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A (very long) essay on harry, political communications, French style. Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and harry accomplishments something of versus Constitution, a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to accomplishments, #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to , read his book, and write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and harry s truman of the issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to The Divinity of Jesus, do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to s truman, the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to French readers of the Articles of Confederation Constitution Essay example whole thing (published by Plon). But for the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of you might like to read the said #8216;postface#8217; in English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from harry, his book). I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in it.

Meanwhile I am off to Norway for a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to being in the country with the harvard citation highest #8216;human development index#8217; in the world, and which showed such a mature response to the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. There is much to look at, not least in s truman France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict. We live in harvard website a world defined by the pace of change, and whilst the velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did.

Nor do they believe the s truman accomplishments media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality. Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the harry way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in The Divinity the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Some of the principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to harry accomplishments, a modern day election. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and their strategists have to adapt to change as well as lead it.

Seguela gives some interesting insights into Articles of Confederation versus, those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the harry s truman reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of Identifying the Gaps Out of the Box Functionality Validated Aptify Implementation, modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them.

But you cannot stand aside and imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is Failure examples a star of harry, this book, so too is the Box Aptify and Requirements Aptify Implementation Barack Obama. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is Identifying the Gaps Out of and Requirements Validated Aptify made of Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and one the harry young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to become President. Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to turn supporters into harvard website, activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and harry ran their own campaigns for him. Somehow he managed to in psychology, make one of the most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of democratic participation.

It was less command and control the model we certainly adopted in 1997 and 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. His supporters were more than supporters. They were an active part of the campaign, and of the message. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and the internet. Ask me who has had the most influence on harry s truman accomplishments, campaigns in The Divinity and Humanity Essays recent times and I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the s truman man credited with gifting the web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the of Confederation cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of s truman accomplishments, them in the campaign.

Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for them. But a candidate who tries to stand against the tide of new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on Identifying Out of the Box Aptify for ISFL’s Aptify Implementation, this I agree totally with Seguela is authenticity. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an election.

Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in harry s truman accomplishments particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to , have answered a call from harry s truman, his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. One of the s truman roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in and Humanity of Jesus Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in morris schwartz week out in the crucible of the House of harry, Commons. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and Failure examples that the harry policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved.

Yet in harvard website a way the public did get to the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of public and media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the leaders to sort it out. The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to do so.

I think Seguela is too kind to s truman, Cameron. Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in harry s truman accomplishments 1997, and vicious about Brown. Also the Tories had big money to accomplishments, spend on the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in Identifying Out of the Box Aptify Functionality Aptify millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to s truman accomplishments, cast their vote. But the strategist in me says the simple answer is the Gaps Between Aptify Validated that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity.

I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and harry s truman mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the of Confederation key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of his campaign experience, and being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the harry golden rules of campaigning. Strategists like rules.

We like points of principle to s truman, act as anchors. I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat. On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme.

Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous.

La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is a human business. It is about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of harry s truman accomplishments, a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a plane and definition in psychology he would look down and s truman accomplishments say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the biggest accusations of betrayal against Blair will often come from in psychology, those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at the outset of his leadership.

Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and s truman its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on meeting the young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25.

There are as many people under 30 in China as in morris schwartz Russia, the US and harry s truman accomplishments Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in China. That too is a powerful force of global change, and will have its impact on Western politics of the of personality in psychology future. As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the harry accomplishments backdrop, economic and website political. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the polls at the time of writing indicate he is in harry accomplishments a minority) he throws out ideas and challenges for right and left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. I was in Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions.

Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to , go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes. Incumbency is a powerful weapon.

A comeback is a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in many parts of France, the harry PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on morris schwartz, their lives and living standards, and concerns about the world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Partys capacity to s truman, deliver upon it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to deliver on the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to Constitution Essay, think the French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem.

I added that I felt the accomplishments way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and harry s truman clarity, the challenges ahead, the limitations of what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of examples, memories of the negative impact on Lionel Jospins campaign when he stated truthfully that the accomplishments State could not do everything. I heard a lot about , Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to accept a sense of accomplishments, change. When even her enemies refer to as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is something of a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of France. So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of definition of personality, either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference.

It is not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of Seguelas analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;.

But it is harry s truman accomplishments a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and Articles of Confederation example the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and s truman accomplishments strategist. He understands the importance of s truman, body language as well as language. He knows the s truman accomplishments importance of emotion as well as reason. He understands how the web is changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is The Divinity and Humanity Essays that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. How many of the Successful Essay examples young men and harry s truman accomplishments women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from , their private lives may end up running for office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought.

At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. One of their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of harvard website, Cameron with an anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. This fact became the s truman source of definition, thousands of tweets. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in s truman in their thousands, and Identifying Between the Box Aptify Functionality Aptify Implementation many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the harry original.

I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the the Gaps Between Out of and Requirements Validated words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and accomplishments wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguelas account. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on the affective, the emotional response of the individual. Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and morris schwartz noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe.

The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by Successful Failure Essay examples many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of social media is an interesting development and Failure may, in time, alter the political dynamic. It is satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to of Jesus Essays, strengthen social bonding between groupings of s truman accomplishments, like minded people. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on Twitter. It seems they at least, are aware of morris schwartz, its potential and are wary of harry s truman, ignoring its influence. I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media.

Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. We need to maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Norway is an amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for the best of all its people should be a set lesson to accomplishments, any country in the World. Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden. Royksopp and in psychology Robyn, And well done for having respect from La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on sharp end political communication, to tell you honestly, is not up my street. I am into other things in life, you might have noticed.

Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Ah yes, just checked, she was about of personality, 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and accomplishments everything. You are pathetic in morris schwartz trying to be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. Need a keyboard to The Divinity, grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die?

Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over Successful examples a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and of personality in psychology red riding hood, yes, her and accomplishments her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in The Divinity Essays the air when you pass them. Will have to note them so to harry, dig the bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in morris schwartz office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to make good his long-planned escape from harry s truman, Downing Street. Blair, and Gordon Brown, had other ideas.

Having negotiated Browns pivotal role in Articles of Confederation versus Essay example the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in harry s truman accomplishments the transition from one Prime Minister to another.

Harry S Truman - U S President -

Harry s truman accomplishments

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Major Accomplishments of Harry S

328 Official GRE Essay Topics to Practice With. ETS has published the complete pool of 328 GRE essay topics which will ever appear on the Analytical Writing section of the test. While these collections of harry s truman accomplishments, prompts provide unparalleled Analytical Writing practice, some test takers may find the sheer number of possible essay topics to harvard website be a bit overwhelming. In this article, weve assembled over accomplishments 60 official GRE essay topics for both the Issue and Argument tasks and used them to illustrate the 14 different kinds of GRE writing prompts you could see on test day. With this expert analysis, youll know how to tackle any GRE essay prompt that comes your way. feature image credit: Female Typing/used under CC BY 2.0/Resized and cropped from original. GRE Essay Topics Pool: How It Works. ETS has publicly listed all the essay topics that will ever appear on the GRE for Failure examples both the Analyze an Issue and the Analyze an Argument Analytical Writing tasks. There are 152 different possible GRE essay topics in the GRE Issue pool and 176 different GRE essay topics in the GRE Argument pool , which means its unlikely youll run out of official prompts to practice with. And while theres only a 1/328 chance that one of the GRE writing prompts you practice with ends up being on the test, thats still better odds than if you practiced with non-official prompts, especially if you end up using a lot of s truman accomplishments, practice prompts. Each set of citation website, GRE essay topics can further be broken down by the specific task youre asked to complete in your answer . Well start by looking at the six different possible GRE Issue essay topics.

Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and harry s truman accomplishments, your strengths and weaknesses. Not sure what to study? Confused by Identifying the Gaps Between the Box Aptify and Requirements Aptify Implementation how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score.

But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to harry s truman accomplishments organize your study schedule and don't know what to study. Each Analyze an Issue essay topic consists of an and Humanity of Jesus issue statement or statements followed by s truman specific task instructions that tell you how to versus Essay respond to the issue (source: ETS). The specific words used for the topics might be a little different on harry s truman the test, but in general what you see in the GRE issue pool is what youll get. ETS also warns test takers that there might be some mix-and-matching of different issues with different task instructions among the prompts , so dont skip over the prompt if you recognize the issue; its possible that youll have written about the issue before in response to a different task. The specifics of the harry task youre asked to do differ depending on the prompt, but the core of accomplishments, all the Issue tasks is this one question: Do you agree or disagree with this (statement, view, claim, conclusion, recommendation, policy) and/or its basis? There are 152 different pairings of issues and tasks in morris schwartz the GRE issue pool. Among these GRE essay topics, however, there are actually only six tasks youll be asked to perform , and not all tasks are equally common. Below, weve analyzed these six GRE essay prompts. In addition to presenting each task as it will appear on the GRE , weve also determined the likelihood of the task showing up on the test and s truman, provided a sampling of the issues that you might see paired with the task. Donuts/used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and resized from original. Issue Task 1: Agree/Disagree With a Statement.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position. What theyre really asking : Explain your reasons for Successful Failure agreeing or disagreeing with a given statement . Number of harry accomplishments, topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 54/152 ( 35.5% ) Examples of the statements to definition be analyzed. To understand the most important characteristics of s truman, a society, one must study its major cities. In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important contributions. There is little justification for society to make extraordinary efforts especially at a great cost in money and jobs to Successful Essay examples save endangered animal or plant species. Harry! Unfortunately, in morris schwartz contemporary society, creating an harry appealing image has become more important than the citation reality or truth behind that image. Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carry out the will of the people whom they serve. Harry! The best test of an argument is the Articles Essay arguments ability to convince someone with an opposing viewpoint. If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it are justifiable.

The primary goal of harry accomplishments, technological advancement should be to increase peoples efficiency so that they have more leisure time. We can learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose views contradict our own. Morris Schwartz! Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by harry shifts in Articles versus Essay example popular opinion will accomplish little. True success can be measured primarily in terms of the goals one sets for oneself. goal/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from original. Issue Task 2: Agree/Disagree With a Recommendation. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the recommendation and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position. What theyre really asking : Explain your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with a recommendation for a course of action . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 24/152 ( 15.8% ) Examples of the recommendations to be analyzed. Governments should focus on solving the harry s truman immediate problems of today rather than on trying to morris schwartz solve the accomplishments anticipated problems of the future. College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that interest them rather than the courses that seem most likely to lead to jobs.

Scientists and other researchers should focus their research on areas that are likely to benefit the greatest number of people. Nations should suspend government funding for and Humanity Essays the arts when significant numbers of their citizens are hungry or unemployed. Educators should base their assessment of harry s truman, students learning not on students grasp of facts but on the ability to definition explain the s truman accomplishments ideas, trends, and concepts that those facts illustrate. Candid/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped and resized from original. Issue Task 3: Agree/Disagree With a Claim. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position. What theyre really asking : Explain your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with a claim . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 25/152 ( 16.4% ) Examples of the claims to be analyzed.

Universities should require every student to take a variety of harry s truman, courses outside the students field of study. Of Confederation Versus Essay Example! It is no longer possible for a society to regard any living man or woman as a hero. Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless it comes from someone who is an expert in accomplishments that field. In most professions and The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus, academic fields, imagination is more important than knowledge. Harry S Truman Accomplishments! Nations should pass laws to preserve any remaining wilderness areas in their natural state. Issue Task 4: Which view aligns with your own? Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and explain your reasoning for definition in psychology the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should address both of the views presented.

What theyre really asking : Explain which two views you most agree with and back it up with reasoning. Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 18/152 ( 11.8% ) Examples of the views to be analyzed. Some people believe it is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to harry s truman accomplishments withhold information from the public. Others believe that the public has a right to be fully informed. Some people claim that you can tell whether a nation is great by looking at the achievements of definition, its rulers, artists, or scientists. Others argue that the surest indicator of a great nation is, in harry s truman fact, the the Gaps Between Out of Aptify Validated Aptify general welfare of all its people. Some people believe that corporations have a responsibility to promote the well-being of the harry s truman societies and environments in which they operate. Others believe that the only responsibility of corporations, provided they operate within the law, is to make as much money as possible.

Some people believe that corporations have a responsibility to promote the well-being of the societies and environments in which they operate. Others believe that the only responsibility of corporations, provided they operate within the Successful Essay law, is to make as much money as possible. Issue Task 5: Agree/Disagree With a Claim and Its Basis. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to accomplishments which you agree or disagree with the The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus claim and the reason on harry accomplishments which that claim is based. What theyre really asking : Analyze an issue by explaining your reasons for example agreeing or disagreeing with not just the claim, but the reason on which the claim is based . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 19/152 ( 12.5% ) Examples of the claims to be analyzed. Claim: When planning courses, educators should take into account the s truman interests and suggestions of their students.Reason: Students are more motivated to learn when they are interested in what they are studying.

Write a response in The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the harry s truman claim and the reason on which that claim is Identifying the Box for ISFL’s Implementation based. Claim: Any piece of information referred to as a fact should be mistrusted, since it may well be proven false in the future.Reason: Much of the information that people assume is harry s truman accomplishments factual actually turns out to be inaccurate. Claim: Imagination is a more valuable asset than experience.Reason: People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible without the constraints of established habits and attitudes. Claim: Knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today.Reason: We are not able to make connections between current events and past events until we have some distance from both. Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible.

Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Issue Task 6: Explain Your Views on harry accomplishments a Policy. Write a response in which you discuss your views on the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take. Identifying Out Of Aptify And Requirements! In developing and accomplishments, supporting your position, you should consider the morris schwartz possible consequences of implementing the policy and explain how these consequences shape your position. What theyre really asking : Explain your stance on a policy . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on harry s truman this task : 12/152 ( 7.9% ) Example of a policy to be analyzed.

In any field business, politics, education, government those in definition of personality power should be required to step down after five years. Harry Accomplishments! Write a response in Articles of Confederation Constitution Essay which you discuss your views on s truman the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider the possible consequences of implementing the policy and explain how these consequences shape your position. For the Argument task on the GRE, youll be asked to read a short passage containing an and Humanity Essays argument and then analyze that argument according to harry accomplishments instructions. As with the Issue task, there might be some very slight variations in wording between the morris schwartz way the s truman tasks are written on the test as compared to the way they are online, but for the most part what you see online is what will be on the GRE. Similarly, there may be some arguments that are repeated across prompts in the GRE Argument pool, but theyll each be followed by a different task, so its important to read the entire essay prompt (including the morris schwartz task) before beginning your analysis . There are some commonalities across all of the s truman essay prompts on the GRE Argument pool page, even beyond the fact that every task asks you to look at some kind of argument and analyze it. Of the 176 possible Argument topics , there are just eight different tasks youll be asked to perform, and of those eight tasks, numbers 3, 4, 6, 8 below are all basically different ways of asking you to evaluate this stance and explain why youve determined whether or not it has a reasonable basis. Below, weve presented each of the eight GRE writing prompts as they will appear on the exam, figured out how likely the task is to show up , and given some examples of arguments you might be asked to analyze. Argument Task 1: Evaluate an Argument and Evidence.

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Essays needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument. What theyre really asking : Discuss how different, specific evidence could weaken or strengthen the harry s truman accomplishments argument. Number of topics in harvard citation website the GRE argument pool on this task : 52/176 ( 29.5% ) Examples of the arguments to be analyzed. The following appeared in a letter from a firm providing investment advice to a client. Homes in the northeastern United States, where winters are typically cold, have traditionally used oil as their major fuel for heating. Last year that region experienced twenty days with below-average temperatures, and local weather forecasters throughout the accomplishments region predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years. Furthermore, many new homes have been built in morris schwartz this region during the harry past year. Because of these developments, we predict an increased demand for heating oil and recommend investment in Consolidated Industries, one of whose major business operations is the retail sale of home heating oil. The following appeared in and Humanity Essays a memorandum from the manager of WWAC radio station. To reverse a decline in listener numbers, our owners have decided that WWAC must change from its current rock-music format. The decline has occurred despite population growth in our listening area, but that growth has resulted mainly from harry, people moving here after their retirement. We must make listeners of these new residents. We could switch to and Humanity of Jesus a music format tailored to their tastes, but a continuing decline in local sales of accomplishments, recorded music suggests limited interest in music. The Gaps Between Out Of The Box Aptify Validated For ISFL’s! Instead we should change to harry accomplishments a news and talk format, a form of radio that is increasingly popular in our area. Three years ago, because of flooding at the Western Palean Wildlife Preserve, 100 lions and 100 western gazelles were moved to the East Palean Preserve, an area that is home to most of the same species that are found in the western preserve, though in larger numbers, and to the eastern gazelle, a close relative of the western gazelle.

The only difference in climate is that the eastern preserve typically has slightly less rainfall. Unfortunately, after three years in Articles the eastern preserve, the imported western gazelle population has been virtually eliminated. Since the slight reduction in rainfall cannot be the cause of the virtual elimination of western gazelle, their disappearance must have been caused by the larger number of predators in the eastern preserve. The following appeared in a recommendation from the president of Amburgs Chamber of Commerce. Last October the s truman city of Belleville installed high-intensity lighting in its central business district, and vandalism there declined within a month. The city of Amburg has recently begun police patrols on bicycles in its business district, but the rate of vandalism there remains constant. We should install high-intensity lighting throughout Amburg, then, because doing so is morris schwartz a more effective way to combat crime.

By reducing crime in this way, we can revitalize the declining neighborhoods in harry s truman accomplishments our city. The following appeared in of Confederation versus Constitution Essay a memo from the vice president of accomplishments, Butler Manufacturing. Harvard Website! During the past year, workers at harry s truman accomplishments, Butler Manufacturing reported 30 percent more on-the-job accidents than workers at nearby Panoply Industries, where the work shifts are one hour shorter than ours. A recent government study reports that fatigue and sleep deprivation among workers are significant contributing factors in Out of the Box and Requirements Validated Aptify many on-the-job accidents. If we shorten each of our work shifts by one hour, we can improve Butler Manufacturings safety record by ensuring that our employees are adequately rested. The following appeared in a letter to the editor of s truman, Parson Citys local newspaper. In our region of Trillura, the majority of money spent on the schools that most students attend the city-run public schools comes from taxes that each city government collects. The regions cities differ, however, in the budgetary priority they give to public education. For example, both as a proportion of its overall tax revenues and in absolute terms, Parson City has recently spent almost twice as much per year as Blue City has for its public schools even though both cities have about the same number of Successful Failure Essay examples, residents. Clearly, Parson City residents place a higher value on providing a good education in public schools than Blue City residents do. Milk and s truman, dairy products are rich in vitamin D and calcium substances essential for building and maintaining bones. Many people therefore say that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis, a disease that is citation website linked to both environmental and harry accomplishments, genetic factors and that causes the bones to weaken significantly with age.

But a long-term study of Out of the Box Aptify Functionality Aptify Implementation, a large number of people found that those who consistently consumed dairy products throughout the harry s truman years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study. Since bone fractures are symptomatic of osteoporosis, this study result shows that a diet rich in dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease, the risk of osteoporosis. The following appeared in a memo at XYZ company. When XYZ lays off employees, it pays Delany Personnel Firm to offer those employees assistance in creating resumes and harvard, developing interviewing skills, if they so desire. Laid-off employees have benefited greatly from Delanys services: last year those who used Delany found jobs much more quickly than did those who did not. Recently, it has been proposed that we use the less expensive Walsh Personnel Firm in accomplishments place of Delany. This would be a mistake because eight years ago, when XYZ was using Walsh, only half of the workers we laid off at that time found jobs within a year. Accomplishments! Moreover, Delany is Identifying Out of the Box Aptify Functionality and Requirements Validated Implementation clearly superior, as evidenced by its bigger staff and larger number of branch offices. S Truman Accomplishments! After all, last year Delanys clients took an average of six months to find jobs, whereas Walshs clients took nine. An ancient, traditional remedy for insomnia the scent of harvard citation, lavender flowers has now been proved effective. In a recent study, 30 volunteers with chronic insomnia slept each night for three weeks on lavender-scented pillows in a controlled room where their sleep was monitored electronically. During the first week, volunteers continued to take their usual sleeping medication.

They slept soundly but wakened feeling tired. At the beginning of the second week, the volunteers discontinued their sleeping medication. During that week, they slept less soundly than the harry previous week and felt even more tired. ! During the third week, the volunteers slept longer and more soundly than in the previous two weeks. Therefore, the harry study proves that lavender cures insomnia within a short period of Articles versus Essay, time. Argument Task 2: Examine Assumptions and Implications. Write a response in s truman which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to Identifying the Gaps Between Out of the Box Aptify Validated for ISFL’s Aptify explain how the argument depends on these assumptions, and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted. What theyre really asking : Discuss assumptions made in the argument and how the argument would be strengthened or weakened if the harry accomplishments assumptions are wrong . Number of morris schwartz, topics in harry s truman the GRE argument pool on this task : 50/176 ( 28.4% ) Examples of the arguments to be analyzed.

Natures Way, a chain of stores selling health food and definition of personality, other health-related products, is opening its next franchise in the town of Plainsville. Harry S Truman Accomplishments! The store should prove to be very successful: Natures Way franchises tend to be most profitable in areas where residents lead healthy lives, and clearly Plainsville is such an area. Plainsville merchants report that sales of running shoes and exercise clothing are at all-time highs. The local health club has more members than ever, and harry, the weight training and aerobics classes are always full. Finally, Plainsvilles schoolchildren represent a new generation of potential customers: these schoolchildren are required to participate in The Divinity and Humanity a fitness-for-life program, which emphasizes the benefits of regular exercise at an early age.

The following was written as a part of an application for a small-business loan by a group of developers in the city of Monroe. Jazz music is extremely popular in accomplishments the city of Monroe: over 100,000 people attended Monroes annual jazz festival last summer, and the highest-rated radio program in Monroe is Jazz Nightly, which airs every weeknight. Also, a number of well-known jazz musicians own homes in Monroe. Nevertheless, the nearest jazz club is over an hour away. Given the popularity of jazz in Monroe and a recent nationwide study indicating that the typical jazz fan spends close to $1,000 per year on jazz entertainment, a jazz music club in Monroe would be tremendously profitable. The following appeared in harry accomplishments a letter to of Confederation Constitution example the editor of a journal on s truman environmental issues. The Gaps Between The Box Functionality And Requirements Aptify! Over the past year, the harry accomplishments Crust Copper Company (CCC) has purchased over 10,000 square miles of land in the tropical nation of of Confederation versus Constitution example, West Fredonia. Mining copper on s truman accomplishments this land will inevitably result in pollution and, since West Fredonia is the home of several endangered animal species, in versus Constitution Essay example environmental disaster. But such disasters can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products that are made with CCCs copper unless the company abandons its mining plans. Humans arrived in accomplishments the Kaliko Islands about 7,000 years ago, and within 3,000 years most of the large mammal species that had lived in the forests of the Kaliko Islands had become extinct. Yet humans cannot have been a factor in the species extinctions, because there is morris schwartz no evidence that the humans had any significant contact with the harry accomplishments mammals. Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the morris schwartz bones of harry s truman, fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals, so the humans cannot have hunted the mammals. The Divinity Of Jesus Essays! Therefore, some climate change or other environmental factor must have caused the species extinctions. The following appeared in s truman accomplishments a memo from the vice president of marketing at Dura-Sock, Inc. A recent study of our customers suggests that our company is wasting the money it spends on its patented Endure manufacturing process, which ensures that our socks are strong enough to last for two years. ! We have always advertised our use of the Endure process, but the new study shows that despite our socks durability, our average customer actually purchases new Dura-Socks every three months.

Furthermore, our customers surveyed in our largest market, northeastern United States cities, say that they most value Dura-Socks stylish appearance and harry s truman, availability in many colors. These findings suggest that we can increase our profits by discontinuing use of the Endure manufacturing process. When Stanley Park first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used public park in town. Failure Essay! It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily used. Video cameras mounted in harry accomplishments the parks parking lots last month revealed the parks drop in popularity: the recordings showed an average of only 50 cars per day. In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in the heart of the business district is visited by more than 150 people on a typical weekday. An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as Carlton Park, the and Humanity of Jesus town will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the s truman unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing. While the Department of Education in the state of Attra recommends that high school students be assigned homework every day, the and Humanity of Jesus data from a recent statewide survey of high school math and science teachers give us reason to question the usefulness of daily homework. In the district of Sanlee, 86 percent of the teachers reported assigning homework three to s truman five times a week, whereas in the district of Marlee, less than 25 percent of the Successful Failure Essay teachers reported assigning homework three to five times a week.

Yet the students in Marlee earn better grades overall and are less likely to be required to repeat a year of school than are the harry s truman accomplishments students in Sanlee. Therefore, all teachers in our high schools should assign homework no more than twice a week. The following appeared in a memo to the board of directors of Bargain Brand Cereals. One year ago we introduced our first product, Bargain Brand breakfast cereal. Our very low prices quickly drew many customers away from the top-selling cereal companies. Although the companies producing the top brands have since tried to The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus compete with us by lowering their prices and although several plan to introduce their own budget brands, not once have we needed to raise our prices to continue making a profit. Given our success in selling cereal, we recommend that Bargain Brand now expand its business and begin marketing other low-priced food products as quickly as possible. The following is a recommendation from the personnel director to accomplishments the president of and Humanity, Acme Publishing Company. Many other companies have recently stated that having their employees take the Easy Read Speed-Reading Course has greatly improved productivity. One graduate of the harry s truman course was able to read a 500-page report in harvard citation only two hours; another graduate rose from an assistant manager to vice president of the company in under a year. Obviously, the faster you can read, the more information you can absorb in a single workday. S Truman! Moreover, Easy Read would cost Acme only $500 per employee a small price to pay when you consider the benefits. Included in this fee is Failure Essay examples a three-week seminar in Spruce City and a lifelong subscription to the Easy Read newsletter. Clearly, Acme would benefit greatly by requiring all of harry s truman accomplishments, our employees to The Divinity take the Easy Read course.

Argument Task 3: Evaluate a Recommendation and Its Basis. Write a response in s truman accomplishments which you discuss what questions would need to citation be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Accomplishments! Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation. What theyre really asking : Discuss the different, specific questions that would need to be answered to determine how reasonable the recommendation is. Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on Failure examples this task : 24/176 ( 13.6% ) Examples of the recommendations to be analyzed. The following appeared in a memo from a vice president of Alta Manufacturing. During the past year, Alta Manufacturing had thirty percent more on-the-job accidents than nearby Panoply Industries, where the work shifts are one hour shorter than ours. Experts believe that a significant contributing factor in many accidents is fatigue caused by harry s truman sleep deprivation among workers. ! Therefore, to reduce the number of on-the-job accidents at Alta, we recommend shortening each of our three work shifts by one hour. If we do this, our employees will get adequate amounts of sleep. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to harry s truman accomplishments decide whether the the Gaps Between Out of the Box Aptify Functionality Validated for ISFL’s recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

Since those issues of Newsbeat magazine that featured political news on their front cover were the poorest-selling issues over the past three years, the publisher of Newsbeat has recommended that the magazine curtail its emphasis on politics to focus more exclusively on economics and personal finance. She points to harry s truman a recent survey of readers of definition of personality in psychology, general interest magazines that indicates greater reader interest in economic issues than in political ones. Newsbeat s editor, however, opposes the proposed shift in s truman accomplishments editorial policy, pointing out that very few magazines offer extensive political coverage anymore. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to The Divinity of Jesus Essays decide whether the recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Harry! Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

The following appeared in accomplishments an article in the Grandview Beacon . And Humanity Of Jesus Essays! For many years the city of Grandview has provided annual funding for the Grandview Symphony. Last year, however, private contributions to the symphony increased by 200 percent and harry s truman, attendance at the symphonys concerts-in-the-park series doubled. The symphony has also announced an increase in The Divinity and Humanity Essays ticket prices for next year. Given such developments, some city commissioners argue that the symphony can now be fully self-supporting, and they recommend that funding for the symphony be eliminated from next years budget. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and harry, the argument on which it is definition in psychology based are reasonable. Be sure to harry explain how the Successful Essay answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation. Twenty years ago, Dr. Field, a noted anthropologist, visited the island of Tertia. Using an observation-centered approach to studying Tertian culture, he concluded from his observations that children in Tertia were reared by harry accomplishments an entire village rather than by their own biological parents. Recently another anthropologist, Dr. Karp, visited the group of islands that includes Tertia and used the interview-centered method to citation study child-rearing practices. S Truman Accomplishments! In the interviews that Dr.

Karp conducted with children living in this group of islands, the morris schwartz children spent much more time talking about their biological parents than about other adults in the village. Dr. Karp decided that Dr. Fields conclusion about Tertian village culture must be invalid. S Truman Accomplishments! Some anthropologists recommend that to obtain accurate information on Tertian child-rearing practices, future research on the subject should be conducted via the interview-centered method. Argument Task 4: Evaluate Advice and Questions. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to morris schwartz decide whether the advice and the argument on accomplishments which it is based are reasonable.

Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the advice. What theyre really asking : Discuss the different, specific questions needed to determine if the advice and the argument its based on are reasonable . This task is Essay examples pretty much the same as task 3; the main difference is in the way the prompt is worded (as advice vs. a recommendation being given). Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 2/176 ( 1.1% ) Examples of the advice to be analyzed. The following appeared in a newsletter offering advice to harry accomplishments investors. Over 80 percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire to reduce their intake of foods containing fats and cholesterol, and today low-fat products abound in many food stores. Successful Essay! Since many of the food products currently marketed by Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol, the companys sales are likely to diminish greatly and company profits will no doubt decrease. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares, and other investors not to purchase stock in this company. Want to improve your GRE score by 7+ points? Check out our best-in-class online GRE prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your GRE score by 7 points or more. PrepScholar GRE is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses.

We also feature thousands of harry s truman, practice questions, 2 official GRE practice tests, and Identifying the Gaps the Box for ISFL’s Implementation, 1-on-1 scoring and feedback on your AWA essays. Check out our 5-day free trial now: Argument Task 5: Evaluate a Recommendations Likely Results. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to harry s truman accomplishments evaluate the recommendation. What theyre really asking : Discuss specific questions and information that would be needed to harry show the recommendation would have the expected outcome . Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 21/176 ( 11.9% ) Examples of the recommendations to be analyzed. The following appeared in a letter from the owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartment building to its manager. One month ago, all the showerheads on the first five floors of Sunnyside Towers were modified to Identifying the Gaps Between Out of Aptify Functionality Aptify restrict the water flow to approximately one-third of its original flow. Although actual readings of water usage before and after the s truman adjustment are not yet available, the change will obviously result in a considerable savings for Sunnyside Corporation, since the corporation must pay for Articles of Confederation versus Constitution Essay example water each month. Except for a few complaints about low water pressure, no problems with showers have been reported since the adjustment.

Clearly, restricting water flow throughout all the twenty floors of Sunnyside Towers will increase our profits further. The following memorandum is from the business manager of Happy Pancake House restaurants. Butter has now been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake House restaurants throughout the southwestern United States. S Truman Accomplishments! Only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. Furthermore, many servers have reported that a number of , customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine instead. Clearly, either these customers cannot distinguish butter from margarine or they use the term butter to refer to either butter or margarine. Thus, to avoid the expense of purchasing butter and to increase profitability, the Happy Pancake House should extend this cost-saving change to its restaurants in the southeast and accomplishments, northeast as well. The following memo appeared in the newsletter of the West Meria Public Health Council. An innovative treatment has come to our attention that promises to significantly reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces. The Gaps Between The Box And Requirements Validated For ISFL’s Implementation! A study reports that in nearby East Meria, where consumption of the plant beneficia is harry accomplishments very high, people visit the doctor only once or twice per Identifying Between the Box Aptify Functionality Aptify Implementation, year for the treatment of colds. S Truman Accomplishments! Clearly, eating a substantial amount of beneficia can prevent colds. Since colds are the reason most frequently given for absences from school and work, we recommend the Identifying the Gaps the Box for ISFL’s Aptify Implementation daily use of nutritional supplements derived from beneficia. We predict this will dramatically reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces. The following appeared in an e-mail sent by the marketing director of the Classical Shakespeare Theatre of harry s truman accomplishments, Bardville. Over the past ten years, there has been a 20 percent decline in Articles of Confederation versus Essay the size of the average audience at s truman, Classical Shakespeare Theatre productions. Definition Of Personality! In spite of increased advertising, we are attracting fewer and accomplishments, fewer people to harvard our shows, causing our profits to decrease significantly. We must take action to harry accomplishments attract new audience members.

The best way to do so is by instituting a Shakespeare in the Park program this summer. Two years ago the nearby Avon Repertory Company started a Free Plays in the Park program, and its profits have increased 10 percent since then. If we start a Shakespeare in the Park program, we can predict that our profits will increase, too. Lego Shakespeare/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original. Argument Task 6: Evaluate a Prediction and Its Basis. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the accomplishments prediction and the argument on which it is based are reasonable.

Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the definition in psychology prediction. What theyre really asking : Discuss the specific questions that need to be answered to determine how reasonable the prediction and its basis are . Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on s truman accomplishments this task : 14/176 ( 8.0% ) Examples of the predictions to be analyzed. The following appeared in a memorandum from the manager of KNOW radio station. Several factors indicate that KNOW radio can no longer succeed as a rock-and-roll music station. Of Personality In Psychology! Consider, for example, that the number of accomplishments, people in our listening area over fifty years of age has increased dramatically, while our total number of listeners has declined. Harvard Citation Website! Also, music stores in s truman our area report decreased sales of definition, rock-and-roll music. Finally, continuous news stations in neighboring cities have been very successful. We predict that switching KNOW radio from rock-and-roll music to 24-hour news will allow the harry s truman accomplishments station to attract older listeners and make KNOW radio more profitable than ever. The council of , Maple County, concerned about the countys becoming overdeveloped, is debating a proposed measure that would prevent the development of existing farmland in the county. But the s truman accomplishments council is also concerned that such a restriction, by limiting the supply of new housing, could lead to significant increases in the price of housing in the county. Harvard Citation! Proponents of the measure note that Chestnut County established a similar measure ten years ago, and its housing prices have increased only modestly since. However, opponents of the measure note that Pine County adopted restrictions on of personality the development of new residential housing fifteen years ago, and its housing prices have since more than doubled. The council currently predicts that the proposed measure, if passed, will result in a significant increase in harry accomplishments housing prices in Maple County.

IMG_2529/used under CC BY 2.0/resized from original. Argument Task 7: Discuss Alternative Explanations. Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument. What theyre really asking : Discuss alternative explanations that would reasonably explain the evidence discussed in the argument. Number of s truman accomplishments, topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 11/176 ( 6.3% ) Examples of the explanation and argument to be analyzed. The following appeared in The Divinity a memo from the director of a large group of hospitals. In a controlled laboratory study of liquid hand soaps, a concentrated solution of extra strength UltraClean hand soap produced a 40 percent greater reduction in harmful bacteria than did the liquid hand soaps currently used in our hospitals.

During our recent test of regular-strength UltraClean with doctors, nurses, and visitors at our hospital in Worktown, the hospital reported significantly fewer cases of patient infection (a 20 percent reduction) than did any of the other hospitals in our group. The explanation for harry s truman the 20 percent reduction in patient infections is the use of UltraClean soap. There is definition of personality in psychology now evidence that the relaxed pace of life in small towns promotes better health and greater longevity than does the hectic pace of life in s truman big cities. Businesses in the small town of Leeville report fewer days of sick leave taken by individual workers than do businesses in the nearby large city of Masonton. Furthermore, Leeville has only one physician for its one thousand residents, but in definition Masonton the proportion of physicians to residents is five times as high. Finally, the average age of s truman accomplishments, Leeville residents is significantly higher than that of Masonton residents. These findings suggest that the relaxed pace of life in Leeville allows residents to live longer, healthier lives. Yes?/used under CC BY 2.0/resized from original.

Argument Task 8: Evaluate a Conclusion and Its Basis. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be addressed in order to decide whether the conclusion and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. S Truman Accomplishments! Be sure to explain how the answers to the questions would help to harvard citation evaluate the conclusion. What theyre really asking : Discuss the specific questions that need to be answered to harry s truman accomplishments determine if the conclusion and its basis are reasonable . Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 2/176 ( 1.1% ) Examples of conclusions to be analyzed. A recent sales study indicates that consumption of Successful Essay, seafood dishes in Bay City restaurants has increased by harry accomplishments 30 percent during the past five years.

Yet there are no currently operating city restaurants whose specialty is seafood. Moreover, the majority of of Jesus, families in harry Bay City are two-income families, and a nationwide study has shown that such families eat significantly fewer home-cooked meals than they did a decade ago but at the same time express more concern about healthful eating. Therefore, the new Captain Seafood restaurant that specializes in seafood should be quite popular and profitable. GRE Essay Prompts: 3 Terrific Tips. No matter which of the GRE essay topics you encounter on test day, the following tips will help you prepare. When youre working on Out of Aptify Implementation practice GRE writing prompts, make sure you stick to a strict 30-minute time limit for each Analytical Writing prompt. If you need to build up to writing within this time limit, you can start out by giving yourself extra time and accomplishments, then working your way down to 30 minutes.

However, try not to morris schwartz only practice with extra time , or youll be unprepared for the real GRE Analytical Writing essays. To get the best practice for the computer-based GRE, you should write all your practice essays on s truman a computer . If possible, use the simple word processor in the PowerPrep Test Preview Tool or practice tests to do every practice essay. Youll need to get used to the lack of spellcheck and familiar shortcuts or features of your own word processor that you might not realize how often you use, like select all, copy, cut, paste, or undo; its surprising to find how much not being able to use CTL+A to citation select all or CTL+V to paste can affect your writing and editing speed. Even if youre not writing about the GRE essay prompts given in PowerPrep, you can still use the harry s truman accomplishments text box and timer in the test preview tool or one of the The Divinity and Humanity practice tests to write practice essays on other prompts . Just be sure to save your essay into a separate document on your computer so you can go back and read and score it afterwards. Once youve written your practice Issue and Argument essays, score them by using the essay rubrics and by harry s truman comparing your writing to citation the sample essays ETS provides at each score point . The rubrics for the Issue essay and accomplishments, the Argument essay are similar when it comes to the importance of clarity of writing and , adherence to standard English grammar, spelling, and punctuation; they only really differ when it comes to assessing the specifics of the harry s truman issue or argument analyses. You can try using the rubric yourself on your own essays and determine where on the rubric your essay fits; alternatively, you can see if you can find a GRE buddy who is willing to grade you and harvard citation, give you feedback based on the rubric, since its sometimes easier to be objective about someone elses work. While the rubrics are useful as guidelines for what to include in your essays, however, it can be difficult to harry envision what a perfect scoring essay might look like from the laundry list of qualities alone. Harvard Citation Website! Thats why the best way to learn what makes a difference between different essay scores is studying examples of high-scoring essays, analyzing what they do well, and finding the differences between them and lower-scoring essays on the same topic . S Truman Accomplishments! We do this analysis for you in our articles on how to get a perfect 6 on Out of the Box for ISFL’s Aptify the GRE Issue essay and harry s truman, Argument essay. The object of grading your essays is not to feel bad that you didnt live up to the ideals of a perfect essay score but instead to zero in on your weak spots so you can improve. Whether its disorganized writing, running out of time (and so not finishing your essay), insufficient analysis, or some other issue entirely, identify the main issues with your essay, then focus your practice on improving those areas. unsheathed/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/resized and cropped from original.

Ready to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and Articles of Confederation versus example, GRE and harry s truman accomplishments, loves advising students on how to excel and citation website, fulfill their college and grad school dreams. S Truman Accomplishments! View all posts by Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and get FREE tips to crush the GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever.

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Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Essay. Stability in the Arabian Peninsula region has been a concern for the United States for some time now. AQAP poses a direct threat against the U.S. and U.S. interests of Stability and Security in the Arabian Peninsula. This instability and threat is why I have chosen the AQAP as the harry s truman FTO to research making the The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Essays next attack. The AQAP comes from the harry s truman accomplishments merging of the al Qaeda cells from Yemen and in Saudi Arabia. There are approximately one two hundred members, with thousands of supporters. The merger took place in January 2009, due to the success of the Saudi Arabian government in destroying al Qaedas infrastructure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

AQAP is a subsidiary of the al Qaeda, whose center of gravity is in Pakistan and Afghanistan, but works independently of its parent organization. Since formation occurred, they are responsible for a number of attacks on the West and are considered responsible parties of the UPS and FEDEX cargo bombing attempts (Kurczy, 2010). They were deemed a terrorist organization on s truman accomplishments, December 14, 2009, by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. (Gerstein, 2010). Prior to the formation of AQAP, al Qaeda claimed responsibility for numerous attacks in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Those attacks include: the 1993 attack on World Trade Center, 1998 suicide bombings of Embassies, the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, and the 2008 car bombing outside the U.S. Embassy in Sana killing 19 people including 6 of the terrorists (Poland, 2005 ). AQAP has claimed to plan on targeting oil facilities, tourists, and security forces in accomplishments, the future.

It is believed though that AQAP provided spiritual guidance by U.S. Citizen Anwar al Awlaki to U.S. Army Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan, who was the gunman behind the 2009 Ft. Hood killings and the December 2009 attempt to down a passenger airline to Detroit. Responsible parties to these terroristic events are said to be that of the top five key leaders of AQAP. These men include are in order of their rank from the top spot of leaders to the last.

1. Ibrahim Hassan al-Asiri, aka the s truman bomb maker. He is believed to be the morris schwartz creator of the bombs intercepted in October last year on cargo planes. 2. Anwar al-Awlaki, aka the harry chief ideologue. He is suspected of being part of three unsuccessful terrorist attacks to include the harry Fort Hood Shootings (Bryant, C., Kasinof, L., 2010), bombing attempt on morris schwartz, airliner jet on Christmas, and the Times Square bombing on May 2. 3. Said Ali al-Shihri, deputy chief of AQAP. He is suspected of participation in September 2008 US Embassy attack and the kidnapping of nine missionaries in June 2009 according to Fox News. 4. Qasim al-Raymi, military commander. He followed Osama bin Ladens lead on accomplishments, media releases building an ever-more sophisticated propaganda arm for al Qaeda in Aptify Aptify Implementation, Arabian Peninsula (Kurczy, 2010). 5. Nasir al Wuhayshi, head of AQAP. Known as the personal secretary of Osama bin Laden (Kurczy, 2010). Most of AQAP is made up of fighters that returned from Afghanistan during the Russian invasion and harry accomplishments fighters that have been serving in Iraq and definition Afghanistan. They lure new recruits who are sympathetic to al Qaeda and have animosity towards the U.S. and western nations.

The recruiting pool is vast in the region with fighters fleeing Iraq and Afghanistan and harry s truman accomplishments relocating to Yemen and Somalia. Both countries have weak central governments that are conducive for lawlessness in the region and have vast ungoverned territory. Government cooperation with American counter-terrorism efforts has historically been spotty and portions of both populations are hostile to the United States. (Kerry, 2010) AQAP aims to overthrow the Yemeni government for its support to s truman accomplishments the U.S. and its offensive operations against al Qaeda. The group also emphasizes its global ambitions and desire to target western interests within the region. Additionally, AQAP has stated it will focus on cutting supply lines of western nations supporting Israel and looks to expand its influence throughout the region (Boucek, 2010). The animosity against the western nations continues to grow, as does the technology and ideas for new weapons. The newest information is that a poisoned perfume plot against religious and government officials was prevented due to arrest of definition of personality in psychology 149 al Qaeda suspects.

This is just an example of the creativity AQAP has come up with. Last summer the countrys Deputy Interior Minister had been attempted to be assassinated by a bomber with the weapon in his anus (Rawnsley, 2010). These weapons are just the newest form used by AQAP. Yemen has emerged as a major staging base for al Qaeda and other likeminded groups for attacking American targets within Yemen as well as to website reach targets outside of Yemen including the United States. U.S. officials have warned that al Qaeda in s truman accomplishments, the Arabian Peninsula was a growing threat even before the failed 2009, Christmas Day airline bombing attempt (Kerry, 2010). In February 2009, Director of the Box Functionality and Requirements for ISFL’s Aptify Implementation National Intelligence Dennis Blair stated that, Yemen is reemerging as a jihadist battleground and potential regional base of s truman operations for Al Qaeda to plan internal and external attacks, train terrorists, and facilitate the movement of operatives. (Rollins, 2010). The threat coming from AQAP is greater than the threat coming from al Qaedas central leadership located in Pakistan. AQAP is increasingly a more pressing concern for U.S. national security. AQAP has relative freedom of movement in the Arabian Peninsula and region which allows for its ability to increase its ranks through recruitment as well as its ability to train new recruits. Additionally, AQAP has also shown its ability to influence other like-minded individuals to conduct attacks to our homeland with little to no warning.

AQAP has proven it has the Essay means and capability to attempt to conduct attacks globally although it has yet to be successful. It is only a matter of time before they possess the ability and trained personnel that are able to conduct something equal to or greater than the attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. AQAP poses a direct threat to harry s truman the U.S. and U.S. interest of stability and security in the Arabian Peninsula. AQAP is capable of every threat that has been uttered against the US and western countries. The US as well as the other western territories that are considered allies against AQAP, can end or at least moderate the terroristic threat by interdicting terrorists, disrupt their planning, restrict their travel, reduce the morris schwartz flow of financial (EO 13224 signed 9/23/01) and material support to terrorist groups, and enable partner governments to assert control over harry s truman, weakly governed territory where terrorists find sanctuary (US Department of State, 2005). The Antiterrorism Assistance program is a well used deterrent against FTOs such as AQAP. The AQAP became a bigger threat than al Qaeda, and the instability and morris schwartz security issues within the Arabian Peninsula are threats we must contend with. With the s truman accomplishments knowledge and training gained since the imperative attacks on American soil in morris schwartz, 2001, we can deter and detain these terrorists and protect our homeland and allies. The ideologies and animosity against the US and other western nations are targeted towards the recruiting of others who sympathize with al Qaeda. Preemptive and retaliatory methods are other forces to use to impede the AQAPs threats and/or attacks. It is also noted in the Country Reports that by Americans helping partner nations in the quest for improving their abilities to detect and prevent terrorist activities this will clearly enhance the overall security of all nations (US Department of State, 2005).

Boucek, Christopher (2010). Terrorism out of Yemen. Carnegie Endowment for morris schwartz, International Peace. Retrieved from harry accomplishments http://carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=viewid=41705 References. Bryant, C., Kasinof, L. (2010, October 29).

Suspicious UPS, FedEx packages raise new concerns about Al Qaeda in Yemen. Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. Retrieved from EBSCOhost CPJ. (2008, April 15). Iraq: Journalists Abducted 2003-09. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from Committee to Protect Journalists: Defending Journalists Worldwide: http://cpj.org/reports/2008/04/abducted.php. Gerstein, Josh (2010). Clinton named Al Qaeda Yemen as terror group. Politico. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/blogs/joshgerstein/0110/Clinton_named_AlQaeda_Yemen_as_terror_group_a_month_ago.html Kerry, John (2010). Al Qaeda in Yemen and Somalia: A ticking Time Bomb.

Committee on foreign relations United States Senate. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2010_rpt/sfrc-aq.pdf Kurczy, S. (2010, November 2). Five key members of Al Qaeda in Yemen (AQAP). Christian Science Monitor. p. N.PAG. Retrieved from Successful examples EBSCOhost. Poland, J. (2005 ). Understanding terrorism: Groups, strategies, and responses 2nd edition.

Upper Saddle River: Pearson. Rawnsley, A. (2010, December 7). Danger Room What#8217;s Next in s truman, National Security. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from Wired: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2010/12/al-qaedas-latest-weapon-poison-perfume/ Rollins, John (2010). Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy. Congressional research Service. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/R41070.pdf US Department of National Security. (2006).

The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington DC: USDOS. US Department of State. (2005). Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington DC: US Government.

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court trial essay Patricia Engle (January 2004) (1) Johnson v. M'Intosh is a title dispute over a land parcel of s truman accomplishments, some 12,000 acres in present-day southern Illinois. The case, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall in 1823, turned on the question of whether or not Indians had the right to transfer land title by sale to private citizens. Like many cases that determined the Identifying the Gaps Between Functionality and Requirements Validated Aptify, rights of U.S. aboriginal peoples, the litigants were non-native whites.

The plaintiffs, heirs of Thomas Johnson, had acquired title to a share of the acreage in question through Johnson's purchase of this and other land parcels, as a member of the United Land Company, directly from Piankeshaw Indians in 1775. The defendant, William McIntosh (spelled M'Intosh in the decision), obtained title through his subsequent purchase of the same 12,000-acre parcel from the accomplishments, federal government in 1815. In finding for Defendant McIntosh, the Essays, court ruled that the nature of Indian title is such that Indians can only transfer title to the federal government. The decision is understood to be part of the federal government's strategy to establish itself as the only entity with which the s truman, Indians could conduct business. Johnson v. M'Intosh's greatest legal significance is its standing as the first of three cases known as the Marshall trilogy that work in combination to , define Indian property rights, political status, and sovereignty rights. (2) Joseph C. Burke offers this succinct summary of the court's unique ruling on Indian title in Johnson v. M'Intosh : The United States held the ultimate right to the soil; the tribes retained the right of possession with the limitation that they could sell only to s truman, the United States. Marshall suggested that the right of the the Gaps Between the Box Aptify Functionality Validated for ISFL’s, United States might be compared to a seisin in fee and the Indian right to accomplishments, a lease for years. Harvard Citation Website. (138)

As Eric Kades has pointed out, the effect of the decision was to establish the harry, federal government as a monopsony, creating a single-buyer market (History par. 123) for the purpose of driving down the price of Indian land even further than it had been: By preserving a unitary entity to deal with the Indians, Marshall's opinions [in the trilogy cases] helped the United States to , continue to buy Indian land cheaply (Dark Side). Scholars have tended to view Marshall's ruling in M'Intosh as a foregone conclusion, a mere administrative codification of federal policy and national ambitions. Robert A. Williams, Jr., for example, has characterized Marshall's decision in M'Intosh as a fait accompli (308), since Marshall's judicial task was merely to fill in the details and rationalize the harry s truman, fictions by the Gaps Between the Box Aptify Functionality for ISFL’s Aptify Implementation, which Europeans legitimated the denial of the Indians' rights in their acquisition of the harry s truman, Indians' America (312). (3) Whether or not the court's establishment of the federal government as the Essay examples, holder of ultimate title to Indian soil was legal or proper, M'Intosh is relied upon by Indians and Indian law scholars alike for the half a loaf it retained for Native Americans: recognition that certain vestiges of tribal sovereignty, particularly with respect to self-government, remained intact. As Vine Deloria, Jr., puts it, Marshall's definition in effect traded a vested property right for a recognized political right of harry accomplishments, quasi sovereignty for the tribes (American 126). The community of Indian law practitioners is divided in its regard for Marshall's decision in M'Intosh . In fact, as Kades notes, certain scholars throughout the years, [b]eginning with Felix Cohen [. . .], have described Marshall's opinion as a brilliant compromise between the political pressure to take Indian lands, and the immorality of outright extirpation (Dark Side).

For all these reasons, the trilogy decisions are among the most frequently cited cases in United States legal history. Argument for Rhetorical Significance. (4) Aside from its legal significance with respect to Between the Box Aptify Validated for ISFL’s Aptify, Indian property rights and sovereignty limits, though, I find Johnson v. M'Intosh of critical historical value because it exposes hidden and harry accomplishments, unstable prejudices in United States American ideology, literally in their making. What we see in this decision is Justice Marshall performing nothing short of ideological alchemy. He marshals together all the ingredients of medieval conquest discourse theretofore used to and Humanity of Jesus, justify removal of accomplishments, native peoples from their U.S. homelands and, recognizing that none, singly or in tandem, truly pass legal muster, applies to them the pressure of manifest destiny to harvard citation website, transform them into a new and different rule of conquest. That new and different rule served to dispossess native peoples of their lands, decimate their numbers, and extinguish many native cultures as well, while skewing core dogma of U.S. democracy with faulty premises of harry accomplishments, superior entitlement. Those premises have continued, through time, to bifurcate what we say from what we do, both internally and in our global relations. Furthermore, inasmuch as the trilogy decisions established doctrines inconsistent with treaties, postures, and Articles of Confederation versus Essay example, pronouncements that the legislative and executive branches of the government had represented up to that point in time, they set dangerous precedent for judiciary caprice, which we are seeing reach crisis proportions today.

(5) Accordingly, I invite the reader to approach the Johnson v. M'Intosh decision as one would a documentary of a difficult crossing in the journey of a young government toward nationhood and national identity. Harry S Truman Accomplishments. What I argue is that M'Intosh and the trilogy document two parallel tracks of boundary expansion that were simultaneously occurring in the United States after the of Jesus, colonies achieved independence from Great Britain: at the same time that native territorial boundaries were being breached and pushed continually westward, the moral boundaries of nascent U.S. American ideology were also being continually breached and reset, further and further away from founding principles of equality, tolerance, and compassion. The good news is that the slippage did not go down easily or uncontested. The trilogy decisions, including the minority dissent filed in the second case, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia , and the concurring opinion in the third, Worcester v. State of Georgia, are rife with disagreements, inconsistencies, and harry, some outright contradictions. To the extent that the justices' disagreements may reflect inherent, continuing, and growing unrest about the treatment of Failure Essay, Native Americans in the United States and the ancillary damage done to the nation's founding principles, reparations and course changes still remain possible. The first step is to recognize the significance of certain rhetorical and ideological moves M'Intosh and the trilogy embody. The particular aspects of M'Intosh I propose to probe are Justice Marshall's treatment of medieval doctrines of discovery and conquest, the s truman, nature of the new rule of conquest he forges from these traditional land-seizing justifications, and certain ideological dynamics between M'Intosh and the other two cases in the trilogy with respect to human rights and national interests.

Discovery Doctrine Endorsed on Principle. (6) Despite some pro forma equivocation on its plausibility and rationality, Justice Marshall agrees that the doctrine of discovery granted various European powers rightful entitlement to certain pieces of of personality in psychology, North America discovered under their commissions to be either empty or occupied by non-Christian, non-agricultural peoples, which Marshall finds had been historically considered to mean the same thing: [N]o distinction was taken between vacant lands and lands occupied by the Indians. On his first pass, Marshall upholds discovery rights on principle: On the s truman, discovery of Failure Essay examples, this immense continent, the great nations of Europe were eager to appropriate to themselves so much of it as they could respectively acquire. Its vast extent offered and [sic] field to harry s truman, the ambition and enterprise of all; and the character and religion of its inhabitants afforded an definition of personality in psychology, apology for s truman, considering them as a people over whom the and Humanity of Jesus Essays, superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendancy. Further in the decision, he reiterates: Although we do not mean to engage in the defence of those principles which Europeans have applied to Indian title, they may, we think, find some excuse, if not justification, in the character and habits of the people whose rights have been wrested from them. This opinion conforms precisely to the principle which has been supposed to be recognized by all European governments, from the first settlement of of personality, America.

The absolute ultimate title has been considered as acquired by harry accomplishments, discovery [. Identifying The Gaps Between Out Of The Box. . Harry S Truman. .]. Certainly, Marshall does more than simply review the history and practice here; he vigorously defends it, pointedly upholding the medieval premise that the primacy of Christianity and Western civilization justifies seizure of lands from non-Christian peoples. Accordingly, he finds Great Britain's New-World claims, passed on to the newly independent United States, legal and binding in U.S. law. The federal government's title, he ruled, was subject only to the fatally tenuous, as the later Cherokee case would prove, Indian right of occupancy. (7) As Williams argues, Marshall's endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle in M'Intosh facilitated not only the material dispossession but also the cultural extirpation of Identifying Out of Validated for ISFL’s Implementation, native peoples, on the basis of harry s truman, a doctrine which, at its heart, is Successful Failure inherently and inescapably biased and oppressive: Perhaps most important, Johnson's acceptance of the Doctrine of Discovery into United States law preserved the legacy of 1,000 years of European racism and colonialism directed against harry, non-Western peoples. [. . . ] While the tasks of website, conquest and colonization had not yet been fully actualized on the entire American continent, the harry s truman, originary legal rules and principles of federal Indian law set down by Marshall in Johnson v. M'Intosh and Articles of Confederation versus, its discourse of conquest ensured that future acts of genocide would proceed on a rationalized, legal basis. (317)

Williams' placement of racism in discovery's wake supports my sense that race, class, and other manner of social oppression became embedded in U.S. The Gaps Between Out Of The Box And Requirements Validated. ideology by the manner in which the Indian lands were taken. Returning to the case at hand, though, we must not miss the s truman, immediate ripple of moral boundary-busters that emanated from M'Intosh . The state of Georgia, for one, wasted no time in putting to use the gift that the morris schwartz, M'Intosh decision clearly constituted to a state seeking seizure of title to Indian-occupied land. Harry S Truman. Georgia began, in 1824, actions culminating in its 1828 Indian Removal Act (Washburn 27), the subject of the second case in the Marshall trilogy (1831), which resulted in the driving of some 16,000 Cherokees, in all, from their ancestral homelands in the south across the Trail of morris schwartz, Tears to Oklahoma (Deloria, American 129). (8) Although M'Intosh does not give individual states the right to extinguish Indian title, reserving that unique power to the federal government, Georgia knew that obtaining federal approval was just a move away. Indeed, Georgia's 1828 Act became federal law in 1830, after passing a Senate vote of 28 to 20 and a House vote of 103 to 97 (Krupat 143).

Justice Marshall's belated attempt to halt the Cherokees' removal by declaring Georgia's actions repugnant to s truman accomplishments, the constitution, laws, and treaties of the , United States in the third case of the trilogy, Worcester v. Harry S Truman Accomplishments. State of Georgia , was for naught. President Andrew Jackson effectively vetoed the definition of personality, court's order in that case for the release of two Vermont missionaries sentenced to four years of s truman accomplishments, hard labor for , remaining on the Cherokee lands claimed by harry accomplishments, Georgia without a permit and ordered that Georgia's removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma be executed as planned. (9) Thus, the Supreme Court's truncation of Indian title in M'Intosh , followed by its nullification of Indian legal rights in the second case by declaring the the Box Aptify Functionality Implementation, Cherokees neither citizens nor foreign nations and harry s truman accomplishments, therefore unable to advance a complaint in the legal system, can be seen as having triggered the Georgia-Jackson coalition and the enactment of an Between Out of Aptify Aptify, epic American tragedy that even the Supreme Court could not stop. Marshall biographer Herbert Alan Johnson characterizes President Jackson's defiance of the Worcester decision as a confrontation that thoroughly humiliated Marshall and his Court (196). However, the s truman, role that M'Intosh played in constructing what Arnold Krupat calls the story that justified Indian removal in the 1830s cannot be overlooked. Identifying The Gaps Aptify And Requirements. In Krupat's view, [. . .] Indian removal could finally be written into law and enforced in the 1830s because by that time, a certain story about America and about civilization had become sufficiently acceptable that it could be used as ideological justification for certain sequences of causes and effects, for the policy of [ . . . ] expansion with honor. (133)

In this sense, the justifications Marshall articulated for the federal government's title rights to Indian land in M'Intosh as much as the case decision itself worked like the evil magic described in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony , set in motion by a sorcerer's spell to send whites swarming like larva / out of a crushed ant hill (136) to dispossess natives across the United States. Just like that perverse spell, Marshall's words in M'Intosh were already turned loose [. . .] already coming [. . .] can't be called back (138). (10) It is of Confederation Constitution example important to note that the front presented by the legislative and s truman, executive branches of the federal government prior to M'Intosh had by and large been one that sought to court the native chiefs in peace and friendship, a fact Marshall acknowledged in the denigrated Worcester decision, as will be discussed hereinafter. Such good-government/bad-government strategies, coupled with the discursive skips and shifts evident among the trilogy cases themselves and in their relation to legislative and executive policies that followed in their wake, were consistent with the way Old World empire expansion had been conducted. The Marshall decision in M'Intosh signaled that the Successful Failure Essay, business of empire would proceed in the New World in the same way but on a larger scale, with greater speed and legal backing.

Each egregious breach of decency set new precedent, a new lowering of the moral bar. M'Intosh's endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle dropped the bar low and long enough to release imperialist greed into the United States legal system. Discovery Doctrine Endorsed on Basis of Practice. (11) If endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle were not enough, though, Marshall also affirms the validity of its New-World application on the bases of historical precedent and the native people's acquiescence: However extravagant the definition of personality in psychology, pretension of converting the s truman accomplishments, discovery of an inhabited country into conquest may appear; if the principle has been asserted in the first instance, and afterwards sustained; if a country has been acquired and Identifying Between Functionality and Requirements Aptify, held under it; if the property of the great mass of the community originates in it; it becomes the law of the land, and cannot be questioned. [. . .] However this restriction may be opposed to natural right, and to the usages of civil nations, yet, if it be indispensable to harry s truman accomplishments, that system under which the country has been settled, and be adapted to Between Out of Functionality and Requirements for ISFL’s Aptify, the actual condition of the harry s truman, two people, it may, perhaps, be supported by reason, and , certainly cannot be rejected by Courts of justice. Here Marshall appears to chafe in reluctance to a practice that may or may not be legal, reasonable, or morally justifiable, but to which he is bound to submit because it constitutes the custom or practice under which the country has thus far been settled. Harry. The practice is so pervasive and uncontested, he suggests, as to have now hardened into law. In my opinion, this position is indefensible for several reasons. (12) First, the harry, doctrine of discovery only applied to European powers, not the indigenous peoples over whose lands the definition of personality in psychology, monarchs were competing. In M'Intosh , Marshall blurs that distinction, as previously noted, stacking his argument to harry, use discovery as a basis for his novel, bi-level land-title rule, whereby Indians retain only Articles versus Essay, a tentative occupancy title, subject to extinguishment by the federal government, which possesses ultimate title.

The nullity of discovery's support for governmental title claims had been pointed out earlier by Justice Johnson, in his dissent to the pre-trilogy Fletcher v. Peck case (1810), which had started the s truman, erosion of Indian title rights by Identifying the Gaps Out of Aptify Functionality and Requirements for ISFL’s Implementation, declaring Indian title not such as to accomplishments, be absolutely repugnant to morris schwartz, seisin in fee on the part of the state. Justice Johnson had disagreed then with the majority's finding that both the Indians and the state of Georgia could claim title right to Indian soil: [I]numerable treaties formed with [Indians] acknowledge them to be an accomplishments, independent people, and the uniform practice of acknowledging their right of soil, by purchasing from them, and of Confederation Constitution Essay, restraining all persons from encroaching upon their territory, makes it unnecessary to insist upon their right of soil.[. . .] What, then, practically, is the harry accomplishments, interest of the The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Essays, states in the soil of the Indians within their boundaries? Unaffected by particular treaties, it is nothing more than what was assumed at the first settlement of the country, to wit, a right of conquest or of purchase, exclusively of all competitors within certain defined limits. ( Fletcher v. Peck ) (13) In his 1832 Worcester decision, finally, Marshall reins in his expansive interpretation of discovery in this regard, placing it more in conformance with Justice Johnson's arguments twenty-one years earlier: This principle, acknowledged by all Europeans, because it was the interest of all to acknowledge it, gave to The Divinity and Humanity Essays, the nation making the discovery, as its inevitable consequence, the sole right of acquiring the soil and of making settlements on it. It was an exclusive principle which shut out the right of competition among those who had agreed to Aptify and Requirements Aptify Implementation, it; not one which could annul the previous rights of those who had not agreed to it. Articulation of such distinctions in 1832, of course, could not close the floodgates opened by M'Intosh's 1823 wholesale adoption of harry s truman, medieval discovery rights. In fact, given the pattern of events that Marshall had seen flow from M'Intosh in those nine years, his pronouncements in support of Cherokee treaty and land rights in the 1832 Worcester case can be seen as gratuitous and self-serving, though Marshall biographer R. Kent Newmyer suggests he may have approached Worcester with an eye to soften the impact of M'Intosh , and to harmonize the law of the land with his personal feelings about Native Americans (qtd. in Kades, History par. 126). (14) Second, Marshall's position that the discovery rule had been settled by acquiescence and precedent in the United States is shamefully gratuitous for The Divinity Essays, two reasons: 1) the treaties and verbal agreements the federal government had been forging with the Indians since first contact made no such representations of the government holding ultimate title to tribal lands, by virtue of the discovery doctrine or any other such dream-law; and 2) the Indians had no voice recognized by harry s truman accomplishments, U.S. law with which to protest any such representation, even if they were aware of it, which they most certainly were not. In this latter regard, Marshall's decision in the second case of the morris schwartz, trilogy, Cherokee Nation v. State of s truman, Georgia , proved the citation website, Indian's non-person legal status, ruling that because the Cherokees were neither U.S. citizens, nor a foreign nation, nor citizens of a foreign nation, they had no legal right under the Constitution to bring their complaint of eviction from ancestral homelands, in violation of a federal treaty, to the U.S. Supreme Court.

(15) Kades employs Hirschleifer's principle of accomplishments, muscular economics to describe the manner in which the federal government coldly and efficiently expropriated tribal lands and, in this connection, cites Johnson v. M'Intosh as just one element of a calculated, rational, unemotional effort to definition of personality in psychology, obtain Indian lands at the least cost (Dark Side). Cost efficiency, Kades surmises, dictated Marshall's reasoning to an extent that necessarily excluded all moral and humane considerations: This analysis rejects the kindness imputed to Marshall by the benevolent school and the truculence imputed by the malevolent school. The working assumption is that such a sweeping national policy to transfer wealth must be understood, at bottom, in terms of selfishness (economics), not benevolence or malevolence (morality or lack thereof). (Dark Side) Certainly, the silence and invisibility of native peoples themselves from the trilogy cases prove that the harry, U.S. government in its infancy stages had mastered from the British the fine art of shunning indigenous peoples into non-person status in order to justify seizure of their land. The pattern employed in the Crown's 17th century Ulster plantation project in Northern Ireland is replicated here in cool precision: suspension of legal rights, the outlawing of the culture, and Failure Essay examples, the galvanizing of settlers against the indigenous others. In Isaac de Pinto's 1776 Letters on the American Trouble , we can see some indication that the parallel to the Irish model was apparent to foreign visitors at the time, as well: [. . .] it is the temper of Oliver Cromwell which has unhappily taken root and germinated in the wilds of morris schwartz, America (qtd. in Pagden 37). (16) The Ulster plantation parallels the U.S. Harry Accomplishments. plantation for Identifying Out of, another reason; they both violate the religious underpinnings of the harry s truman accomplishments, colonizing discourse each employed. The indigenous Irish in Ulster province should have been exempt from morris schwartz removal under the discovery doctrine because they were already to some degree Christianized. Their removal on the basis of England's discovery and conquest rights makes as much sense as dispossessing the deeply spiritual Native Americans from their United States homelands to make room for a new government founded on freedom of religion. Harry. The Ulster and American plantations differ, though, in the all-important realm of public opinion.

The oft-quoted observations of Essay, Alexis de Tocqueville summarize the nature and effect of the new level of s truman accomplishments, humanity United States Americans had grafted onto Identifying Between Out of Aptify Validated for ISFL’s Aptify Implementation, Old World models of harry, plantation: The Spaniards by unparalleled atrocities which brand them with indelible shame did not succeed in exterminating the Indian race and could not even prevent them from sharing their rights; the United States Americans have attained both these results with wondrous ease, quietly, legally, and philanthropically, without spilling blood and of Jesus, without violating a single one of the great principles of morality in the eyes of the world. Harry. It is impossible to destroy men with more respect to the laws of humanity. (qtd. in Krupat 144) Sir Francis Bacon enunciates the lethally subtle distinction that occurs when plantation is undertaken on occupied soil: I like a Plantation in a pure soil; that is and Humanity Essays where People are not displanted to the end, to Plant others. For else it is rather an Extirpation than a Plantation (qtd. in Pagden 79). As quietly, legally, and philanthropically as Marshall may have intended to craft his decisions in the trilogy cases, destruction and extirpation of a people, as Tocqueville and Bacon sagely observed, was to be their effect. (17) While they were barred from the courtrooms, native leaders were not accepting the legal strategies for harry accomplishments, their dispossession and extirpation in silence. This excerpt from the Identifying Functionality Validated Aptify, testimony of an unidentified Indian leader during a hearing with land commissioners in 1793 speaks volumes on how the federal government's pronouncements of their diminished rights were received by native peoples:

Brothers: We never made any agreement with the King nor with any other nation, that we would give to either the exclusive right of purchasing our lands; and we declare to you, that we consider ourselves free to make any bargain or cession of lands, whenever, and to whomever we please. If the white people, as you say, made a treaty that none of them but the King should purchase of harry s truman, us, and that he has given that right to the United States, it is an affair which concerns you and him, and not us; we have never parted with such a power. (qtd. in Kades Dark Side) Again, the parallels to and Humanity of Jesus, Old World models of conquest are compelling. The Supreme Court's 19th century declarations of government entitlement to Indian land title, made in hearings conducted without the Indians present or even involved, are tantamount to the 16th century Spaniards' practice of s truman, reading off the Requerimiento, in Spanish, to inform New World natives who understood not a word of Spanish of their rights as a conquered people. Why Focus on the Discovery Doctrine is Significant.

(18) Because the discovery doctrine does not, by principle or practice, constitute a defense for a governmental claim to ultimate title of Indian lands, the best explanation for Justice Marshall's endorsement of it is probably that which Deloria and Wilkins suggest. It was not the idea of a cabal of mid-Atlantic businessmen buying Indian land that concerned the court but rather the possibility that European powers could still strengthen their New World holds through land-purchase alliances with Indians inside and surrounding the definition of personality in psychology, United States: The Revolution resolved the question of political independence only for the Americans. It did not affect the harry accomplishments, posture of other European nations toward Indian tribes. After the war the British conducted several treaty councils with the tribes of the Ohio and Great Lakes country. [. . . .] The Spanish quickly made treaties with the strong southeastern tribes, most notably the Creek and Choctaw, and in 1785 made an s truman, important treaty with the Comanche, which had to be conducted at the Gaps Out of the Box Aptify Functionality and Requirements Validated Aptify, several locations in the Southwest because the tribe controlled nearly one thousand miles of territory considered by the Spanish to be their borderlands.

Russian trading companies made treaties with California tribes to secure their title to s truman accomplishments, land. And following the Mexican Revolution in 1820, the , new Mexican government immediately began making treaties with tribes who resided primarily in the area later settled by the United States, and s truman, continued to do so until the morris schwartz, 1870s. (9-10) Sight should not be lost of the stature of those mid-Atlantic businessmen, however. Thomas Johnson, for example, was to become Maryland's first governor, serving in that capacity from 1777-1779. Later, he would himself serve as a U.S. Supreme Court justice. Lord Dunmore, another member of the harry s truman accomplishments, land company involved, was governor of Virginia at the time of purchase. Clearly, Marshall's concentration on the discovery rule and his decision in M'Intosh that Indians could only transfer land title to harry accomplishments, the federal government are moves to marshal control of Indian land title into the hands of the federal government in order to keep European powers out Essay examples and, as Kades says, to drive Indian land prices down. S Truman. Marshall's finding, in the second case of the trilogy, that the Cherokees did not constitute a foreign nation pinioned native peoples finally and securely under the thumb of the federal government. However, as Deloria and Wilkins note in the excerpt quoted above, native leaders did continue to harry accomplishments, make treaties with outside concerns for some years after the trilogy cases were decided.

(19) The sovereignty rights exercised by the Indians in the making of such treaties with both European powers and the U.S. federal government coupled with Tocqueville's previously mentioned observation about the relatively bloodless manner in which the Indians were being removed from in psychology their lands brings into focus the second principle of medieval crusade discourse adopted by harry accomplishments, Marshall in Johnson v. M'Intosh : the rights Great Britain and ergo the United States had acquired through conquest. (20) In M'Intosh , Justice Marshall relies heavily upon the principle that the federal government acquired the right to Indian soil through its conquest of native peoples: Conquest gives a title which the Courts of the conqueror cannot deny, whatever the private and speculative opinions of individuals may be, respecting the original justice of the claim which has been successfully asserted. The British government, which was then our government, and whose rights have passed to the United States, asserted a title to all the lands occupied by Indians, within the chartered limits of the British colonies. It asserted also a limited sovereignty over them, and the exclusive right of extinguishing the title which occupancy gave to them. Definition. These claims have been maintained and established as far west as the river Mississippi, by accomplishments, the sword. [. . .] It is not for the Courts of this country to question the , validity of this title, or to sustain one which is incompatible with it.

In his recitation, shortly after this passage in M'Intosh , of the history of conquest of harry s truman accomplishments, native peoples in the United States, Marshall refers to the [f]requent and bloody wars, in which the whites were not always the aggressors; the outcome he reports is harry s truman that European policy, numbers, and skill, prevailed. (21) As Tocqueville's observations suggest, though, the sword was not the prevalent strategy employed by either the Crown or the United States to dispossess native peoples of their land. Successful Essay. The fact is, as Kades notes, that wars were the exception to the rule: The pattern of European land acquisition in New England, purchases punctuated by rare conquests, repeated itself across the rest of the continent. The United States paid over $800 million for Indian lands. According to Congress, the harry accomplishments, United States exercised the right of conquest only morris schwartz, once [referring to a forced 1862 relocation of Indians in Minnesota, in which the Indians received the proceeds of the sale of their land] and then half-heartedly. (History par. 17) In his 1831 Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia decision, dismissing the Cherokee's protest of Georgia's Indian Removal Act, Marshall acknowledges that Indian lands had generally been acquired through voluntary cession:

Though the Indians are acknowledged to have an unquestionable, and harvard, unquestioned right to the lands they occupy, until that right shall be extinguished by a voluntary cession to our government [. . .]. Granted, the term voluntary cession is a euphemism for the extremely aggressive campaign of coercion through which Indian land cessions had been obtained. As Burke explains, In theory, the harry, Government treated with the tribes as sovereign nations, purchasing only the lands they chose to sell and guaranteeing forever their title to morris schwartz, the land they chose to harry, keep. In practice, the constant encroachment of white settlers, which the state government would not and the federal government could not prevent, made a mockery of Indian sovereignty by forcing tribes to sell lands they wanted but could not peacefully keep. [. . .] Because the Indians, under pressure, usually sold the lands that the settlers demanded, the President, the Congress, and the Supreme Court could maintain the formal position that cession had been voluntary. Articles Of Confederation. (150) The slippage from the conquest defense is accomplishments significant, however, in that it reveals Marshall's struggles, through the course of the trilogy cases, to construct a spin about past land title acquisitions capable of supporting future encroachments at an even more vigorous pace. (22) By the third decision, the 1832 about-face Worcester , Marshall seems to have relinquished M'Intosh's defense of war-based conquest rights completely, as he observes that defensive war alone seems to have been contemplated and morris schwartz, [t]he power of war is given only for s truman accomplishments, defence, not for conquest. The stress cracks from straddling legal and world-opinion forums were now beginning to show. (23) Perhaps the citation, most compelling testimony, however, to the fact that land title had historically been transferred through purchases and treaties, not conquest, comes from the Cherokee Nation itself, in its December 18, 1829, written memorial to Congress, prior to the Cherokees' fruitless appeal to the Supreme Court: In addition to that first of all rights, the right of inheritance and peaceable possession, we have the harry s truman, faith and pledge of the United States, repeated over and over again, in treaties made at various times. [. . .] If we were but tenants at will, why was it necessary that our consent must first be obtained, before these Governments could take lawful possession of harvard citation, our lands? The answer is obvious.

These Governments perfectly understood our rightsour right to the country, and our right to self Government. [. . .] The undersigned memorialists humbly represent, that if their interpretation of the treaties has been different from s truman that of the Government, then they have ever been deceived as to how the Government regarded them, and what she has asked and morris schwartz, promised. Moreover, they have uniformly misunderstood their own acts. (rpt. in Krupat 170-72) Likewise, this passage from their November 5, 1829, memorial establishes that the Cherokees' relationship with Great Britain prior to the colonies' independence had most certainly not been within the constraints of conquest: It is harry evident from facts deducible from known history, that the Indians were found here by Articles of Confederation versus example, the white man, in the enjoyment of plenty and peace, and all the harry s truman accomplishments, rights of , soil and domain, inherited from their ancestors from time immemorial, well furnished with kings, chiefs, and warriors, the bulwarks of liberty, and the pride of their race. Great Britain established with them relationships of friendship and alliance, and at no time did she treat them as subjects, and harry accomplishments, as tenants at will, to her power. In war she fought them as a separate people, and they resisted her as a nation. In peace, she spoke the language of friendship, and they replied in the voice of independence, and frequently assisted her as allies, at their choice to fight her enemies in their own way and discipline, subject to the control of their own chiefs, and unaccountable to European officers and and Humanity of Jesus Essays, military law. Such was the connexion of this nation to Great Britain, to wit, that of friendship, and not allegiance, to the period of the declaration of Independence by the United States [. . .]. (rpt. in Krupat 164-69) Accordingly, the doctrine of conquest, to accomplishments, the victor go the spoils, did not quite match the history of Euro-Indian relations in the United States. Conquerors do not buy the land from the morris schwartz, conquered nor engage them as allies in war. Marshall rose to the challenge of harry s truman, converting purchase into conquest by bumping out a new and different rule of The Divinity of Jesus, conquest to justify the federal government's claims on Indian land title.

Justification for the New and Different Rule of Conquest. (24) Marshall justifies the United States Americans' new and different rule of conquest in M'Intosh essentially by paying native peoples the back-handed compliment of being too brave [. . .] high spirited [and] fierce to conquer by any legitimate means. The way conquest is supposed to work, he says, is that, The old and new members of the society mingle with each other; the distinction between them is gradually lost, and they make one people. Where this incorporation is practicable, humanity demands, and a wise policy requires, that the rights of the conquered to property should remain unimpaired; that the new subjects should be governed as equitably as the old, and that confidence in their security should gradually banish the painful sense of being separated from their ancient connexions, and Articles of Confederation versus example, united by force to strangers. Marshall's reference to traditional conquest leaving the conquered peoples' rights [. . .] to s truman accomplishments, property [. . .] unimpaired seems inconsistent with reasoning purporting to Identifying the Box Functionality and Requirements Validated for ISFL’s Aptify Implementation, justify seizure of property title claim on the basis of conquest. Harry. Nonetheless, note that the manner in which Marshall supports his new rule of conquest launches him back into the discovery-rule defense: But the accomplishments, tribes of Indians inhabiting this country were fierce savages, whose occupation was war, and morris schwartz, whose subsistence was drawn chiefly from the forest. To leave them in possession of their country, was to leave the country a wilderness; to govern them as a distinct people, was impossible, because they were as brave and accomplishments, high spirited as they were fierce, and were ready to Failure examples, repel by arms every attempt on their independence. Again, Marshall is relying on the Western, medieval principle that non-Christian, non-agricultural peoples could legally and harry accomplishments, should morally be removed from their land and spiritually rehabilitated. The Europeans, he finds, had no choice but to morris schwartz, forge a new, albeit cowardly, way of conquest that the new United States government was bound to follow:

The law which regulates, and ought to regulate in general, the s truman, relations between the conqueror and conquered, was incapable of application to a people under such circumstances. The resort to some new and different rule, better adapted to the actual state of things, was unavoidable. Here is website where the truly virulent damage of M'Intosh was injected into the United States legal system and hence, our national ideology for harry s truman, here, Marshall is codifying a new rule of justifiable deceit. (25) Unlike the valued and time-honored words that Justice Marshall enshrines in M'Intosh to support extinguishment of the Indians' human rights words like discovery, conquest, and versus example, civilization the words framed in those innumerable treaties negotiated with the native peoples assuring them security and sovereignty within their territories forever, along with the allied friendship of the federal government, were cheap, disposable, and temporary. For example, Justice Thompson's dissent to the Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia decision cites a provision of the Hopewell Treaty of 1785 that assured signatory tribes there was no truth to s truman accomplishments, allegations made by enemies of the United States [. Between Out Of The Box Aptify Functionality For ISFL’s Aptify Implementation. . .] that it is the design of the harry, states to extirpate the Indians, and take possession of their country. The peace medals, the treaties, the solemn meetings with presidents Marshall is acknowledging and tacitly approving the fact that none of these meant what they were portrayed to mean. (26) In Worcester , Marshall gives greater recognition to the strategy of subterfuge through which native peoples were now being determined by the highest court of the country to have been conquered: Fierce and warlike in their character, they [the Indians] might be formidable enemies, or effective friends. Identifying Out Of Functionality Validated Aptify Implementation. Instead of rousing their resentments, by asserting claims to their lands, or to dominion over harry their persons, their alliance was sought by flattering professions, and the Gaps Between Out of the Box Aptify, purchased by rich presents. [. . .] Not well acquainted with the exact meaning of words, nor supposing it to be material whether they were called the subjects, or the children of their father in Europe; lavish in professions of duty and affection, in return for the rich presents they received; so long as their actual independence was untouched, and their right to self government acknowledged, they were willing to profess dependence on the powers which furnished them supplies of which they were in absolute need, and restrained dangerous intruders from entering their country: and this was probably the sense in which the term was understood by them. At this point, Marshall's history of Euro-Indian relations conforms more precisely to what the Cherokees describe in their Memorials, but, of course, the damage is done.

The Legacy and Significance of the New and Different Rule (27) The legacy of harry accomplishments, M'Intosh , on its own and in the context of the trilogy cases, is of the veritable forked tongue. The new and different rule Marshall approves is Articles of Confederation versus Constitution Essay that saying one thing and doing another is a sanctioned expedient for furthering national interests. With the new rule come ancillary principles of exclusion and oppression, and a model for a privileged, bi-level application of law. Under Marshall's new rule, agreements securing any rights of marginalized peoples are temporary markers on the next boundaries to harry s truman accomplishments, be surreptitiously seized and Between Validated Implementation, reset by imperialistic or nationalistic bulldozers. Evidence of this fact can be seen in the continuing struggles of Native Americans to retain and utilize even their most fundamental rights to self-government left to them by the Marshall trilogy. Continued judiciary erosion of those rights prompted hearings before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs in February 2002. Professor David Getches of the harvard website, University of s truman, Colorado was among the legal scholars who testified to petition congressional intervention:

Indian rights and Indian sovereignty are essential in a government-to-government relationship that goes all the way back to the founding of the nation. If the Court understood this and appreciated this grounding in original intent, Indian laws could be put back on track by the Court itself, but this seems unlikely. The Court's primary mission has little to do with Indian law. It will be up to Congress to reverse this trend. Essay. (Hearing) As Committee Vice-Chairman Ben Nighthorse Campbell said at the close of those hearings, in response to Getches' testimony, with a succinctness that can only come from aged exasperation, [. . .] when I hear comments like yours [. . .] I do get mad [. . .] at [. Harry. . .] the way we have treated Indians in the history of this country. Morris Schwartz. It seems to me that they should have two sets of harry accomplishments, rights: that of being Native Americans as given in the treaties and that they inherit being an American, like any other American. Yet, we see a constant erosion of Successful Failure examples, their rights on both sides of that equation. (28) Thus it seems that the cultural bias of white, Christian supremacy embedded in U.S. Harry Accomplishments. ideology with Marshall's endorsement of discovery and , conquest principles continues its active destruction of harry accomplishments, native people's human rights. It must be noted that any implied characterization of the the Box Implementation, Indians' demise as inevitable due to some perception of inferiority on their part is belied by the events of record in the trilogy cases. Krupat's analysis of the tenor of the Cherokee Memorials is compelling here:

The Cherokee memorialists will not allow their dispossession to be seen as savagist ideology would have it, as inevitable or necessary, neither God's will, nor Nature's law. Rather, should they be translated west of the Mississippi, such an Identifying Between the Box Aptify Validated Implementation, outcome would be the result of no more than the force of American imperial power. (161) Indeed, the political savvy and eloquence of the Cherokee leaders, apparent in those excerpts from their Memorials previously quoted, deeply affected Justice Joseph Story, who co-signed Justice Thompson's dissent to harry, the majority opinion authored by Marshall in the Cherokee case. Some measure of Story's regret regarding the government's treatment of the Cherokees can be seen in this excerpt from a January 13, 1832, letter to his wife: At Philadelphia, I was introduced to two of the chiefs of the Cherokee Nation so sadly dealt with by the State of Georgia. Successful Examples. They are both educated men, and conversed with a singular force and propriety of language upon their own case, the law of which they perfectly understood and reasoned upon. I never in my whole life was more affected by the consideration that they and all their race are destined to destruction. And I feel, as an American, disgraced by our gross violation of the public faith towards them. I fear, and greatly fear, that in the course of Providence there will be dealt to , us a heavy retributive justice. (qtd. in Lubbers 65) Examination of this passage shows Story falling prey to the all-too-human tendency to at first shift culpability (to the harry s truman accomplishments, State of Georgia), only to citation, be crushed, within the same breath, by the recoil of such suppression, since the gross violation of the public faith towards them rests, as he says, with all Americans.

(29) Greed wrote the new rule of conquest Marshall endorsed in Johnson v. M'Intosh . He could not come out and say it, but others before and after him have duly noted the emperor's nakedness in this regard. As Pagden suggests, our national origins lie in our European ancestors' melding of Christianly avaricious desires: [The American colonies] had been created out of a seemingly insatiable European need for morris schwartz, precious metals, and an ambition, which the harry s truman, Ancients could scarcely have understood, to , change the religious beliefs of harry accomplishments, their autochthonous inhabitants. (11) Certainly, the blurring of gold and God in medieval discovery and conquest discourse was not overlooked by all people of the times, though. In his In Defense of the Indians , for example, the 16th century Dominican friar Bartolome de las Casas excoriates Spain's use of forced conversion of native peoples to Christianity, pursuant to the discovery rule, as a means to seize their lands: All this drags innumerable souls to ruin and blocks the service of morris schwartz, spreading the s truman accomplishments, Christian religion by closing the eyes of those who, crazed by blind ambition, bend all their energies of mind and body to the one purpose of gaining wealth, power, honors, and dignities. For the sake of these things they kill and destroy with inhuman cruelty people who are completely innocent, meek, harmless, temperate, and quite ready and willing to , receive and embrace the word of God. (26)

Long before the trilogy cases, greed had become sacralized in the foundations of accomplishments, United States American ideology. In this respect, Williams is right; M'Intosh is a fait accompli formality. Kades makes the very good point, in support of his cost-efficiency view of M'Intosh , that, If it were cheaper to be more brutal, then Europeans would have been more brutal (Dark Side). However, from the history of Euro-Indian relations Marshall uses to justify his new and different rule, we can see that Marshall, at The Divinity Essays, least, had concluded the harry, native peoples could not have been defeated, at least when their numbers were strong, on brute force alone. (29) Marshall's new rule mythologized a false and schizophrenic memory of Euro-Indian relations in the United States that continues to twist and shift through our popular culture today. One of the new, 2004 United States nickel designs, for example, incorporates the Articles of Confederation, 1801 Thomas Jefferson peace medal image of. [. . .] two hands clasped in friendship one with a military uniform cuff, symbolizing the harry s truman, American government, and the other with a silver band adorned with beads and harvard website, a stylized American eagle, representing the Native American community with whom the United States sought good relations. (New Nickels)

That handshake, the international symbol of partnership and good will between respected equals, was interpreted by harry s truman, Marshall as a justifiably deceptive measure toward New World conquest and land seizure. The seeding of our collective memory with such contradictions hampers our ability to recognize, as Justice Story did, the gross violation of the public faith committed toward Native Americans. If we cannot see the , treatment of Native Americans for what it is and has been, we surely cannot see how their degradation degraded all of us, or how the U.S. government's endorsement of deceit and treachery in furtherance of national interests set in motion, along the lines that Silko's Ceremony suggests, an harry, almost hypnotic suggestion of self-perpetuating avarice in our national ideology. (30) Pagden sees the United States' ambitions for global democracy as the third wave of the Imperium Romanum-turned-Imperium Christianum ideology (24) that fed our originary colonizing discourse: The modern United States still pursues very much the same political ideology with respect to their relationship with the rest of the world. If the European settlers exported to America one notion of a civitas, sustained and enforced by a corresponding vision of a Christian imperium, their descendents have created a universal order based upon harvard website another, but no less encompassing, conception of civility: democracy, an ideology which is quite as pervasive, and certainly as demanding as its ancient (and its Christian) ancestors. (199)

The internal manifestations of our present-day Imperium Democraticum, as it were, are no less pervasive, demanding, or exclusionary. As Pagden says, the model for U.S. democracy relies for its civilizing machinery upon an exalted vision of commerce (199-200). Satisfaction of this vision's demands currently forces stratifications across race, class, and culture lines that limit many United States Americans' abilities to achieve economic progress and, in some cases, survival. Greed is an ancient, primitive impulse that only truly became dangerous when it masked itself in the guise of Essay, civilization and Christianity. The decisions in the Marshall trilogy adopted the guise into United States democratic ideology. Until we can see and begin to harry s truman, rectify the guise's first harm to the Native Americans, we cannot begin to Failure Essay, arrest its continuing damage to our culture and restore our founding, democratic principles toward fulfillment of their original promise. Burke, Joseph C. The Cherokee Cases: A Study in Law, Politics, and Morality.

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New York: Garland, 1996. 123-34. Deloria, Vine, Jr., and David E. Wilkins. Tribes, Treaties, and Constitutional Tribulations . Austin: U of Texas P, 1999. Fletcher v. Peck. 10 U.S. Articles Versus Essay Example. 87. Accomplishments. U.S. Supr. Ct. 1810.

Lexis-Nexis. 11 Sep. 03. Hearing Before the , Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session on Concerns of Recent Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court and the Indian Tribal Governments in America. 27 Feb. 02. Harry. U.S.

Government Printing Office. 24 Oct. Harvard Citation. 03. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS20968. Johnson, Herbert Alan. John Marshall. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and harry s truman accomplishments, Major Opinions . Vol. 1. Eds. Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel.

New York: Chelsea, 1997. 181-99. Johnson v. M'Intosh. 21 U.S. 543. U.S. Morris Schwartz. Supr. Ct. 1823. Lexis-Nexis. Harry S Truman Accomplishments. 21 Oct. 03. Kades, Eric. The Dark Side of Efficiency: Johnson v. M'Intosh and the Expropriation of American Indian Lands. U of Pa. Law Review 148 (Apr.

2000):1065-1190. Lexis-Nexis. 23 Sep. 03. ---. History and Interpretation of the Great Case of Johnson v. M'Intosh . Law and History Review 19.1(Spring 2001): 67+. 11 Sep. 03. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/19.1/kades.html. Krupat, Arnold.

Ethnocriticism: Ethnography, History, and Literature . Berkeley: U of California P, 1992. Lubbers, Klaus. Morris Schwartz. Born for the Shade: Stereotypes of the Native Americans in United States Literature and the Visual Arts, 1776-1894 . Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994. Pagden, Anthony. Lords of harry s truman accomplishments, All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain, and France c. 1500 c. 1800 . New Haven: Yale UP, 1995. Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony . New York: Penguin, 1977. Washburn, Wilcomb E. The Moral and Legal Justifications for , Dispossessing the Indians. Accomplishments. Seventeenth Century America: Essays in Colonial History . Ed. James Morton Smith.

New York: Norton, 1972. 15-32. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest . New York: Oxford UP, 1990.