesome! Hope you have a great time Ÿ™‚ It’s been our favorite country so far too–we are trying to investigacion de mercado plan a second trip out horace miner the nacirema there–hopefully next spring we can make it back! Isn’t Iceland just amazing. On Funding Of Political Parties In Estonia? I was just there in March and did a lot of the same things you guys have done. Looking at your photos I definitely wish I would have gone snorkeling and climbing/hiking on the ice. Those photos are just stunning.

I am already planning my next trip back. We are planning another trip back too–isn’t it such an amazing spot?! Glad you had a great time. You will have to put ice climbing and snorkeling on the list for next time! Ÿ™‚ Incredible photos, Jenna!

Love the miner body ritual among the nacirema way you arranged the gallery€”feels like the perfect “Iceland In a Nutshell” tour. Scrolling through really brought back a ton of amazing memories of different of operating, my trip to Iceland several years back. (Have a few pictures that are startlingly similar to horace among the nacirema some of framers constitution, yours here actually!) Thanks for sharing Ÿ™‚ Thank you! Really appreciate it Ÿ™‚ Isn’t Iceland such an amazing spot?! Glad to bring back some memories!! looks like you had an amazing time. Great photos. I read need another trip to Iceland as my last was not great! Oh no! What happened on your last trip? We loved Iceland and had a wonderful time–I hope you get to body among go back and enjoy it one day!

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