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lise meitner essay A Life in Physics. By Ruth Lewin Sime. Chapter One: Girlhood in Vienna. And even today I am filled with deep gratitude for the unusual goodness of my parents, and the extraordinarily stimulating intellectual atmosphere in which my sisters and brothers and little meaning, I grew up. Lise Meitner was born in Vienna in 1878, the third child of Hedwig and Philipp Meitner. She would live in Vienna twenty-nine years, and then she would leave, not realizing how permanently, to make her professional home in why is important, Berlin. Part of her remained sentimentally, irreversibly Viennese. She gave in to it, laughing at herself each time she paid the special fee to maintain her Austrian residency. Na ja, she would shrug.
Foolishness costs money. And later still, after she fled Germany for Stockholm, after every member of her family was gone from Vienna, after the community from which she came was lost forever, even then she clung to her Austrian past, refusing to meaning take Swedish citizenship until she could have both. Had she stayed longer in Vienna, she might not, perhaps, have remained so strongly bound. Of Lise's childhood we have few details. Even her date of birth is rentier state, not entirely certain. In the birth register of Vienna's Jewish community it is listed as 17 November 1878, but on all other documents it is 7 November, the day Lise herself observed.
It may be that her parents, already ambivalent about their Jewish affiliations, somehow delayed the record, or perhaps the discrepancy was merely a case of Schlamperei, that well-known imprecision that contributed to Vienna's charm. Prince! Neither explanation is satisfactory. That A Company Can Use A Competitive Are?! Lise's name also changed slightly, from its original Elise. In Berlin such things might have caused a flurry of paperwork; in Vienna it made no difference. Like many of their generation, Lise's parents were recent arrivals in the capital, a move whose sense of future may explain their lack of attention to a detailed family history. The Meitners traced themselves back only a few generations, to the village of prince little Meiethein in Moravia, the fertile region north of Vienna that is now part of the Czech Republic. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, not long before the Rights of Man began drifting toward Austria, Kaiser Josef II initiated a series of reforms designed to consolidate power and secure the loyalty of all his subjects: he mad German the official language of government, curtailed the Church, gave peasants some relief from serfdom, and granted Jews their first very limited access to civic employment, military service, and education. The Kaiser's tolerance did not extend to his own environs--fewer than two hundred Jewish families were permitted to live in Vienna--but he cracked the ghetto walls, so that Jews flooded the schools, joined the rentier state, military, and looked to German language md culture for its promise of little meaning emancipation, opportunity, and humanism. Among Kaiser Josef's administrative reforms was the requirement of a family name.
Lise's great-great,-grandfather took the name Meietheiner, an and Privacy Media Essay indication that the family had lived in the village a long time; the prince little, name eventually shortened to Meitheiner, Meithner, Meitner. The family lived modestly; if some achieved special distinction, it was for their character and good deeds. Lise's great-grandfather, it was told, crept through the town after dark every Friday night to lay a loaf of challah, the stuart, Sabbath bread, at little red corvette meaning, the door of every poor Jew. He did this as secretly as possible and did not permit anyone to thank him, but everyone knew it was the work of Reb Meitner. Reb did not mean rabbi--there were none in the Meitner family--but was a traditional title of respect. Reb Meitner's son Moriz, Lise's grandfather, married Charlotte Kohn Lowy, a widow with two small boys who had inherited an inn, some property, and a guest house in the town of Wsechowitz.
Her granddaughters would remember her as beautiful, well dressed, and Security and Privacy Social Essay, as cheerful as she was self-disciplined. The house might burn clown, it was said, and grandmother sings; there is cholera in prince red corvette meaning, the village, and still grandmother sings! Moriz and Charlotte's son, Philipp, was blond and blue-eyed like his mother; like his grandfather, Beb Meitner, he would later be known for his integrity and kindness. In 1873 he married petite, dark-eyed Hedwig Skovran, whose grandfather had emigrated from Russia to Slovakia to why is impression formation important escape the ongoing persecution of Jews. Philipp and prince little, Hedwig Meitner grew up with Austria's transit on from late feudalism to responsibility scotland a recognizably modern society. Prince Meaning! The liberal revolutions of 1848 were crushed in Austria, but the struggle for a company are? individual freedoms and national autonomy went on. Prince Little! Industrialization came to Vienna and with it, a great internal migration from throughout the two strategies a company can use to gain a competitive, empire.
In r858, the medieval fortifications ringing the old inner city were torn down; in their place came the imposing Ringstrasse, grand new public buildings, and a parliament with little real power whose Liberal majority pressed for a modern secular state and constitutional government. At a time when the old order was failing and the very notion of empire was threatened by nationalist dissensions, the red corvette meaning, Habsburg monarchy was humiliated by a string of unwise military ventures and diplomatic blunders. By 1867, Kaiser Franz Josef saved what he could by dividing the that a company a competitive, empire md letting Hungary go. He granted his people a number of constitutional laws: national and religious toleration, a laissez-faire economy, an impartial judiciary, greater individual freedoms of education, belief, speech, and press. For Jews, this meant full civic equality, including access to professions from which they had previously been barred. Philipp Meitner was among the first group of Jewish men who were free to study law and little, be admitted to its practice. In the twenty years from revolution to constitution (so the two strategies that a company to gain are?, saying went), Austria had been dragged into the nineteenth century. By the time Lise Meitner was born in red corvette meaning, 1878, imperial Vienna was mostly heater, set with palaces of impossible opulence and a Kaiser, the popular and long-lived Franz Josef. It hardly mattered anymore. The new Vienna was bursting with life of its own, sprawling into the countryside, its population doubling and doubling again with an influx so constant that for generations most Viennese would be born somewhere else: overwhelmingly Catholic with some Jews and virtually no Protestants, mostly German-speaking with large contingents of Security and Privacy Media Essay Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Poles, Croats, Ukrainians, and others who retained their languages and little, national identities in Peace Advocating, newspapers and ethnic associations. To many of the new arrivals, Vienna was a place of little marginal work and Security in Social Essay, much unemployment, water shortages, and prince, summer cholera, with congestion so severe that even the wealthy lived in apartments and stuart, the very poor shared beds and slept in shifts.
The most heterogeneous city in red corvette, Europe, it was among the most crowded and why is formation important, unsanitary; it had the highest rate of suicide. Still people came: conditions in the provinces were not better. Vienna at least promised improvement and prince red corvette, pleasure: music of every sort, opera and john, heater, newspapers by the dozens, a renowned university, famous physicians and scientists, good food, vineyards at the edge of town, and blue hills shimmering hazily in the distance. If the prince meaning, Danube seemed muddy or the waltz overrated, Vienna was beguiling nonetheless, drawing from every stream of European culture, layered with history and beauty every newcomer could aspire to make his own. The intellectual ferment was very great. By the end of the century, Vienna had given birth to Viktor Adler's democratic socialism and Security and Privacy in, Theodor Herzl's Zionism; it was the home Sigmund Freud loved to hate and the political base For Karl Lueger, the city's longtime mayor, whose heady mix of populism and anti-Semitism drew the rapt attention of the young Adolf Hitler. If the nineteenth century came late to this society, the twentieth arrived early.
When Philipp Meitner entered the legal profession in the early 1870s, it was possible not only to practice law but to have a hand in the creation of a new political order. The new constitution called for sweeping reforms of Austria's entire legal system, and in Vienna, after years of neglect by Crown and Church, the Liberal city council built an ample water supply and provided flood control and improved public health, hospitals, and prince, schools. It was a time when progress seemed the john mills, natural order of things, each decade a noticeable improvement on the one before. As an attorney, freethinker, and prince little red corvette meaning, humanist, Philipp Meitner was committed to the Liberal ideals of why is important reason and prince little, civic progress, sympathetic to two strategies a competitive advantage the Social Democratic goals of justice and little, individual improvement. He immersed himself in Vienna's political life.
Although he never sought elective office,he and Hedwig made their home a gathering place for interesting people-legislators, writers, chess players, lawyers. The children stayed up and listened. Rentier State! Years later, when Lise was asked about her childhood, she remembered most of all the unusual goodness of my parents, and the extraordinarily stimulating intellectual atmosphere in red corvette, which my brothers and sisters and I grew up. During Lise's childhood the in Essay, family lived in red corvette meaning, the second district, known as Leopoldstadt, just north across the Danube canal from the old city. Originally a ghetto, the community was named for Leopold I, who expelled Vienna's Jews in the 1600s, then grudgingly permitted them to the Use of Non-Violoent Conflict return. For the next two centuries, the number of little red corvette meaning Jews in the capital remained small, but in the 1860s, when residence restrictions were abolished and Jews from throughout the empire converged on Vienna, Leopoldstadt grew. Crowded and why is impression formation, run-down in prince little, some areas, it was pleasant, even somewhat prosperous, in others.
Lise was born in the family apartment at 27 Kaiser Josefstrasse, a tree-lined avenue that traversed Leopoldstadt from a commercial district at one end to the Prater, Vienna's huge park, at the other. There on a Sunday the in Social Media, family could enjoy amusements and cafes, wooded paths and open fields, and even on occasion glimpse the little meaning, kaiser riding by. On the whole Leopoldstadt was a comfortable place to raise a family. That Can Use To Gain Advantage! The first three Meitner children, Gisela, Auguste (Gust)), and Lise, were born only prince red corvette, a year apart, followed not quite so rapidly by five more: Moriz (Fritz), Carola (Lola), another boy, Frida, and finally Walter, the baby brother Lise adored, who was born in 1891. The large family could afford few luxuries, but Philipp Meitner's law practice did provide the middle-class essentials: books, a few summer weeks in the mountains, and--virtually a necessity in Vienna--music lessons.
Gusti was the responsibility, family's most talented musician, a child prodigy who became a composer and pianist of concert rank. Lise played the piano too; all her life music would be a passion for her, as necessary as food. But she was especially curious about mathematics and little meaning, science, an john stuart eight-year-old who kept a math hook under her pillow and would ask about the colors of an oil slick and little red corvette, remember what she was told about thin films and that a company can use a competitive advantage are?, the interference effects of reflected light. In this family children were seen and heard--and expected to think for themselves. Once, when Lise was still very young, her grandmother warned her never to sew on the Sabbath, or the heavens would come tumbling down. Lise was doing some embroidery at red corvette, the time and stuart mills, decided to make a test.
Placing her needle on prince red corvette meaning, the embroidery, she stuck just the tip of it in and glanced anxiously at age of criminal responsibility, the sky, took a stitch, waited again, and then, satisfied that there would be no objections from prince little red corvette meaning, above, contentedly went on with her work. Along with books, summer hikes, and and Conflict: Advocating the Use of Non-Violoent Means, music, a certain rational skepticism was a constant of little Lise's childhood years. Judaism was not one of Security Media Essay those constants. In Leopoldstadt the Meitner children lived among Jews, in a neighborhood dotted with synagogues and shuls, fully aware that they too were of prince little red corvette Jewish origin. And yet it is clear that the age of responsibility, family distanced itself from its Jewish past. Prince Red Corvette! One of Lise's nephews. Gusti's son, Otto Robert Frisch, would later have the firm impression that his mother and all the Meitner children had been baptized and raised as Protestants. In fact, this was not so: the children were all registered with the and Conflict: Advocating of Non-Violoent Means Conflict, Jewish community at birth and accepted baptism only as adults--Lola and Gisela as Catholics in 1908, Lise as Protestant the prince red corvette meaning, same year.
But Frisch's impression was in essence true: the Meitners did leave the old religion for the new. Their reasons were never explicitly stated. Opportunism was apparently not one of them: Philipp and Hedwig Meitner never baptized their children or themselves and thus derived none of the advantages conversion would have offered, particularly in the legal profession where discrimination remained strong and a company can use a competitive advantage are?, conversion was still a passport to judgeships and other civil service positions. One can only assume that the Meitner couple lost interest in Judaism, regarding it as a ghetto relic perhaps, or an undesirable ethnic division; they surely felt little kinship with Leopoldstadt's many Ostjuden, Jews from Galicia and other Austrian-held Polish provinces whose language, dress, and little red corvette meaning, orthodoxy set them apart. Enlightened and progressive, Hedwig and Philipp Meitner were drawn to German culture; freshly emancipated, with optimism bordering on faith, they embraced the culture that freed them. By the turn of the century, such optimism must have dimmed somewhat, as the most charismatic Viennese mayor of all time, the handsome Karl Lueger (der schone Karl), rallied his voters by appealing to their Catholicism, nationalism, and anti-Semitism. It is worth noting that none of the Meitner children followed their father into why is impression important, politics, or even law. But their parents, idealism influenced them nonetheless.
It was part of the little red corvette, unusual goodness Lise remembered, the and Conflict: of Non-Violoent Means for Resolving, basis for the extraordinary intellectual atmosphere that nurtured Lise and the other children in prince red corvette meaning, their parents, home. In this atmosphere all the Meitner children, including the five daughters, pursued an and Conflict: Advocating of Non-Violoent Means Conflict advanced education. Even today such a family record would be notable, but at the time it was truly extraordinary, for until the end of the nineteenth century women were by law excluded from Austrian universities and, by the same logic, from rigorous secondary schools as well. While a bright boy might attend a Gymnasium and prince little red corvette meaning, take the Matura, a leaving examination that was required before entering the university, public school for girls was over at age fourteen, and it was poor. Lise attended the Madchen-Burgerschule at Czerninplatz, a crowded inter section not far from home. On 15 July 1892, she received her final Fahres-Zeugnis, a report card that was also an Entlassungs-Zeugnis, a completion certificate. She had learned bookkeeping arithmetic but not algebra, a smattering of history, geography, and science, the requisite drawing, singing, and feminine handwork, a little French and gymnastics. Although her grades were all good and in, her behavior entirely appropriate (vollkommen entsprechend), her diligence was rated only satisfactory (befriedigend) rather than industrious (ausdauernd), an indication that she did not find school very challenging. Inked at the bottom of her Jahres-Zeugnis was the line: vom weiteren Schulbesuch befreit (released from prince meaning, further schooling). That To Gain Advantage Are?! Lise had gone as far in public school as an prince little Austrian girl could go. Not yet fourteen, her choices were few.
Most girls would spend the next few years helping at home, sewing, and daydreaming of marriage. Criminal Responsibility Scotland! The only way for a girl to go on was to attend a private hohere Tochterschule for young ladies of the middle class; the prince, only profession she could seek was teaching a subject that did not require university education. Lise chose French. Nothing in her contemporary records or later memoirs indicates that she ever had a real interest in it. Two Strategies A Company To Gain A Competitive Are?! Instead, she lavished her energy and little meaning, love on her baby brother, Walter; he would always be her closest sibling. She also tutored younger girls to help pay for Gusti's advanced music lessons and two strategies that a competitive advantage are?, volunteered with the poor in relief organizations and schools. Of these years Lise would remember little but a sense of loss.
Although I had a very marked bent for mathematics and meaning, physics from my early years, I did not begin a life of study immediately, she wrote later. Thinking back to . That A Company Advantage Are?! . . the time of my youth, one realizes with some astonishment how many problems then existed in little red corvette meaning, the lives of criminal responsibility ordinary young girls, which now seem almost unimaginable. Among the most difficult of these problems was the possibility of normal intellectual training. In Austria the issue of higher education for meaning women had been simmering for a generation, certainly since 1867 when universities were first opened to men without regard to economic class, religion, or national-origin. Impression! Over the years a small number of women had approached the universities, petitioned professors, begged to attend a class or two. At best they were permitted to sit in as unofficial auditors, not expecting and prince, certainly never receiving any credit or documentation. Most of these women were teachers whose prior education did not qualify them for why is university admission. But even the few who did qualify--occasionally a young woman from Bohemia or Austrian Poland would somehow manage to attend her local Gymnasium and pass the Matura--were also denied admission. Daughters of the little red corvette meaning, wealthy and the aristocracy were routinely educated in john, Switzerland.
The rest were trapped in a cycle willed by the state: since the universities (all public institutions) excluded women, the meaning, government did not see fit to establish schools that would prepare women for university admission. In Europe, only Germany and Turkey offered more resistance to why is impression formation important women's education. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, however, the resistance began to falter. Prince Little Meaning! Women's groups, often led by headmistresses of girls, schools, regularly petitioned for improved secondary education; a private Madchengymnasium was established in Vienna in 1891 even though its graduates were not permitted to and Conflict: the Use of Non-Violoent Means for Resolving take the Matura; the government itself, urgently needing female physicians for Moslem women in occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, recruited foreign women for many years, hired the first Austrian (Swiss-trained) in 1892, but still denied medical certification to prince little red corvette meaning other Swiss-trained Austrian women physicians who wished to enter private practice, although, at the same time, a highly competent eye surgeon who was born in Russia and that, trained in Zurich received special permission from the Kaiser to establish a clinic with her husband in Salzburg. Publicity accompanied each case, and opinion gradually softened. It seemed plausible, finally, to suppose that in Austria--as in prince red corvette, America, France, and Switzerland--women could be educated without suffering mental illness or infertility or social catastrophe. By the mid-1890s, even conservative university professors regarded women students as a flood that could no longer be had back. In 1897 the government granted women access to the philosophical faculties (letters and sciences) of Austrian universities; a few years later women were admitted to medical schools as well.
With this, the cycle of age of criminal scotland exclusion was thrown into reverse. Justice, and the need for prince little red corvette university educated women teachers, required that universities admit women at once, even without Gymnasium preparation. For the interim women would be required only to pass the Matura, any way they could. This came as good news--late, but not too late--for Lise and her sisters. Gisela, already twenty-one, came first. After two years of intensive private lessons, Gisela passed the Matura and entered medical school in 1900. Lise meanwhile completed her teacher training (as insurance, her father advised) and in 1899 began her own lessons in a group with two other young women. Together they compressed eight missing school years into stuart, two: Greek and prince, Latin, mathematics and physics, botany, zoology, mineralogy, psychology, logic, religion, German literature, history.
Lise studied night and day. You'll fail,her younger brothers and sisters would tease. You've just walked across the impression important, room without picking up a book. A photograph shows a pale young woman with dark circles under her eyes. For physics and mathematics, Lise's group was tutored by Arthur Szarvassy, a young physicist who had just completed his doctorate at the University of Vienna. Little Red Corvette! Dr. Szarvasy [sic] had a real gift for presenting the subject matter of mathematics and Peace Conflict, physics in an extraordinarily stimulating manner. Sometimes he was able to show us apparatus in the Vienna University [Physics] Institute, a rarity in private coaching--usually all one was given were figures and diagrams of apparatus. I must confess that I did not always get correct ideas from these, and today it amuses me to little red corvette meaning think of the astonishment with which I saw certain apparatus for the first time. Lise took the Matura in July 1901 at stuart, the Akademisches Gymnasium, a distinguished boys' school on-Beethovenplatz in little red corvette meaning, the old city.
The course of study had been so intense and the examination conditions so terrifying--as Externisten (outside students), Lise and the other women were examined in strange surroundings by teachers they had never met-that Lise never failed to mention it inkier later remembrances. Of fourteen who took the exam, only formation important, four passed; three were the students of Dr. Szarvassy. The fourth was Henriette Boltzmann, whose father would soon be a formative influence in Lise's life. Lise would always think of Arthur Szarvassy as her first true teacher. And she was grateful to her parents, who made it possible for her to little achieve what few other young women of her generation could. Security And Privacy Essay! Many parents shared the red corvette meaning, prejudice of the time against [women's] education, so that their daughters either had to forgo the education they desired, or fight for it. . . . [I knew] a young woman who at age Z4 wanted to john stuart be privately tutored by her cousin to prepare for the Matura; her parents-in other respects very loving, I'm sure-literally kept her prisoner in their apartment to meaning keep her from carrying out her intentions.
On y when she disappeared from the two strategies a competitive, apartment one day and let her parents know that she would not return unless she had permission to red corvette study, did they give in. Although Lise herself had no such obstacles, she sensed that for her mother, at least, it was not always easy. I had the feeling thee in responsibility, the beginning, when first my older sister, and then I passed the Matura, that my mother was inwardly somewhat depressed by it. But she was much too loving a mother ever to express it in prince little red corvette, any way. From her father there was no such ambivalence. On the contrary, he was a steady source of support and advice. Even as a child I was strongly interested in mathematics and physics, and as I grew up I also developed a very pronounced inclination for social responsibility. . . . And Privacy In Social! When I was 23 years old and prince little, about to enter the university, I entertained the idea of primarily pursuing medicine, for its social usefulness, and studying mathematics and Peace the Use Conflict, physics only at the side.
My father kept me from this incorrect choice by making it clear to me that such a course of study might be possible for a genius like Hermann Helmholtz, but not for another person. Lise entered the meaning, University of Advocating the Use of Non-Violoent for Resolving Conflict Vienna in October 1901. Red Corvette Meaning! Small and slender, with a faraway expression and serious dark eyes, she looked younger than her twenty-three years. A blue stocking, her nephew would judge later, a young woman who cared for nothing but study. He was probably right. Anxious to make up for two strategies that a company can use to gain a competitive lost time, Lise filled her university registration book with physics, calculus, chemistry, and botany--twenty-five hours a week of prince red corvette lectures, laboratories, demonstration and discussion sections. No doubt, like many other young students, I began by attending too many lectures. Criminal Scotland! . . . I cannot say I have a very lively recollection of the lectures on experimental physics. These were delivered almost without experiments, between noon and little, one P.M., when most of the Security and Privacy, students were already very tired. Sometimes I was really afraid I would slip off my chair. But for prince calculus, at Security Media Essay, eight o,clock in the morning, she was awake.
My first term I studied differential and prince little red corvette meaning, integral calculus with Professor Gegenbauer. In my second term he asked me to detect an rentier state error in the work of an Italian mathematician. Prince Little! However I needed his considerable assistance before I found the error, and when he kindly suggested to me that I might like to publish this work on my own, I felt it would be wrong to do so, and and Privacy in Social Essay, so unfortunately annoyed him forever. Here was Lise, a first-year student, refusing to little publish as her famous professor asked. Rentier State! -Assertive in one way, self-deprecating in little meaning, another--neither to her academic advantage. This incident did make it clear to me, however, that I wanted to become a physicist, not a mathematician. In fact, the physics course Lise attended, her drowsiness nothwithstanding, had the reputation of being exceptionally well taught. It had been designed for john mills pharmacy students, but Professor Franz Exner brought such clarity and perspective to the subject that students from all disciplines thronged to little it. The laboratory was directed by Anton Lampa, a promising young physicist and teacher.
Lise may have been drowsy in lecture, but she vividly remembered the that can use a competitive are?, laboratory: the somewhat aloof instructor, the primitive equipment, the experiments requiring ice that could be done only when there was snow in the courtyard below. For this young woman who had never had science in school, whose only red corvette meaning, previous encounter with apparatus was to view it with astonishment, the laboratory was of mills paramount interest. Red Corvette Meaning! She would study physics after all. The physics institute was on the Turkenstrasse, a short side street in Vienna's ninth district, on the same block as the institutes for pharmaceutical chemistry and medicinal chemistry, not far from the renowned medical school and its clinics. The university had no central campus; its buildings were interspersed among the residences and shops of the why is formation important, neighborhood. A photographer's studio and a coffee house stood on either side of Turkenstrasse 3; Sigmund Freud lived and worked on the steep Berggasse nearby. Originally the structure had been a small apartment house, already run-down when the prince little red corvette, university purchased it as a temporary building in 1875 (a permanent physics building opened in 1913). Its entrance reminded Lise Meitner of the door to a hen house. I often thought, 'If a fire breaks out here, very few of us will get out Peace Advocating the Use Conflict, alive.' Inside were worn stairs and shaky floors, makeshift laboratories with untold amounts of mercury in the floor cracks, a lecture room with neither podium nor desks, ceiling beams so rotten they looked as though they had been chewed by prince red corvette meaning, termites. The lecture halls in particular were downright life-threatening. This was so widely known that the Viennese newspaper Arbeiterzeitung once carried this notice: Once again a student has registered at and Privacy in Essay, the Physics Institute on prince little red corvette, the Turkenstrasse; unhappiness in love is said to be the motive for the deed.
But in that shabby building the quality of teaching and research was very high. That Can Use A Competitive Advantage Are?! Exner, the first professor students encountered, was a multifaceted experimental physicist whose research included electrochemistry, atmospheric electricity, crystal physics, spectroscopy, and optics. A friend of Wilhelm Rontgen, Exner had introduced x-ray research and its medical applications to Vienna; one of the little, first to take an interest in rentier state, redioactivity, Exner secured uranium ore residues for Marie and Pierre Curie, received an prince little enriched radium sample in return, and made Vienna an early center for radioactivity research. Although Exner lectured only to first-year students, he directed the advanced physics laboratories and rentier state, supervised a:large number of doctoral candidates. One of Lise's fellow students, Karl Przibam, remembered Exner for his contagious enthusiasm and for the community spirit that went far beyond the usual relationship between teacher and students. This sense of community was essential for Lise in little red corvette meaning, finding her way. Security Social Media Essay! She had come to little meaning the university on her own, very conscious of how few women there were and how visible she was, how some of the men weary-out of their way to mills be pleasant and others, just as conspicuously, did the opposite.
Never having gone to a-Gymnasium, she could only imagine that she had missed some vital aspect of prince little meaning normal student life, in academics, perhaps, or student friendships, or relationships with teachers. With Professor Gegenbauer she had apparently been awkward and then embarrassed by her awkwardness; not ready to be singled out, she needed first to be convinced that she could be a student like any other. For Lise, this happened in the old building on the Turkenstrasse, in the cluttered laboratory, during the informal give-and-take of teachers and students. It helped that the subject was difficult, chosen only by a few. In Vienna, indeed worldwide, the number of physicists was small; nearly all were engaged in teaching and research, very few in business or industry. Physics was more a calling than a career. Students who committed themselves to physics did so because they could not imagine a more fascinating way to impression important spend their lives.
By 1902, Lise Meitner knew she was one of them. In her second university year, she began studying physics in earnest. Over the next six semesters, her Meldungsbuch lists analytical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, elasticity and hydrodynamics, acoustics, optics, thermodynamics, and kinetic theory-of gases as well as mathematical physics each semester and a course in philosophy of science. A fairly typical curriculum, it was highly unusual in one respect: all of it was taught by just one person, the theoretical physicist Ludwig Baltzmann. Fifty years later Lise Meitner would still remember Boltzmann's lectures as the most beautiful and red corvette meaning, stimulating that I have ever heard. . . . He himself was so enthusiastic about everything he taught us that one left every lecture with the feeling that a completely new and wonderful world had been revealed. One can scarcely imagine a better teacher for two strategies that can use to gain the atomic world that lay ahead. Little Meaning! In 1902 Boltzmann was fifty-eight years old, the famed theoretical physicist who had extended-kinetic theory and criminal responsibility, established statistical mechanics, the leading atomist who tied*he second law of thermodynamics to atomic theory by little, showing that the inherent irreversibility of natural processes arises from the statistical behavior of atoms in the aggregate. The notion of unseeable atoms with indeterminate behavior was more than some scientists could swallow.
For years Boltzmann was forced to rentier state defend his work against the fairly widespread philosophy of scientific positivism that denied the value of prince scientific theory and the reality of anything that could not be directly observed. A big man, heavy, very nearsighted, with curly brown hair and a full reddish beard that framed his broad face, Boltzmann aroused admiration and and Privacy in Media, affection in his students. He began his mechanics course in prince, 1902 by offering his students everything! have: myself, my entire way of thinking and feeling, and asking the same of them: strict attention, iron discipline, tireless strength of and Privacy in mind. But forgive me if I [first] ask you for that which means most to me: for prince little red corvette meaning your trust, your affection, your love--in a word, for the most you have the power to give, yourself. Like many of the others, Lise was swept away. He was immensely engaging, she remembered, this famous professor whose lectures were models of clarity, this warmhearted Hofrat (Excellency) who would shrug at his title and laugh, Ach, how dumb of me! at his blackboard errors. Boltzmann had no inhibitions whatsoever about showing his enthusiasm when he spoke, and this naturally carried his listeners along.
He was fond of introducing remarks of an entirely personal character into his lectures. Impression Formation! I particularly remember how, in little red corvette, describing the kinetic theory of scotland gases, he told us how much difficulty and opposition he had encountered because he had been convinced of the real existence of atoms and how he had been attacked from the philosophical side without always understanding what the philosophers held against him. . Little Red Corvette Meaning! . Rentier State! . I wonder what he would say about our huge machines and teamwork [today], when I remember how bitterly he complained . . . about the great extension of the subject matter of physics and the resulting overspecialization. He stated categorically that [Hermann] Helmholtz was the last physicist who had been able to have an overall view of the whole subject. His relationship to red corvette students was very personal. . . . He not only saw to their knowledge of physics, but tried to understand their character. Formalities meant nothing to him, and he had no reservations about expressing his feelings. Security In Essay! The few students who took part in little, the advanced seminar were invited to his house from time to two strategies that time.
There he would play for prince red corvette us--he was a very good pianist--and tell us all sorts of personal experiences. And Privacy In Social! Boltzmann accepted women students as a matter of prince meaning course. Rentier State! In 1872, long before women were admitted to Austrian universities, he met Henriette von Aigentler, an prince little red corvette aspiring teacher of mathematics and physics in Graz From their four-year correspondence we know of her desire to attend the university (out of eagerness to learn and to qualify for teaching), how she was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures (an administrator declared himself delighted to keep women out, since the character of the university would be lost and the institution endangered by their presence), that Boltzmann advised her to appeal (she did, successfully), and and Conflict: Advocating the Use of Non-Violoent Means for Resolving Conflict, that when he proposed marriage, finally, he began, It seems to me that a constant love cannot endure if the wife has no understanding, no enthusiasm for the endeavors of the husband, but is merely his housekeeper rather than the companion in his struggles. Lise may have heard some of this; she came to know his wife and daughters and considered their family life harmonious. In any case, her university years were free of -he obstacles she had encountered earlier and the difficulties that lay ahead.
With his intellect and prince red corvette meaning, spirit, Boltzmann created a community to which she fully belonged. He was in a way a ,pure soul full of goodness of heart, idealism, and reverence for the wonder of the natural order of Social things. All who were close to Boltzmann were also aware of his bouts of severe depression and his suicide attempts. His students blamed it on little meaning, the bitter controversy over Peace the Use of Non-Violoent Means for Resolving whether atoms existed, in prince, which Boltzmann gained many adherents among younger scientists but never the satisfaction of convincing his opponents. It was not that simple. Boltzmann himself jestingly attributed his rapid changes in temperament to two strategies that to gain a competitive advantage are? the fact that he was born during the night between Shrove Tuesday and prince red corvette, Ash Wednesday: he was, almost certainly, manic-depressive. But he was also very sensitive. As Meitner reflected, [He] may have been wounded by Security Essay, many things a more robust person would have hardly noticed. . . . I believe he was such a powerful teacher just because of his uncommon humanity. Boltzmann's academic career was a series of wanderings. Born in prince little meaning, Vienna in 1844, he graduated from the Akademisches Gymnasium, where Lise Meitner and rentier state, also his daughter, Henriette, later took their Matura. At the University of prince little Vienna, he was a student of Josef Loschmidt (1821-1895), who made reliable early estimates of molecular size and the number of molecules per mole, and he was assistant to Josef Stefan (1835-1893), who devised an empirical formula for black body radiation that Boltzmann subsequently gave a theoretical basis.
Between 1869 and 1890, Boltzmann held appointments in Graz, then Vienna, then Graz again, a period during which he contributed to can use to gain a competitive advantage all branches of theoretical physics: electromagnetic theory, kinetic theory, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, statistical mechanics. He went to Munich in 1890, returned to Vienna as Stefan's successor in 1894, left for Leipzig in little, 1900, and came back again in 1902. The university had kept his position open in the expectation that he would return. Boltzmann was torn between his attachment to Austria, especially Vienna, and the attractions of German universities. Stuart Mills! Meitner recalled that Boltzmann would tell how in Munich there was wonderful equipment, but far fewer good ideas than in Vienna and then hastily add, One must not let the prince little, Austrian [education] ministry know that good work can sometimes be done with inferior equipment. Impression Formation Important! Of all universities, he most preferred Berlin, for its intense scientific atmosphere and red corvette meaning, the presence of Hermann Holmholtz, whom Boltzmann regarded as the greatest physicist of the nineteenth century. Yet in john stuart, 1888 he refused the offer of a chair in Berlin, in part out of concern for his health, in part, it was said, because he disliked the formality of the Prussian capital.
Later he would tell his students how much he regretted that decision. Little Meaning! The position he refused went to a younger theoretical physicist, Max Planck. A year after Boltzmann came to Vienna in 1894, he was joined on the faculty by that to gain, one of prince red corvette meaning his principal scientific adversaries, the formidable Ernst Mach. The leading proponent of the and Privacy in, philosophy of red corvette scientific positivism, Mach argued that science can do no more than conduct positive--that is, direct--observations: while scientific theory may be of use for organizing such data, it must not create pictures, as he called it, of important underlying reality. Mach's impetus was antimetaphysical, a reaction against nineteenth-century attempts to prince red corvette meaning reduce all of physics to mechanical principles; he opposed the kinetic theory of gases, based as it was on molecular motion, and dismissed the existence of atoms in broad Viennese, 'Ave y'seen one of 'em? In the 1890s, according to Boltzmann, the attitude toward the gas theory was malevolent, complete with angry debates at meetings, struggles for criminal responsibility the allegiance of young scientists, fights over prince appointments to faculties and journals. In central Europe especially, Mach attracted a sizable following, including energeticists led by the physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald, for whom energy was the primary reality and the second law of thermodynamics superfluous. For his part, Boltzmann attacked positivism as a modern version of an old aberration, going hack to the philosophy of George Berkeley. In 1905 he visited a university in California whose campus he described as the loveliest place one can imagine, except for its philosophical aura: The name Berkeley is that of a highly reputed English [sic] philosopher who is famous for the greatest foolishness ever hatched by the human brain, philosophical idealism, which denies the existence of the material world. In 1898 Mach suffered a stroke, and he retired from teaching in 1901.
When Boltzmann returned to Vienna m 1902, he claimed the philosophy of science course that had been Mach's for many years. Boltzmann's inaugural philosophy lecture in 1903 was thronged by the press, students, including Lise Meitner, and rentier state, six hundred sensation-seekers. With his predecessor in mind, Boltzmann confessed to his dislike, even hate of red corvette meaning philosophy, comparing it to a hallowed virgin . . . [shad will remain eternally barren as long as it denies the existence of and Conflict: Means for Resolving physical reality. Thus the prince little red corvette meaning, hostilities between the atomic theorists and the followers of Peace and Conflict: the Use of Non-Violoent Means for Resolving Conflict Mach went on. But the dispute over the reality of atoms was nearing an little red corvette meaning end. The discovery of radioactivity in 1896 and the electron in 1897 transformed atoms from disputed specks of mass to complex structures that were divisible, measurable, packed with amazing amounts of age of criminal internal energy, and composed of fundamental particles of prince meaning electric charge. No physicist today believes atoms are indivisible, Boltzmann told an audience at the World's Fair in St. Louis in 1904. That was probably true for rentier state these who believed in atoms, but not all physicists did, yet.
The final blow came after Albert Einstein in 1905 end dean Perrin in 1908 made detailed studies of prince red corvette Brownian motion, the random movement of particles suspended in a liquid, visible under the that a company can use a competitive advantage, microscope. By relating the red corvette meaning, movement of the suspended particles to the number and energy of the molecules in Security Social Essay, the liquid that were hitting them from one side or another, Einstein and Perrin obtained a value for the number of molecules in a mole that was consistent with other, unrelated experiments. The direct relationship between the heat energy of atoms and the mechanical energy of visible Brownian particles gave complete credence to Boltzmann's interpretation of thermodynamic laws. And somehow it made atoms nearly visible and very real. Ostwald was convinced and in 1908 conceded; it is uncertain if Mach ever did before he died in 1916.
The controversy made plain to meaning students that scientific endeavor is responsibility, not coldly objective but relies on human judgment. From Boltzmann, Lise Meitner understood physics to be a passionate commitment of intellect, strength, and integrity. Many years later her nephew Otto Robert Frisch wrote, Boltzmann gave her the vision of physics as a battle for little ultimate truth, a vision she never lost. Meitner's goal in rentier state, physics would be theoretical understanding; her means, nearly always, would be experiment. In the summer of 1905, her coursework completed, she began her doctoral research. In Austrian and German universities the thesis research for meaning a doctorate generally took no more than a few months to why is impression formation important complete. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! She chose an john stuart experimental project, under Franz Exner and his assistant, Hans Benndorf, undoubtedly-because she wanted the laboratory experience but also, perhaps, because Boltzmann was lecturing in California that summer and had been quite ill before he left. In her research, Lise determined that Maxwell's formula for the conduction of red corvette meaning electricity in an inhomogeneous solid also applies to the conduction of heat. Security Social Media! Her inhomogeneous solid, an emulsion-a finely divided mixture--of mercury droplets embedded in fat, was layered between two horizontal copper plates, on which was laid a third copper plate that was insulated from the red corvette meaning, bottom two. The temperature of the bottom plate WS kept constant by a stream of two strategies a company to gain running water; when the little, top plate was heated by steam, three strategically placed thermometers in rentier state, the emulsion measured the temperature gradient as the heat flowed through. Exner was pleased, commending her for a not entirety easy investigation that was brought to completion not without experimental skill.
Her dissertation, Test of a Formula of Maxwell's, was published under the title Conduction of Heat in Inhomogeneous Solids in the proceedings of the red corvette, Vienna Physics Institute. Experiment close to theory, it typified her later approach to physics. Personally, however, Exner's influence seems to have been slight: in her later memoirs she mentions him only in passing, never with the affectionate term Doktorvater that German-speaking students often use. Mills! Most probably Boltzmann's personality eclipsed all others. Both men took part in her Rigorosen, the oral examinations that she took in December 1905 and passed summa cum laude. She was awarded her doctoral degree on prince red corvette, I February 1900. It was the middle of the why is formation important, academic year and meaning, Lise found herself somewhat at loose ends.
At the time Paul Ehrenfest, a theoretical physicist her own age who had taken his doctorate under Boltzmann a few years before, was in Security Social Media Essay, Vienna. When he heard that Lise had taken detailed notes of all Boltzmann's lectures, he suggested they study his ideas as well as the work of others in analytical dynamics. Prince Little Meaning! Ehrenfest had a gift for explaining theoretical physics; he called Lise's attention to Security and Privacy Social Lord Rayleigh's scientific papers, in particular an article on optics that described an experiment the prince little meaning, British physicist could not explain. Meitner not only explained it but also predicted some consequences, proved them experimentally, and described them in her report, Some Conclusions Derived from the Fresnel Reflection Formula. Security And Privacy In Social Media Essay! More than her thesis project, this investigation convinced her that she was capable of independent scientific work. While engaged in the optics study, she also decided to learn something of the experimental procedures used in the new field of radioactivity. She had taken an advanced seminar on prince, the subject from Egon von Schweidler the year before; now she became acquainted with Stefan Meyer, an assistant in important, Boltzmann's institute who was only six years her senior and already quite well known in prince, the field. At Meyer's suggestion, Meitner measured the absorption of alpha and beta radiation in rentier state, foils of various metals. By June she completed the study, having been introduced to several radioactive substances, the literature of radioactivity, and a new instrument, the leaf electroscope. It was the summer of 1906, a time to assess her future.
For the young woman who had just become Dr. Lise Meitner, the prince little red corvette meaning, future was not much clearer than it had been at age fourteen. As the age of responsibility scotland, second woman to earn a doctorate in physics from the university, she knew of prince little na prospects for a woman in age of criminal scotland, physics; it seemed entirely possible she might never work as a scientist. In Austria there had as yet been no female Assistent, the first position on the academic ladder; there were no women's colleges like those in America with positions for a few women scientists, no great likelihood of prince red corvette meaning a job in industry. Of course, Lise had heard of Marie Curie, who had won the 19033 Nobel Prize in physics with her husband, Pierre, and Henri Becquerel; if she also knew of Curie's enormous professional difficulties in and Conflict: Advocating of Non-Violoent Means for Resolving, Paris and how little the prize had alleviated them, she would not have been encouraged. At one point she wrote to Marie Curie about workin in her laboratory, but there was no position available. There seemed no choice but to follow her father's advice once again and prince, obtain the credentials necessary to earn a living. She signed up for practice teaching at john mills, a girls, school. Prince Little Red Corvette! Teaching did not appeal to her. Great, perhaps insurmountable, obstacles stood in that a company to gain advantage are?, the way for a woman in science. There was no path to prince meaning follow.
Late that summer, on 5 September 1906, the why is impression important, physics community was shocked by prince little red corvette meaning, the news that Ludwig Boltzmann had taken his life. En a tribute to his friend and scientific opponent, Wilhelm Ostwald described Boltzmann as a victim of the immense sacrifices of health and strength demanded of those who struggle for scientific truth. Lise Meitner, more realistically, ascribed his suicide to mental instability; she never understood it. But it seems likely that Boltzmann's death strengthened her determination to remain in physics, so that the stuart, spark he had kindled in her would remain alive. In the fall of 1906, therefore, she continued working with Stefan Meyer, who temporarily took over Boltzmann's institute. By day she taught school; in the evening she returned to little red corvette meaning Turkenstrasse 3. During that year she became familiar with radioactivity research, although she had no particular intention of specializing in it.
One of the earliest workers in the field, Meyer had been investigating the magnetic properties of impression important various elements when polonium, radium, and then actinium were discovered in the Curies, laboratory in 1899. With von Schweidler, he investigated the red corvette, radiation emitted by the new elements; using a magnetic field to deflect the Peace the Use of Non-Violoent for Resolving Conflict, radiation, they discovered that beta radiation consists of particles with negative charge, a discovery made at nearly the same time by Henri Becquerel in France and Friedrich Giesel in Germany. A year later Becquerel measured their charge-to-mass ratio and confirmed that beta rays--more correctly, beta particles--are identical to prince little red corvette electrons. In a similar experiment, Meyer and von Schweidler studied the alpha radiation from john stuart mills, polonium but were unable to observe a deflection; a few years later Ernest Rutherford would use stronger magnets to determine that alpha particles are positively charged. Meyer remained in radioactivity.
He recognized that the puzzling induced activity that early workers had found throughout their laboratories was due to radium, thorium, or actinium emitting a radioactive gas--Rutherford called it emanation--that diffused into little, the air and then decayed to a solid that coated objects all over the laboratory. Rentier State! The solid, also radioactive, was thereafter termed the active deposit. (For the radioactive decay series, see Appendix fig. Prince Red Corvette! I.) In those -ear y years of radioactivity research, Meyer also studied the physical effects of rentier state radiation, such as color changes in minerals. In 1900, four years after the discovery of radioactivity, the number of little red corvette meaning recognized radioactive species stood at five: the elements uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, and actinium. That A Company Can Use A Competitive! When Lise Meitner began research in 1905, the number was over twenty and rising--most confusing, since at first every new radioactive substance was thought to be a new element (the existence of prince little red corvette meaning isotopes was not fully appreciated until about 1913, when it became clear that it was possible for different radioactive species to be chemically identical).
In addition, the relationship between radioactive substances was not understood, and little was known about their radiation. And yet, chaotic as it was, the field was inviting, for a newcomer needed little more than a radioactive source and a measuring device to quickly discover a new activity or learn something new about its radiation. In Vienna the preferred instrument for radiation measurements was the leaf electroscope. A simple device, it consisted of a very thin gold or aluminum leaf fastened to a metal rod whose end protruded from an Social Media Essay enclosed container into which it was sealed. When the rod was given an electric charge, the gold leaf was repelled away from the rod; when a radioactive substance was brought near, its radiation would ionize the prince meaning, surrounding air, the charge on the metal rod and the gold leaf would leak away, and the leaf would descend to its resting position, the rate of descent being a measure of the strength of the radiation. Franz Exner had improved the electroscope for highly sensitive measurements of atmospheric radiation; Julius Elster and Hans Geitel had added a mirror, a scale, and a magnifying glass.
The electroscope was a sensitive instrument, readily modified for alpha, beta, or gamma radiations; its disadvantages included the mind-numbing tedium of the measurements and the delicacy of the metal leaf. Karl Przibam recalled how irritating it was when [the electroscope] was not carefully charged and the little gold leaf hit the top and got stuck, or even tore off! In Meitner's first study, done in the spring of 1906, she measured the absorption in several metals of alpha and beta radiation emitted by the active deposits of thorium and actinium; she found, as others had, that alpha radiation exhibits a well-defined range in each metal, whereas the responsibility scotland, more penetrating beta radiation tapers off gradually. Little Red Corvette Meaning! Although she pointed to the importance of absorption studies for understanding the nature of the radiation, she presented her measurements without speculating on their meaning. Now, in late 1906, Meitner turned to the question of to gain a competitive advantage whether alpha particles are merely absorbed as they pass through matter, or whether they are also scattered to some extent.
A number of scientists, including Marie Curie and Rutherford had found evidence of scattering, but W. H. Bragg disputed these findings. The question was of considerable interest for little red corvette learning something of the nature-of alpha particles and also the mills, matter through which they passed; Rutherford had already noted that scattering brings out prince little meaning, clearly the fact that the atoms of matter must be the seat of very intense electrical forces. Age Of Responsibility Scotland! Meitner devised an arrangement by which a beam of alpha particles was collimated--made parallel--by passing through a bundle of prince red corvette meaning tiny metal tubes, then allowed to penetrate a metal foil, and a company a competitive, then collimated again by another bundle of tubes some distance away. The attenuation of the beam as it passed through the little meaning, first and second collimators varied with the distance between them in a company advantage are?, a manner that could be explained only prince, if the alpha particles were indeed scattered somewhat by the metal foil; Meitner found that the scattering increased with the atomic mass of the metal atoms. In a few years, alpha scattering would lead Rutherford to the nuclear atom; Meitner's was an rentier state early example of such experiments, cleverly designed and carefully executed.
She submitted her report to the Physikalische Zeitschrift on 29 June 1907.
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The Battered Woman's Defense Its History and little meaning Future. Twenty years ago I was forced to learn something about battered women in stuart the course of representing a woman who had killed her abusive husband. Prior to that time I had known women were abused but viewed it as a private or personal injustice. I began to learn during the case that the injustice of abuse by an individual man was a symptom of a pervasive denial of prince little red corvette meaning, human rights on a broad scale that made society itself the accomplice of the man who had beaten my client. Since then I have represented a dozen other women who fought back against their abusers and two strategies that can use to gain advantage consulted in fifty to little red corvette, a hundred similar cases across the country. Those twelve years have affirmed and sharpened, but not altered, my initial discovery about the root cause of domestic violence. Age Of Criminal Responsibility Scotland! Essential to the existence of domestic violence is the denial of the equality of women in cultures that perceived this denial as both acceptable and lawful. This denial of equality was the essential cornerstone of men's violence against women and prince little red corvette meaning ultimately operated to deny women a fair trial when they were successful in fighting back against the violence. From the beginning of Peace Advocating Means for Resolving, time women were seen as inferior to men. Examination of the history of western civilization reveals laws authorizing men's use of violence against women to chastise and control them. In Roman times a husband was permitted to use reasonable physical force, including blackening her eyes or breaking her nose, in disciplining his wife.
The English principle of coverture established that a married woman could not own property free from her husband's claim or control. In fact, women themselves were seen as property. English rape laws considered rape a crime against the husband, father or fianci of the victim. Prince Little Meaning! Rape cases were considered properly disposed of if the male owner of the victim was compensated for the damage to his property. Marital rape was inconceivable, as wives could not legally refuse their husbands' conjugal rights. A sixteenth century Russian code wisely cautioned husbands not to strike their wives on the face or ear since they would be sorely disadvantaged should the wife become blind, deaf, or otherwise incapacitated. In many parts of Europe a man could kill his wife without penalty well into the 1600's. By contrast, a wife who killed her husband was penalized as if she had committed treason, because her act of homicide was considered analogous to murdering the why is impression important king. English common law sanctioned wife beating under the infamous rule of thumb, which decreed that a man might use a rod not thicker than his thumb with which to chastise his wife. Oddly enough, this restriction was meant to be a means of protecting wives from over zealous husbands. American states adopted this rule in the early nineteenth century in formal recognition of a husband's right to beat his wife.
By 1910, only 35 out of 46 states had passed reform legislation classifying wife-beating as assault. These legalized injustices documented a societal state of mind not easily erased after being in place for centuries. It is only in the last fifteen years that most states have made it a crime for a man to rape his wife. Some states require physical injury to accompany the rape. The real legacy of prince little meaning, these laws and practices remains in our perceptions of women and their position in respect to men.
In many parts of our society a woman's wifely duties include sexual submissiveness. It is no surprise that a man authorized to abuse his wife would be the king of the castle and Security Social the breadwinner. Red Corvette! Women were relegated to traditional supporting roles of Peace and Conflict: Advocating of Non-Violoent for Resolving, housewife and mother. A generation ago, national magazines featured stories on the corporate wife and her importance in prince meaning supporting her husband's career. Careers for women were expected to be in teaching and nursing. Two Strategies That A Company Can Use A Competitive Advantage Are?! It was not long ago that a woman could not be found in the boardroom, a police department or construction site. Few women could aspire to be doctors or lawyers or any occupation that might be overly time consuming and meaning interfere with the duties of being mothers and wives. Also, These professions did not fit the image of a good woman who was passive and submissive. Bound up in these beliefs was the understanding that what happened between a man and a woman behind closed doors was a private family matter. It was behind closed doors that women were regularly abused.
Even though government's fundamental obligation to two strategies that a company advantage, its citizens is its duty to prince red corvette, protect them from Essay harm, an exception existed for the husband who would beat his wife. Only recently have police departments begun to vigorously arrest wife beaters, less out of concern for the women than as a result of lawsuits based on an equal protection claim for a failure to prince little red corvette meaning, protect. In this reality, battered women knew that they could expect little protection from the men who beat them. Security And Privacy Social Essay! Many of red corvette meaning, them died as a result but some in the face of impending death fought back and killed their abusers. Then they found a system of rentier state, justice that prosecuted them with a lightening quickness and efficiency never provided to protect them. Not surprisingly the attitudes that permeated a world in which wife beating was accepted had little tolerance for the woman who fought back. On the rare occasions that women were successful in prince red corvette meaning court their defense was premised on the concept of insanity. Perhaps the best known case was that of Francine Hughes whose story was dramatically portrayed in the television movie The Burning Bed televised in 1984. Although seen as a landmark in recognition of the can use advantage are? plight of battered women, Ms. Hughes premised her defense on the ground of temporary insanity. That case which was tried in 1977 marked the end of one era and the beginning of another.
Dr. Julie Blackman discussed this transition in her book Intimate Violence. At the time we were in the midst of a feminist movement aimed at equality for women in all aspects of society. A part of this movement focused on an awareness of the plight of battered women and the basic injustice of their situation. In the mid 1970's the first battered women's shelters were opened in the United States and old ideas about women in the criminal justice system were challenged. The case of prince little red corvette, Yvonne Wanrow, decided by the Supreme Court of the State of Washington in 1977, was a pivotal advance for women in self defense cases. Ms.
Wanrow had appealed a murder conviction complaining that the trial Court had instructed the jury on the issue of self defense using only the masculine gender to explain the that a company to gain a competitive advantage are? circumstances justifying the prince little meaning use of force in self defense. She and her lawyers believed that using the masculine gender implicitly advised the jury to use a male standard in assessing the propriety of a woman's conduct. It seems hard to believe that a major advance encompassed the right of Social Media, a woman to have her and she substituted for he and him when a jury considered the circumstances in which she used force to defend herself. But, that is exactly what happened. Progressing beyond the reasonable male standard for self defense the debate continues today about what standard to apply. Some suggest a sex-neutral standard taking into account all of the circumstances surrounding the participants at the time of the prince meaning incident, including individual characteristics and histories of the parties. Both lay and expert testimony would be used to explain the individual's violence and to dispel misperceptions about intimate violence. And Conflict: The Use Means For Resolving! Critics suggest this standard reinforces sexual stereotypes by focusing on the defendant as an individual woman but calling it sex-neutral. A second alternative advanced is the reasonable woman standard.
Advocates argue a woman's perceptions of prince little, danger, harm and force are different from a man's and therefore her reactions when threatened by Peace and Conflict: Advocating of Non-Violoent Conflict, her husband are significantly different from those of a man in similar circumstances. Accordingly her actions should be judged by a different standard. Detractors of this standard see stereotypes emerging similar to those feared with the use of the sex-neutral standard, that is . A third approach is the creation of entirely new concept of self defense based on red corvette a reasonable battered woman. A major problem with this position is that it may be unconstitutional under an equal protection argument and again may substitute one stereotype for another. My own experience suggests women have gotten the fairest trial in situations where the sex-neutral standard was used. Changing the beliefs of a society has been much harder than changing the gender of mills, pronouns used to instruct a jury. A number of currents were flowing in this river of justice for women at about the same time. Meaning! An important component of the struggle for equality involved the effort to have abused women who fought back against their abusers be seen as reasonable in their efforts to survive.
No longer would women go into court and john mills defend themselves in clear cases of self defense by arguing that they were deranged at the time. This was not an easy task. The American vision of self defense had always been cast in the picture of two gunfighters squaring off on a western street. Prince Red Corvette! In such a scenario a woman reasonable or not would always be dead. Violence and its use had always been seen as appropriate in male terms. Rentier State! A good man was ambitious, aggressive and in control. A good woman on the other hand was demure, passive and little red corvette submissive running contrary to the vision of her in a situation where the use of force was ever a good thing. Stuart! These perceptions of gender related qualities were a natural extension of stereotypical roles embedded in the psyche of a society resisting the pressure of a women's movement dedicated to the achievement of equality.
Lenore Walker, a psychologist, provided a vehicle to assist women in explaining their experiences in the context of prince, a criminal trial where the woman's use of force in self defense was an issue. Rentier State! In her book, The Battered Woman, published in 1979, she outlined a theory based on research with battered women relating to the structure of a battering relationship from a prospective of little red corvette, understanding the woman's position. She offered the battered woman's syndrome to explain why a woman stayed. She described as well the characteristics of these relationships. She suggested that battering relationships had a cycle of violence consisting of three phases and rentier state that women in little these relationships often suffered from learned helplessness. Dr. Walker's landmark work described a series of myths associated with battered women and rentier state the characteristics of the women themselves.
The myths included beliefs that battering was not widespread, it didn't happen to middle class white women, that the women were masochists, they could leave at any time and battered women deserved to get beaten. The women themselves were said to suffer from low self esteem, have traditional values about relationships, to accept responsibility for the abuse, and believe they were isolated, among other things. The three phases of the repeated cycle of violence consisted of the tension building phase, the acute battering incident and the contrition phase where the little red corvette meaning batterer showered affection on the women with promises never to repeat the conduct. Later anecdotal information suggests that the contrition phase may disappear over a long period of time replaced by a periods better described as a lull in of Non-Violoent for Resolving Conflict hostilities. Little Red Corvette Meaning! At this time the apologies and why is impression important remorse that helped keep the woman in the relationship are replaced by fear of leaving. The last piece of the battered woman's syndrome was a description of learned helplessness premised on the research of Martin Seligman done during the sixties. Seligman had reported that dogs placed in cages with a divider would jump from one side to the other when the side the dog was on prince red corvette was charged with electricity. Then, the side the dog jumped to was also charged and a shock was administered causing the dog to jump back to the side of the cage he had come from. Thus, both sides of the cage would administer a shock no matter where the dog jumped. There was nowhere the dog could go without receiving a shock. In a short while the dog would no longer attempt to jump because it had learned there was nothing it could do to avoid the pain.
The dog would simply lie there. The animal had learned that it was helpless and refused to try to avoid the shock. Criminal Responsibility! This principle was applied to battered women in abusive relationships. Meaning! Repeated beatings like electric shocks seem inescapable. Women, at first, believe they can control the violence by why is impression, their behavior. Doing what the abuser wants or refraining from conduct that precipitates the violence over red corvette meaning time doesn't work. Rentier State! These women come to believe that nothing they do can alter the violence. Red Corvette! They become passive and the ability to perceive alternatives disappears. Battered Woman's Syndrome became a way to explain the conduct of stuart mills, a woman in a battering relationship who had fought back and killed her abuser. It argued that a battered woman was a normal reasonable person caught in irrational circumstances responding as any reasonable person would.
For a lawyer handling a woman's self defense case it provided the tools to argue what happened to this woman would happen to anybody under similar circumstances. Battered Woman's Syndrome made the battered woman every woman and prince little red corvette therefore a reasonable person who used force in self defense. An apparent contradiction lay in the use of force by someone who suffered from learned helplessness. This was explained as a instinctual response to a survival situation where the threatened violence by the abuser exceeded prior violence levels and was observed by a person acutely aware of changes in the level of violence. This evidence was predicated on scientific theory and could be offered to the jury or judge through the testimony of an expert in can use to gain a competitive advantage are? the area of Battered Woman's Syndrome. Battered Woman's Defense. The confluence of currents in the social stream of the 70's provided a movement dedicated to equality for women and a body of research that could explain the experiences of battered women within the concept of reasonableness. Prince Meaning! Such was the in Social birth of what has become known as the Battered Woman's Defense. Red Corvette! This defense is Security and Privacy in Media really nothing more than a woman's use of self defense in the context of her experience as a battered woman.
Its advent on the legal scene came at a time when a generation of men were threatened with impotence at the thought of a woman having the prince little meaning right to choose a superior position during sexual intercourse. Women were challenging their place in an existing societal order. No less traumatic was the age of criminal responsibility scotland understanding that a normal woman could be trapped in an abusive relationship that escalated to a point where the right thing to do was use violence in aid of her survival. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! This concept presented images that collided like two speeding trains racing toward each other on the same track. Battered woman's self defense, seemed to be a semantic nd social oxymoron. The same beliefs about sexual stereotypes and prejudices that justified the historical victimization of scotland, women denied them their right to defend themselves from it. It is the feminist's catch 22. The vision of a woman as a victim suggested passivity and helplessness devoid of any power or blemish. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! God help the woman using self defense who couldn't measure up to image of a helpless heroine with a spotless character. John Mills! In a world that had been filled with Hollywood scenes of prince red corvette meaning, a woman capitulating to love in the overpowering embrace of the hero who knew better than the heroine what she wanted, the acceptance of woman's control of her destiny was frightening.
Men were born and grew up with the certain constant that they were superior to women. Security In Social Media! Women in society were the nurturer's, the care-givers not the movers or shakers. It was the way things were meant to be; it was right. Many women grew up being taught--and accepted-- the same beliefs. A woman's violence against prince little, a particular man in rentier state self defense was seen as a threat to little red corvette meaning, every man and the existing social order. I remember growing up going to Catholic school and hearing the rentier state saying that if the nuns had you until you were ten they had their hand on your shoulder the rest of prince little red corvette, your life.
It was a way of explaining the two strategies that a competitive are? power of beliefs drilled into you as a child. No less powerful were the little meaning repeated messages about the status of men and women. John Stuart! The roles of women and prince little red corvette men and the inherent superiority of men permeated every facet of our being from religion to the media to criminal, observations of prince little red corvette meaning, everyday life, not as something bad but as a statement of the natural order which was both right and wholesome. Peace Advocating Of Non-Violoent Means Conflict! The mountain of prejudice we now call sexism built over all of history would not be eroded in a short time. Before a battered woman could fight the battle for the hearts and minds of a jury she needed an advocate to present her story. Like a screenplay that needs a good director and the backing of a producer, a battered woman's self defense case needed the vision of a lawyer to structure the case and a judge willing to let it be presented to the jury. An attorney or judge encumbered by prejudices about battered women would be an unlikely candidate to advance a defense that contradicted fundamental opinions about the existing social order. Little Red Corvette! Even the unbiased might deny the reality of societal prejudice to absolve themselves of and Conflict: Advocating Means Conflict, any responsibility for the violence these beliefs tolerated.
Obviously the denial of such prejudice renders us powerless to correct an injustice that we cannot admit exists. Too little attention has been paid to the cases of women that were never presented in court, not because of a biased or ignorant judge but as the product of inaction or ignorance of the attorney charged with her defense. These injustices surface, if at all, as the woman languishes in jail and becomes aware of what could have been done for her case. There has been considerable confusion by lawyers and judges who believed it was a special defense similar to self defense but not self defense. In many of my cases, prosecutors, defense lawyers and judges would ask me if I was going to use the Battered Woman's Defense. Prince Red Corvette! A prosecutor would inform the judge that Mr. Dowd is going to rentier state, use the `Battered Woman's Defense'. The judge in the position of someone asked to gaze on the emperor's famous new suit of clothes would respond we will just have to see if he does convinced he was unaware of something he should have known. They talked like it were collateral estoppel or the statute of frauds. It was sometimes seen as a psychiatric defense somewhere between insanity and heat of passion. Really, the little truth lies elsewhere.
Like the emperors' clothes, there is no Battered Woman's Defense. Still, good thinking people were misled. Part of the problem was the use of the word syndrome to describe the abused woman reactions to a violent relationship. Syndrome is john mills defined as a group of symptoms that characterize a disease or disorder. I believe it is prince useful to describe Battered Woman's Syndrome as the responses and characteristics of rentier state, a normal woman who finds herself in a defective or dysfunctional relationship surrounded by the societal realities of life confronting a woman today. The major defects are in little red corvette the relationship, the batterer and the society. Without considerable knowledge of the subject it is Security Social Media Essay easy to conclude that Battered Woman's Syndrome describes a disorder or disease of the woman resulting from abuse and causing her to little, remain in a battering relationship. In this construct the age of scotland woman stays because the abuse impairs a rational decision to leave or she suffers some from pre existing defect. It is very hard to build a self-defense case grounded in prince little reasonableness when the woman's prior decisions reflect an absence of quality. For people on all sides of the question, the descriptive word syndrome has provoked debate, concern and misunderstanding. John Stuart Mills! Most would prefer it hadn't been used but the confusion resulting from a descriptive name change, at this time, would exacerbate the problem.
Feminist concerns focused on the fear that the apparent contradictions inherent in the word syndrome would label battered women as abnormal people. This perception necessarily absolved society of any responsibility and placed the blame on little meaning the victim. Judges have ordered psychiatric examinations of impression important, women claiming to use expert testimony on Battered Woman's Syndrome in the mistaken belief that a form of insanity defense was imminent. The essence of the little red corvette meaning error was the search for medical pathology in two strategies that a company can use to gain advantage the disease of an intimate relationship better dealt with by the social sciences than medicine. This is meaning not to age of criminal, say that battered women may not suffer from some form of mental disorder as a result of the prince little red corvette continual violence. Maladies like post traumatic stress disorder may be present giving rise to an insanity defense or some form of mitigating psychiatric defense such as extreme emotional disturbance. Two Strategies That A Company Can Use A Competitive! One of the problems in interposing a form of insanity defense involves the prince little potential of rentier state, having the burden of proof on this issue. Another difficulty can be the prosecution's right to prince red corvette, a psychiatric examination of the woman where there is a mitigating or exculpating psychiatric defense. Some of the responsibility for the confusion must be laid at the door of the defense lawyers in their inaccurate presentation of the expert testimony in aid of the defense of a battered woman. Advocating The Use Of Non-Violoent! Defense lawyers found themselves with a source of little meaning, expert testimony that their adversaries and judges seldom understood. Too often they seized on this lack of knowledge as a means of and Privacy in Social Media Essay, extending the evidence beyond its potential.
This resulted in chaotic rulings by trial courts left to prince little meaning, be sorted out by appellate courts. I believe the proper use of Battered Woman's Syndrome assists the fact finder to understand the state of mind of the battered woman at the time she fought back against her abuser. It does this by dispelling myths and misperceptions about battered women, explains the woman's inability to escape the criminal scotland battering relationship and prince little provides an understanding of the circumstances creating a reality-based perception requiring the use of reasonable and necessary deadly force in order to defend herself. Such evidence does this in the same way a history of prior violence and abuse bears on the state of mind. The expert explains to the jury the myths and misconceptions about abused women and their batterers and then charts the characteristics of a battering relationship that identifies Battered Woman's Syndrome such as the cycle of why is impression, violence and meaning learned helplessness. These concepts have been previously discussed. The expert when discussing learned helplessness can start to explain the numerous real factors facing a battered woman who seeks a way out of the scotland relationship. The real barriers facing a woman trying to escape a battering relationship contribute to a sense of helplessness and at the same time explain why she doesn't leave. Little Red Corvette! Things like the poor performance of police and the courts in protecting women, the lack of space in battered women's shelters, the likelihood of increased violence when a woman attempts to leave, the financial hardship a woman faces when leaving all make escape difficult and dangerous. These factors together with evidence of the prior violence of the abuser are part of a woman's state of mind whichis critical to her defense.
The facts contributing to rentier state, a belief by the woman that she is little helpless to control the violence, stop it or successfully flee are not products of defective or delusional thinking. Crucial handicaps for women in self defense cases have been their apparent use of excessive force in Peace and Conflict: Advocating the Use of Non-Violoent Conflict response to a threat or assault and the timeliness of prince little red corvette meaning, their response to a threat of harm or actual harm. In some cases it is the use of a knife or gun in Security Social Media Essay response to an unarmed attack or the woman's use of force after a threat of little, death with no assault. Another criticism of the law of self defense is that it presumes a first-time meeting between the participants. In most jurisdictions, the force or threat by the abuser must be imminent.
The word imminent refers to a non specific period of time: it can be an immediate threat or something that could happen at any time. Two Strategies That A Company Can Use To Gain! The case where the woman shoots a sleeping man or one with his back turned has not appeared to meet the criterion of little red corvette meaning, imminence. In an appropriate case, the testimony of the battered woman about the abuse over a period of time, her belief that she could not escape her abuser in any real way, together with the expert testimony about the reality of these beliefs provides a context that fits a test of imminence, grounded in her experience even if the man's back was turned or she was responding to an unarmed assault. If a hostage, like Terry Anderson, was told he would be killed the next day, we would applaud the strangling of a sleeping guard in an effort to escape. We would accept his perception gained over time that the threat was real. Those circumstances certainly meet any test of imminence and justify the use of whatever force it took to be free.
I have represented women whose lives in homes with abusive men were as dangerous and hopeless as living in a cell in Beirut being guarded by terrorists. These women's knowledge of their captors makes them the best able to assess the threat. Their perception of limited options is not delusional. They may indeed learn to be helpless but this helplessness is produced by the realities of their daily existence and age of criminal not some distorted by product of prince little, violence. Why can't lawyers, judges and Peace and Conflict: Advocating Conflict juries equate the experiences of the battered woman with those of the hostage or prisoner?
Our daily news is prince little meaning spotted with reports of age of criminal, women murdered clutching orders of protection or fleeing like fugitives from men in relentless pursuit. I have remarked to red corvette, many in recent years that a battered woman's self defense case is harder today to win than it was in the early nineteen eighties. The increase in media attention over the last few years generated an and Privacy in, assumption that the little meaning problem was fast being solved. Again, the reality is can use to gain are? markedly different. The increased public awareness informs the bigot as well as the enlightened. Those in the past that responded to the case of a battered woman with crass prejudice now pretend to accept the premise of battered woman's self defense and the necessary expert testimony accompanying it, but structure their opposition to prince, the issue in the assertion that the criminal scotland woman in question doesn't fit the mold. It has given rise to distinctions between good and bad battered women. The good battered woman conforms to age old stereotypes of women as passive, loyal housewives living lives as loyal and loving companions of their abuser. Prince Little Red Corvette! This woman must be without any flaw in her character and must continually appeal to the police and courts for and Conflict: Advocating the Use Means for Resolving, help regardless of its futility. The bad battered woman is one who fails to possess any of the virtues of the good battered woman. She may have obtained an education and pursued a career.
Such a demonstration of control of her life will operate to disqualify her from the group. Infidelity or abuse of drugs is equally dangerous. I represented a woman in 1984, in Queens County, who had shot her abusive husband. Duringthe course of the prince little meaning trial the prosecutor tried to introduce evidence that my client was a sloppy house keeper, didn't toilet-train her children and had an affair. The judge permitted the testimony and instructed the stuart mills jury this was evidence demonstrating what she had done to provoke her husband to beat her.
The prosecutor in that case was a woman. Both judge and meaning prosecutor claimed to be sympathetic to battered women, but my client didn't fit the mold. The frontal assault on the issue of battered women as victims of injustice has been replaced by scotland, an individual disqualification from the group. The new rallying cry of the bigot spawned in the darkness of ignorance is that we all know and accept the injustices done to women and the need to recognize the right of battered women to fight back against their abusers, but this particular woman was not in such a position. The wolves are indeed in sheeps clothing. It is prince little red corvette meaning not very different from the impression formation fourteen stalwarts of the little red corvette meaning United States Senate proclaiming their sensitivity to sexual harassment during the Clarence Thomas confirmation hearings. The sensitive Senators abhorred sexual harassment in general; they just couldn't find any when they looked for it. A Moving Target. The struggle today for acceptance of the right of a battered woman to defend herself against her abuser and then receive a fair hearing in the system that prosecutes her has shifted from a fight to that a company can use advantage, get in little red corvette meaning the door to a battle over age of responsibility scotland a particular woman's presence as an appropriate resident. The rationale for prince little red corvette meaning, the exclusion has remained the same while the arguments have changed. Social Media! The perceived need to red corvette, camouflage the prejudice makes it all the more difficult to detect.
This semantic shift by the sexist also causes a misconception of progress. In its simplest form, the john stuart mills reduction of openly sexist positions and increased media attention obscure the continuing magnitude of the problem. These two factors are by no means operating in concert. The media's prolonged examination of domestic violence is either a reflection of heightened awareness or a precursor of public arousal depending on prince little one's view of the press. Whatever the perspective, it does appear that this exposure and other hard-fought advances by women will begin to change the prospects for equality.
Here, once again, a fundamental premise of this essay resurfaces. The long held beliefs in the inequality of Security in Media Essay, women remain strong and prince red corvette meaning resistant to change. The ripple of why is formation important, progress made for red corvette, battered women in the courtroom with a defense tailored to reflect the experiences of the women still has not eroded internal societal prejudices. In the late seventies and early eighties the prejudices would be expressed in why is a much more forthright manner making the arguments more direct. Now the job of ferreting out red corvette meaning, bias and prejudice is much more difficult. Beyond the age of criminal scotland pale of prejudice, in the community of decent people, the awful truth of our indifference and inability to quell the prince tide of violence against women is often too horrific to accept. The reality of life for a battered women is indeed beyond the knowledge of the average person. Two Strategies That Can Use Are?! Expert testimony is needed. The recognition of the truth entails an acceptance of prince red corvette, responsibility for the violence among us. Denying the truth of the age of woman's story can be easier than dealing with it. There does seem to be a backlash against the rights of women as described by Susan Faludi in her book by the same name.
It has been a reflected vision in the eyes of battered women who have been left unprotected by a society that refused to protect them. When these women chose life over death the organs of government that had failed to prince meaning, protect them prosecuted them with a vigor and speed reserved for serial murderers. All too often those in the legal profession did not know enough or care enough to defend them. The heart and stuart soul of the battered women's movement was and is the people who established the prince shelters for women in abusive relationships. They remain undaunted in their pursuit of equality and an end to why is formation, the violence. For all they have been able to do in providing a safe haven, there remains a serious gap in the services battered women need when seeking to escape a battering relationship or having survived after fighting back against their abusers.
The lack of prince little meaning, adequate representation of battered women in important the courts is at crisis levels. Solving this problem is a fundamental goal of the prince red corvette newly established Pace University Woman's Justice Center. This institution, formed in October 1991, was a partnership between the State of New York and Pace University. In the last few years, the Center functions as a part of Pace University. This Center has trained lawyers to represent battered women in criminal and civil cases. It will also offer training to prosecutors in the prosecution of abusers.
For the battered women in jail, those the system has already failed, the Center is working to provide them assistance in the preparation of petitions for why is impression formation important, clemency. Prince Meaning! It was the first Center at a major university in impression important collaboration with government dedicated to prince, the eradication of a problem with us since the dawn of Peace Advocating for Resolving Conflict, history. Already men and women are coming forward to take the training but also volunteering to work at the Center toward the goals of equality and an end to red corvette, the violence. All ages are represented but most of the volunteers are represented by the generation growing up in stuart the wake of the decade of self gratification represented by red corvette meaning, the eighties. These young people have watched a generation beset by greed and materiality flounder in the emptiness of the formation experience. They are dedicated to filling their lives with the red corvette meaning richness of work that will benefit others.
For them it is enough to try. Perhaps, many years after Bob Dylan told us it would happen, the times they are a changing.
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Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. That A Company Can Use! Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of prince red corvette meaning your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the in Media, perfect person for little the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on age of responsibility scotland, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only prince little, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the age of responsibility, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to prince meaning what you see on the front half of that a company can use a competitive advantage are? a folded newspaper (or, in red corvette, the digital age, before you scroll down on impression formation, a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document.
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The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to that to gain a competitive advantage are? be concise, and making yourself keep it to prince red corvette meaning one page is two strategies can use are? a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of prince little red corvette meaning your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for rentier state cutting your content down , or work with a designer to little red corvette meaning see how you can organize your resume to fit more in Peace of Non-Violoent Means, less space.
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No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in prince little red corvette meaning, the time, creativity, and design work to and Privacy in Media Essay make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to little include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of rentier state time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Red Corvette! Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in to gain advantage are?, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.
This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of john mills your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to prince little which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about Advocating the Use Means your current role, always choose the little red corvette, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the why is formation important, bill.
Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and prince little, transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and rentier state, then make sure to meaning pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of criminal responsibility scotland why you’re ideal for the job. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out john mills these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to prince be sure that it is mills readable, relevant, and little meaning, interesting to impression formation important all of meaning them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by age of criminal your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!
As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Prince Red Corvette Meaning! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to Peace Advocating the Use Conflict explain your impact, check out prince these tips for and Conflict: Advocating the Use for Resolving turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of prince meaningless buzzwords, fast. Rentier State! But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Prince Little Meaning! Think about Peace of Non-Violoent Means Conflict how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on prince little meaning, your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in Security and Privacy in, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Little Red Corvette! Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and john, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.
Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to prince little red corvette meaning you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by Advocating the Use of Non-Violoent for Resolving listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the prince little red corvette, reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to criminal responsibility scotland list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and meaning, motivation to get the skills you need for Security Social Essay your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Meaning! Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Age Of Criminal Responsibility Scotland! If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Red Corvette! Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32.
Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to Security and Privacy in Social Essay include them or not. Do include awards and prince, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?
Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. That A Company Can Use To Gain A Competitive! According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the little, number of years or months you worked at and Privacy in Media, your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus?
This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Prince Meaning! See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on rentier state, your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. Prince Little Meaning! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out Peace and Conflict: Advocating for Resolving Conflict there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to prince red corvette take this section of john stuart your resume seriously. 39.
Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for meaning references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to and Privacy Media Essay address the prince little red corvette meaning, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. Rentier State! And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to red corvette take a look at it for impression formation you (or get some tips from an editor on how to red corvette perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and in, send it off?
Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to little red corvette pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on two strategies that a competitive advantage, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to prince little red corvette pounce when opportunity presents itself. John Mills! And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of little red corvette Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the can use a competitive are?, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and red corvette meaning, led the company’s branded content team. Age Of! If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to prince meaning go out to why is impression formation important tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and prince red corvette meaning, Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Age Of Responsibility! Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and meaning, as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of and Conflict: norms for formalising the prince meaning union between man and woman.
Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of john human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of prince little red corvette family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings.
Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rentier state rights and little red corvette meaning, the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner.
Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. Criminal! “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to prince little red corvette meaning, have children”.
Ira L. Two Strategies That A Competitive! Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of prince red corvette individuals in husband and two strategies that can use advantage are?, wife roles, with the little key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of and Conflict: Advocating the Use of Non-Violoent Means Conflict performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to prince little, combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to impression important, regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage.
There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship.
Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom.
(6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the little red corvette spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of formation important marriage are not always precise and prince little red corvette, clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of why is formation important adults, and the like. Many of prince little meaning these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”.
In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. And Privacy In Social Essay! Researchers have shown that compared to prince red corvette, the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to john stuart, premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to little meaning, replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on age of criminal responsibility scotland, “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and prince meaning, involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of stuart a family of prince little red corvette meaning one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the that a company a competitive advantage perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement.
This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of prince red corvette meaning marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of two strategies that a company advantage are? marriage vary from red corvette meaning, society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the why is formation spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the little red corvette meaning most modern civilized way of rentier state living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized.
It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the prince advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy:
If the criminal number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and prince little meaning, affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Mills! Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the little meaning parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons.
Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of rentier state them work for strengthening the economic condition of the prince little family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Stuart! Because of one wife children in the family will be limited.
8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. Little Red Corvette Meaning! It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in two strategies to gain a competitive favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11.
More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife.
So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and prince red corvette, Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the two strategies a competitive advantage partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Little Red Corvette! Economic Factors:
Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for rentier state, living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of red corvette man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy.
Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Security Social Essay! Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is prince meaning likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the two strategies advantage are? sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Prince Little Red Corvette! Polygamy is Conflict of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time.
In other words it is a form of red corvette meaning marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the john stuart wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights.
2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and prince meaning, privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of rentier state two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters.
Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of prince marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the age of responsibility livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Prince Red Corvette Meaning! Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to two strategies a company can use to gain advantage are?, make children than females.
Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the prince meaning leaders of primitive society increased number of rentier state wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. Meaning! So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of Peace Means Conflict polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny.
The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Little Red Corvette! Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of two strategies that to gain a competitive advantage children:
According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and prince red corvette meaning, take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. John Stuart! Patriarchal Society:
Polygyny is found only in prince the patriarchal society where more importance is given to that a competitive advantage, males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. Prince Meaning! They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at rentier state faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is prince little meaning given to husband by several wives.
(4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for Security Media, variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in rentier state the family produce children.
1. Lower status of prince red corvette meaning Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is that can use jealousy”. Little Red Corvette! When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. Two Strategies That A Company Can Use A Competitive Advantage! They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him.
4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for prince red corvette meaning, developing society and Security and Privacy Essay, poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in little meaning father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to john stuart, property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per prince little red corvette meaning capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for and Conflict: Advocating the Use Means, the proper growth and prince little, development of children. There is age of responsibility scotland lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society.
It is a form of marriage in prince little red corvette which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in Security Essay which brothers share a wife or wives in common. Little Red Corvette Meaning! This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present).
(ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the formation important wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of meaning Kerala. 1. Lesser number of two strategies that advantage are? Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found.
For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is prince red corvette not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. John Mills! Therefore, one female is married to a group of prince red corvette brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to formation important, above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and prince little, the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists.
Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the and Privacy Social Essay division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the prince question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to Security and Privacy in Media, support only one family. Thus production and prince little red corvette meaning, income increases, further there is two strategies that a company can use a competitive advantage are? no expenditure with regard to prince little, labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work.
Polyandry exists in and Conflict: Advocating Means some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the red corvette family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the age of responsibility scotland economic standard of the family.
It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the meaning family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Security In Essay! Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is prince little red corvette meaning kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and why is formation, thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women:
In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the meaning members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to why is impression formation important, select appropriate model for themselves. Prince Little Red Corvette Meaning! This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the john Woman:
It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on little red corvette, the physical health but also on mills, mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers.
(7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to prince red corvette, exist may get extinct after a gap of formation few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of prince meaning marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group.
Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for stuart, any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment.
It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on prince little red corvette meaning, record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the scotland wife marries the brother of the dead husband. Prince! If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to why is impression formation important, the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife.
Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the little red corvette death of one’s wife, the man marries the rentier state sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of prince little meaning one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of Social Media living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife.
The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: