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H G Wells: Collected Novels, Short Stories, Essays and Articles:

Stereotypes / Characterization Frames. Originally published October 2003. Current Implications added in on Senses an Hour at the Rooftop June, 2017. Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and Harmless Youthful, problematic in U.S. Essay Half At The? politics and is not afraid, culture these days. Essay An Hour At The? The left still sees the right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes. The right likewise paints the left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to trade unions in the makers.)More. Stereotypes (or characterizations) are generalizations or assumptions that people make about the Essay on Senses Rooftop characteristics of all members of a group, based on an image (often wrong) about what people in that group are like. For example, one study of afraid, stereotypes revealed that Americans are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and on Senses Half, tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and in the, domineering. Asians, on the other hand, are expected to be shrewd and alert, but reserved. Clearly, not all Americans are friendly and Essay on Senses an Hour at the, generous; and not all Asians are reserved.

But according to this study, others commonly perceive them this way.[1] Stereotyping is especially prevalent -- and problematic -- in conflicts. Groups tend to define themselves according to who they are and who they are not . And others, especially enemies or opponents are often viewed in very negative ways. The opponent is expected to be aggressive, self-serving, and deceitful, for in the uk example, while people in one's own group are seen in generally positive ways. And Place: Half At The? Similarly, if problems occur, blame is often placed on the enemy, while one's own contribution to the problem is ignored. For example, problems may be attributed to nursing definition the opponent's lack of Half, cooperativeness, not one's own; or the enemy's aggressiveness, not their fear of one's own aggressive stance. Even similarities between parties can be viewed differently: one's own competitiveness may be seen in a positive light as tough, effective negotiating, while the opponent's competitive actions are seen as hostile and deceptive. Such stereotypes tend to trade unions be self-perpetuating. If one side assumes the other side is deceitful and aggressive, they will tend to respond deceitfully and aggressively themselves. The opponent will then develop a similar image of the first party and Essay and Place: Rooftop, respond deceptively, thus confirming the initial stereotype.

The stereotypes may even grow worse, as communication shuts down and escalation heightens emotions and tension. Although stereotypes generally have negative implications, they aren't necessarily negative. Stereotypes are basically generalizations that are made about groups. Such generalizations are necessary: in order to be able to interact effectively, we must have some idea of Harmless Youthful Essay, what people are likely to be like, which behaviors will be considered acceptable, and which not. For example, elsewhere in this system there is an essay about high-context and low-context cultures.

People in low-context cultures are said to be more individualistic, their communication more overt, depending less on context and shared understandings. High-context cultures are more group-oriented. Their communication is more contextually based, depending more on shared understandings and inferences. On Senses Rooftop? Such generalizations are, in essence, stereotypes. They allow us to put people into a category, according to the group they belong to, and the bee is not afraid of me, make inferences about how they will behave based on that grouping. There will still be differences between individuals from Half at the one culture, and with the same individual in different situations. But the stereotype is is not of me reasonably accurate, so it is useful. Stereotypes are only a problem when they are inaccurate, especially when those inaccuracies are negative and and Place: at the, hostile. Additional insights into stereotypes and characterization frames are offered by the bee afraid, Beyond Intractability project participants.

What Can Be Done to Deal with Negative Stereotypes: The key to on Senses an Hour reversing negative stereotypes is to contradict them, in direct interactions between people, in the media, and afraid, through education. Between Individuals . Once people get to know a person from the other side, they often will determine that the other is not nearly as bad as they originally had assumed. (Though sometimes they might find out they are just as bad -- or even worse!) More often, however, people really are much more reasonable than their stereotypes would suggest. In that case, getting to know people personally helps to break down negative images. This is Essay and Place: Half especially true when people determine that they actually have things in common with people from the other side. Such things can range from enjoying the same music, hobbies, or sports, to resistant definition having the same worries about children or aging parents. Even when people learn that they share fear or sadness, they can begin to understand each other more. When they come to understand that the other is afraid of being hurt, or losing a loved one in war, just as they are, that brings people together.

Such shared emotions make people seem human, while stereotypes typically dehumanize people. Likewise, shared emotions make empathy possible, which opens the door to Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop new forms of interaction and trust building, at least among the individuals involved. Depending on nursing definition, the context and other interactions, the image of the Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the Rooftop group as a whole may become more positive as well. (At other times, people rationalize that their one new acquaintance is not like the others.) But even learning that one person can deviate from the stereotype is a start. The challenge then is to expand such transformative experiences beyond the individuals involved to larger groups, communities, and eventually whole societies. Developing such mutual understanding is the goal of many intervention efforts in war-torn areas, and in places rocked by social unrest. Dialogue groups and Law Enforcement, problem-solving workshops are two common ways of doing this. So are joint projects such as war-reconstruction efforts, children's programs, recreational programs, medical programs -- any kind of Essay on Senses Half Rooftop, program that brings individuals from opposing groups together in a cooperative venture. Although they have additional goals beyond the breaking of stereotypes, working together cooperatively can do much to break down negative images people hold of the enemy.

In the Media. The media also plays an important role in trade in the uk both perpetuating and in Essay on Senses Half Rooftop breaking down stereotypes. If they characterize particular groups of people in certain ways, their viewers (or readers) are likely to do the same. So if a movie -- or the resistant attachment definition motion picture industry in general -- characterizes a group of people negatively, they are likely to be perpetuating negative stereotypes and making conflicts worse. If they emphasize the positive aspects of and Place: Half Rooftop, groups that contradict prevalent stereotypes, they can have a significant role in building mutual understanding.

In Education. Educational institutions and teaching materials also have the opportunity to affect stereotypes, and hence influence inter-group relations. Efforts to teach about different cultures, and the history of the bee is not of me, different racial or ethnic groups can help build inter-group understanding if it is done in an effective and sympathetic way. However, the opposite is also true. If textbooks teach about the treachery and villainous actions of the enemy, this, obviously, will only perpetuate stereotypes from one generation to on Senses and Place: the next, entrenching the conflict for many years to come. This does not mean that history should be ignored.

The holocaust, for example, did occur and the bee afraid, must be acknowledged. But it can be acknowledged as a grave mistake that is now recognized as a mistake, rather than painted as typical or acceptable behavior. What Individuals Can Do to Breakdown Negative Stereotypes. An Hour Rooftop? Changing stereotypes is trade unions in the largely the job of individuals. Each of us should examine the assumptions that we make about others and ask ourselves where those assumptions come from.

Upon what information are they based? Are they based on personal experiences with others? In what context? Might the other be different in on Senses Half an Hour Rooftop different situations? Are your assumptions based on things you have heard from others?

Learned from the TV or movies? Learned in school? Is it possible that some of your negative images are wrong -- at least for some people? In most cases, the answer to that last question is likely to be yes. Even in the automobile sign of the answers the most escalated conflicts, not all of the at the Rooftop enemy is as vicious and immutable as they are often assumed to be. Definition? Most groups have moderates and extremists, people who are willing to listen and work with the other side, and Essay on Senses Half an Hour Rooftop, those who are not. Rather than assuming all of the enemy are evil and unwilling to hear your concerns, try to get to know people as individuals. The Bee Is Not Of Me? Just as that will reduce the on Senses Half stereotypes you hold of others, it is also likely to reduce the Essay examples stereotypes others hold of you. Steps the media can take to reduce stereotypes are dealt with elsewhere in this system, but fundamentally, it is important that the media paint as accurate a picture of both sides of an Hour at the Rooftop, a conflict as is possible.

This generally means painting a complex picture. While extremists tend to make the most noise and hence the most news, the media can do much to lessen conflict by focusing attention on is not, moderates and peacebuilders as well. Heartwarming stories of reconciliation can replace or at least stand side-by-side with heart-wrenching stories of violence and loss. Showing that there is hope -- helping people visualize a better life in a better world -- is and Place: Half at the Rooftop a service the media can do better than any other institution, at least on a large scale. What the Educational System Can Do. This, too, is dealt with elsewhere in this system, but the afraid educational system (teachers, schools, textbooks) needs to also try to paint a fair and accurate picture of the conflict and the different people involved, being aware that different sides of a conflict will view (frame) what is on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop happening very differently.

Through stories, discussions, and definition, exercises, teachers can help students (of all ages and levels) understand the complexity of the conflicts that surround them, and develop age- and situation-appropriate responses to the current conflicts in their homes, communities, and nations. To the extent that classrooms contain students from both sides of the conflict, teachers can help students learn to Essay Half Rooftop understand and appreciate each other better, while protecting the safety (physical and emotional) of those on both sides. Insecure Resistant Attachment? If the classroom only contains one group, reaching such intergroup understandings is harder, but still worth the effort through books and articles, discussions, TV and movies, and when available, online exercises (such as those provided in Essay an Hour the links below). Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and problematic in U.S. politics and culture these days. The left still sees the nursing right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes. The right likewise paints the left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to makers.) These stereotypes make it practically impossible to befriend, relate to, or understand the on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop other side enough to work with them or live in harmony with them. The same dynamics appears in nursing almost all escalated conflicts, and if allowed to go to far, results in catastrophe. Before and during the Rwandan genocide, Tutsi's were referred to as cockroaches rats, and enemies.

Jews, similarly, were seen as non-human or less than human enemies by the perpetrators of the Essay and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop Holocaust, so too were the Blacks who were captured in Africa and definition, brought to the Americas as slaves seen as less than human. Essay On Senses An Hour At The? (Even the nursing U.S. Constitution validated such beliefs by counting slaves as 3/5 people!) One hopes that the U.S. has not and would not go to such extremes again But we are currently seeing it happen with respect to Muslims who are, apparently, not deserving of the same rights as other people according to Trump and some of his followers. We saw it with respect to Mexicans during Trump's campaign, where he accused them of being criminals and rapists. Both groups now are under siege, Mexicans and Essay on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, other undocumented immigrants fearing deportation daily, and is not, Muslims increasingly being attacked and even killed for their relgious beliefs. It's time to turn this pathology around. Essay On Senses And Place: Rooftop? Both this article and the linked article on Enemy Images have suggestions about ways such negative stereotypes can be combatted. It is incumbent upon trade unions in the uk everyone who wants a safe, secure America to enact such measures wherever possible. --Heidi Burgess, June, 2017. [1] Breslin, J. Essay On Senses And Place: At The Rooftop? William. 1991.

Breaking Away from Subtle Biases in Negotiation Theory and Practice, eds. J. William Breslin and Jeffrey Rubin (Cambridge, Mass., U.S.: Program on Negotiation Books, 1991), 247-250. Definition? Use the following to cite this article: Burgess, Heidi. Stereotypes / Characterization Frames. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: October 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/stereotypes. Essay? Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. The Bee? You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer.

The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. On Senses Half At The Rooftop? An extensive collection of resources covering the unions in the destructive dynamics of intractable conflict, strategies for limiting those dynamics, and techniques for more wisely and equitably resolving disputes. Essay On Senses Half At The? Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to Law Enforcement and Police Essay examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on Essay and Place: at the, news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to Law Enforcement Stress promote more constructive approaches to conflict. On Senses At The Rooftop? Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts!

Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Holistic Nursing Definition? Beyond Intractability Essay. Copyright 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Current Implications Sections. All rights reserved.

Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. 580 UCB, University of on Senses and Place: Half Rooftop, Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The word argument can be used to designate a dispute or a fight, or it can be used more technically. The focus of on Senses an Hour Rooftop, this article is on understanding an argument as a collection of definition, truth-bearers (that is, the things that bear truth and falsity, or are true and false) some of which are offered as reasons for on Senses an Hour, one of them, the conclusion. This article takes propositions rather than sentences or statements or utterances to be the primary truth bearers. Sign Of The! The reasons offered within the on Senses and Place: an Hour, argument are called premises, and the proposition that the premises are offered for is called the conclusion. This sense of argument diverges not only from the above sense of a dispute or fight but also from the formal logicians sense according to which an argument is merely a list of statements, one of which is designated as the conclusion and the rest of which are designated as premises regardless of whether the premises are offered as reasons for believing the conclusion. Insecure Resistant Attachment Definition! Arguments, as understood in Half an Hour Rooftop, this article, are the subject of study in critical thinking and informal logic courses in nursing definition, which students usually learn, among other things, how to identify, reconstruct, and evaluate arguments given outside the classroom. Arguments, in this sense, are typically distinguished from both implications and inferences. In asserting that a proposition P implies proposition Q, one does not thereby offer P as a reason for Q. The proposition frogs are mammals implies that frogs are not reptiles , but it is Essay an Hour Rooftop problematic to offer the insecure resistant, former as a reason for believing the latter.

If an arguer offers an argument in on Senses and Place: an Hour, order to persuade an audience that the conclusion is true, then it is plausible to think that the Harmless Essay examples, arguer is inviting the Essay on Senses and Place: Half Rooftop, audience to make an Law Enforcement Stress inference from the arguments premises to on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop, its conclusion. However, an inference is a form of Harmless Mischief Essay examples, reasoning, and and Place:, as such it is distinct from an argument in the sense of a collection of propositions (some of which are offered as reasons for the conclusion). One might plausibly think that a person S infers Q from P just in case S comes to believe Q because S believes that P is true and because S believes that the truth of P justifies belief that Q. But this movement of trade in the, mind from P to Q is something different from the argument composed of on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop, just P and Q. The characterization of argument in the first paragraph requires development since there are forms of reasoning such as explanations which are not typically regarded as arguments even though (explanatory) reasons are offered for a proposition. Insecure Resistant Attachment! Two principal approaches to fine-tuning this first-step characterization of arguments are what may be called the structural and Essay Half Rooftop, pragmatic approaches. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In what follows, each approach is described, and criticism is briefly entertained. Along the the bee afraid of me, way, distinctive features of arguments are highlighted that seemingly must be accounted for by any plausible characterization. Half! The classification of arguments as deductive, inductive, and conductive is discussed in section 3.

1. Resistant Attachment Definition! The Structural Approach to Characterizing Arguments. Not any group of Essay on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, propositions qualifies as an Law Enforcement argument. The starting point for structural approaches is the Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour, thesis that the premises of an argument are reasons offered in support of its conclusion (for example, Govier 2010, p.1, Bassham, G., W. Irwin, H. Nardone, J. Wallace 2005, p.30, Copi and Cohen 2005, p.7; for discussion, see Johnson 2000, p.146ff ). Accordingly, a collection of propositions lacks the structure of an argument unless there is a reasoner who puts forward some as reasons in support of one of them. Letting P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , , and nursing definition, C range over propositions and R over reasoners, a structural characterization of Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour at the, argument takes the following form. A collection of propositions, P 1 , , P n , C, is an argument if and only if there is a reasoner R who puts forward the P i as reasons in support of C. The structure of an argument is not a function of the syntactic and semantic features of the resistant attachment definition, propositions that compose it. Rather, it is imposed on these propositions by on Senses an Hour at the, the intentions of a reasoner to use some as support for one of them. Typically in holistic nursing definition, presenting an argument, a reasoner will use expressions to flag the on Senses Half an Hour Rooftop, intended structural components of her argument. Typical premise indicators include: because, since, for, and as; typical conclusion indicators include therefore, thus, hence, and so.

Note well: these expressions do not always function in these ways, and so their mere use does not necessitate the the bee of me, presence of an argument. Different accounts of the nature of the intended support offered by the premises for the conclusion in an argument generate different structural characterizations of arguments (for discussion see Hitchcock 2007). Plausibly, if a reasoner R puts forward premises in support of a conclusion C, then (i)-(iii) obtain. (i) The premises represent Rs reasons for believing that the conclusion is true and R thinks that her belief in the truth of the premises is justified. (ii) R believes that the Half Rooftop, premises make C more probable than not. (iii) (a) R believes that the premises are independent of C ( that is, R thinks that her reasons for the premises do not include belief that C is true), and (b) R believes that the premises are relevant to establishing that C is true. If we judge that a reasoner R presents an argument as defined above, then by the lights of nursing definition, (i)-(iii) we believe that R believes that the premises justify belief in the truth of the conclusion. On Senses Half At The! In what immediately follows, examples are given to explicate (i)-(iii). A: John is an only child. B: John is Harmless Youthful not an only child; he said that Mary is his sister. If B presents an argument, then the following obtain. (i) B believes that the premise ( that is, Mary is Johns sister ) is true, B thinks this belief is on Senses and Place: an Hour justified, and the premise is Law Enforcement and Police Stress Essay Bs reason for maintaining the conclusion. (ii) B believes that John said that Mary is his sister makes it more likely than not that John is not an only child , and Essay and Place: Half an Hour, (iii) B thinks that that John said that Mary is his sister is both independent of the proposition that Mary is Johns sister and relevant to confirming it. A: The Democrats and Republicans dont seem willing to compromise.

B: If the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise, then the U.S. Definition! will go over the fiscal cliff. Bs assertion of a conditional does not require that B believe either the antecedent or consequent. Therefore, it is an Hour at the Rooftop unlikely that B puts forward the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise as a reason in support of the U.S. will go over the fiscal cliff , because it is unlikely that B believes either proposition. Hence, it is of me unlikely that Bs response to A has the structure of an argument, because (i) is on Senses and Place: at the Rooftop not satisfied. A: Doctor B, what is the reason for holistic definition, my uncles muscular weakness? B: The results of the test are in.

Even though few syphilis patients get paresis, we suspect that the reason for your uncles paresis is the Half, syphilis he suffered from 10 years ago. Dr. Harmless Mischief Essay! B offers reasons that explain why As uncle has paresis. It is unreasonable to think that B believes that the uncles being a syphilis victim makes it more likely than not that he has paresis, since B admits that having syphilis does not make it more likely than not that someone has (or will have) paresis. So, Bs response does not contain an argument, because (ii) is not satisfied. A: I dont think that Bill will be at on Senses, the party tonight. B: Bill will be at the party, because Bill will be at sign times answers, the party. Suppose that B believes that Bill will be at the party. Trivially, the truth of this proposition makes it more likely than not that he will be at the party.

Nevertheless, B is not presenting an argument. On Senses Half Rooftop! Bs response does not have the structure of an argument, because (iiia) is not satisfied. Clearly, B does not offer a reason for Bill will be at the party that is the automobile sign times answers independent of this. Perhaps, Bs response is intended to Half an Hour Rooftop, communicate her confidence that Bill will be at the party. Industry Sign Times Answers! By (iiia), a reasoner R puts forward [1] Sasha Obama has a sibling in support of [2] Sasha is not an only child only if Rs reasons for believing [1] do not include Rs belief that [2] is true. If R puts forward [1] in support of [2] and, say, erroneously believes that the former is independent of the latter, then Rs argument would be defective by virtue of being circular. And Place: At The Rooftop! Regarding (iiib), that Obama is U.S. President entails that the earth is the third planet from the and Police Essay, sun or it isnt , but it is plausible to suppose that the former does not support the on Senses an Hour at the Rooftop, latter because it is irrelevant to showing that the earth is the third planet from the Harmless Mischief examples, sun or it isnt is true. Premises offered in support of a conclusion are either linked or convergent. This difference marks a structural distinction between arguments.

[1] Tom is happy only if he is playing guitar. [2] Tom is not playing guitar. Suppose that a reasoner R offers [1] and [2] as reasons in support of [3]. Essay Half An Hour At The! The argument is presented in what is Mischief Essay called standard form ; the premises are listed first and a solid line separates them from the conclusion, which is prefaced by on Senses an Hour at the Rooftop, ? . This symbol means therefore. Premises [1] and Harmless Mischief Essay examples, [2] are linked because they do not support the conclusion independently of one another, that is, they support the conclusion jointly.

It is unreasonable to an Hour Rooftop, think that R offers [1] and of me, [2] individually, as opposed to Essay on Senses and Place: Half Rooftop, collectively, as reasons for [3]. Nursing! The following representation of the argument depicts the linkage of the premises. Combining [1] and [2] with the plus sign and underscoring them indicates that they are linked . The arrow indicates that they are offered in support of [3]. To see a display of convergent premises, consider the following. [1] Tom said that he didnt go to Samanthas party.

[2] No one at Samanthas party saw Tom there. ? [3] Tom did not attend Samanthas party. These premises are con vergent , because each is a reason that supports [3] independently of the other. The below diagram represents this. An extended argument is an argument with at least one premise that a reasoner attempts to support explicitly. Extended arguments are more structurally complex than ones that are not extended. Consider the following. The keys are either in on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop, the kitchen or the bedroom. The keys are not in the kitchen. I did not find the keys in the kitchen.

So, the keys must be in holistic nursing, the bedroom. Lets look there! The argument in on Senses and Place: Half, standard form may be portrayed as follows: [1] I just searched the kitchen and I did not find the the automobile sign of the, keys. ? [2] The keys are not in the kitchen. [3] The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. ? [4] The keys are in Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour at the, the bedroom. Note that although the keys being in the bedroom is a reason for the imperative, Lets look there! (given the desirability of finding the keys), this proposition is not truth apt and so is not a component of the argument. An enthymeme is an argument which is presented with at Law Enforcement Essay, least one component that is suppressed. A: I dont know what to believe regarding the morality of abortion. B: You should believe that abortion is immoral.

Youre a Catholic. That B puts forward [1] A is a Catholic in Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour at the, support of [2] A should believe that abortion is immoral suggests that B implicitly puts forward [3] all Catholics should believe that abortion is immoral in support of [2]. Proposition [3] may plausibly be regarded as a suppressed premise of Bs argument. Note that [2] and [3] are linked. A premise that is suppressed is Harmless Mischief Essay never a reason for a conclusion independent of another explicitly offered for that conclusion. There are two main criticisms of structural characterizations of arguments. On Senses And Place: Half Rooftop! One criticism is that they are too weak because they turn non-arguments such as explanations into arguments.

A: Why did this metal expand? B: It was heated and all metals expand when heated. B offers explanatory reasons for the explanandum (what is Harmless Youthful examples explained): this metal expanded . It is plausible to see B offering these explanatory reasons in support of the explanandum. The reasons B offers jointly support the truth of the explanandum, and thereby show that the expansion of the metal was to be expected. It is in this way that Bs reasons enable A to understand why the metal expanded. The second criticism is that structural characterizations are too strong. They rule out as arguments what intuitively seem to be arguments. A: Kelly maintains that no explanation is an Essay at the Rooftop argument. I dont know what to believe.

B: Neither do I. The Automobile Sign Of The! One reason for her view may be that the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion. But I am not sure that this is the primary function of arguments. We should investigate this further. B offers a reason, [1] the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion , for the thesis [2] no explanation is an argument . Since B asserts neither [1] nor [2], B does not put forward [1] in support of [2]. Hence, by Essay and Place: Half, the above account, Bs reasoning does not qualify as an argument. A contrary view is that arguments can be used in ways other than showing that their conclusions are true. For example, arguments can be constructed for trade in the, purposes of and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop, inquiry and as such can be used to investigate a hypothesis by seeing what reasons might be given to support a given proposition (see Meiland 1989 and Johnson and Blair 2006, p.10). Such arguments are sometimes referred to as exploratory arguments. On this approach, it is plausible to think that B constructs an exploratory argument [exercise for the reader: identify Bs suppressed premise]. Briefly, in insecure, defense of the on Senses an Hour Rooftop, structuralist account of arguments one response to the first criticism is to bite the bullet and the bee is not afraid, follow those who think that at least some explanations qualify as arguments (see Thomas 1986 who argues that all explanations are arguments).

Given that there are exploratory arguments, the Essay on Senses and Place: Half Rooftop, second criticism motivates either liberalizing the concept of support that premises may provide for a conclusion (so that, for example, B may be understood as offering [1] in support of [2]) or dropping the notion of support all together in the structural characterization of arguments (for example, a collection of propositions is an argument if and only if a reasoner offers some as reasons for one of them. See Sinnott-Armstrong and Fogelin 2010, p.3). 2. The Pragmatic Approach to Characterizing Arguments. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In contrast to structural definitions of arguments, pragmatic definitions appeal to the function of arguments. Different accounts of the purposes arguments serve generate different pragmatic definitions of arguments. The following pragmatic definition appeals to the use of arguments as tools of rational persuasion (for definitions of argument that make such an appeal, see Johnson 2000, p. 168; Walton 1996, p. 18ff; Hitchcock 2007, p.105ff) A collection of propositions is an argument if and only if there is a reasoner R who puts forward some of them (the premises) as reasons in support of one of them (the conclusion) in order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of the conclusion. One advantage of this definition over the previously given structural one is that it offers an insecure resistant definition explanation why arguments have the Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, structure they do. Is Not Afraid Of Me! In order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of a proposition, one must offer reasons in support of an Hour at the Rooftop, that proposition. The appeal to rational persuasion is necessary to Essay, distinguish arguments from on Senses Half an Hour Rooftop other forms of persuasion such as threats.

One question that arises is: What obligations does a reasoner incur by virtue of offering supporting reasons for a conclusion in order to rationally persuade an audience of the conclusion? One might think that such a reasoner should be open to criticisms and obligated to respond to the automobile industry of the, them persuasively (See Johnson 2000 p.144 et al , for development of this idea). By appealing to the aims that arguments serve, pragmatic definitions highlight the and Place: an Hour, acts of presenting an argument in addition to the arguments themselves. The field of argumentation, an Harmless Mischief Essay examples interdisciplinary field that includes rhetoric, informal logic, psychology, and cognitive science, highlights acts of presenting arguments and their contexts as topics for investigation that inform our understanding of arguments (see Houtlosser 2001 for discussion of the Essay Half at the, different perspectives of argument offered by different fields). For example, the acts of Harmless Mischief examples, explaining and arguingin sense highlighted herehave different aims.

Whereas the act of explaining is designed to increase the Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, audiences comprehension, the act of arguing is aimed at enhancing the acceptability of a standpoint. This difference in aim makes sense of the fact that in presenting an argument the reasoner believes that her standpoint is not yet acceptable to her audience, but in insecure resistant attachment definition, presenting an explanation the reasoner knows or believes that the explanandum is already accepted by her audience (See van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, p.29, and Snoeck Henkemans 2001, p.232). These observations about the acts of explaining and arguing motivate the above pragmatic definition of an argument and suggest that arguments and explanations are distinct things. It is generally accepted that the same line of reasoning can function as an on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop explanation in one dialogical context and as an argument in another (see Groarke and Tindale 2004, p. 23ff for an example and discussion). Eemeren van, Grootendorst, and Snoeck Henkemans 2002 delivers a substantive account of how the evaluation of various types of arguments turns on considerations pertaining to the dialogical contexts within which they are presented and discussed. Note that, since the pragmatic definition appeals to the structure of propositions in characterizing arguments, it inherits the criticisms of structural definitions. Law Enforcement Stress Essay! In addition, the question arises whether it captures the variety of an Hour Rooftop, purposes arguments may serve. It has been urged that arguments can aim at engendering any one of a full range of attitudes towards their conclusions (for example, Pinto 1991). For example, a reasoner can offer premises for a conclusion C in order to get her audience to Youthful Mischief examples, withhold assent from C, suspect that C is true, believe that is merely possible that C is true, or to be afraid that C is true. The thought here is that these are alternatives to convincing an audience of the truth of C. A proponent of Essay and Place: an Hour at the, a pragmatic definition of argument may grant that there are uses of arguments not accounted for by her definition, and propose that the definition is and Police stipulative.

But then a case needs to be made why theorizing about Essay and Place: Half an Hour arguments from a pragmatic approach should be anchored to such a definition when it does not reflect all legitimate uses of arguments. Another line of criticism of the pragmatic approach is the bee afraid its rejecting that arguments themselves have a function (Goodwin 2007) and arguing that the function of persuasion should be assigned to and Place: Rooftop, the dialogical contexts in which arguments take place (Doury 2011). 3. Deductive, Inductive, and in the uk, Conductive Arguments. Arguments are commonly classified as deductive or inductive (for example, Copi, I. and C. Cohen 2005, Sinnott-Armstrong and Fogelin 2010). A deductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as valid. For a valid argument, it is not possible for the premises to be true with the conclusion false. That is, necessarily if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true.

Thus we may say that the truth of the premises in a valid argument guarantees that the conclusion is also true. The following is an example of a valid argument: Tom is happy only Essay and Place: an Hour if the Tigers win , the Tigers lost; therefore, Tom is definitely not happy. A step-by-step derivation of the conclusion of a valid argument from its premises is called a proof . In the context of a proof, the given premises of an argument may be viewed as initial premises. The propositions produced at the steps leading to the conclusion are called derived premises. Each step in the derivation is justified by a principle of inference. Whether the derived premises are components of a valid argument is a difficult question that is beyond the scope of this article.

An inductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as inductively strong . In an holistic nursing definition inductive argument, the and Place: Half at the Rooftop, premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely , although possible, that the conclusion is false. If the truth of the premises makes it unlikely (but not impossible) that the conclusion is false, then we may say that the argument is inductively strong. The following is an example of an inductively strong argument: 97% of the Republicans in town Z voted for McX, Jones is a Republican in town Z; therefore, Jones voted for McX . In an examples argument like this, an arguer often will conclude Jones probably voted for McX instead of Jones voted for McX, because they are signaling with the Half, word probably that they intend to Law Enforcement Stress, present an argument that is inductively strong but not valid. In order to evaluate an argument it is important to determine whether or not it is deductive or inductive. It is inappropriate to criticize an inductively strong argument for being invalid. Based on the above characterizations, whether an argument is deductive or inductive turns on whether the arguer intends the argument to be valid or merely inductively strong, respectively. Sometimes the presence of certain expressions such as definitely and probably in the above two arguments indicate the relevant intensions of the arguer. Charity dictates that an invalid argument which is inductively strong be evaluated as an Essay Rooftop inductive argument unless there is clear evidence to the contrary. Conductive arguments have been put forward as a third category of arguments (for example, Govier 2010). A conductive argument is an argument whose premises are convergent; the premises count separately in support of the trade unions in the, conclusion. If one or more premises were removed from the argument, the degree of support offered by on Senses and Place: Half an Hour at the Rooftop, the remaining premises would stay the same.

The previously given example of an argument with convergent premises is a conductive argument. Law Enforcement! The following is another example of a conductive argument. It most likely wont rain tomorrow. The sky is Essay and Place: Rooftop red tonight. Also, the weather channel reported a 30% chance of rain for Law Enforcement, tomorrow. The primary rationale for distinguishing conductive arguments from deductive and inductive ones is as follows. First, the on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, premises of conductive arguments are always convergent, but the premises of deductive and inductive arguments are never convergent. Is Not! Second, the evaluation of arguments with convergent premises requires not only that each premise be evaluated individually as support for the conclusion, but also the degree to which the premises support the conclusion collectively must be determined. This second consideration mitigates against Essay and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop treating conductive arguments merely as a collection of nursing definition, subarguments, each of which is deductive or inductive. The basic idea is Essay and Place: Rooftop that the support that the convergent premises taken together provide the conclusion must be considered in the evaluation of a conductive argument. With respect to the above conductive argument, the sky is red tonight and the automobile industry sign of the times answers, the weather channel reported a 30% chance of rain for tomorrow are offered together as (convergent) reasons for It most likely wont rain tomorrow . Perhaps, collectively, but not individually, these reasons would persuade an addressee that it most likely wont rain tomorrow.

A group of propositions constitutes an on Senses Half argument only if some are offered as reasons for one of them. Two approaches to the automobile sign of the answers, identifying the definitive characteristics of arguments are the structural and pragmatic approaches. On both approaches, whether an act of offering reasons for Essay and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, a proposition P yields an argument depends on and Police Stress what the reasoner believes regarding both the truth of the reasons and the relationship between the reasons and and Place: Half Rooftop, P. A typical use of an argument is to rationally persuade its audience of the truth of the conclusion. To be effective in realizing this aim, the holistic nursing, reasoner must think that there is real potential in the relevant context for her audience to be rationally persuaded of the conclusion by Essay on Senses Half Rooftop, means of the offered premises. What, exactly, this presupposes about the audience depends on what the Law Enforcement Stress, argument is and the context in which it is given.

An argument may be classified as deductive, inductive, or conductive. Its classification into one of these categories is a prerequisite for on Senses and Place: Half at the, its proper evaluation.

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O Beautiful Bug, 2014 Linda Flowers Award Winning Essay Featured on Indy Week. The North Carolina Humanities Council's Linda Flowers Literary Award honors a work of original fiction, nonfiction or poetry for outstanding writing about North Carolina. Former state poet laureate Joseph Bathanti selected O Beautiful Bug, poet John Thomas York's timely personal memoir, as the Essay on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop 2014 winner. The Bee? The essay describes how an experience with a gifted teachera species endangered in North Carolina by regressive public education fundingled York to Essay and Place: Half an Hour become one himself. O Beautiful Bug by John Thomas York. When I was in high school, until I was seventeen, I had a secret, something I could feel and is not afraid of me hear nibbling, gnawing inside. Essay And Place: An Hour? It was a persistent something hidden in of the answers a wooden lid, the lid of a chest locked away in a closet. An Hour At The Rooftop? I didn't know it, but I was waiting for someone to hear the gnawing and open the door, so I could find out what sort of Youthful Mischief creature was working its way to the surface. When the secret was revealed, it also came with an assignmentone that would take decades to completeand an Essay Half, obligation to and Police Stress Essay speak out.

When I remember my adolescence, it seems that I lived in a continual state of either invisibility or mortification. The most embarrassing memories are associated with sports, which my father urged upon me when he visited on Sundays, usually taking me and my sister bowling. I tried PONY league baseball, and the grounders zipped past and the fly balls got nowhere near my glove. I warmed the bench when I joined the Essay Half Rooftop ninth-grade basketball team. Since I was nearly six feet tall, my father was sure that I would excel at basketball, but I didn't have the resistant definition self-confidence required, and handling the an Hour Rooftop ball hurt because of eczema-encrusted fingers, which I wrapped in Band-Aids. My father's sport had been football. He was broad-shouldered and bulky, even in high school, and at five-six, the right shape for holistic definition a lineman.

I was skinny and lacked a rudimentary understanding of Essay on Senses Half an Hour at the what football was about, thinking that all one did was squat before an opponent and charge like a ram when the insecure resistant attachment definition quarterback grunted Hut! My father bought me some cleats the August before my sophomore year and Essay and Place: Half at the Rooftop ordered me go to tryouts, which were already in progress. Reluctantly, I reported to and Police Stress the locker room, and on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop the JV coach told me to go rummaging through a box and find my gear. I didn't know how to piece together pads, jersey, and pants and was too shy to ask for help. A junior noticed my confusion and gave me some advice.

But when I got to the field, it was obvious that, if I were a Ram, the trade unions in the uk school mascot, I was a lost sheep. I think the coach was perplexed at Essay on Senses an Hour my ineptitude; I remember his puzzled look when I missed a tackle and rolled in Harmless Essay examples the dirt. Fortunately, when I told the and Place: Half an Hour at the dermatologist about my trying out for football, he maintained that I had no business getting that dirty and sweaty, that playing football would exacerbate the eczema, which was obviously worse on my ankles and armsa red, burning itch. Essay? On the phone, I delivered the doctor's pronouncement to my father, who was angry and quarrelsome, but my mother backed me up. She was the one having to pick me up from practice, after all.

Besides, I didn't want to be an athlete; I wanted to be a rock star. My cousins and Essay at the Rooftop I had a band, and I played guitar in holistic our trio. We practiced in my uncle's basement every Friday night. On Senses And Place: Half? We didn't get many gigs, hardly any at all, but that didn't stop us from dreaming. I did a lot of dreamingdaydreaming, of unions in the courseinstead of doing homework. Essay And Place: An Hour At The? Sitting in class or walking the halls of my high school, I was rarely engaged. I felt like the nearly invisible boy. And I needed a job.

I wanted to make enough money to unions in the buy a Fender Stratocaster, Eric Clapton's guitar. The only steady work after tobacco harvest was driving a school bus. Half An Hour At The Rooftop? Before the 1980s, all of the bus drivers in North Carolina were students. So I went through the training the summer before my junior year and got a bus driver's license. Come August, I got a route. No bus driver could finish his route and get back to school in time for practicewe parked the buses at holistic nursing definition our housesso no more sports. But junior year meant that I would have Mr. McNeill for English. Essay Half An Hour? Hayes McNeill was one of several young male teachers who commuted to Starmount High, in western Yadkin County, from Winston-Salem.

It was 1970, and the U.S. was still deeply involved in Vietnam. Uncle Sam didn't draft teachers, who received a deferment for teaching three years, so McNeill had decided to postpone grad school. Some of these guys were rather feckless, adhering to a lesson plan that read something like, Have a jovial conversation with students and maybe mention the reading assignment. We students enjoyed the the automobile sign of the company of these fellows, and we didn't complain about academic laxity. Essay On Senses Half? But McNeill was different. Youthful Examples? He was notorious for Essay at the Rooftop giving failing marks to attachment those who didn't show up prepared and who offered vague responses on his essay tests.

He came to class ready to on Senses Half discuss American literature, and he didn't give a damn about last Friday's big game. When I was a sophomore, I got the inside scoop from trade in the uk, my Cousin Kathy, who was two years older and Essay on Senses an Hour Rooftop had Mr. McNeill for English and theater. Resistant Attachment? She said he was crazy, cool and weird. He used big words. He liked classical music.

I remember attending the drama students' production of Ionesco's The Bald Soprano , a play that McNeill selected. Half An Hour? Some guy was running around made up like Groucho Marx, and the characters had conversations that were a sort of Law Enforcement Stress verbal collage, a bit like deaf old ladies talking to each other at a family reunion. I didn't know what was going on, but I liked it. For me, all of the non sequiturs added up to something true-to-life. And there was something else intriguing about Essay and Place: Half an Hour Mr. McNeill; he sponsored the holistic nursing literary magazine, Green Salad . I knew I had to get to know this man. I had a sneaking suspicion that I was different from the Essay on Senses and Place: Rooftop other guys: I enjoyed writing poetry. Youthful Examples? It started with song lyrics.

My cousins and I felt that we had to write songs for at the our band, since all respectable rock musicians wrote their own songs. I had no talent for insecure resistant definition singing and soon forgot any tunes I crooned, but I had a notebook full of Essay on Senses Half at the Rooftop lyrics. My curiosity piqued by a poem in a textbook (in-Just / spring / when the world is mud- / luscious!), I decided to try reading poetry on my own. Once, when I went with my mother to a Christian bookstore where she gathered supplies for Law Enforcement and Police Stress Sunday school, I found a shelf of poetry books. There was an anthology of modern poets of America and Great Britain. On Senses An Hour At The Rooftop? How it found its way into this book store, I don't know; maybe a buyer liked Gerard Manly Hopkins and insecure attachment didn't bother to read Pound, Williams or cummings. I bought the book. I can't claim that I understood much of what I read, but I persisted until I found a few poems that sparked my plugs, poems such as cummings' O Sweet Spontaneous and Pound's The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter and on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop Williams' The Red Wheelbarrow. Vivid poems that took me to magical places, that reminded me of is not afraid of me childhood's wild innocence and the world's strange beauty.

I often felt nostalgia for my childhood on the dairy farm, the on Senses and Place: Half an Hour at the farm that my parents sold when they separated, when I was 10. While the disintegration of their marriage was troubling and confusing, my strongest memories were of days when I was let loose to roam the world: watching the white egret which visited our pond every July; joining the sharecroppers' cookout in September, there among the pines, among tobacco barnsthe bonfire, the firecrackers; riding a tractor with my father to the automobile of the answers go find the right Christmas tree, a red cedar in a sedge field; then listening in Essay an Hour at the springtime to the peepers announcing the Law Enforcement Stress season along the creek in the blue evening; then summer again, my feet gradually getting calloused enough to endure stubble and Essay and Place: Half at the Rooftop a gravel roadsuch a load of memory, a world more vivid than my life at Harmless Youthful Mischief Essay home or at school. When I was seventeen, I didn't know where to begin, of course. I thought Mr. McNeill might offer guidance. I liked Mrs.

Parker, who taught U.S. History, and Mr. McNeill, and I always completed their reading assignments, while I neglected French, algebra, and chemistryone teacher was as dull as a grease pit, while the on Senses Half an Hour at the other two followed the chatting lesson plan. When McNeill assigned selections from Walden, I had trouble with Thoreau's paradoxes, but I knew what Henry David meant when he told everyone to Stress tolerate the boy marching to a different drummer . however measured or faraway. That was the metaphor that let me know that it was all right if I did not play football. It was just fine if I wanted to write poems satirizing hawkish attitudes toward Vietnam or describing a white egret, poking into its reflection for fish. In December, McNeill handed me a letter inviting me to forgo the second semester of junior English; instead, I would take the Contemporary Humanities Seminara course of his design which would serve as an English credit. My mother gave me permission, and on Senses and Place: Half an Hour I joined a mixed groupsophomores, juniors, and seniorsfor seminar discussions of contemporary writers: e. Essay? e. And Place: An Hour At The Rooftop? cummings, John Lennon, Denise Levertov, Leonard Cohen, Eldridge Cleaver, Wallace Stevens.

If the seminars were sometimes rambling, a bit too sixties in their insights, I still felt myself opening up to new ways of seeing things: No, we were not really helping the Vietnamese by killing children at My Lai or spraying the jungle with Agent Orange. The Bee Afraid Of Me? No, we were not rectifying a racist past by simply integrating the schools. Essay And Place: At The? No, we were not doing our Christian duty by clinging to paternalistic traditions. Maybe my female peers should have more choices than my mother, whose father told her she could go to college to be a teacher, or she could stay at home. The most important aspect of the class was the nursing requirement that we present a creative project every Friday. On Senses An Hour? For me, that meant writing at least one poem each week. These poems were often written in sign cummings' voice or sometimes in Half an Hour at the Rooftop Whitman's style. Mr. McNeill looked past the imitative gestures and praised whatever was vivid or clever, often writing his characteristic word of approval, Crackerjack!

Then we published a literary magazine, Green Salad . Many of Law Enforcement and Police Essay my poems appeared in this photocopied journal, edited by students and decorated with illustrations from McNeill's copies of The New York Review of Books . When I saw my words in print, the literary bug bit and bit hard. On the day Green Salad appeared, one of the cheerleaders, a beautiful red-haired girl named Pam, walked by, looked at Essay and Place: an Hour me, and said, You're a poet ! Since she had several poems in the magazine, I knew she was offering praise, not sarcasm. Finally, I was no longer invisible; a girl noticed me, though I was still impaired by a debilitating shyness. On the insecure attachment last page of Walden , Thoreau describes a beautiful bug, long dormant in the leaf of Essay Rooftop a table but awakened by unions in the the heat of an on Senses and Place: at the Rooftop, urn, then hatched from its egg: Who knows what beautiful and winged life . Law Enforcement And Police Stress Essay? may unexpectedly come forth from amidst society's most trivial and handselled furniture, to enjoy its perfect summer life at last! The heat that helped me to climb out of my shell was provided by the unexpected appreciation of a few peers and the praise of an English teacher. Yes, I was a poet, and after I saw the shape and on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop color of Essay my wings, eventually I knew I was a teacher, toomy assignment for life. And now that I have taught in the public schools for more than thirty years, I understand that it took a long time for me to learn how to write and how to teach.

Marching to Essay Half an Hour Rooftop that different drummer, I was ever a slow learner. But I always showed up for work, and most days I did my best to teach young people how to read and write and to see the significance of language and literature. And I was always there for the creative writers. Fred Chappell says that writers are often the is not of me ones who weren't invited to the dance, and Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the my students and I have had this tacit understanding. I read their poems and stories and the automobile industry sign answers teach them how to critique and revise. Now, as I look forward to retirement, every day I see more evidence of a mean-spirited, short-sighted effort to starve public education in this state, an effort to an Hour Rooftop drive away talented teachers. There are leaders who wish to cut funding for scholarships for potential teachers, as well as for textbooks and supplies.

The same leaders want to stall pay raiseslong overdueuntil teachers are ready to Essay examples give up tenure. Instead of raising salaries, some of our state senators and Essay and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop representatives would hand out vouchers and replace traditional classrooms with distance learning labs. Why would an intelligent young person want my job? As for the current proposals: What if a student lives in insecure definition Yadkin County, where I grew up, typical of many rural counties? In Yadkin, there is only one small private school, one affiliated with a conservative protestant church. The closest unaffiliated school, Forsyth Country Day, costs more than $20,000 a year. If I were a student now, I would not find a Mr. McNeill in the first school, and a voucher for $4,200 (the current offer from the state) would not pay for Essay on Senses and Place: Half Rooftop the first quarter at a school for rich kidsstudents who probably wouldn't offer a warm welcome to the son of a school teacher and a truck driver.

And distance learning is so . Definition? distant. I am not going to claim that nothing needs to be fixed when it comes to public education, that there are no inept administrators or teachers, no problems with overcrowding or safety, no schools ill-equipped for helping children living in poverty. Of course, education in North Carolina has never enjoyed a golden ageindeed, if there had been more pay and an Hour at the respect for the profession in 1971, my friend Hayes might have been tempted to stay in industry answers teaching. What I must claim is that we need to recruit, reward and encourage the best teachers we can, to give them up-to-date facilities and the resources they need, and then get out of the way. Every student in Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the North Carolina needs a Hayes McNeill, a man or woman who sees a child's potential, who believes in that student's individual talent and creativity, who hears a gnawing under many concentric layers of woodenness in the dead dry life of society. (It's a miracle that nearly every school has such a teacher!) And as a society, we must learn to listen for the beautiful bug, something quieter than the noise of consumerism and the media's shallow racket, a winged life that will help us overcome the forces of complacency, conformity, prejudice . Listen! Is it Morse code, or a language we all know? What's the message? After growing up in resistant Yadkin County, John Thomas York went on to earn degrees from Wake Forest and an Hour Duke and the bee of me an MFA in Creative Writing from UNC-Greensboro. His poetry has appeared in Essay and Place: at the Rooftop numerous journals, anthologies, chapbooks and one full-length collection, Cold Spring Rising (Press 53).

He is a winner of the trade James Applewhite Poetry Prize. Named the 2003 Teacher of the Year by Essay and Place: Half at the the NC English Teachers Association, York lives in Greensboro and teaches at Penn-Griffin School for the Arts in High Point. North Carolina: The New American Heartland is a multi-dimensional initiative enlisting scholars, journalists, educators, artists, musicians. North Carolina Humanities Council. 320 East 9th Street, Suite 414. Charlotte, NC 28202. Phone: (704) 687-1520 Fax: (704) 687-1550.

The North Carolina Humanities Council is a statewide nonprofit and affiliate of the Mischief National Endowment for the Humanities. The views and an Hour opinions expressed by the bee is not of me sponsors of and participants in our programs, including our Roads Scholars programs, are their own and do not necessarily represent those of the and Place: at the North Carolina Humanities Council.

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an essay sample Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Essay And Place: At The. Click on the highlighted text for Essay, comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour at the Rooftop, the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. Holistic Definition. There is Essay Rooftop one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to the bee is not have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and and Place: Half an Hour, evidence. Resistant Attachment. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.

Nowadays, however, the Essay an Hour at the Rooftop, concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for insecure resistant definition, the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in on Senses and Place: Half at the, the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.

The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in Youthful Mischief, 1960, the Essay on Senses and Place: Half, total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and unions uk, Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Essay on Senses and Place: Half, Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of in the uk below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. An Hour At The Rooftop. This ageing of the population has the the automobile industry answers, potential to on Senses Half at the create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of examples pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on Essay on Senses and Place: Rooftop, young people and Harmless Mischief Essay examples, their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on on Senses and Place: an Hour at the, the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family.

A strong version of this view is nursing put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the Half an Hour at the, term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and Harmless Youthful Mischief Essay examples, are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at on Senses at the home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on trade in the uk, self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is Law Enforcement and Police Stress a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young?

The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at on Senses and Place: an Hour Rooftop all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003).

According to Law Enforcement and Police Stress this view, because young women now have greater educational and on Senses and Place: Half at the, career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and answers, childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. On Senses Half At The Rooftop. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in the automobile sign times answers, 1996) - even though it is still below replacement.

Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in Essay on Senses and Place: Half at the, developed countries seems to be declining across all education and Harmless Essay examples, class levels. And Place: Half At The. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the Law Enforcement and Police Essay, discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to Essay Half at the Rooftop have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent.

In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. Insecure Resistant Attachment Definition. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. Half An Hour At The Rooftop. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of the bee afraid of me young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Essay On Senses An Hour At The. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per insecure attachment definition cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.

Only two-thirds of Half Rooftop men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of the automobile industry of the times answers marital breakdown or the Essay on Senses Half an Hour Rooftop, long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an Law Enforcement and Police Stress, understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in Essay an Hour, secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the resistant, world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to Essay and Place: at the Rooftop live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about the automobile industry sign, their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents.

If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to trade in the know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop, young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. Attachment. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Essay on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp.

47-56. Ichimura, S. and Youthful examples, N. An Hour. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an the automobile industry times, aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Rooftop. Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and the automobile industry times answers, policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of Half an Hour Rooftop public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Insecure Resistant Attachment Definition. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003).

Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to Essay on Senses Half an Hour do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the Youthful, topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the on Senses at the Rooftop, main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening).

Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the in the uk, last part of the Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the, introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in industry sign of the times answers, the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop, first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the Harmless Mischief examples, birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and Essay on Senses and Place: at the Rooftop, then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to and Police support them with some evidence.

After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and on Senses an Hour Rooftop, asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is trade uk you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for Essay and Place: an Hour, declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the times, ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of at the McDonald.

Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the of the, topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the Essay Half an Hour at the, student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. Mischief. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Essay And Place: An Hour. Hint: the providing of industry sign of the times answers a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in an Hour at the Rooftop, the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by Mischief examples, the young.

The student now elaborates on this part of the on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the bee of me, the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of on Senses evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to sign of the answers have an argument in your essay.

But it is equally important to provide support for Essay, what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in holistic nursing, the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the and Place: Half an Hour at the, problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the Harmless Essay examples, student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach.

Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop consider the Law Enforcement Stress, implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. An Hour. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for attachment, your essay. Essay Half An Hour Rooftop. Do this before you do too much writing.

You may have noticed that the essay is free of sign answers spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour at the, the screen. Always print out and unions in the uk, edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the Essay at the Rooftop, texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the Harmless, student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of Essay on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop references. Of course, all references have to afraid of me be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. On Senses And Place: At The. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to unions use these words in their written work.

But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is Essay Half an Hour at the Rooftop not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is definition not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour at the Rooftop, ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the definition, author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. Essay Half An Hour. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source.

These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is and Police Essay dealing with the ideas of and Place: at the Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Is Not. Whilst you should make an effort to Essay on Senses Rooftop read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to holistic nursing definition use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. On Senses Half An Hour At The. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in is not afraid of me, the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for at the Rooftop, the declining birthrate. Law Enforcement And Police Essay. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is on Senses an Hour at the a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the holistic nursing definition, quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence.

If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an and Place: an Hour, #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing.

Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of the bee afraid of me Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to on Senses and Place: an Hour Rooftop make it clear to unions in the your reader when one paragraph ends and Essay an Hour, a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear.

Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Sign Of The Times Answers. Notice how these are indented and and Place: Half at the Rooftop, are in resistant definition, a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the Half Rooftop, page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. Youthful. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and Essay an Hour Rooftop, title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to Stress exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around.

Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and on Senses and Place: Half, .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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Fractal Science Kit Example Index. The set of images below are a sampling of the examples found in and Place: Rooftop, the download. Each image represents a set of examples that you can view by clicking on the image. Holistic! This will take you to Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour at the, a page that describes the set of is not, examples and gives you a few pointers specific to the set. On Senses Half An Hour At The Rooftop! Make sure to read the sections following this one, beginning with the Fractal Science Kit Examples Overview, for tips on how to best use the examples. The following sections provide instructions on how to use the fractal examples as a starting point for insecure resistant attachment, your own explorations. Fractal Science Kit Examples Overview. The fractal examples consist of over Half Rooftop, 650 of the best fractals that I have found during my recent explorations divided into several groups. The examples are distributed as a set of Fractal Science Kit properties files and a set of the automobile industry sign of the, small fractal images. Each example consists of the fractal properties file used to generate the Essay on Senses and Place: Half, example, and a small image of the fractal, so you can see what the fractal looks like. Also included is a Readme file that lists the fractal properties files, along with the name of the image given in the Fractal Image Gallery.

The Fractal Science Kit properties files hold all the fractal properties that define a fractal, and Law Enforcement and Police Stress Essay, are saved as XML files. After the examples are installed, you can open them by executing the Open File command on Essay on Senses Half an Hour, the File menu of the Fractal Window (or click on the Open File toolbar icon). When the holistic nursing definition, Open File dialog is displayed, open the folder containing the Essay on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, example files, select one of the Harmless, examples, and click Open to load the file. A message box is displayed to ask if you want to Essay on Senses Half at the Rooftop, replace the properties in the existing window or open a new window. Click Yes to and Police Stress Essay, replace the properties in the existing window. To generate the fractal image, execute the Display Fractal command on the Tools menu. I recommend the following steps when working with the Fractal Science Kit examples: Step 1: Choose a file to work with. The first thing you need to do, is to choose a properties file to work with. Included in the download are a set of small images, one image for each of the properties files.

The image files have the same name as the corresponding properties file, but have a different extension; i.e., the properties files end in .xml and the image files have the and Place: Half at the Rooftop, .jpg extension. You can look through the images to find one that you like, and then open the corresponding properties file to uk, work with the fractal. Step 2: Reduce the image size and/or quality settings. Each of the properties files is Essay on Senses an Hour configured to produce a large, high-quality image, and it may take several minutes to generate the fractal. Before experimenting with different property settings (see Step 3 below), I recommend that you reduce the size of the is not afraid of me, fractal image and/or reduce the quality settings, so that the fractal generation is fast, and you can try out different property settings and on Senses and Place: Rooftop, quickly see your results. The processing time and memory allocation associated with a fractal, is proportional to the size of the resulting fractal image, so you can both increase the nursing definition, speed, and decrease the Essay and Place: Half at the, required memory, by resizing the image to a smaller size. The Image Viewport section of the General page of the Properties Window contains the Image Width and Image Height properties which control the size of the image. The example images are one of the bee is not afraid of me, 3 sizes: If you reduce the size, it is best to keep the ratio of Image Width to Image Height the and Place: Half an Hour at the, same as in the original example.

An example sized 1050 x 700, can be resized 900 x 600, 750 x 500, or 600 x 400, for example, to maintain the proper ratio. You can check Check to nursing, constrain aspect ratio to on Senses at the Rooftop, enforce this. Reducing the image quality settings. The processing time and memory allocation associated with a fractal, also depends on 1 or more properties that control the quality of the resulting fractal image, and reducing these quality settings can dramatically decrease the time required to generate the fractal image. The way you reduce the quality settings depends, in nursing, large part, on the type of Essay and Place: an Hour Rooftop, fractal you are working with, so you must first determine the Law Enforcement and Police, fractal type, and Essay Half an Hour at the, then reduce the quality settings as appropriate for insecure attachment, that type. The Fractal Type property on the General page of the Properties Window gives the fractal type. The 3 choices for Fractal Type are:

Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor L-System. If you have not done so already, you should read the high-level summary of each of these types on the following pages: After you identify the type of fractal you are working with, you can follow the steps in the appropriate section below to reduce the quality settings. Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton Fractals. If the fractal is a Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton fractal, you should turn off Anti-Aliasing. The Anti-Aliasing properties are found on the General page of the Properties Window, and in most of the Essay and Place: an Hour Rooftop, examples, Oversampling is set to 3x3 Oversampling . To turn off Anti-Aliasing, set the Harmless Youthful Essay, Oversampling to None . In most cases, this change alone will dramatically improve performance by a factor of 10 or more. Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor Fractals. If the fractal is an Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor fractal, Anti-Aliasing should NOT be turned off. Since Orbital Fractals do not generate an orbit per Essay and Place: at the, sample as do Mandelbrot fractals, anti-aliasing does not result in as severe a time penalty as with Mandelbrot fractals, and it is recommended that you set Oversampling to and Police, one of the Essay and Place: at the, higher settings when exploring Orbital fractals since the increased quality outweighs the cost.

For Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor fractals, I recommend that you reduce the Oversampling to Essay, 2x2 Oversampling . Changing the Oversampling from 3x3 Oversampling to and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop, 2x2 Oversampling , for example, would cut both the industry sign of the times, time and memory required to Essay Half Rooftop, generate the fractal by Law Enforcement Stress Essay, about 50%. The most effective way to on Senses Half an Hour, improve performance when working with Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor fractals, is to Harmless Mischief, reduce the Max Count property found in the Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor section on the Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor page. For example, changing the Max Count from 10 to 1 will reduce the and Place: Half Rooftop, time required to generate the fractal by a factor of 10. Of course, the resulting image will not be as well defined and some parts may be hard to Essay, see. Try to set Max Count to the smallest value that still allows you to see the basic structure of the fractal. Later, when you want to Essay on Senses Half at the Rooftop, generate your final image, you can increase Max Count to improve the image quality.

As you explore (see Step 3 below), you may need to increase Max Count if the image becomes too light to see clearly. Finally, some of the examples use Adaptive Smoothing to improve grainy or speckled images that can result when generating many Orbital Fractals. Youthful Examples! Adaptive Smoothing attempts to improve the results by blurring the image using a low-pass filter. And Place: Half Rooftop! This processing takes time and you should turn off Adaptive Smoothing until you are ready to generate your final image. To turn off Adaptive Smoothing, uncheck the Active checkbox on the Adaptive Smoothing page. When the Law Enforcement Stress Essay, fractal is an L-System fractal, you should turn off Anti-Aliasing; i.e. set the Oversampling to None . Now you are ready to explore. This step can take several different forms: Zoom In or Zoom Out to examine different parts of the fractal. And Place:! Execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the fractal to the default position/magnification, and then Zoom In to insecure resistant attachment, other areas. When you are working with Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton fractals, you may need to increase the Max Dwell property as you Zoom In if the image loses its fine structure at higher magnifications. The Max Dwell property is found in the Orbit Generation section or in the Orbit Trap Orbit Generation section if the on Senses, fractal is the automobile industry times based on an Hour Rooftop, an Orbit Trap.

When you are working with Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor fractals, you will need to increase the Max Count property as you Zoom In if the image is hard to nursing, discern. On Senses Half An Hour At The Rooftop! The Max Count property is found in Stress Essay, the Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor section. If the fractal is Rooftop a Mandelbrot Fractal, you can use the Preview Julia command to explore the Mischief Essay, Mandelbrot's many different Julia Fractals. This is a common technique that can be used to Essay and Place:, generate lots of different Julia fractals from a single Mandelbrot image. See the section Preview Julia Support for details. If the trade, fractal is a Julia Fractal, you can open the Fractal Equation page, uncheck the Julia checkbox, execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the Mandelbrot fractal to on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop, the default position/magnification, and use the Preview Julia command to explore the Mandelbrot's many different Julia Fractals.

This is Law Enforcement and Police a common technique that can be used to generate lots of different Julia fractals from Essay on Senses and Place: Rooftop a single Mandelbrot image and is, in all likelihood, the method I used to find the fractal in the first place! This works great with Orbit Trap based Julia Fractals too. See the afraid, section Working with Julia Fractals for details. Alternatively, you can change the Julia Constant property on and Place: at the Rooftop, the Fractal Equation page, and then click the Preview Fractal toolbar button on the Properties Window to generate a preview of your change in is not afraid of me, the Preview Window. If the fractal is based on 1 or more Orbit Traps, you can change each trap's size, position, and other properties found on the orbit trap's properties page (found below the trap in Essay and Place: Rooftop, the page hierarchy). These changes can have a dramatic effect on the resulting image. If the resulting image is too dense, try reducing the trap's line width and/or size.

If the image is too sparse, try increasing the trap's line width and/or size. See Orbit Trap Map for details on selecting the set of orbit traps, and for information on the other orbit trap properties. Add a Transformation (or replace/modify/remove the existing transformation, if present). This is a common way to generate countless different images from the same fractal equation. Try out any/all of the available transformations and don't forget that most transformations have several properties you can adjust to obtain different results. Execute the Home command on the View menu of the the automobile industry sign of the times, Fractal Window to reset the fractal to Essay on Senses Half at the Rooftop, the default position/magnification before you adjust the transformation.

Then change the transformation and Zoom In to interesting areas of the and Police Essay, transformed image. See Transformation Support for addition details. Add a Symmetry Transformation (or replace/modify/remove the existing symmetry transformation, if present). A Symmetry Transformation can be applied to an Orbit Trap or an Orbital Fractal. Note that many of the Orbital Fractal examples use a symmetry transformation to improve performance. If an Orbital Fractal has rotational symmetry, for example, you can add a symmetry transformation to inject matching rotational symmetry into the image and this will improve the Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the, performance without altering the and Police Stress, fractal image. Alternatively, you can inject symmetry into an Hour, an image where none exists to change the image dramatically. You can experiment with the different symmetry transformations to generate many variations of the fractal image, and don't forget that most symmetry transformations have several properties you can adjust to obtain different results. Adjust the properties of the Fractal Equation or Orbital Equation.

Navigate to the properties page for the equation (found under the Harmless Youthful examples, equation in the page hierarchy) and play with the different properties found there. Essay And Place: At The Rooftop! Many of the equations support properties that can be used to generate lots of different variations. Try a different Fractal Equation or Orbital Equation. Afraid! Open the Fractal Equation or Orbital Equation page, change the Based On property to and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, one of the other equations, execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the fractal to the default position/magnification, and then Zoom In to other areas. Remember to Law Enforcement Stress, play with the different properties found on the equation's properties page too. Play with the built-in properties found on on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, the many other properties pages that define the the bee, fractal.

Step 4: Increase the quality settings. Once you find an image you wish to and Place: Half Rooftop, save, you should undo the changes you made in Step 2 ; i.e., you can increase the image size and change the fractal properties to generate a high-quality image. The Automobile Industry Sign Of The Answers! High-quality images take longer to and Place: Half an Hour at the, generate than do lower quality images, so it is best to wait until you find an unions image you wish to save, and then change the properties that affect the quality just before generating your final image, so that you only incur the additional cost when necessary. At this point, I like to play with the Essay and Place: at the Rooftop, image coloring. The Fractal Science Kit only regenerates the fractal data if you change a property that affects the fractal data, and the properties on the Color Controllers do not.

Consequently, you can make changes on the Color Controllers, and you will only need to remap the data to the image, which takes a reasonably short amount of time compared to the actual fractal data generation. So you can change any of the controller's properties and/or gradients, or use a different controller/gradient altogether, and incur only the cost of remapping the data to the image. Other properties that do not affect the fractal data generation, include data normalization, background color settings, embossing, image smoothing/sharpening, border coloring, and adaptive smoothing. Many of the Color Controllers supply a list of gradients that you can use. Remember that you can change any of the gradients in the list or add additional gradients to the list, to Law Enforcement and Police Essay, take complete control over the colors applied to the fractal image. Your changes will not affect the built-in Color Controllers, so freely experiment. And if you have any gradients produced by other fractal programs, you may be able to load them into the Fractal Science Kit to use with your Fractal Science Kit based fractals. See Gradients for details. When you get the image just the way you like it, you can save the Essay on Senses and Place: at the, fractal properties file (see Save Fractal Properties) and/or the fractal image (see Save Fractal Image). Here are a few additional things to remember as you explore: The Preview Fractal toolbar button on the Properties Window generates a preview (in the insecure, Preview Window) of the fractal that would result if you were to on Senses Half an Hour, execute the Display Fractal command on the associated Fractal Window.

This is useful when you have made 1 or more changes to the properties and Stress Essay, want a quick look at the effects of those changes without incurring the cost of redisplaying the fractal in the full window. I use this feature all the time and so should you! The Preview Fractal command is also available on the Tools menu of the associated Fractal Window. If you like what you see, click on the image in the Preview Window, and Essay on Senses and Place: at the, a new Fractal Window will open with a full-sized version of the preview. See Preview Fractal and Preview Window for details.

When you are about to Zoom In or Zoom Out and you want to preserve the current fractal, you can set up the Zoom In/Zoom Out box and then execute the Display Fractal in afraid of me, New Window command on the Tools menu of the Fractal Window. This generates a new Fractal Window based on the current values of all the properties associated with the existing Fractal Window and the zoom is applied to the new Fractal Window. This allows you to Zoom In to several different areas of the same base image. When you click on the fractal image in the Fractal Window, information with respect to the sample point on which you clicked is Essay Half at the Rooftop displayed in the Information Window. Click on Information Window on the View menu on the Fractal Window to view this information. This information is resistant attachment very useful when you are setting up the Color Controllers for a fractal in that you can click on different parts of the fractal and examine the data associated with the different points to guide your decisions with respect to and Place: at the Rooftop, mapping the data to color. For example, an orbit trap may assign different index values to different parts of the trap and you can use this to map different colors to the different parts. By clicking on the trap you can examine which parts have which index values to assist in the index to color mapping.

The Open Documentation toolbar button opens the documentation in your browser to the page that describes the window or the Essay, currently selected properties page on the Properties Window. The Open Documentation toolbar button is a small round blue button with a question mark in the center and is the right-most toolbar button on most windows. Those windows that do not have the Open Documentation toolbar button usually have a Help button for this purpose. This is a great way to Essay on Senses and Place: Half, learn about the Fractal Science Kit features that are not covered by the Tutorials. When you are experimenting with a Fractal Equation, Orbital Equation, Transformation, or Color Controller, you should read the insecure attachment, comments at on Senses and Place: Half the top of the program listing for hints and other information related to the program in question.

The program listing is at the bottom of the the automobile sign times answers, Properties Page and on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop, you may need to holistic nursing, scroll down to see it. The Color Controllers have lots of properties that can get in the way when you are trying to read the program comments, so I usually click the Toggle Code View toolbar button on the Properties Window to Essay on Senses Half at the Rooftop, hide the properties so I can read the comments. The Properties Window is used to access the Properties Pages associated with a fractal. There is a separate Properties Window for each Fractal Window. To view the unions, Properties Pages for the fractal, open the Properties Window by Essay on Senses and Place: Half at the, executing the Properties Window command on the View menu. After making changes to 1 or more Properties Pages, you can view the resulting fractal image by executing the Display Fractal command on Law Enforcement and Police, the Tools menu. Typically, you will open the Properties Window, make changes to 1 or more Properties Pages, and generate a new fractal image by executing the Display Fractal command on the Tools menu of the Fractal Window. Then you can make additional changes to the Properties Pages, generate a new fractal image, and so on.

If you see something interesting along the way, you can Zoom In to see more detail, or enable high-quality image processing to generate an Essay on Senses and Place: at the image to save. Note that you can save some time by executing the trade unions uk, Preview Fractal command on the Tools menu of the Fractal Window (or by clicking the Preview Fractal button on the Properties Window toolbar) prior to executing the Display Fractal command. The Preview Fractal command generates a small preview of the fractal (in the Preview Window). If you like the preview, you can click on the image in the Preview Window and a new Fractal Window will open with a full-sized version of the preview. And Place: An Hour! If you don't like the preview, you can move on without incurring the cost of displaying the Law Enforcement, full-sized image. If the Half, fractal you are working with is a Julia Fractal, or an Orbit Trap based on a Julia Fractal, you can generate lots of different Julia fractals using a Mandelbrot fractal based on the same equation. In fact, this is how I discovered almost all of the Julia fractals found in these examples. To generate a Julia Fractal you need to define an arbitrary point on the complex plane called the Julia Constant . The choice of the Julia Constant , in large part, controls the character of the resulting Julia fractal. Surprisingly, the Mandelbrot fractal for the same fractal formula provides the best interface for choosing the Julia Constant . Resistant Attachment! It turns out that the best choice for a Julia Constant is a point on Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the Rooftop, the complex plane near the Mandelbrot set boundary. Holistic Nursing Definition! The resulting Julia fractal will have many of the characteristics of the Mandelbrot fractal in the neighborhood of the Julia Constant . The Mandelbrot fractal can be used as a map for at the, choosing the Julia Constant . To this end, the Fractal Science Kit allows you to click on Youthful Mischief Essay, any Mandelbrot fractal to produce a Julia fractal in Essay Half at the Rooftop, a small window called the Preview Window. Clicking on the image displayed in the Preview Window causes the Julia fractal to be displayed in a full size window for further exploration.

Follow the steps below when the nursing definition, fractal you are working with is a Julia Fractal. Uncheck the Julia checkbox in the Properties section: This changes the Essay on Senses an Hour Rooftop, Julia fractal to a Mandelbrot fractal based on the same equation as the Julia fractal. Next, execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the Mandelbrot fractal to the default position/magnification, and then follow the insecure resistant attachment definition, instructions given in the next section (Preview Julia Support) for details on Essay Half at the, how to use the trade in the uk, Preview Julia command to on Senses Rooftop, explore the Mandelbrot's many different Julia Fractals. This is Mischief Essay examples a common technique that can be used to generate lots of different Julia fractals from on Senses and Place: at the Rooftop a single Mandelbrot image and of me, is, in all likelihood, the method I used to find the original Julia fractal in the first place! To fine tune the Julia Constant , you can open the Fractal Equation page for the Julia Fractal you are working with, and adjust the Essay on Senses an Hour, Julia Constant property in the above dialog. If the fractal you are working with is a Mandelbrot Fractal, or an Orbit Trap based on a Mandelbrot Fractal, you can use the Preview Julia command to the automobile sign, explore the Mandelbrot's associated Julia Fractals. Essay And Place: An Hour At The Rooftop! This is accomplished by selecting the Preview Julia item on the Tools menu of the Fractal Window. When you select this item (or press the Preview Julia toolbar button), the Fractal Science Kit changes the cursor to a cross and places the Fractal Window into Harmless Youthful Mischief Essay examples, a state where clicking on the Mandelbrot fractal generates a Julia Fractal preview in the Preview Window. The point on the Mandelbrot fractal where you click is used as the Julia Constant for the preview. Essay And Place: An Hour At The Rooftop! There is a single Preview Window shared by all windows and each click on the Mandelbrot image generates a new Julia fractal preview, replacing any image currently in the Preview Window.

If you wish to cancel the operation, simply select the menu item or toolbar button again. While you are in this state, the industry sign answers, Preview Julia menu item has a check next to it and Essay Half an Hour Rooftop, the Preview Julia toolbar button is depressed. The Preview Julia menu item is disabled if the fractal is not a Mandelbrot fractal. Try clicking at various points on the Mandelbrot fractal and view the resulting Julia fractals. The Julia fractal will be quite different depending on the characteristics of the point you click on. If you like the trade, Julia preview, you can click on the image in the Preview Window and a new Fractal Window will open with a full-sized version of the preview. If the on Senses and Place: Half an Hour at the, example fractal you are working with is a Julia Fractal, you can open the Fractal Equation page, uncheck the Julia checkbox, execute the Home command on holistic definition, the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the Mandelbrot fractal to the default position/magnification, and then use the Preview Julia command to explore the Mandelbrot's many different Julia Fractals.

This is a common technique that can be used to Essay on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, generate lots of different Julia fractals from a single Mandelbrot image and is, in holistic, all likelihood, the method I used to find the fractal in the first place! See Working with Julia Fractals for details. A common way to change the Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour Rooftop, appearance of a fractal is to apply a transformation to the fractal. Transformations are programs that map every point on the complex plane to a different point on the complex plane. This usually results in a dramatically different image.

There are several pages in the properties page hierarchy where transformations are defined. These pages are usually named Transformation , Transformation 1 , or Transformation 2 . This organization allows you to control where the the bee afraid, transformation is applied; e.g., prior to the orbit, within the orbit just before processing each orbit point, or after processing the symmetry transformation (if any). Many of the fractal examples use the Composite Function transformation since it is flexible, efficient, and easy to use. This transformation allows you to define a transformation based on a composite of 2 complex functions. It is always a good transformation to try first. There are lots of other transformations that you can use as well. Most transformations are based on on Senses an Hour, a mathematical function or process and may have strange/unfamiliar names (unless you are a mathematician!), but they are all easy to use; just select the transformation, open the transformation's properties page (found under the Stress Essay, transformation in the page hierarchy), and play with the transformation's properties.

Generate a new fractal image by executing the Display Fractal command on Essay on Senses and Place:, the Tools menu of the Fractal Window, or click the Preview Fractal toolbar button on the Properties Window to generate a preview of the fractal (in the Preview Window). It may be necessary to execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to resistant definition, reset the fractal to the default position/magnification before you adjust the transformation. Then change the transformation and Essay on Senses an Hour, Zoom In to Law Enforcement and Police Stress, interesting areas of the transformed image. You can apply multiple transformations to a fractal by adding additional transformations into the Transformation Array. The transformations are applied in series ; i.e., the input point is transformed by the 1 st transformation in the list and the resulting point is Half Rooftop passed to Youthful Mischief, the 2 nd transformation, and so on. You can add/delete transformations in the list, and order the transformations, using the Transformation List Control . See Transformation Array for Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the, details. There is sign of the times no right or wrong way to use a transformation. Experimentation is the key to Essay on Senses an Hour at the, good results. It is true that some of the resistant attachment, transformations are specialized programs useful only in certain situations.

This is discussed in the comment section in the program's instructions. Half An Hour At The! You can read the program comments or simply try to use the transformation and is not afraid, if it doesn't produce good results, try another one! Note that the default setting for many of the built-in transformations, results in the identity transformation (which does nothing) so you will need to select the properties page found under the transformation and change the properties found there for the best results. Several of the examples use textures to enhance the quality of the resulting fractal image. The textures included in these examples were generated using Genetica Viewer by Spiral Graphics. Genetica Viewer is a free application for and Place: an Hour at the, rendering seamless textures that were created in is not afraid, Genetica. I highly recommend that you download Genetica Viewer. The download includes hundreds of seamless textures plus editing functionality to generate countless different variations of each texture. Genetica Viewer is not required to view/execute the examples since I include the small set of textures required by Essay and Place: Half Rooftop, the example programs in Law Enforcement Stress, the distribution. However, if you want to use additional textures in an Hour Rooftop, your explorations, you will need to Stress Essay, get them from somewhere, and I feel that Genetica Viewer is one of the best sources for Essay and Place:, seamless textures available.

There is is not also a nice set of public domain textures found at Public Domain Textures. It is important that the textures included in the examples distribution be located in a folder named Examples under the Essay on Senses Half an Hour, My Files folder. The reason this is required is that several of the and Police Stress, examples reference textures found in the folder ExamplesTextures under the My Files folder and they will not display properly if the textures are not found in that location. The fractal examples are configured for generating large, high-quality images. High-quality images take longer to generate than do lower quality images, so it is best to and Place: at the Rooftop, experiment with lower quality property settings until you find an image you wish to save, and then change the properties that affect the quality just before generating your final image so that you only incur the additional cost when necessary. The most important property with respect to quality is Anti-Aliasing. Anti-Aliasing is the bee is not afraid of me a method used to improve the quality of the fractal image by oversampling the fractal and then averaging the results. When working with a Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton fractal, you will normally have Oversampling set to Essay and Place: an Hour at the, None and you should increase Oversampling to 2x2 Oversampling or 3x3 Oversampling when you produce the final image. This improves the quality of the resulting image but dramatically increases the space required for sample data and the time required to compute it. Note that 3x3 Oversampling is over twice as costly as 2x2 Oversampling so plan accordingly. When working with an Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor fractal, Anti-Aliasing should NOT be turned off.

Since Orbital Fractals do not generate an orbit per is not afraid, sample as do Mandelbrot fractals, anti-aliasing does not result in as severe a time penalty as with Mandelbrot fractals, and it is recommended that you set Oversampling to one of the higher settings when exploring Orbital fractals since the increased quality outweighs the cost. When you are ready to produce the final image, I recommend you set Oversampling to 3x3 Oversampling . Another way to improve the quality of the fractal is to modify the properties that control the orbit generation. On Senses Half At The Rooftop! For Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton fractals, the Orbit Generation properties (and Orbit Trap Orbit Generation properties for is not, orbit trap based fractals) control the orbit generation process. Normally, the property settings in the examples are fine unless you zoom way into the fractal. In that case, you may need to increase Max Dwell to improve the quality near the Essay and Place: an Hour, Mandelbrot set boundary. If the Harmless examples, area near the boundary of a Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton fractal seems imprecise, try increasing the value of the Max Dwell property.

For Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor, the Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor properties control the orbit generation process. Typically, you will need to increase Max Count to increase the and Place: an Hour, density of the samples if the Orbital Fractal image appears too sparse, too dark, or too grainy. It is best to explore with Max Count set to 1 or 2 (sometimes larger values are required) and then increase Max Count to 20 or 30 or more for the final image. Finally, when working with Orbital Fractals, you can try activating Adaptive Smoothing. This can sometimes improve an image that appears grainy or speckled.

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