Write my essay, paper -
First transcontinental railroad is completed - May 10,…
Nov 12, 2017 Transcontinental railroad date, write my essay -
Assistant Fashion Designer Resume Samples. Date? The best examples from thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by cimb clicks problem resume experts based on rigorous standards. Tailored for railroad date, various backgrounds and experience levels. Assistants Fashion Designer provide operational and administrative support to teachers philosophy, Fashion Designers. Their role is assisting with the creation of new materials, patterns, styles and transcontinental, colors for various fashion brands. Usual job activities include drawing sketches, keeping in touch with suppliers, taking part in meeting with customers, and ensuring that samples are ready on time. The strongest example resumes for Assistant Fashion Designer emphasize creativity, organization, the ability to follow the designer's artistic view, and networking skills. Coursework teaching both technical and design skills are commonly seen in successful Assistant Fashion Designer resumes.
Looking for job listings? Check out our Assistant Fashion Designer Jobs page. Assistant Fashion Designer/ Production Manager. Created technical flats; assisted with the development of tee shirt designs; and engineered print placements and colors for women's tee-shirts using sublimation, silkscreen, stamping, dying, etc. Presented trends and designs to prospective clients from overseas Communicated with various fabric, print, and trim vendors Formulated cost sheets on MS Excel Developed and maintained an archive for all existing styles and style numbers Represented [company name]. at various trade shows including the MAGIC Fashion and Apparel Trade show in Las Vegas, Nevada Managed garment production which involved: creating cutting tickets and purchase orders; communicating with sewing contractors, sample makers, and print vendors to clarify and negotiate turn around times. Ready Essay? Assistant Fashion Designer/ Sample Coordinator Fitting Model. Maximized bottom-line performances by generating development in sample coordinating. Proposed ideas and illustrations of new trends and fashions. Presented comprehensive showroom detailing and summarized demographic designs for buyer meetings. Maintained new and old production patterns. Arranged new and old samples and sample sales.
Conceptualized, developed, and followed up on first and production patterns and sample making. Railroad Date? Optimized the full concept of main of the titanic, production pattern and sample making by modeling as a fit model. Led a results-focused team of 3, prepared illustrations of designs to the Head Designer, while developing budget management for sales for upcoming productions. Handled ongoing vendor meetings for future and existing production. Also, managed various vendor meetings for future sample making. Assisted the Head Designer with decision-making, for establishing budgets for new productions.
Used my knowledge of garment construction and design, to create flat sketches in illustrator for presentation boards and technical packages. Researched and designed new styles for various lines. Date? Created and besides being a luxury main of the titanic, kept up to transcontinental railroad date, date records of design line presentation boards. Assisted in liner what was the of the titanic print department in creating prints, cleaning prints, changing color ways and layout. PLM entry. Transcontinental Railroad? Assisted with the chapter design and garment construction of (15) garments to railroad, establish the collection Fashion styled (10) different looks for runway presentation Organized and coordinated the fashion show's tickets sales. Assisted all design divisions within the company. Organized and kept track of lab dips and bead swatch approvals throughout the Ready Crops Essay season Developed bead patterns/layouts, embroidery designs, trims, and other surface embellishments Conducted daily communication with overseas factories to ensure clarity and progression of all design details. Transcontinental Railroad Date? Designed the osama the movie upscale casual [company name] collection.
Shopped all competition stores regularly to identify product styles, fit, colors, labels and trends Conceptualized and transcontinental date, managed the design process of new accessories including hats, bags and belts to problem, fit with the clothing line Collaborated closely with various photographers, models and celebrities to produce and finish photo shoots for date, various high end product lines distributed to Roundup Ready Essay, high end clothing retailers throughout Italy. Railroad Date? Assistant Design Intern Promoted to Assistant Fashion Designer. Responsible for efficiently designing, through sketching and CAD, seasonal collections of sweater knits, wovens and cut sew apparel for various private labels. Assisted in cimb problem designing, through sketching and CAD, seasonal collections for various private labels by identifying key colors, fabrics, prints, patterns and silhouettes for upcoming seasons Researched, sourced, and transcontinental, identified current trends in global and local markets, in a timely manner Corresponded with production team overseas through effective spec sheets and garment layouts. Developed new techniques and ideas of current trends Worked with team in styling and coordinating major presentations with buyers. Supervised marketing and product development. Constructed and perfected fashion sample garments Developed fashion patterns Facilitated business meetings Assisted Principle designer create fashion design styles.
Trend research and analysis. Created sketches and technical flats Sourced fabrics, trims, zippers, hangtags for osama the movie, production from LA Textile Trade Show Designed Style Sheets Tech-Packs from scratch using InDesign Maintained rudimentary monitoring of patternmaker, pattern graders, sewing contractors. Created mood/trend boards to show buyers/merchandisers for important sales/corporate meetings Measured and spec'd sample garments Created line sheets, CADs, print and transcontinental railroad, color story boards and technical packages for overseas manufacturing Attended Magic Show, Aug 2009 Kids' Show, Feb 2010 for sourcing lines to export Coordinated export relationships with overseas retailers, shipped goods, followed up with orders, invoicing. Free Professional Resume Critique. We have partnered with TopResume to bring you a FREE resume critique service.
Upload your resume and within 48 hours TopResume will email you a detailed analysis of problem, what hiring managers and automated systems think of your resume – and how to improve it.
Transcontinental Railroad - Inventions -…
Order Essay Paper -
Transcontinental Railroad Timeline of Important…
Nov 12, 2017 Transcontinental railroad date, buy essay papers here -
On the Life of transcontinental railroad, Augustus: Cassius Dio. The Roman History is a huge and famed work concerning the development of the Roman empire from the early republic to his own day in the post Antoine world. It is cimb history’s main source of information on many central issues in Roman politics and intellectual history. It is divided, according to transcontinental date, Dio, into the familiar divisions of Roman history that remain today. Osama The Movie. The period of the Republic, where all political and social power rested with the senate and the population at large, then the takeover of Augustus, leading to the death of the Stoic emperor Marcus, then, lastly his own day.
Hence, the transcontinental railroad date, order of the work is clear, and osama the movie, remains the standard ordering of transcontinental railroad date, Roman history today. The work is not pleasant reading since he has the Roundup Crops, tendency to merely recite events. He appears at the opposite of Herodotus in this respect. Railroad. Dry facts and Essay on The Red Badge of Courage, dates, while meticulously put together, make for date very tedious reading. Nevertheless, one has the worst of both worlds when, usually out of nowhere, he uses what Philip Cary calls “rhetorical commonplaces” (“Introduction” xiv), where the really useful details of warfare are left out in order that the typical and cliche Roman rhetorical devices can be dusted off. Need essay sample on besides liner what purpose of the titanic On the transcontinental railroad date, Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for philosophy you for only $12.90/page. What needs to be noted early on is that Dio was a senator. He is from railroad date a senatorial family from philosophy Greece, and transcontinental railroad date, he himself held that office. He was a historian and a lifelong civil servant. Roundup Crops. Hence, there are two biases from transcontinental railroad date his state: a Greek background and, importantly, a class status of high patrician, or a Senator, that one might expect to lead him into on The Red of Courage, anti-empire descriptions, since the empire was built on the increasing irrelevance of the Senate. Transcontinental Railroad Date. Octavian, soon to be Augustus, became the adopted son of the wildly popular Julius Caesar.
In the literature, he is referred to as Caesar, Octavian, and, when taking power, Augustus. This can be confusing to the reader. He very quickly sought to take action to osama the movie, claim the throne. His only threat was Antony, one who made himself unpopular with the date, population because he did not take action against cimb clicks problem, Julius’ assassins (Dio 45: 417). Dio makes the claim that, fairly early on, Julius adopted the young Augustus and began training him as a successor (Dio 45: 419). Transcontinental. Antony moved equally as quick, attempting to buy off the army with grants of land. It was clear that, no matter the public face of events, Antony and Octavian were enemies. Only one man could run the empire over the long term.
He approached the army clumsily, and apparently, did not bribe them enough (45: 431). Most soon tool Caesar’s side against a luxury liner was the titanic, Antony. Brutus, the murderer of Julius, was governor of Gaul. Transcontinental Date. He did not trust Antony, and hence, Antony’s pleas to him went unheeded. Besides Liner Main Purpose Of The. Ultimately, it was the speech of the famed lawyer Cicero that turned many more against Antony (46: ch. 5). Nevertheless, Antony still had powerful supporters.
Antony’s plan was to make certain the most powerful African provinces were under his control. Brutus in Gaul, however, was backed by the Senate. The Senate will be shown to be extremely fickle, oppositionist one minute, slavish the next. This becomes one of Dio’s most harsh condemnations of his own class. The wording of Dio’s attacks speaks of a highly emotional appeal. He views his own Senatorial class back then as corrupt and, worse, vacillating. He sees no patriotism, no love of country, but mere self-serving activities. Antony, Caesar and Lepidus (the triumvirate) entered Rome and began to destroy elements of the population that might be hostile to them. Transcontinental Date. They sought to Essay on of Courage, appear friendly, but everything about them was aimed at enmity.
The murders were of the wealthy, the powerful, those who might turn on railroad date them in the future, though Dio makes it clear that Antony was the chief leader of the murder bands, since he was less powerful (47: 129). This was aimed at decimating the senatorial class so as to smooth their way to power. Dio mentions the military leader Sulla and his own decimation of this class acting as a precedent for their actions. Philosophy. Roman politics can be reduced to battles between the railroad, senatorial class and the emperor, supported by the army. Dio does not attempt to downplay the violence, but, as the description goes on in Book 47, he makes it clear that Octavian was not really a part of the violence. It is possible that this was an afterthought on Dio’s part, making certain that Octavian remains innocent, though this is not clear at Essay The Red of Courage the beginning of the description. Caesar saved as many as possible during the massacre, as Dio is attempting to save his reputation–or so it seems. Railroad. Antony was to gain power by osama the movie any means necessary, this Dio makes clear.
So while Octavian has the right of succession as being Julius’ adopted son, Antony is then depicted as conniving to railroad, gain power illegally, or at least, immorally. The Senate had declared him an outlaw, and Antony had created an Gaulish army that he thought might win him the clicks, Roman power. Nevertheless the destruction of so many wealthy patrons meant that the new rulers, Octavian and Antony in particular, could control the body in the future, replacing dead members with new ones loyal to them. This is always the upshot of the railroad date, attacks on the Senate, whether physical or legislative, making the oligarchy subservient to the emperor’s (and the army’s) plans. Much of the property confiscated went to allies, and especially, the army.
This is yet another recurring theme: paying off the a luxury liner main purpose, army with lands from conquered peoples is central to transcontinental, effective political rule in Rome. Dio is honest about the on The Red Badge of Courage, implications of this all-important policy. They also outdid each other in magnifying Julius Caesar, hoping by transcontinental date this method to gain the trust of the frightened populous. Antony and Caesar went out on Roundup Essay campaign, as emperors should do, while the consul Lepidus, the railroad, third in the triumvirate, remained in the city. Summaries. This latter was basically a nonentity, but was effective in the short run as administering the long neglected city of Rome. The senate was suspicious of Caesar, since he was growing in popularity. Brutus of Gaul, himself popular in the Greek provinces, sought an alliance with the railroad date, Senate (47: 163). After the campaign, both Caesar and Antony sought to placate their men by grants of land. Only the consul was nervous, and he was soon to teachers philosophy, be dispatched. Brutus and Sextus of Sicily, sensing the divisions in the executive, sought to create their own alliances so as to take power. This will be dealt with later.
Socially, Dio is a Senator, that means that one might expect him to support the political claims of transcontinental date, his class, which were, in general, control over the Roman emperor and a stronger stress on oligarchy. In Dio’s case that is not true: he holds to of mice and men chapter, the dignity of the emperor as something truly Roman, he stresses strength and patriotism over the weakness that his own class might be expected to support. His hostility to Cicero is legendary, and yet, Cicero is the hero of the Senate and the republican cause in general. It was the empire, rather than a class or office, that Dio seems to support more than anything else, and, since he is going against his class much of the time, it might be said that this magnifies his reliability as a historian. The notion of the empire being in a constant dialectical motion with regard to the senate is also of Dio’s devising, a schema that most historians use today in dealing with all things Roman. As for his writing style, it is rather dry and descriptive, but his meaning is clear.
In his dealings with the killing of Brutus (48: pg. 221), he believes it the will of heaven that such a thing happened, since Brutus himself was a murderer. The army is transcontinental shown as basically fickle, demanding money and Ready Essay, land above everything else, remaining apolitical so long as the bribes come through on time. In Augustus’ case, the transcontinental railroad, army was a problem in the early years of the diumvirate with Antony, since the Senate backed Caesar rather than Antony, rightly viewing the teachers, future Augustus as being less bloodthirsty that his rival, now taking over Africa, a place that Antony will soon make his base, and the food source of the empire itself. The story Dio tells between Octavian and Antony is occasionally difficult to transcontinental railroad, follow.
Antony, at first dismissive of Octavian as a younger man, was forced, given his rival’s behavior at Rome, to make peace with him. They both had substantial power bases, both had some claim to power, and the senate, realizing this, reversed their earlier decree against Antony. Of Mice Summaries. There was substantial moves to transcontinental date, create pease between the two warriors so as to save the city any future bloodshed. Nevertheless, Octavian needed to continually placate the army, the “bad guy” in Dio’s narrative, and in order to do this there must be an eviction of many Italians to make way for the land allotments for 10,000 former soldiers. Antony made some use of this to attempt to turn the population from Octavian. Nevertheless, Octavian remains in Rome while Antony moved against the ever threatening Parthian empire in the east. Soon, Octavian will destroy yet another rival in Sextus, a rival who had dominated the wealthy island of Sicily,, after losing several naval engagements. When Octavian was master of the west, it was no just Antony and Octavian, the philosophy, Sextan threat was gone. (49: 15) The defeat of Sextus led to the Senate considering Octavian to transcontinental, be the war leader par excellence. Generally, it was clear that Sextus was considered an outlaw, as Antony once was, and his defeat was generally considered popular by the Roman population.
Sextus was using the powerful and strategic island of clicks problem, Sicily in order to control Rome thourgh the manipulation of grain supplies coming from Egypt. In fact, this method of control led Augustus to late begin building the port cities of railroad, southern Italy, such as Ostia, so as to Essay on The Red, bypass Sicily. At the same time Antony was losing against transcontinental railroad date, the Parthians and main purpose, their sometime enemy the date, Armenians (49: 19). Ready Crops Essay. While this was happening, Octavian took over transcontinental the government of Rome, using his talented ally Aggripa as local satrap, providing necessary services to clicks, the Roman state, incuding the all-powerful city of Rome itself. Antony began creating an “eastern empire” for himself–and is now married to transcontinental, Cleopatra–still, it should be noted, while married to Octavian’s sister, something that caused some problems with the always self-righteous Senate.
Antony even went so far as to create his own “anti-senate” in Egypt, while at the same time his rival had formally denounced him to the actual Roman Senate in the city itself. Antony’s followers, knowing of the violence his rival could do, fled eastward. The Roman world was apparently split in two. It could not have been a popular move to create an anti-empire in the east with a “foreign” queen given august titles and power beyond her abilities. (50: ch 3) Dio’s writing style emerges from dry description, and, seemingly animated by the idea of a split Roman world, begins to write more as a novelist than a historian. This is a change for the better. Naval warfare won the day for Octavian. Osama The Movie. While massive forces were arrayed in Greece, the battle of Acitum led to an victory for Octavian’s forces, since the fleet of Antony, not inconsiderable, was trapped, and railroad, their attempt to move outward was defeated by Essay on Badge Octavian. Antony’s forces on land, seeing the defeat of their boss’ naval forces, defected to that of Augustus, and transcontinental date, Actium was considered the turning point in Roman history. (Dio 51). This was the teachers, last gasp of the republic, and saw, oddly enough, an transcontinental date alliance of Octavian with the and men chapter, Roman senate. Maybe not so odd, since the Roman population as a whole was outraged by date the creation of an anti-empire, giving the eastern lands away to a Grecian queen, Cleopatra.
It was only when Antony married, however, that permitted the Senate to declare war. The dismembering of the empire was not a problem, it only Essay The Red Badge of Courage, was the marriage alliance that roused them to action. Dio here has no mercy on his fellow senators. Octavian as a military leader is laid out in some detail in transcontinental railroad date, book 53. He stressed experience over numbers, slow cutting away at of mice and men chapter his rivals rather than glorious sudden engagements. Being the ward of Julius Caesar paid off.
The naval forces of railroad date, Octavian were smaller, but loaded with former veterans, seasoned soldiers and sailors who made mincemeat of Antony’s larger but less experienced forces. The very fact that they so quickly abandoned Antony says something about their dedication. The point now was to take the problem, power given to him, and use it wisely. Few thought the transcontinental railroad, republic was worth saving, and, given the divisions in philosophy, the empire, it was time to heal, and to create a unified state where the transcontinental railroad, wealthy would have a check placed on their ambition. (Dio, 53 chapters 1 and 2). Octavian feigned a lack of interest in rule, and the Senate sought him out, attempting to convince him of his necessity to the city. He took power at their suggestion and began to appoint governors for the most powerful provinces in the east–Egypt and Syria–and the west, in Gaul. In Chapter 53, Dio deals with the conspiracy against Augustus and how this was used as an excuse to begin destroying opposition, something depicted as an unfortunate necessity given the former split in the empire. Unfortunately, the reader is forced to agree with Dio’s assessment, as Roman politics is never a smooth game, Dio is convincing and eloquent here. Augustus took over all foreign and domestic roles as Emperor, and created what one might call today a “new order. ” He was, using stealth, slowly concentrating power to himself with the senate’s assistance, but ultimately at their expense. In book 53 (chapters 1 and 2), Octavian is shown taking more and more power, while all the and men, time he posed as a passive participant.
His wild popularity with the people made it possible for transcontinental railroad date him to Crops Essay, take full power while retaining the trappings of republicanism, and it is in their ruse that Dio makes the single most famous element of Octavian’s rule. It is in this description that gave later historians all the ammunition they needed to judge the Roman Augustus. Dio writes: In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the senate and by the people as well. But as he wished even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted all the care and oversight of the public business, on the ground that it required some attention on his part, yet he declared he would not personally govern all the provinces, and that in the case of transcontinental railroad, such provinces as he should govern he would not do so indefinitely; and he did, in fact, restore to the senate the weaker provinces, on the ground that they were peaceful and of mice summaries, free from war, while he retained the more powerful, alleging that they were insecure and precarious and either had enemies on their borders or were able on transcontinental their own account to a luxury was the of the, begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this was that the senate might fearlessly enjoy the transcontinental railroad date, finest portion of the empire, while he himself had the hardships and the dangers; but his real purpose was that by this arrangement the senators will be unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone had arms and maintained soldiers (53: 220). Augustus reformed the The Red Badge of Courage, army, creating a more regular division of men with a regular salary. This was a central reform.
He also moved them to the ever porous frontiers, where they could do useful work and, importantly, can be kept out of politics. The Senate was put in its place. It was clearly a second rate entity under the Augustinian monarchy. Being an intelligent statesman, he treated the senate with decorum, and it was almost like the senate was not losing power at transcontinental railroad all. Teachers. New offices were created where wealthy supporters of Octavian’s order can take some share of power. A new bureaucracy was developing where Octavian can staff it with his own friends, crating a new clientele. The provinces were treated well, and the governors were chosen not merely for transcontinental their support of the new state but for their competence. Client kingships were permitted to continue. He treated the provinces the say he treated the senate. In chapter 17 of Book 53, Dio writes: In this way the power of cimb, both people and railroad, senate passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarch; for monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter if two or three men did later hold the power at the same time. The name of monarchy, to be sure, the Romans so detested that they called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort; yet since the osama the movie, final authority for the government devolves upon railroad date, them, they must needs be kings.
The offices established by osama the movie the laws, it is true, are maintained even now, except that of censor; but the entire direction and administration is absolutely in railroad, accordance with the wishes of the one in power at Roundup the time. And yet, in order to preserve the appearance of having this power by transcontinental railroad date virtue of the laws and not because of their own domination, the Ready, emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the offices which under the republic and by the free gift of the people were powerful, with the single exception of the dictatorship. He sought to reform the transcontinental date, morals of the cimb, elite, something important for the maintenance of social stability. Date. He sought to limit divorces and to reward child rearing, He became a patron of the arts and literature. In book 53, it is clear that our writer is a fan of Octavian. The Red. He explains that the celebrations of his victory and his coming to power were based on his own wealth; he refused to use public money to celebrate his victories.
At the same time, he abolished many new laws that had been made by the triumvirate, which made him more popular, since Antony by this time was loathed in Rome, and the latter’s suicide was considered a loss of minor importance. In chapter 19, Dio writes “In this way the government was changed at that time for the better and in the interest of greater security; for it was no doubt quite impossible for the people to be saved under a republic. ” What is the transcontinental, most interesting is Augustus’ address to the Roman people. He makes significant points that solidify his rule, he provides a constitution of sorts that would typify the sort of state that was slowly coming into being. He first, without surprise speaks of his army reforms, making a stronger and more rationalized force to deal with the frontier problems that will beset Rome until the end of her life. Since Dio well knows of these problems, he begins here a foreshadowing technique, attributing to Octavian a substantial amount of prophetic insight, of a sort. The army, by being mentioned first in his long speech, shows that army reform was primary in Octavian’s mind, since the loyalties of the army are necessary for any kind of social reform to take place, in fact for any monarch to successfully rule Rome. Chapter. Then, he speaks of mercy, the desire to unify the empire and spare the lives of his former enemies.
The fact that these two subjects are juxtaposed is significant, since army reform speaks of violence and defense, while mercy, of the opposite. The structure of this speech (one can presume Dio edited some of it) is very telling, and skillfully placed together. Many of them had fled anyway, but the city of Rome itself was to be unified, and again made the heart of the empire. Transcontinental Date. This makes sense since the real reason Antony was hated was is desire to create a new Rome in Alexandria. On The Red Badge Of Courage. Hence, he is appealing to Roman patriotism, something always central to Dio. He speaks of giving up his own office, of giving power back to the people, with the transcontinental railroad, notion, though unstated, that it would be given back to him in osama the movie, trust. He did not want power, so he says, and is even willing to give the peaceful and wealthy provinces to the senate, while he alone takes the transcontinental railroad date, strife-filled ones.
The point here is that he will take the provinces that are filled with troops, while giving the Senate wealthy and peaceful provinces, but provinces without any men. It was a brilliant tactic, met with approval by Roundup Crops Essay Dio. He speaks of himself as a lover of peace, and goes through great pains to connect himself to Julius Caesar, the bringer of peace and plenty to the citizens of Rome (and ton of booty from foreign conquest, distributed to the Roman population). The fact that the civil war is over means the society can be unified again, bringing peace back to date, the strife-torn Roman state. He speaks of cooperation and the unity of all classes within the empire and the city of chapter summaries, Rome itself. In order to do this, he says, the ancient laws of Rome should be guarded. The populace is interested, apparently in two things, revolution and tradition. Opposites? Not according to Dio: he speaks of revolution, he speaks of a radically altered constitution, but he also speaks of the placating of popular opinion by at least using rhetoric that is traditional, and holding that the ancient Roman traditions need to be revived and guarded so as to ensure the stability of the people and the city. Dio reports Octavian to say: And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to be done in each of the leading departments of administration.
And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for railroad date what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advantageous than what is osama the movie always subject to innovations, even though it seems to be superior. Next, pay strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon transcontinental date, you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and osama the movie, do this not only in word but also in deed, not only in public but also in date, private, that you may obtain, not penalties, but honors. Entrust the offices both of peace and of war to those who are the most excellent and the most prudent, harboring no jealousy of cimb clicks problem, any man, and transcontinental date, indulging in rivalry, not to advance the private interests of cimb clicks, this or that man, but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous (53: 10). Private interest needs to be rejected, Octavian says. This is transcontinental railroad date very important to Dio, since the senate is the very nexus of private interest, and everything that was bad about the old republic. It has proven itself incompetent in the past precisely because it was an oligarchy, not an aristocracy. The fact that Dio is part of this class is telling; he is no doubt speaking the truth for he breaks rank with his own class to condemn–at least the old–senate, but clearly praising the new one since it supports the teachers philosophy, monarchy. As we have said: this senate has been purged many times, and its new members are powerful, royally minded, and need to be brought into the realm of rule, not rejected by it.
Hence one can be a senator and be pro-emperor. But it is the old senate that is to be condemned as a oligarchy. He speaks of treating the provinces well. These provinces are friends and allies of the Roman state, and should not be treated as cash cows. This is very important, since the transcontinental, empire is based around a steady stream of clicks, revenue from the railroad date, provinces. His reform of the rule of the provinces is cimb clicks problem something extremely important to Octavian, and important to the stability of the empire.
They need competent and public spirited governors, not self-seeking senators and upper classmen. Peaceful provinces, independent of his plans with respect to transcontinental, the senate, are better for the empire than rebellious ones. It is important that public spirit be resurrected, it is central to the Roman idea, and cannot be destroyed by self-interest and self-seeking. Again, this is a central recurring theme throughout this work, and Essay Badge of Courage, its influence on later generations of historians is incalculable. The literary effect is that the railroad, empire is a democratically ratified constitution, state and way of political life. The emperor is populist, the senate, oligarchic. They are opposites, literary types, as it were. But not merely literary types, but rather, historic forces that will appear and reappear throughout the history of the cimb problem, west. The people, according to Dio (52, pg.
219), demand royal government. They see stability and legal reform–not to mention subsidies–coming from centralized government. They have had enough of the transcontinental date, division of the self-seeking politicians, and want the results that they are convinced Augustus can provide for them. Central state power, it seems, is only a threat to the oligarchy, to Antony’s former supporters, politicians and senators who want a free playing field for self-enrichment. The people then, demand the royal power be taken in Ready, full by Octavian (cf. 53: 12). It is clear, however, theat the senate, whether from loyalty or from fear, ratified the new position of Augustus. Many of them are creatures of Octavian, many simply support him because the political wind is transcontinental railroad blowing in a certain direction. The are also mollified, as aforesaid, by and men the notion of having full control over peaceful provinces such as Egypt.
The plan and development of rule is brilliant here, and the brilliance of transcontinental railroad, it is certainly not lost on philosophy Dio. Dio has created a literary figure, the stuff of legend, in Octavian. Transcontinental. This is not to denigrate his historical credentials, but to understand that, from a dry beginning, Dio has blossomed into a true historical novelist. Creating types, oligarchic self interest, division and of mice and men chapter summaries, patriotism, as well as populism in office, that will themselves become the very vocabulary of the historical profession right up until the transcontinental, 21st century. Dio says, writing from his position many years after the fact, that the royal authority taken and philosophy, created by Augustus has now “become tradition. ”(53, pg.
59) which is another way of saying that it has worked, for something cannot become tradition unless it has delivered the goods that has withstood the test of time and created an date even more powerful, peaceful and prosperous Roman state. He clearly states that this new state, created by Augustus and his unprecedented situation having defeated Anthony and preserved the unity of the empire, a unity far better than in the old republic. “Such is the number and nature of the appellations which those who possess the imperial power employ in accordance with the besides a luxury purpose titanic, laws and with what has now become tradition. At present all of them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and the same time, with the exception of the title of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times. ” So says Dio in Book 53. The emperor appears to be even handed, by changing advisors every six months, so as to permit of no factionalism (53, pg 245). Factions more than anything else are odious to the people of Rome, who view Octavian as one who has restored unity, and hence, the ability of the railroad date, state to continue to achieve its aims, significantly, after army reform and transportation reform. The rebuilding of roads is philosophy significant, for transcontinental date it is a central service of the Roman state, and this has been left to abandonment during the long period of teachers philosophy, civil wars and unrest. The roads are also a symbol of Roman unity, and railroad, hence, their repair and teachers, reconstruction are emblematic of Augustus’ plans and his public image. The repair of the railroad, roads encourages commerce, but, more importantly for the Roman population, they symbolize the unity and strength of the empire.
After defeating the Alpine tribes, land in that part of the world, north-eastern Gaul, was given to members of the Roman guard, the personal bodyguard of the emperor. The praetorian guard itself. At the same time, he sought to give subsidies to the people after the pacification of the Gallic province. Dio writes at the beginning of book 54 that the reign of Augustus was “moderate. ” This means it maintained a mean between dictatorship on teachers the one hand, and slavish populism on the other. He created, in this sense, a new set of political virtues. Transcontinental. There was no grand campaigns, no tyranny, but there was–without a tear being shed–several more purges of the senatorial body. Much of the beginning of this book is dedicated to the decadence of the Senate, of and men summaries, bribe taking and, barring that, servile flattery towards the emperor.
Only a few were executed, but the Senate was continually rendered toothless, but could never be abolished altogether. He reformed jury trials, making trials public, and all deliberations available to the common folk. His moderation is transcontinental railroad found in and men summaries, the request of the senate–he always make such requests, regardless of railroad date, his dominating the latter–that Rome make no further conquests. Rome had reached her natural limits, with the understanding that it was now time to rationally govern what the Romans already had, rather than seeking to paper over incompetent rule with promises of osama the movie, future conquests and the slaves and date, booty that such conquests provided. This was an open challenge to the senate, though Dio is rather reserve in developing it as such.
He still seeks to maintain the fiction that the senate, though purged, was an independent body. Teachers. , it was not, and its independence was challenged by the demand that rule be one of stewardship, rather than simply continued conquest. The senate later, as Dio well knows, was not up to this challenge. This is what was going on railroad date in the city. Augustus administered the clicks, subject territory according to the customs of the date, Romans, but permitted the allied nations to be governed in their own traditional manner; and he did not regard it as desirable either to Essay Badge of Courage, make any additions to the former or to extend the latter by any new acquisitions, but thought it best to be satisfied with precisely what they already possessed, and he communicated this opinion to the senate (Dio 54, 9) On page 323, another important piece of legislation is discussed, that against bribe taking. Continual moral reform was as important as anything else in the empire, abnd both int terms of sexual fidelity, as well as financial fidelity, morals were enforced.
Marriage and transcontinental railroad, honest dealing were encouraged, and anyone convicted of taking bribes was given the osama the movie, relatively moderate punishment of being debarred from office for 5 years. Transcontinental. He sought to continually replace senators and harm senatorial power by decreeing that any wealthy person in the empire is eligible for office. And even here, if the property qualification was not met with by osama the movie a competent man, it was provided by the emperor himself. In this way, more and more clients of the king were created, recreating the Roman state, maintaining an oligarchy, but with the understanding that money was the true route to power, not being a part of the formerly closed senatorial class. Here, he could split the upper class over the spoils of office.
When he had done this, he purged the senatorial body. For the transcontinental railroad date, members seemed to him to be too numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in chapter summaries, a large throng; moreover, he hated not only transcontinental railroad date, those who were notorious for some baseness, but also those who were conspicuous for their flattery. And when, as on the previous occasion, no one would resign of his own free will, and Augustus, in his turn, did not wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the thirty best men (a point which he afterwards confirmed by Essay on Badge of Courage oath) and bade them, after first taking the transcontinental, same oath, choose five at besides a luxury liner what main purpose of the a time, relatives not to be included, by transcontinental railroad writing the a luxury was the purpose of the, names on tablets (54: 13) The local opposition parties were silenced by victorious missions to Gaul, where the endlessly difficult Celtic tribes of the transcontinental railroad, Alpine region were pacified again and again. When things got too hot in the capital, it was easy to leave for a time, and teachers, earn some socially necessary military victories, always significant in creating popularity, though Dio does not make this inference. Though bad in itself, the behavior of the Celtic tribes, described by Dio in almost unutterable forms, made the victories over them all the more significant to the new reign. The Celts apparently began slaughtering their Roman captives, and even made daring raids into central Italy, having already taken the fertile and strategic Po valley in railroad, the north. These victories provided greater popularity and proved the of mice and men summaries, competence of the new reign, since the transcontinental railroad, Senate, time and again, proved itself incompetent to deal with military disturbances in the western provinces before. In the process, he mad many new citizens, and granted some cities their liberties under the indirect rule of a luxury liner what was the main purpose titanic, Rome. Again, all of this was good policy, both for Rome and her allies, but also for building up provincial clients for the new government and system. It is precisely in this client building measures that the transcontinental railroad date, new system was to last as long as it did, to “become tradition” in the words of Dio.
These measures are clearly approved by our historian, as they are the what titanic, very building blocks of a newly stabilized and just Roman empire. Railroad Date. In these cities and re-conquered provinces, he created local forms of government, maintained local customs, and attached them, via the newly reconstructed roads, to commerce with the capital. He provided them with stable currency, which did nothing but stimulate more and more trade and economic development. New classes of elites developed in a luxury liner main purpose of the titanic, the provinces which werre basically creates of the empire, for their owned their success to the Roman empire. Hence, granting liberties was doing nothing but cementing them further into the Roman state. This is an issue that Dio returns to again and again. In a daring move, Dio reports that, as senatorial families, some ancient, had lapsed into poverty, he permitted “knights” or low level soldiers of transcontinental railroad, distinction, to was the titanic, be able to take senatorial posts. Though still a very prestigious position, life as a senator was becoming more difficult, more humiliating and more dangerous,.
Hence, even among some of the older senatorial families, there were many who did not want to take seats, and used their financial ineligibility as an excuse. Many lower level soldiers, the Roman knights, were given these posts, making the same a more and transcontinental, more popular body with the population, the army and with the elite in the provinces, many of whom had local bodies similar in composition to the Roman senate, and all basing their legitimacy on the emperor (54- 26). By way of conclusion, by besides a luxury liner what was the purpose titanic the time the reader is finished with these 10 central books of The Roman History, one comes away with an ambiguous picture. There is the date, creation of literary types, with their archetypal virtues and vices: the senate, self seeking; the emperor, populist and strong; the people, wanting strong rule, basically virtuous; the and men summaries, army, ever fickle and corruptible. Railroad Date. Ultimately, there is only one character in this description: that of the empire itself. Essay Badge. All the above types serve the empire in one way of another, some bad, others good. The army’s claim is based on railroad date its central role in creating the empire in the first place. The senate seems to have no claim at all, except by claim of descent, a claim made absurd by Dio.
Dio ends by implying that the empire is best served by cimb clicks problem a connection between people, army and emperor, and that the senate is far from the repository of political wisdom it was created to be. Dio’s style is reserved, occasionally religious, and, in the end, has a powerful belief in fate, though this is far from transcontinental railroad blind fate, and in Dio’s treatment, nothing is done by chance. Virtue, and virtue alone, regardless of its specific institutionalization, is central to everything. Man makes his own luck.
Order Content from the Best Essay Writing Service -
Significant Dates - Transcontinental Railroad…
Nov 12, 2017 Transcontinental railroad date, order your own writing help now -
The Best Writing Service Review Galaxy. The Best Writing Service Review Galaxy. The Best Writing Service Review Galaxy. With a staff of over railroad 2,000 American writers and customers in over 45 countries, Ultius is the global leader in clicks problem writing, editing, and business writing solutions. Your Deadline, Our Priority. This company is not bad. Date? They have written 5 essays for me. A Luxury Was The Of The? I would say 4 out of 5 was well written.
They get my papers back in a timely manner for the most part. The revision is the problem. You can get your paper revised but it will usually run after your due date so you find yourself doing some editing. The priceS are pretty standard. Transcontinental? I trust these guys and plan on using them when I need to meet a dead line but may have my hands too full. Levitria B. Cimb Clicks? reviewed Ultius on Jan 26, 2015 via SiteJabber Click to see the original review on an external website. ? Learn more about our commitment to verified reviews. Why choose Ultius when buying essays? Ultius deeply understands your frustration when it comes to buying essays for reference use. Railroad? There are a million options but only a few of them are reputable. While many other service options fail to offer reliable support and hire writers from foreign countries, Ultius is refreshingly different.
Since 2010, our platform has been connecting customers with an expert selection of essay writers that are credible and internally verified as being native English speakers. When purchasing essays for model use, we offer free amenities to ensure that your experience is satisfactory. From free revisions, editorial review of what was the main purpose of the your final sample, robust security to transcontinental railroad date originality scans, we have all the tools to help you get the best purchased essay. We also offer an unmatched level of convenience through a mobile-friendly site, time saving features and besides being liner what was the main purpose of the a commitment to your deadline. Railroad Date? Finally, the Ultius difference truly comes from our strong base of American writers as well as the fact that our service is trusted, reviewed and besides a luxury what main purpose titanic verified. Free Amenities When You Buy Essays. With any model essay purchase, you receive various amenities that are free of charge. Our free revision policy allows you to make changes and modifications after the order is transcontinental completed. Essay Badge? That’s right - if you’re not happy, we will gladly work through your feedback to make sure we get your original instructions right.
Plus, Ultius employs a 24/7 staff of dedicated editors to transcontinental railroad make sure that your final order is Essay reviewed internally before we send it out. Railroad? This internal review includes a free Copyscape originality scan to make sure that it is 100% original. If it doesn’t pass, we don’t send it out. Ultius is also proud to offer an extremely convenient user experience and process when you are buying essays. Our platform is mobile and tablet friendly so that you can place, manage and review orders on the go. The interface is teachers designed for your device and ensures you never miss a beat. Our support team is also available 24/7 via text, email, live chat and phone.
With us, you will never get stuck without on-demand help. Transcontinental Railroad? The process is also designed to be quick and simple: The Essay Ordering Process Input the clicks problem sample order details; Confirm your instructions are accurate; Finalize payment using PayPal or any major debit/credit card. It’s that simple. American Essay Writers and Top Quality. Our commitment to having talented writers is the staple of our platform. While lots of other sample writing services hire foreign writers, we only hire Americans that are native speakers. In fact, our hiring selection process is so thorough and rigorous that less than 3% of transcontinental railroad all applicants end up getting hired. We assure you that our writing staff is tried, tested and subject to continuous improvement. Writer Stats Fluent in osama the movie hundreds of essay subjects; Trained in date all modern citation styles: MLA, APA, CMS, Turabian and others; Topic specialists for your discipline.
Our commitment to quality would not be complete without the fact that all orders get thoroughly reviewed by editors first. Essay writing services from Ultius are trusted, reviewed and and men chapter verified. Turn to trusted third parties like the BBB and SiteJabber and you will see hundreds of transcontinental verified reviews from customers like yourself who bought essays. We are accredited with the besides being what was the of the titanic Better Business Bureau and transcontinental railroad date have an “A+” rating. Even if your order goes awry, we have a strong track record of resolving issues and making things right. To protect you further, we use McAfee secure to scan our site on a daily basis. Philosophy? This helps protect your private information. Ultius is the transcontinental global leader in consumer writing services because we believe in summaries doing things a bit differently. Benefits of Buying Essays from Ultius. If you came to date this page, it means you are looking for help with completing your essay. While you considering whether to buy essays, it’s a good idea to consider the benefits of using a custom sample writing service like Ultius.
Our model services can surely give you a strong advantage when it comes to completing your own work. Consider the fact that our service will save you precious time. Extra time will allow you to being a luxury what focus on other important things. Transcontinental Railroad? By having a clear model to guide you, you will know where to focus on in terms of Essay on Badge of Courage direction, sources, organization and transcontinental railroad general clarity. Getting expert help is another strong benefit. Essay Badge Of Courage? Most colleges and universities even have dedicated writing help labs on campus for you.
Our platform connects you in a digital environment where you will have access to experts you won’t find locally. Finally, utilizing third-party by buying essay guidance will benefit your future for the better. At Ultius, our tagline is “on your schedule.” However, it’s not just a tagline, it’s also our promise to railroad you. Cimb Clicks Problem? We deeply understand how important time management is for busy individuals. We also understand how beneficial it can be when you use trusted services to date help you get more out of your day. Osama The Movie? When you use model writing services from transcontinental Ultius, we save you time by doing the heavy lifting. Not only do we take the time to philosophy digest and transcontinental translate your instructions into a final sample, but we also provide insight into how the work should be done in terms of sources, addressing the osama the movie core question and properly citing the required sources.
Another great benefit is the final outcome you will get on your essay once you get expert sample writing help. Each and every one of date our writers, editors and support team members are trained in their craft to make sure that you get a positive outcome. You can spend days and even weeks finding an expert essay writer in your field through Craigslist or your local campus. But those channels are not secure and proven to connect you with the writer you need, right now. Everyone needs expert help and our writers are trained veterans in the craft ready to of mice summaries assist you after you have made your sample essay purchase decision. Using Ultius to help you with your essay writing is not only convenient, but it also leads to better outcomes.
Customers who buy essay model services are more ready than ever to complete the toughest essays. With the help we provide, the outcomes lead to stronger grades, punctual graduation and even strong job placement as a result of a better GPA. But more importantly, it leads to the satisfaction of knowing that you utilized all of your available resources and options for transcontinental, the most important projects you have to work on. Invest in cimb problem your future by investing in Ultius to help you with a sample essay. Ready to get started? Professional American writer. Transcontinental Railroad Date? Ordering takes five minutes.
Purchased Essay Samples and Example Work. Before you buy essays from Ultius, make sure to carefully review other sample essays we have written in the past. Like any service offered by a company, it’s a good idea to “trust but verify.” For example, you probably tested out the computer or mobile device you are reading this on. You should do the same for our service. Besides Being A Luxury Purpose Titanic? For that reason, Ultius is happy to offer examples of the work that we can produce for transcontinental railroad date, you. Listed below are some samples we have previously written on our blog. The only difference is that these are published for the web and yours would not be. Help and Resources - Even if You're Not Purchasing an Essay.
Even if you are not interested in besides a luxury liner what main purpose buying an essay from Ultius, we have many additional guides and resources to help you construct your own. You can utilize our writing expertise and acumen to find out what a good end-product is transcontinental date supposed to look like and how to osama the movie produce it. We have taken the liberty of condensing our detailed Ultius essay help section to give you a glimpse of the essay writing process. Additionally, we are happy to share our quality tools and railroad date best practices to make sure that you have everything you need to guide you through the entire audit process. Over the years, Ultius has worked with customers who bought essay samples and relentlessly studied essay preparation to on The Red Badge of Courage determine what few key characteristics generally result in the completion of a successful essay. No matter what type of essay it is or the subject matter, the items listed below are considered best practices that must be followed. Pay close attention to the recommendations and you will be well on your way to success, even if you don't buy essays for sample use from us. The Thesis - The Foundation of a Great Essay.
The thesis statement, from the first to last sentence, must be airtight. The primary argument has to come from a solid base. If there is a specific question that needs to be answered, the thesis statement must address it within the railroad conclusion of the first paragraph. Osama The Movie? Also, the essay thesis needs to date be a plan of attack for what the Essay Badge of Courage body paragraphs are going to be about. Click here for more information on writing strong thesis statements. Good writers know that attention to detail is as must. Plus, your professor will expect it. Date? Make sure to clearly read the instructions (all of osama the movie them) and clarify by asking questions.
For example, some common things to look out for include: (ii) Required number of sources; (iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrative…etc); Thoroughly read the original essay instructions and transcontinental railroad date make a plan before even starting to write. Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay. The structure of an essay can really make it or break it for you. Teachers? Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and body content that supports your original thesis.
The introduction should funnel down to your thesis and narrow down the specific argument you want to make. Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and reference credible sources appropriately using the right citation style. Finally, conclusions should not introduce new information and must recap the main essay points that you presented previously. Adherence to date Citation Style Guidelines. Finally, make sure to properly style your prepared essay in the appropriate citation style. And Men? For example, APA style has strict guidelines for transcontinental, cover pages and running heads while Chicago and cimb problem Turabian require either footnotes or endnotes. Knowing how to cite properly and format things accordingly can be worth upwards of twenty percent of your entire grade. Railroad Date? Following the formatting rules is an easy win, but you have to take the osama the movie time to do it right. Also, always remember to transcontinental credit another author’s work and don’t call it your own, especially if you bought an essay online.
While writing good essays is time consuming and tedious, it all comes down to following best practices and being diligent. Ready Crops Essay? Our writers follow a clear methodology that is transcontinental date both practical and besides a luxury was the main titanic efficient for getting the best possible outcome. First, make sure to select a good topic that you can write easily about and transcontinental make sure you can find scholarly materials about besides being what was the main purpose of the titanic it. Next, take some time to plan and make an outline based around a clear thesis statement. Railroad? Proceed to write the body while adhering to and men chapter summaries strict rules for paragraphs and inclusion of references. Finally, complete your references page and review the draft before submission using quality audit tools. Here, we recommend the same tools that we use if you were to purchase an essay model from us. Essay Topic Selection and transcontinental date Research. Strong topic selection is an important first step. If possible, pick a topic that has lots of available research materials or aligns with items you are studying in Roundup Ready Crops Essay other classes. Transcontinental Railroad Date? Try to avoid current events as there may be a lack of available research materials.
Sample Essay Topics. Death penalty Abortion rights Gun rights Gender inequality. When doing academic research, only trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to. Lastly, collect the sources that you need first and go through them thoroughly. Now that you have picked a topic and collected some credible sources, it’s time to make a plan. Start by identifying common assumptions about the topic and find common themes.
For example, if exploring the The Red of Courage causes of poverty, you will inevitably find out transcontinental date, that governments are the ones that control lots of food production and allocation to the people. Once you have enough evidence to osama the movie support a general theme, construct a thesis statement and make an outline of the core items that support that assertion. Date? If you don't think this step is necessary, just remember that our writers are trained to follow this process on all purchased sample essay orders. You are ready to start writing. Start with an introductory paragraph that funnels down from a broad issue to besides a luxury liner what main purpose of the titanic a specific time and place.
Provide background details as necessary. Railroad? Then, conclude the cimb problem introduction with your thesis statement. Date? Body paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences long and Roundup Crops start with a topic sentence. Always introduce your quotes and avoid “dropping them” without context. Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and make sure not to introduce any new information.
Essay References and Final Review. Finally, construct your works cited page using the right citation style guide. Depending on the format, you may also need a title page. Review your final essay by reading it out loud and make sure you addressed your original instructions! You should use EasyBib to quickly build citations in railroad date almost any format. Ready? Have a friend, teacher or trusted essay editing service review your final draft to make sure it is done properly (if you didn't already buy an essay). References and Considerations Before Buying an Essay. While the previous section described summarized steps towards writing an transcontinental date essay, consider going through our extended 14-Step Essay Writing Guide for a more thorough look at each section. Of Mice And Men Chapter? It also includes template that you can download as well as color-coded visual aids. Transcontinental Railroad Date? You can also learn about and Essay on The Red of Courage see examples of essay related terms in our extensive glossary section. Whether you choose to use Ultius for buying essays online or not, we hope that our extensive walkthroughs have helped you in your journey to transcontinental finding essay help.
Not what you're looking for Essay, or not convinced? The links below may help. Search hundreds of services. Click to Verify. Ultius is proud to transcontinental railroad date have strong verified reviews from different review vendors. Last updated on 16 January 2017 . With every order, you can count on the following: Delivered on time 100% original Free revisions Awesome 24/7 support World-class writers. Every order comes with these free features: 275 Words Per Page Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Revisions American Writers Plagiarism Scan.
Connect with a professional writer by placing your first order. The entire order process takes roughly five minutes and we usually match you with a writer within a few hours. Enter code newcust during checkout and save money on your first order. Have more questions? Get in touch with us or explore common questions. Ultius provides an online platform where we connect you with a freelance writer for sample writing, editing and teachers philosophy business writing services. The company encourages and expects fair use of our services.
Here are the guidelines. Order Revisions i. The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the deadline and whether we met the original instructions. Sample Writing ii. Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of railroad date a completed order and being liner of the titanic are free with a three-day deadline.
For earlier deadlines and railroad general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Osama The Movie? Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty. All provided sample services must only transcontinental railroad, be used for reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world. Being A Luxury Liner Main Of The Titanic? Connect with great American writers and get 24/7 support.
Ultius is accredited with the Better Business Bureau and has an A+ rating. © 2017 Ultius, Inc. Before we chat, please tell us a bit about transcontinental railroad date yourself.
Online Cheap Custom Essay -
Transcontinental railroad completed - May 10, 1869 -…
Nov 12, 2017 Transcontinental railroad date, order essay from experienced writers with ease -
10 Things You Need to date Know About Essay Castle Coursework Writing Service. For all those that are struggling with an unbearable amount of coursework, we’ve got good news – you are not alone! Gone are the times when you had to deal with all kinds of courseworks on your own. We are here to help you, and our help is all you need to be able to manage college and other things you have in life. Roundup Ready Essay. What can we do for you? In simple words, we will do your coursework, no matter what it implies, without you having to lift a finger. EssayCastle.co.uk has a vast number of writers at its disposal and railroad date their quills (or, more specifically, writing skills and time) are free for hire. We don’t expect you to plunge head first, however, and would like to tell you ten things you need to know about our service before you make your very first order. Besides Titanic. What you need to know about our coursework help.
We are neither a resell service nor an online library. Papers written her, whatever the type, are created entirely from scratch. Once a paper has been submitted to the client, it is then deleted from the transcontinental railroad date data base to prevent re-using. When you order coursework writing from our specialists, you are free to provide as many instructions as you deem necessary. The ability to Essay Badge customize your order is one of the biggest benefits you will get at our service. Do you need an essay? A research paper? A PhD thesis? No problem!
Our service has been designed with all our customers’ needs in mind, so you will address our writing team with all kinds of requests. Urgency is often a major factor to choose an transcontinental date, appropriate writing company. Teachers Philosophy. We are glad to tell you that ours starts at transcontinental railroad date, only 3 hours. And even if your order is VERY urgent, it will be fulfilled and delivered right when you requested it to be fulfilled and and men summaries delivered. While your order is being fulfilled, you have to transcontinental railroad date options: to Essay on Badge of Courage participate in date fulfilment and keep tabs on paper development OR stay away from it entirely. What you need to know about our UK coursework company. Once you become a customer of this service, you will enjoy special discounts dedicated to holidays and other occasions. By using them, you can achieve significant savings and get the same high-quality papers. We have a few hundred of writers the cimb problem majority of railroad, whom are based in the UK and have degrees from major UK universities. The minimum required threshold is a master’s degree.
With a wide span of subjects available, you can order English coursework or any other type of coursework you might possibly need. We currently cover over fifty subject areas and are adding more to cope with changing curricula. It’s not the end of the world if you don’t like the paper you have received from us, and cimb there is railroad, no need to try and improve it on your own. For situations like this, we have introduced a free-revision policy. Teachers Philosophy. After your paper has been written, you can request multiple free revisions. The number of revisions is transcontinental, not limited; however, we do limit the time to philosophy 14 days. Last but not least, papers provided to our customers are ALWAYS original. Even though a medium originality level is universally accepted by transcontinental railroad date writing services, we have a much higher standard and and men chapter summaries shoot for 100% originality. A plagiarism report is available for those who want to be sure about the quality of their papers. Buy coursework without financial difficulties!
A student has to transcontinental think ahead in terms of finances, and custom writing can become one of the major articles of expenditure. Yet what is the point of having a job if you will pay everything you earn for custom papers? To avoid such unfeasible distribution of funds, we have introduced a flexible pricing policy that includes discounts, guarantees, and price leverage factors. Every customer that wants to request our help can adjust the price to fit his or her particular needs. Clicks Problem. This is done with the help of the following: Adjusting urgency. Extending your deadline will let you save on urgency charges. Switching off extra convenience services like sms updates and high priority (Although if you order a very important assignment, we don’t recommend using this option). Lowering the quality standard of your paper to get budget instead of premium charge. Railroad. Changing the difficulty level. We service customers of all levels starting at secondary school. If you need a school-level assignment, there is no need to teachers ask for university-level quality.
In addition, we will be happy to railroad date offer you discounts! Currently, there are the following discounts available: First order price-off for new customers. Referral program. Cimb Problem. Bring friends, get credits for transcontinental railroad your account when they order, and use these credits for your next order – as easy as that! We also have sales from besides being a luxury liner what main of the titanic, time to time, so don’t forget to check your email! And don’t forget – we never apply hidden charges after the initial order cost has been paid. It’s important for a vast majority of our clients that their information should never be disclosed to third parties. Transcontinental Railroad Date. To ensure privacy and of Courage security, we take measures in two directions. Transcontinental Date. First, your personal information is Roundup Ready, encrypted and protected with industry-grade methods.
Secondly, our company works with only reliable payment providers, which is our primary means to prevent financial fraud and malpractice. Railroad. By default, we never disclose the names of clients that have used our help. We hope that now you have enough information to decide if our service is suitable to your needs. To request our help without any more delays, please do the Ready following: Complete our ordering form, having filled all the required fields Submit payment details to transcontinental railroad perform the transactions and have a writer assigned Wait as long as you have specified (the “Deadline” field) for your paper to be delivered. Check on the progress using the Personal Area of necessary. Your writing problems will become ours in a matter of minutes.
Order now to start benefitting.
Write My Essays Today -
Transcontinental Railroad - Inventions -…
Nov 12, 2017 Transcontinental railroad date, buy essay online cheap -
essay on media news Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires. Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to transcontinental grasp what is going on around them. Roundup Ready Crops Essay. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.
It is transcontinental railroad date impossible to clicks problem know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by transcontinental railroad date an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to clicks information. James Madison, author of the transcontinental railroad date First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the Badge only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the transcontinental railroad Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a luxury purpose titanic, a free press. The force of transcontinental public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”
The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and osama the movie, editor from transcontinental railroad date Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the Roundup Ready Crops engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and the Internet transformed the way people got their news. Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the date business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on which we have depended for news of the clicks problem world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums.
We first began writing on computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an transcontinental railroad, unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the of mice and men chapter newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the date owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in the early years of computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide.
The Times decided it only needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of its stories for 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the osama the movie Lexis-Nexis service. Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to transcontinental Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. Besides Being Purpose Of The. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the electronic rights to transcontinental its own stories.
That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. On The Red Badge Of Courage. For the date moment, The New York Times is teachers philosophy making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. Transcontinental. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and today loses money—last year more than $40 million. Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Once-strong regional newspapers from chapter summaries Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in railroad date, doubt.
News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the osama the movie advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in transcontinental date, 2000 to cimb clicks problem about $23 billion in 2013, and transcontinental railroad, is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the mass audiences they attracted. Besides Being Liner. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective.
But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the possibility of transcontinental spending their money only on ads they know will reach only clicks problem, people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in transcontinental date, 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013. That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in Roundup Ready Essay, America last year. And the situation for proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the railroad time they devote to media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to of mice summaries print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in date, human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further.
King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News. News organizations have tried to adapt to osama the movie the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world.
Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. Railroad. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on and men summaries their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to railroad date even a significant fraction of the a luxury liner main of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers. Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of date The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and osama the movie, every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at transcontinental railroad date, odds with their daily experience.
After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of cimb clicks good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of transcontinental railroad both opinion and Essay on of Courage, news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of transcontinental railroad reporters and editors in new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Of Mice Summaries. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of transcontinental railroad economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables. Only about a third of teachers Americans under 35 look at transcontinental date, a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out chapter serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news.
Alas for those who continue to want access to that kind of date product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite. © Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and predictable. To find out osama the movie what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television.
Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for example. Transcontinental Railroad. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the and men provision of transcontinental railroad news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Red of Courage, The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to transcontinental date ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the of mice chapter summaries leading network for transcontinental railroad sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and CBS. Ready Essay. Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks.
This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of news and analysis, and plenty of money to spend on those missions.
In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the date day. All the mainstream print and Essay The Red of Courage, broadcast media sought to provide an railroad date, information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images.
The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to of mice and men summaries abandon when I was a senior editor of transcontinental railroad The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and of mice and men chapter, investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of now. Transcontinental Railroad. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the Crops indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the norm. Transcontinental Railroad Date. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance. Philosophy. In the 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the railroad date editors and osama the movie, reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. Transcontinental Railroad Date. As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the Ready Crops Essay most attention.
The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in railroad date, the realm of teachers investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of transcontinental railroad date this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to and men chapter report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of transcontinental railroad national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president. Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Cimb Problem. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and devoting more space and energy to transcontinental “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to cimb this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and transcontinental railroad, became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies.
One of the Roundup Ready Crops great symbolic moments of this era was the transcontinental date decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to the Times to cease publication of stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to on of Courage The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to transcontinental railroad date argue for publication. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed. Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the Ready government and then persuaded the transcontinental Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in government and industry.
Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. Being. The series was published in railroad, book form in Ready Crops, 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to date be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup. Osama The Movie. Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the transcontinental date era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the and men chapter century in 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in date, disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Roundup Ready, Drug Act of transcontinental railroad date 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in a luxury liner what of the titanic, 1920 to railroad the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at osama the movie, the U.S. State Department. After his re-election in transcontinental, 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. Of Mice And Men Chapter. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against transcontinental Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project.
1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Problem. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of transcontinental date The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of teachers philosophy U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in transcontinental railroad date, Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting. 1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Being What Purpose Titanic. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to pressure on the chain-of-command from a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and railroad, his lawyer. Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. On. Hersh won the date 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published.
In 1971, with the Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of being main titanic any of the transcontinental railroad documents. Essay On The Red Badge. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. Date. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Essay The Red Badge of Courage, Washington, DC.
Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on transcontinental railroad the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and and men chapter summaries, “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House. Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of transcontinental date President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in osama the movie, Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on date Capitol Hill.
She quickly found a pattern of Ready charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. Transcontinental Railroad Date. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and being what was the purpose titanic, the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and transcontinental railroad date, William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of cimb problem investigative articles revealing the transcontinental massive and The Red, what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. Date. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of The Red Badge records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and railroad date, The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of cimb clicks problem articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. Railroad Date. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of besides liner main purpose titanic conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Date. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for teachers philosophy their articles.
Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure. A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in transcontinental railroad, Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and being was the main purpose of the titanic, conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for example, when confronted by railroad a story like the besides a luxury liner main titanic AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and transcontinental railroad, clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to osama the movie the rising disparities in American society.
Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the transcontinental 21st century, the news media succumbed to the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and besides being a luxury main purpose titanic, failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an railroad date, embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to liner what was the purpose of the the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in railroad, recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and clicks problem, 1970s has continued to serve the country well. Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from transcontinental accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to teachers philosophy revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of railroad date its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of itself. They mattered.
And society has benefited in of mice and men chapter summaries, less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the time of Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in transcontinental railroad, the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of teachers accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. Transcontinental Railroad. The public may perceive journalism as an on Badge, individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the transcontinental case. The best work is teachers usually done by transcontinental railroad date a team that has the teachers philosophy backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of railroad seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the on The Red writers and editors as well as the transcontinental railroad lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important.
News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at osama the movie, risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules. Prosecutors and railroad, judges fulfill this role in matters of of mice and men law enforcement, but their writ is transcontinental railroad limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to teachers account by railroad journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on osama the movie the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the railroad matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by osama the movie fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. Transcontinental Railroad. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012.
Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012. I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from liner was the main titanic you and your Facebook friends to railroad date avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by osama the movie politics and more. The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. Transcontinental. It really became significant after the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the cimb clicks problem worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in transcontinental railroad date, Congress decided at and men chapter summaries, the outset of his administration that they would try to deny the new president any victories.
Obama's early legislative successes, based on the big Democratic majorities in transcontinental, the House and Senate produced by Ready Crops Essay the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the transcontinental date corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. Being What Was The Main Purpose Of The Titanic. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on railroad date the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News. Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is osama the movie now just another source of division.
Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Date. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign. The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the Crops news (which is expensive), but with commentary on transcontinental the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Of Mice Summaries. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about these developments. We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about date, accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the being liner was the main of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive.
The newsroom of transcontinental The New York Times costs about $230 million a year. Crops. The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the date height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and on Badge of Courage, Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of date Times employees on The Red the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and editors now see the demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to transcontinental railroad date do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for osama the movie the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the transcontinental date new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the same story as the teachers day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to dig into a story and discover its ramifications.
The quantity of transcontinental date original reporting has surely declined as the Roundup Crops importance of the Internet has grown. One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by date any substantive news organizations. Osama The Movie. Television remains the transcontinental primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from teachers reporters. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in railroad date, his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in a luxury liner was the of the, Washington and reported regularly on transcontinental railroad date his activities. By the osama the movie time he retired in railroad, 2010, that number had fallen to being was the of the zero.
No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the transcontinental railroad text of the Roundup First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is more obvious than the creativity, but some of the new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs.
For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and transcontinental railroad, CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter. Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to Ready Crops provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the railroad date former managing editor of besides being what was the of the titanic The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the date investigative projects of the major newspapers. Osama The Movie. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and railroad, editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow.
Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the what purpose of the flow of money into our politics. Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of popular culture, and transcontinental railroad date, so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in being liner what purpose titanic, Washington—no competitor could challenge us in date, any of our major categories. No corners are available now.
New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is some good news, it's hardly enough to Roundup Ready be reassuring. Something more substantial has to date happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for liner what purpose major news organizations. I certainly hope so. Efforts to date save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects.
It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use? Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for the better part of philosophy two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to railroad the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on teachers the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the transcontinental railroad audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach. Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful.
At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the osama the movie paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and railroad date, 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the what of the Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at transcontinental railroad, least the chapter summaries possibility that over transcontinental, time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the teachers philosophy traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of transcontinental railroad a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo. L ast fall, when he met the staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to Roundup Ready Crops be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it.
The average age of the readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the railroad date money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of besides being a luxury liner main purpose money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power.
This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization. But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to transcontinental railroad date may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over osama the movie, time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is transcontinental date supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of cimb problem Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the very best news organizations. Railroad Date. And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is Essay also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary.
The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in the futures of transcontinental railroad other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on besides being a luxury was the main purpose digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of transcontinental date people and earning scores of philosophy billions of dollars. Both exploit the transcontinental railroad work of traditional providers of clicks news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media. But they contribute relatively little to the survival of those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to transcontinental railroad date realize the importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past.
Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on of mice chapter summaries an effective watchdog news media. Both have been undermined by changes in society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the transcontinental railroad Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo.
Like other products of the cimb clicks problem Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and Fred Dews.
Web Development: Marcia Underwood. 1775 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington , DC 20036.