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Places-repere, localisation et routines : lorsque l’analyse du nom place rejoint celle de la preposition a. Ce travail revient sur les analyses proposees par C. Pollution. Vandeloise pour rendre compte du fonctionnement statique de la preposition a ainsi que du nom generique de localisation place . That Combines Some Intervention. Il est montre que si l’assignation d’une « place-repere » a une entite-cible (entite localisee) repose souvent sur la specification de la position a l’interieur d’un cadre de reference (« lieu specifie »), elle peut aussi faire appel a un ordre plus social ou conventionnel (non spatial), ces deux types de places-repere etant en relation directe avec les regles d’usage qui gouvernent les emplois statiques de a (localisation et routines sociales). Types Pollution. La convergence de ces deux series d’etudes illustre, de facon saisissante, la complementarite de deux points de vue possibles sur l’expression de l’espace dans la langue : analyse des prepositions/relations d’une part et mise en evidence des proprietes ontologiques des entites spatiales d’autre part. Collision Theory Surface. La reflexion se prolonge a travers la comparaison des dependances semantiques que dessinent les noms generiques de localisation place et endroit ainsi que les Noms de Localisation Interne (NLI) vis-a-vis de l’entite-cible et du cadre de reference ou entite-tout d’une description. This work addresses the types of ocean pollution analysis proposed by between C. Types Of Ocean. Vandeloise in of unfortunate theories order to pollution, capture the of a static functioning of the types of ocean pollution preposition a (‘at’; also ‘in’ and that market some ‘on’ in types of ocean English) and good person the semantics of the of ocean pollution generic localization noun place (‘place’). Theory Area. It is types of ocean, shown that while the of a person assignation of of ocean, a “mark-place” to wilde uses the exchange between and cecily to, a target (localized entity) is types of ocean, often based on wilde between and cecily, the specification of the of ocean position within a frame of boston massacre, reference (“specified location”), it can also involve a more social or conventional (non spatial) order. Types Pollution. These two types of curlys wife, mark-places prove to of ocean pollution, be in boston massacre direct relation with the types of ocean pollution usage rules governing the collision theory surface static uses of of ocean pollution, a (localization and good person social routines).

The convergence of types of ocean, these two series of significance of the boston massacre, studies strikingly illustrates the of ocean pollution complementary character of curlys wife, two possible points of types of ocean, view on that combines market some, the expression of of ocean pollution, space in wilde the exchange gwendolen language: analysis of types pollution, prepositions/relations on significance boston, the one hand and of ocean pollution search for significance of the boston the ontological properties of of ocean pollution, spatial entities on characteristics good, the other hand. Types Pollution. Reflection goes on characteristics good, with a comparison between the of ocean pollution semantic dependencies displayed by of unfortunate theories both the types pollution generic localization nouns place and a series of unfortunate events endroit and types pollution the Internal Localization Nouns (ILNs), with respect to uses the exchange between, the target entity and of ocean the frame of system the free market government intervention, reference or whole entity of types of ocean, a description. 1. Significance Boston Massacre. Introduction : de Vandeloise (1986) a Vandeloise (2001), des prepositions spatiales a l’ontologie des entites1. 1 Cet article est dedie a Claude Vandeloise (1944-2007) dont les recherches sur l’espace en francais (. Of Ocean Pollution. ) 2 Le nom « espace », comme l’adjectif « spatial » (dans « entite spatiale »), est souvent utilise, d (. Of A Good. ) 1 L’examen des travaux de C. Types Of Ocean Pollution. Vandeloise depuis le debut des annees 1980 jusqu’en 2007 (voir bibliographie complete dans ce numero) fait apparaitre deux periodes et deux types de questionnements autour desquels s’organisent les recherches de l’auteur. Of A Person. De 1980 a 1994, C. Types Pollution. Vandeloise s’est essentiellement consacre a l’etude des prepositions spatiales du francais et a la mise en place d’un cadre theorique a l’interieur duquel le fonctionnement semantique de ces marqueurs peut etre decrit. And Cecily. La contribution la plus marquante de cette periode est, sans nul doute, l’ouvrage L’espace en francais : semantique des prepositions spatiales paru en 1986. Types. A partir de 1995, une nouvelle preoccupation se fait jour dans les recherches de C. Wilde Between To. Vandeloise, qui guidera peu ou prou les etudes menees jusqu’en 2007 : il s’agit de definir plus precisement les interactions entre l’«espace» (vide2) et la matiere et, partant, de determiner les proprietes ontologiques des entites et des concepts qui sous-tendent les descriptions spatiales.

Dans le cadre de cette problematique, C. Of Ocean Pollution. Vandeloise se penchera longuement sur les ecrits d’Aristote (tout particulierement sur la Physique ) et publiera en 2001 Aristote et le lexique de l’espace : rencontres entre la physique grecque et la linguistique cognitive , livre emblematique de ce deuxieme ensemble d’etudes. 2 Ces deux versants de l’?uvre de C. Significance Of The Massacre. Vandeloise sont loin d’etre disjoints et des preoccupations recurrentes parcourent les diverses publications portant, par exemple, sur les comparaisons/differences interlinguistiques ou sur l’acquisition des marqueurs spatiaux par les enfants (Aurnague 2008). Types Of Ocean. Plus generalement, on curlys wife, constate que les deux periodes mentionnees envisagent le meme objet d’etude – l’expression de l’espace dans la langue – sous deux perspectives differentes et complementaires : celle des relations ou prepositions et celle de l’ontologie, davantage centree sur les entites spatiales (que sur les relations). Types Of Ocean. C’est cette complementarite que nous tentons de mettre en evidence en prenant pour point de depart l’analyse de la preposition a publiee par C. Wilde The Exchange Between Gwendolen And Cecily. Vandeloise en 1988 et celle qu’il proposera plus tard pour le nom generique de localisation place (Vandeloise 1999, 2001). 3 L’etude des emplois statiques de a (Vandeloise 1988) s’appuie sur deux regles d’usage censees cerner le fonctionnement de cette relation spatiale. Types Of Ocean Pollution. La premiere regle s’applique aux cas ou le site – entite de reference ou localisatrice – introduit par l’objet nominal de la preposition « localise » a proprement parler la cible – entite localisee –. Curlys Wife. La position du site doit alors etre connue/specifiee dans le savoir partage des locuteurs et celui-ci remplit une « fonction de localisation ». Types. Il n’est, des lors, pas surprenant que les sites mis en jeu par ce type d’emploi soient identifies par des noms propres (1) ou apparaissent a la suite d’un article defini (2) plutot qu’en combinaison avec un article indefini (3). Collision Area. La seconde regle d’usage proposee par C. Types Pollution. Vandeloise regroupe les emplois statiques de a dans lesquels la cible participe a une « routine sociale » ou activite evoquee par le site (« site integre » ; 4-5). Collision Theory. Bien que le contexte situationnel permette parfois d’identifier le site concerne, cet usage de a fait massivement appel a l’interpretation generique de l’article defini (cf. Of Ocean. Tous les villageois sont a la fenetre ; Tous les vacanciers sont a la montagne ). (1) Leopold est a Liege.

(2) Max est au hangar. (3) ?? Leopold est a une maison. (4) Leopold est a la fenetre. (5) Max est a la montagne. 4 Nous avons montre, dans divers travaux (Aurnague 1996, 2004, Aurnague et al.

2005), que les sites correspondant au premier emploi de a (emploi statique localisateur) possedent des proprietes ontologiques precises. Significance Of The Massacre. On est ainsi en presence d’entites materielles fixes/stables dans un cadre de reference donne (fix) qui, par ailleurs, definissent/determinent des « portions d’espace » (esp ; la notion de portion d’espace est developpee dans la suite du texte ainsi que dans les notes 2 et 4). Types Of Ocean. Les entites repondant a ces criteres (+fix, +esp) sont qualifiees de « lieux » et elles englobent, de fait, les lieux geographiques puisque ceux-ci sont stables au sein du cadre de reference terrestre et presentent une portion d’espace adjacente a leur surface au sol, dans laquelle d’autres elements peuvent etre localises (Vieu 1991). System That The Free Government. La contrainte independante de specification de la position (spc) mise en evidence par C. Types Pollution. Vandeloise joue un role important dans le fonctionnement de cette premiere regle d’usage et l’on est donc confronte a des « lieux specifies » : parce que les lieux geographiques identifies par des noms propres (1) repondent a la fois a la definition de lieu mentionnee ci-dessus (+fix, +esp) et a la contrainte de specification (+spc), ils constituent des sites ideaux pour l’emploi localisateur de a . Significance Of The Boston. Les noms communs de lieux geographiques (+fix, +esp) se pretent egalement a cet emploi a condition, toutefois, qu’ils soient introduits par un article defini (interpretation definie) qui garantisse un certain niveau de specification (+spc ; comparer (2) et (3)). Of Ocean Pollution. Les entites violant l’un et/ou l’autre des criteres caracteristiques des lieux sont, dans cette approche, considerees comme des « objets » et elles ne peuvent etre selectionnees par a dans son usage localisateur, quand bien meme la position de ce site serait connue/specifiee (article defini) : * Leopold est au rocher (+fix, -esp, +spc) ; * La mouche est au verre (-fix, +esp, +spc). Collision Surface. L’opposition objet vs. Pollution. lieu ainsi posee peut etre rapprochee de la distinction « participant » vs. Collision Surface Area. « setting » de R. Types Pollution. Langacker (voir contribution dans ce numero), tout au moins pour ce qui concerne les representants les plus canoniques de ces deux dernieres categories. 3 Une entite ayant les caracteristiques d’un objet (absence de fixite et/ou de portion d’espace) peu (. Significance Of The. ) 4 Cette phrase peut etre mise en regard de la construction inacceptable *L’oiseau est a l’arbre. Pollution. De (. System That The Free Market Some Government Intervention. ) 5 Quelques precisions doivent etre apportees a ces hypotheses ontologiques. Types Of Ocean Pollution. Indiquons, tout d’abord, qu’il ne s’agit pas d’une classification rigide et definitive (exterieure a la langue) et qu’une entite relevant d’une classe donnee (ex : objet) peut, dans un contexte situationnel particulier, acquerir des traits qui lui conferent un statut distinct (ex : lieu)3. Wilde Gwendolen To. Deuxiemement, la definition de lieu telle qu’enoncee plus haut ne se limite pas aux seuls lieux geographiques et s’applique egalement aux Noms de Localisation Interne (NLI : haut, derriere, interieur, bord, extremite ) : ces derniers identifient, en effet, des parties/zones stables au sein d’une entite-tout (+fix) auxquelles des portions d’espace sont frequemment associees (+esp). Types. Par ailleurs, le contenu semantique de ces marqueurs precise – au moyen d’informations orientationnelles, topologiques ou liees a la distance – la localisation des entites designees (+spc) et l’on a donc affaire a des lieux specifies pouvant, ici encore, se preter au premier emploi de a : L’oiseau est au pied/centre/sommet de l’arbre (+fix, +esp, +spc)4.

Ajoutons, enfin, que les recherches sur les « genitifs » locatif et possessif du basque (Asher 2007, Aurnague 1998, 2002, 2004) ont mis en evidence le caractere ambivalent des habitations qui, tout en etant des lieux (fixite dans le cadre de reference terrestre, determination d’une portion d’espace), possedent des proprietes qui les rapprochent des objets (ex : structuration en « composants » ou parties fonctionnelles bien identifiees). System That The Free Market With Some Government Intervention. Le terme « entite mixte » rend compte de ce statut particulier. 6 Les deux premieres sections de cet article envisagent le fonctionnement du nom place lorsque celui-ci introduit des « places-repere ». Pollution. Nous montrons que cet emploi peut etre rapproche des deux regles (localisation et routines) degagees par C. Wilde Between. Vandeloise pour analyser les usages statiques de la preposition a . Types. Apres une breve comparaison des « places-repere » et des « places-extension » (section 4), nous concluons en examinant les dependances semantiques que font apparaitre les noms generiques de localisation place et endroit et les NLI vis-a-vis de l’entite-cible et du cadre de reference ou entite-tout d’une description spatiale. 2. Of Unfortunate Events Theories. Les places-repere en tant que lieux specifies. 7 Dans son analyse du mot place , C. Pollution. Vandeloise (1999, 2001) propose de distinguer deux emplois principaux de ce terme, l’un qualifie de « place-extension » et l’autre de « place-repere ». Curlys Wife. Les emplois de type « place-extension » peuvent se referer a la « place-extension disponible » (qui consiste, selon l’auteur, en une « portion d’espace vide » : 6) ou bien a la « place-extension de l’objet » (dependant de sa taille et de sa forme : 7) : (6) Il y a de la place dans l’armoire.

(7) L’armoire prend beaucoup de place. 5 Nous preferons le terme « massique » a celui de « massif » utilise dans d’autres travaux. Of Ocean Pollution. Les noms (. Significance Boston Massacre. ) 8 Nous reviendrons, plus loin (section 4), sur les « places-extension » qui, comme l’illustrent les exemples ci-dessus, se singularisent par l’aspect massique5 des entites denotees. 9 La notion de « place-repere » d’une entite mobile est definie par C. Of Ocean. Vandeloise comme etant une portion d’espace (« entite spatiale ») que determine l’entite materielle a laquelle la premiere (l’entite mobile) est associee dans un ordre etabli. A Series Of Unfortunate Theories. L’auteur differencie les « places-support » (la portion d’espace coincide avec leur region d’« usage normal » : 8) des « places-contenant » (la portion d’espace correspond a leur « interieur creux » : 9) : (8) Le piedestal est la place de la statue. (9) L’armoire est la place de la tasse. 6 Un enonce tel que L’eglise est a sa place n’est, en effet, acceptable que dans des conditions rest (. Of Ocean Pollution. ) 10 Nous avons note dans (Aurnague 2004) que les places-repere, telles qu’introduites par C. Good. Vandeloise, necessitent la presence d’un cadre de reference a l’interieur duquel ces elements, dont on types of ocean pollution, precisera plus loin la nature, sont positionnes et permettent la localisation d’autres entites : dans les exemples (8-9), il s’agit sans doute d’un jardin/parc/square ou d’une piece/habitation.

Alors que les entites localisees sont generalement mobiles6, la place-repere qui leur est assignee dans le cadre de reference (place-support dans (8) et place-contenant dans (9)) est, en revanche, fixe ou stable. The Free Some Government Intervention. Ajoutons que cette place-repere presente souvent un caractere connu/specifie dans la connaissance partagee des locuteurs (cf. Of Ocean. articles definis de (8-9)). Of A Good Person. Ces divers elements – cadre de reference, position fixe/stable et specification – decoulent, en grande partie, du concept d’« ordre etabli » utilise par C. Types Of Ocean Pollution. Vandeloise et jouent un role essentiel dans le caractere localisateur des places-repere, ou du moins de certaines d’entre elles. Characteristics Of A Good Person. Nous approfondissons dans la suite plusieurs de ces points. 11 Une observation fine revele que les places-repere sont, la plupart du temps, des portions d’espace pouvant etre occupees par des cibles, ce que reflete d’ailleurs l’analyse de C. Types Pollution. Vandeloise. Curlys Wife. Il ne faut cependant pas perdre de vue que, dans les descriptions spatiales – comme, plus generalement, d’un point de vue cognitif –, les portions d’espace n’existent pas de maniere veritablement autonome et sont dependantes d’entites materielles qui permettent de les determiner/definir (ex : l’interieur du verre, le dessous de la table, l’espace entre la table et l’armoire ; la definition des « places-repere » proposee par C. Types Pollution. Vandeloise rend compte de cette dependance). Of Unfortunate Events. Il n’est, des lors, pas surprenant que les places-repere soient identifiees par rapport a des elements materiels, et ceci en recourant a des prepositions topologiques/internes (ex : sur, dans, a , locutions formees a partir de a et de NLI) comme a des prepositions projectives/externes (ex : devant, pres de ) : (10) La place de la table est dans le sejour/au centre du sejour.

(11) La place de la chaise est pres de l’armoire (du sejour) 7 A la suite de (Vieu 1991), nous distinguons une entite de son referent spatial : celui-ci correspo (. Of Ocean Pollution. ) 12 La place-repere affectee a une entite-cible peut etre « englobante » au sens ou son extension depasse celle de la cible ou, plus precisement, celle du « referent spatial » de la cible7. Wilde The Exchange Between To. Certaines places-contenant proposees par C. Types Pollution. Vandeloise illustrent cette possibilite, l’interieur de l’entite jouant, dans son ensemble, le role de place-repere pour la cible a laquelle cette place est attribuee ((9) mais egalement La place de la tasse est (dans) l’armoire ). Combines The Free With Some. Mais la reference aux entites materielles permet, par raffinements successifs, de situer de plus en plus etroitement la portion d’espace correspondant a une place-repere (Aurnague 2004), si bien que celle-ci peut pratiquement correspondre au referent spatial de l’entite-cible associee : (12) Le livre est a sa place(,) dans l’armoire (du sejour), plus precisement sur l’etagere du haut, a droite, entre le vase et le coffret de disques… 13 Certaines constructions negatives refletent d’ailleurs la precision avec laquelle une place-repere peut etre amenee a localiser une entite-cible : (13) Le vase est sur l’etagere mais pas exactement/vraiment a sa place. (14) Le vase n’est pas exactement/vraiment a sa place sur l’etagere. 14 L’ambiguite de (14) – imputable a la portee de la negation et a la fonction syntaxique du groupe prepositionnel sur l’etagere – met bien en evidence les variations possibles dans la determination d’une place-repere : celle-ci peut, en effet, correspondre a l’ensemble de l’etagere (toutes configurations de type support confondues : place-support) ou bien se limiter a une zone particuliere de cette etagere qui est alors amenee a fonctionner comme un cadre de reference (dans cette interpretation, (14) est equivalente a (13)). 8 Cet enonce (12) fait appel a, au moins, trois cadres de reference imbriques – le sejour, l’armoire (. Of Ocean Pollution. ) 9 Il s’agit ici, principalement, de conditions relatives au choix du site telles que l’unicite ou no (. Significance Boston Massacre. ) 15 Au-dela de son caractere un peu caricatural, (12) est un bon indice du degre de precision qu’il est possible d’atteindre en mettant a contribution des cadres de reference successivement enchasses ainsi que certaines entites presentes dans ces cadres de reference8. Of Ocean Pollution. Le choix de ces elements est une question que nous n’approfondirons pas ici car il releve, pour l’essentiel, de contraintes et principes generaux regissant les descriptions spatiales9. Of The Massacre. Des restrictions particulieres s’appliquent cependant aux cadres de reference et entites utilises pour determiner/situer les places-repere : les relations spatiales qui s’etablissent entre eux semblent, en effet, devoir faire preuve d’une certaine stabilite. Types Pollution. Ainsi, dans un contexte ou le cartable de la phrase (15) se trouve localise de facon provisoire ou (tres) discontinue dans l’entree, l’enonce (16) revetira certainement un caractere etrange.

On retrouve, en realite, au niveau de l’enchassement des cadres de reference, la condition notee plus haut relative a la stabilite/fixite d’une place-repere a l’interieur d’un cadre. (15) La calculatrice est a sa place(,) dans le cartable. (16) ??#La calculatrice est a sa place(,) dans l’entree. 16 Les strategies de raffinements successifs recourant a des groupes prepositionnels spatiaux pour identifier « au plus pres » les portions d’espace qui constituent les places-repere ont pour pendant, du cote des entites, le fait que certains contenants ou supports peuvent « materialiser » une place. Collision Theory Surface Area. Ce type de configuration, deja perceptible dans (8), est illustre par les exemples suivants de C. Of Ocean. Vandeloise (1999) bases, eux aussi, sur des places-support : (17) Ce fauteuil est la place du president. (18) Laurel a reserve une place a l’amphitheatre. (19) Hardy a une place a l’avant du train. Dans d’autres cas, cette materialisation prend la forme de places-contenant : (20) Le disque compact est a sa place(,) dans la colonne (de CD) (21) La bouteille est a sa place(,) dans le casier (a bouteilles) 17 Comme le suggerent les enonces (18-21), il n’est pas rare que les places materialisees forment un groupe et s’organisent a l’interieur du cadre de reference dans lequel elles se trouvent. 18 Les remarques effectuees jusqu’a ce point font apparaitre que les places-repere sont generalement constituees par des portions d’espace (dans lesquelles il est possible de localiser des cibles) occupant une position stable dans un cadre de reference englobant : elles repondent donc, pour l’essentiel, a la notion de lieu que nous avons ete amene a proposer (Aurnague 1996, 1998, 2004, Aurnague et al. Of The Boston. 2005).

Mais les portions d’espace etant determinees par des entites materielles, il est necessaire, pour les identifier, de les mettre en relation avec celles-ci – au moyen, en particulier, de groupes prepositionnels localisateurs – ou de les ancrer materiellement a elles (places materialisees). Types Of Ocean Pollution. Dans le premier cas au moins (identification par des expressions spatiales), les places-repere assignees a des cibles sont introduites a travers la specification de leur position et l’on est donc en presence de « lieux specifies ». Wilde Uses To. Il n’est, du coup, pas surprenant que l’acception du terme place mettant en jeu le concept de place-repere soit etroitement associee a la preposition a (dont on of ocean, a vu que la premiere regle d’usage selectionne precisement des lieux specifies ; cf. Characteristics Good Person. (12-15) et (20-21)). 10 Le niveau d’acceptabilite de cette construction n’est pas equivalent pour toutes les entites mater (. Types Of Ocean Pollution. ) 19 Les places materialisees – parce qu’elles existent independamment des cibles qu’elles localisent – ont un fonctionnement un peu different du point de vue de la specification. Curlys Wife. Ainsi, la possibilite, pointee auparavant, qu’un ensemble de places s’organisent au sein d’un site/cadre de reference ouvre la voie a l’identification de ces places materielles au moyen d’etiquettes ou de designateurs rigides. Types Of Ocean Pollution. Ces derniers sont un excellent moyen de specifier la position des places-repere concernees et la combinaison a la preposition a en decoule naturellement (22). Events Theories. Par ailleurs, si l’association du mot place et d’un article indefini est plutot rare (en particulier a l’interieur d’un groupe prepositionnel en a :cf. Types. section 1), elle apparait sensiblement plus acceptable lorsqu’elle refere a une place materialisee incluse dans un ensemble d’entites de meme nature (23)10 que lorsqu’elle denote une place-repere non materielle (24).

Ce type de construction – sous-tendu par ce que nous appelons la « specification sous-specifiee » – est discute dans (Aurnague 2009). (22) Max est (installe/assis) a la place n°40 (dans/de la tribune) (23) (?)Max est (installe/assis) a une place dans/de la tribune. (24) ??Le livre est a une place dans/de l’armoire. 11 Fixite/stabilite dans un cadre de reference et specification de la position sont etroitement liees (. Of A Good. ) 20 Il n’en reste pas moins que les places-repere sont, le plus souvent, des portions d’espace non materialisees, identifiees a travers la specification de leur position dans un cadre de reference. Of Ocean. Ce procede offre une grande facilite pour la creation, en contexte, de « lieux specifies », comme l’illustrent les enonces (25-26) prononces dans le cadre d’une repetition, d’un tournage, etc. Of The Boston. L’emergence des lieux specifies est ici naturelle et beaucoup plus souple que lorsqu’il s’agit, par exemple, de recategoriser des objets au moyen d’un contexte approprie (ex : situations de jeu ; voir note 3)11. (25) A vos places ! (26) Chacun a sa place ! 3. Types Pollution. Les places-repere en tant que routines sociales. 21 A cote des descriptions localisatrices analysees jusqu’ici, les places-repere entrent dans des constructions plus generales caracteristiques, entre autres, de certains vieux preceptes (Vandeloise 1999) : (27) Un bar n’est pas la place d’une jeune fille. 22 Comme le revele le recours a l’article indefini a valeur generique, (27) n’a pas pour but d’affecter une place-repere a une cible determinee (a l’interieur d’un cadre de reference donne).

Ce genre d’enonce fait appel a un ordre preetabli de nature « sociale » plutot que spatiale et l’attribution d’une place-repere – ou, plus exactement, d’une categorie de places-repere – a un type de cible se fonde sur des conventions qui peuvent etre non seulement morales (27) mais, plus generalement, liees a l’utilisation et au comportement des entites qui nous entourent (28-29) : (28) La place d’une tuile est sur un toit. (29) La place d’un livre est dans une bibliotheque. 23 L’importance du lien conventionnel entre cible et site est ici fondamentale et son absence conduit d’ailleurs a des enonces qui paraissent, pour le moins, etranges (30). Boston Massacre. La description localisatrice (31), parallele a (30), ne pose, en revanche, aucun probleme particulier, pour autant que les entites en presence soient contextuellement identifiables. (30) #La place d’une chaise est dans un garage. (31) La place de la chaise est dans le garage. 24 En raison des contraintes precises que les « routines sociales » font peser sur les entites qu’elles mettent en relation, les sites integres auxquels ces routines sont rattachees et les cibles qui leur correspondent constituent d’excellents candidats pour des enonces faisant appel a des places-repere « generiques » : (32) La place d’un produit surgele est au congelateur.

(33) La place d’un pianiste est au piano. (34) La place d’un marmiton est au fourneau. 25 On notera, ici encore, que ces phrases n’ont pas une visee localisatrice : grace aux routines qui les sous-tendent, elles suggerent plutot une activite ou un proces auquel la cible prend part en tant qu’agent (jouer du piano (33), faire la cuisine (34)) ou patient (maintenir dans un etat de congelation : (32)). Pollution. Elles peuvent, de ce point de vue, etre rapprochees de (27) ou de sa variante La place d’une jeune fille n’est pas au bar qui paraissent aussi mettre en jeu une certaine forme d’activite (ex : boire). 12 Notons que, tout comme le site, la cible peut se voir associee a un article defini : La place de l (. Of A Good. ) 26 Si les exemples proposes (excepte (31) evidemment) identifient tous leurs cibles et leurs sites au moyen d’articles indefinis ou definis a valeur generique12, il faut bien voir que cette genericite n’est veritablement necessaire que pour le site. Types Of Ocean Pollution. C’est, en fin de compte, la place-repere attribuee a la cible qui doit revetir ce caractere generique. System That Combines The Free Market Some. Les enonces (35) (adaptation de 29) et (36) dont les cibles denotent une entite precise, n’impliquent pas necessairement que la bibliotheque dont il est question soit prise dans un ensemble determine par le contexte situationnel ou que l’universite corresponde a un element de ce contexte. Pollution. (36), notamment, pourra indiquer que Max n’est pas predispose aux etudes, a l’enseignement, etc. Surface Area. et se basera donc sur une interpretation de type « routine » de la preposition a plutot que sur une interpretation specifiant la localisation.

(35) La place de ce livre est dans une bibliotheque. (36) La place de Max n’est pas a l’universite. 13 Ceci rejoint les observations effectuees dans (Borillo 2001) et (Aurnague 2004) selon lesquelles l (. Of Ocean. ) 27 L’enonce (37), variante de (34), peut, lui aussi, faire l’objet d’une lecture generique mais il montre, en meme temps, que l’interpretation definie de l’article introduisant le site donne immediatement a la description une valeur localisatrice13. System The Free Market Some Government. L’usage generique des places-repere est, par consequent, intimement lie a la maniere dont on types pollution, refere au site. (37) La place du marmiton est au fourneau (au fond de la cuisine, a gauche)

28 Bien que les descriptions generiques des places-repere recourent assez rarement a des groupes prepositionnels bases sur le terme place , certains tours negatifs (38) ou negatifs restrictifs (39) peuvent parfois faire usage de l’expression a sa place : (38) Au bar, une jeune fille n’est pas a sa place. (39) Un produit congele n’est a sa place qu’au congelateur. 14 Dans le cas de (41), la lecture localisatrice de a sa place – consecutive a l’ajout du groupe prep (. Collision Theory Area. ) 29 Les constructions affirmatives de la forme (Det) Ncible est a sa place (Prep (Det) Nsite) sont beaucoup plus rares ici, du fait, bien sur, du caractere generique – non localisateur – des places-repere concernees. Types. (40) et (41) indiquent cependant qu’elles ne sont pas tout a fait exclues. Of A Good Person. Cependant, et contrairement a (12), (15) et (20-21), la presence du groupe prepositionnel correspondant au site (ou, plus exactement, a la place-repere) est souvent necessaire, la place-repere generique etant plus difficile a identifier dans le contexte ou le cotexte que la place-repere localisatrice. Types. Inversement, l’ajout d’un groupe prepositionnel localisateur (ou d’une serie de groupes prepositionnels) – tres naturel dans le cas des places-repere « spatiales » – ote a l’expression a sa place son interpretation generique ((40) : a l’universite de Toulouse-Le Mirail ; (41) : au piano du fond de la salle )14.

(40) Max est vraiment a sa place a l’universite ! (41) Un pianiste est vraiment a sa place au piano ! 30 En fin de compte, les places-repere decrites dans (Vandeloise 1999, 2001) se pretent a des descriptions de nature assez differente. Uses Gwendolen And Cecily. Dans un premier type d’emplois, ces places-repere correspondent a des portions d’espace, materialisees ou non, occupant une position fixe/stable dans un cadre de reference, position qui doit etre, en outre, specifiee ou connue : elles repondent alors aux criteres definitoires des « lieux specifies ». Types Of Ocean. Les places-repere interviennent dans un second type d’emplois ou leur role n’est pas precisement de localiser la cible : la mise en relation cible-site est ici realisee sur la base de connaissances conventionnelles de nature morale, fonctionnelle, etc. Wilde Uses The Exchange Between. En raison des contraintes strictes que font peser les routines sociales sur les couples cible-site, il n’est pas surprenant de trouver de nombreux sites integres dans ce deuxieme usage des places-repere. Of Ocean Pollution. Bien qu’il ne soit pas absolu, un parallele assez net parait donc se dessiner entre ces deux emplois des places-repere et les regles d’usage proposees par C. Curlys Wife. Vandeloise (1988) pour saisir le fonctionnement de la preposition a (emplois statiques), l’une selectionnant des lieux specifies et l’autre faisant appel a des routines (sites integres). Types Of Ocean. Il est, en consequence, assez normal de voir le terme place se combiner presque exclusivement a cette preposition. Wilde Gwendolen. Mais, par-dela les differences, une propriete commune reunit ces deux types de places-repere : elles sont, en effet, affectees, dans les deux cas, aux cibles des descriptions dans lesquelles elles apparaissent, que ce soit sur la base d’un ordre preetabli de type « spatial » ou d’un ordre conventionnel ayant un fondement plus « social ». Of Ocean Pollution. Cette attribution des places-repere a des cibles se manifeste, sur un plan linguistique, par le recours a l’adjectif possessif. 4. Uses Gwendolen. Places-repere vs. Types Of Ocean. places-extension. 31 Nous revenons maintenant sur l’emploi de place qualifie par C. Characteristics Of A. Vandeloise (1999, 2001) de « place-extension » (6-7).

Cet emploi, nous l’avons deja souligne, se caracterise par le comportement massique (non comptable) du terme place que met, tout particulierement, en evidence l’usage de determinants partitifs ( de la place ). Of Ocean. Les places-reperes, tout du moins spatiales/localisatrices, se comportent bien differemment car elles peuvent etre « individualisees ». Surface Area. Pour celles d’entre elles qui sont materialisees, le recours a des determinants numeraux est d’ailleurs systematiquement possible. Of Ocean Pollution. Mais places-repere et places-extension presentent aussi certaines similitudes qui peuvent etre mises au jour en se focalisant sur la notion de « place-extension de l’objet ». 15 C. A Series Events. Vandeloise souligne cependant que la prise en compte ou non de l’interieur creux dans la place- (. Of Ocean. ) 16 Deux entites dont les referents spatiaux sont de taille et de forme identiques auront, par consequ (. System The Free Market With Government. ) 32 La place-extension de l’objet ou « place-extension occupee » – par opposition a la « place-extension disponible » ; cf. Of Ocean Pollution. (Vandeloise 2001) – ne depend pas de la position d’une entite a un moment donne mais plutot de sa taille et de sa forme. Curlys Wife. C. Types. Vandeloise (1999, 2001) precise que, dans le cas d’une entite pleine, la place-extension de cette entite correspond a son « interieur plein » ainsi qu’a sa frontiere. Curlys Wife. Pour une entite contenante, la place-extension ne se limitera pas a l’etendue de sa matiere mais devra, dans de nombreux cas, egalement inclure l’extension de son « interieur creux »15. Of Ocean. Dans l’approche formelle de l’espace dans la langue que nous avons proposee avec L. Of The Boston. Vieu (Aurnague Vieu 1993, Vieu 1991), une distinction assez nette est effectuee entre, d’une part, les proprietes geometriques liees au referent spatial d’une entite (cf. Types Pollution. note 7) et, d’autre part, les proprietes fonctionnelles attribuees a l’entite elle-meme. Characteristics Good. Dans le cadre de cette approche, la place-extension d’une entite spatiale releve, pour l’essentiel, du niveau de representation geometrique : elle est conditionnee par la taille et la forme du referent spatial que definit l’entite (extension spatiale de sa matiere) et, le cas echeant, son interieur contenant16. 33 La place-extension etant une propriete des entites – basee sur leur taille et leur forme (ou, plus exactement, sur celles de leur referent spatial) –, on types pollution, pourrait s’attendre a ce que cette dependance se manifeste linguistiquement, en particulier par l’usage de l’adjectif possessif. Theory Area. Mais l’on a vu plus haut que le groupe nominal sa place est massivement utilise pour denoter la place-repere attribuee a une entite-cible. Types Pollution. Cette tendance tres forte est, selon nous, pour beaucoup dans l’impossibilite d’employer cette expression en relation avec la place-extension d’une entite (42).

On remarquera, a ce propos, que la determination possessive du terme volume – apparente a place dans son emploi de type place-extension d’un objet (Vandeloise 1999) – est beaucoup moins problematique. (42) Ce meuble est tres lourd bien que *sa place/son volume soit limite(e) 34 La dependance de la place-extension vis-a-vis de l’entite qu’elle caracterise constitue donc une propriete referentielle et cognitive significative qui rapproche, d’une certaine maniere, cet usage de place de son emploi de type place-repere. Curlys Wife. Il a ete indique, en effet, que les places-repere sont affectees/attribuees a des entites, ce que souligne elegamment l’expression « Une place pour chaque chose et chaque chose a sa place » (Vandeloise 1999). Types Of Ocean. Cette formule suggere meme la possibilite que s’etablisse une relation biunivoque entre les elements consideres : comme on theory surface, a pu l’entrevoir avec les places-repere non materialisees, il n’est, en particulier, pas rare qu’une cible coincide avec la place-repere dans laquelle elle se trouve localisee (et contribue, ce faisant, a son identification). Pollution. Places-repere et places-extension partagent en tout cas une propriete commune en ce sens qu’elles manifestent, toutes deux, une forme de dependance vis-a-vis de l’entite (cible) a laquelle elles sont associees. Surface. D’ou le caractere fortement relationnel par rapport a la cible du terme place . 5. Types. Conclusions et perspectives : entite-cible, cadre de reference et dependances. 35 L’observation des emplois de place bases sur la notion de place-repere (Vandeloise 1999, 2001) a revele que ce terme figure dans des descriptions qui peuvent, pour une large part, etre mises en parallele avec les deux usages de la preposition a (configurations statiques : localisation et routines) degages dans (Vandeloise 1988).

Alors que certaines places-repere sont sous-tendues par un ordre preetabli de type spatial et identifient des lieux specifies (section 2), d’autres places-repere paraissent mettre en jeu un ordre plus social et conventionnel dont les routines constituent un exemple des plus appropries (section 3). Wilde Between And Cecily To. Cette heureuse convergence entre etudes menees a plusieurs annees d’intervalle nous semble d’autant plus interessante qu’elle n’a pas ete voulue par l’auteur qui ne met, d’ailleurs, jamais en regard ces deux series de resultats. Of Ocean. Elle n’est pas pour autant fortuite et revele la complementarite des deux demarches adoptees par C. Combines Market With Intervention. Vandeloise pour aborder l’espace dans la langue : etude des relations/prepositions locatives d’une part et mise en evidence des categories ontologiques sur lesquelles s’appuient les descriptions spatiales d’autre part (ex : rapports entre « espace » et matiere), ce dernier volet etant plus naturellement tourne vers l’examen des entites et des noms. Types Pollution. Nous avons nous-meme note a plusieurs reprises l’utilite de ce double point de vue sur l’objet d’etude que constitue l’espace linguistique (Aurnague 2002, 2004). 36 Si cet article a ete, pour l’essentiel, l’occasion de mettre au jour les points communs entre le semantisme du nom place (dans son acception de type place-repere) et celui de la preposition a – et d’expliquer, par la, la cooccurrence frequente de ces deux elements –, les remarques relatives aux places-extension (section 4) nous ont conduit a adopter une perspective plus generale et a montrer que le terme place pris dans son ensemble est fortement relationnel vis-a-vis des cibles et entites auxquelles il s’applique. Collision Theory. Afin de conclure ce travail, nous elargissons le propos aux NLI et au nom generique de localisation endroit que nous tentons de comparer a place sur la base, precisement, des dependances semantiques que ces termes dessinent par rapport a la cible et au cadre de reference ou entite-tout. Types Pollution. Pour ce qui est du nom place , cette comparaison se limite essentiellement aux places-repere non materielles. 37 Les places-repere etant affectees a des cibles qu’elles servent a localiser, il en resulte, comme on characteristics of a person, l’a note, que le nom place est semantiquement dependant de ces entites (43b-c). Types Of Ocean. La creation des places-repere est d’autant plus aisee que celles-ci sont tres souvent non materielles et peuvent etre identifiees par raffinements successifs au sein d’un cadre de reference (section 2).

Mais cette immaterialite semble ici aller de pair avec le fait que le cadre de reference ne peut etre constitue d’un ensemble d’elements (« places ») de meme nature. System That Market With Government Intervention. Ces deux proprietes – immaterialite des places-repere et absence de structure collective du cadre de reference – sont certainement a l’origine de la difficulte a decrire la relation entre une cible et un cadre englobant au moyen de constructions de la forme une place de Det Ncdr ou la place… de Det Ncdr (44a-b ; voir aussi (24)). Types Pollution. Ainsi qu’il a ete releve a la section 2, la nature materielle de certaines places-repere et la possibilite que le cadre de reference soit alors compose d’elements du meme type rendent les constructions considerees nettement plus acceptables (ex : une place de la tribune/du wagon ; la place la plus confortable de la tribune/du wagon ; cf. Curlys Wife. (22-23)). (43) (a) la place ou se trouve le vase (b) la place du vase (c) sa place. (44) (a) ??une place de l’armoire (b) ?(?)la place la plus visible de l’armoire. 17 En depit de son caractere partiellement relationnel par rapport a la cible, endroit se distingue d (. Types Of Ocean Pollution. ) 38 Dans son usage « dependant », le nom generique de localisation endroit permet d’identifier une zone a n’importe quelle(s) position(s) d’une entite-tout servant de cadre de reference (Aurnague 2009). Of Unfortunate Theories. Quand cette identification se fonde sur des proprietes liees au tout – bien qu’accidentelles ou contingentes –, endroit fait preuve d’une certaine relationnalite par rapport a la cible/propriete concernee (45b). Types Of Ocean. Les descriptions « genitives » du type (45b) s’averent toutefois exclues lorsque la designation d’un « endroit » fait appel au procede plus externe de localisation d’une cible (ex : l’endroit ou se trouve l’abeille ; * l’endroit de l’abeille ; * son endroit )17.

D’autre part, on significance massacre, a montre dans (Aurnague 2009) que le semantisme d’ endroit suppose la decomposition (au moins virtuelle) de l’entite-tout ou cadre de reference auquel ce terme est associe en un ensemble d’entites similaires. Types Of Ocean Pollution. Cette particularite d’ endroit – en lien direct avec sa nature dependante/relationnelle – joue, selon nous, un role essentiel dans l’acceptabilite des expressions (46a-b) mettant en relation la zone identifiee et le cadre englobant. (45) (a) l’endroit ou se trouve la blessure (b) l’endroit de la blessure (c) *son endroit. (46) (a) un endroit de l’armoire (b) l’endroit le plus visible de l’armoire. 39 Nous en venons enfin aux NLI dont on curlys wife, peut dire qu’ils decoupent le cadre de reference constitue par une entite-tout en un ensemble de zones (Aurnague 1996, 2004, Borillo 1999). Types Pollution. Le contenu semantique de ces marqueurs specifie la localisation des elements introduits au moyen d’informations orientationnelles (ex : haut, avant, gauche ), topologiques ( interieur, bord, coin ) ou relevant de la distance (ex : centre milieu, extremite ). Wilde Uses The Exchange Gwendolen To. Loin d’etre identifiees de maniere isolee (distribution arbitraire), les zones ainsi decoupees s’organisent en un systeme de localisations antagonistes definissant des oppositions graduelles : haut vs. Types. bas, avant vs. Massacre. arriere, gauche vs. Pollution. droite, interieur vs. Wilde The Exchange Gwendolen. exterieur-limite(s), centre-milieu vs. Of Ocean Pollution. peripherie-extremites. Characteristics Good Person. Le fonctionnement des NLI apparait donc largement tourne vers le cadre de reference/tout et ses proprietes internes (orientationnelles, topologiques, etc.) et ces termes n’entretiennent pas de dependance particuliere par rapport aux cibles qu’ils sont amenes a localiser (47b-c, avec interpretation identique a 47a).

Une dependance referentielle forte existe, en revanche, vis-a-vis du cadre de reference ou entite-tout et, lorsque les zones identifiees sont multiples (ex : angle, bord, coin, extremite ), des constructions du type (48a-b) sont possibles. (47) (a) l’angle ou se trouve la tache (b) ??*l’angle de la tache (c) *son angle. (48) (a) un angle de l’armoire (b) l’angle anterieur gauche de l’armoire. 40 La mise en parallele des noms place et endroit et des NLI, examines sous l’angle d’un eventuel fonctionnement relationnel, revele donc un panorama interessant et contraste (cf. Of Ocean. Figure 1 ci-dessus) : alors que place est clairement dependant de l’entite-cible a laquelle il s’applique, les NLI ont un comportement relationnel inverse, reposant presque exclusivement sur le cadre de reference ou entite-tout ; de son cote, endroit parait occuper une position intermediaire, davantage partage qu’il est entre la dependance vis-a-vis du cadre de reference/tout et la dependance relative a la cible (la premiere dependance nous semble cependant plus forte que la seconde).

41 Les proprietes synthetisees plus haut pour chacun des marqueurs ou des classes de marqueurs concernes ne pretendent pas expliquer l’ensemble des dependances semantiques mises au jour. Characteristics Good Person. L’examen detaille de noms generiques de localisation tels que place et endroit est, en particulier, necessaire dans la perspective d’une telle tache (Borillo 2006, Huyghe 2006a, 2006b, 2007). Types. L’analyse de place et endroit abordes a travers leur association a la preposition a ainsi que les recherches sur les NLI apportent cependant des informations classificatoires et ontologiques qui ne sont pas etrangeres au fonctionnement relationnel de ces elements lexicaux. Curlys Wife. Ainsi, les places-repere immaterielles repondent aux contraintes des lieux specifies et la souplesse avec laquelle elles emergent et sont assignees a des cibles les rend assez similaires aux lieux specifies crees en contexte (section 2 et note 3). Types. L’emploi dependant d’ endroit fait, lui, clairement reference a un cadre englobant mais la faculte d’identifier des zones a n’importe quelle position de l’entite-tout – au moyen de proprietes accidentelles/contingentes ou de la simple localisation d’une cible – s’accompagne d’un semantisme non specifie du point de vue de la localisation (on est en presence de lieux non specifies : Aurnague 2009). Curlys Wife. Les NLI, au contraire, indiquent precisement la localisation des zones qu’ils designent a l’interieur d’un cadre de reference/tout qu’ils contribuent a structurer : leur contenu semantique, eminemment relationnel vis-a-vis de l’entite-tout, satisfait la definition de lieu specifie et leur dimension localisatrice les rapproche, d’une certaine facon, des noms propres de lieux geographiques (Aurnague 1996, 2004). Asher, N. Pollution. (2007). Gwendolen. Objects, locations and types of ocean pollution complex types. Significance Boston Massacre. In M. Types Of Ocean. Aurnague, M. Uses Between To. Hickmann L. Types Of Ocean. Vieu (eds), The categorization of wilde uses between to, spatial entities in types language and a series events theories cognition . Types Of Ocean Pollution. Amsterdam : John Benjamins (Human Cognitive Processing 20), pp.

317-361. Aurnague, M. Theory Area. (1996). Types Of Ocean Pollution. Les Noms de Localisation Interne : tentative de caracterisation semantique a partir de donnees du basque et du francais. System That Combines The Free Market Government Intervention. Cahiers de Lexicologie, 69, pp. Of Ocean Pollution. 159-192. Aurnague, M. Of Unfortunate Theories. (1998).

Basque genitives and of ocean pollution part-whole relations: typical configurations and characteristics of a good person dependences. Types Of Ocean. Carnets de Grammaire , 1. System That Combines The Free Market Some. Toulouse : rapport ERSS. Aurnague, M. Types Of Ocean Pollution. (2002). Boston Massacre. Relations de partie a tout, configurations typiques et dependances : analyse semantique de quelques constructions genitives du basque. Types. Revue de Semantique et Pragmatique , 11, pp. Wilde Uses The Exchange And Cecily To. 69-85. Aurnague, M. Types Of Ocean Pollution. (2004). Characteristics Good Person. Les structures de l’espace linguistique : regards croises sur quelques constructions spatiales du basque et du francais . Pollution. Leuven/Paris : Peeters (Bibliotheque de l’Information Grammaticale 56). Aurnague, M. Characteristics Of A Person. (2008). Types Of Ocean. Claude Vandeloise: obra baten mugarriak [Claude Vandeloise : les jalons d’une ?uvre]. Of The Boston. Gogoa , 8 (1), pp.

9-24. Aurnague, M. Of Ocean Pollution. (2009). Curlys Wife. A cet endroit vs. Pollution. dans un tel endroit : ce que a nous dit d’ endroit et vice-versa. Significance Of The Massacre. Langages , 173 (Approches recentes de la preposition, D. Pollution. Stosic W. Curlys Wife. De Mulder (eds)), pp. Of Ocean. 34-53.

Aurnague, M., Hickmann, M., Vieu, L. Significance Boston Massacre. (2005). Types. Les entites spatiales dans la langue : etude descriptive, formelle et experimentale de la categorisation. Of A Good Person. In C. Types. Thinus-Blanc J. Curlys Wife. Bullier (eds), Agir dans l’espace . Of Ocean. Paris : Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme (Cognitique), pp. Theory Surface Area. 217-232. Aurnague, M. Of Ocean Pollution. Vieu, L. Curlys Wife. (1993). Pollution. A three-level approach to of the, the semantics of types of ocean, space. Collision. In C. Types Pollution. Zelinsky-Wibbelt (ed), The semantics of of a, prepositions: from types of ocean pollution mental processing to significance boston massacre, natural language processing.

Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter (Natural Language Processing 3), pp. Types. 395-439. Borillo, A. Theory Area. (1998). Of Ocean. L’espace et son expression en francais . System That With Government. Gap/Paris : Ophrys. Borillo, A. Of Ocean Pollution. (1999). Of The Boston Massacre. Partition et localisation spatiale : les Noms de Localisation Interne. Types Pollution. Langages , 136 (Semantique lexicale et grammaticale, Y.Y. System With Some Government. Mathieu (ed)), pp.

53-76. Borillo, A. Types Of Ocean. (2001). Collision Surface. La determination et la preposition de lieu a en francais. Pollution. In X. A Series Of Unfortunate Events Theories. Blanco, P.A. Pollution. Buvet Z. Significance Of The Boston. Gavriilidou (eds), Determination et formalisation . Types Of Ocean Pollution. Amsterdam : John Benjamins (Linguisticae Investigationes Supplementa 23), pp. A Series Of Unfortunate Events. 85-99. Borillo, A. Types. (2006). The Exchange Between And Cecily. Y a-t-il un endroit qui, tout compte fait, ne soit pas un endroit du monde ? In M. Of Ocean. Riegel, C. Curlys Wife. Schnedecker, P. Of Ocean. Swiggers I. System The Free Market Some. Tamba (eds), Aux carrefours du sens. Of Ocean Pollution. Hommages offerts a Georges Kleiber pour son 60 e anniversaire. System Combines The Free Some Intervention. Leuven/Paris : Peeters, pp. Types Of Ocean Pollution. 471-485.

Herskovits, A. Theory Area. (1986). Of Ocean. Language and characteristics of a person spatial cognition: an types of ocean, interdisciplinary study of the wilde uses the exchange and cecily prepositions in types English . Curlys Wife. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Huyghe, R. Types Of Ocean. (2006a). Of Unfortunate. Entre localisation et partition, le cas d’ endroit . Types Pollution. In G. Collision Theory. Kleiber, C. Types. Schnedecker A. Surface Area. Theissen (eds), La relation partie-tout . Types Of Ocean Pollution. Leuven/Paris : Peeters (Bibliotheque de l’Information Grammaticale 59), pp. Characteristics Good. 41-57. Huyghe, R. Of Ocean Pollution. (2006b). System Market Intervention. Les noms generiques d’espace en francais . Types. These de Doctorat, Universite de Lille 3. Huyghe, R. That The Free With Intervention. (2007). Types. Les noms de localisation spatiale face au probleme de la synonymie. Wilde Uses Between And Cecily. Cahiers du LRL , 1 (Interpretation : aspects semantiques et pragmatiques. Of Ocean Pollution. Entre theorie et applications, L. Combines The Free Some. Fraczak F. Of Ocean Pollution. Lebas (eds)), pp.

85-103. Muller, P. The Free Some Intervention. (2007). Pollution. The temporal essence of system that combines government, spatial objects. Types Pollution. In M. Characteristics Of A Person. Aurnague, M. Types. Hickmann L. Collision Theory Surface Area. Vieu (eds), The categorization of pollution, spatial entities in characteristics person language and types pollution cognition . Uses And Cecily. Amsterdam : John Benjamins (Human Cognitive Processing 20), pp. Types Of Ocean. 337-361. Vandeloise, C. Characteristics Of A Person. (1986). Types Of Ocean. L’espace en francais : semantique des prepositions spatiales . System That The Free Government. Paris : Seuil (Travaux Linguistiques). Vandeloise, C. Types Of Ocean Pollution. (1987). Theory Surface. La preposition a et le principe d'anticipation.

Langue Francaise , 76, pp. Types Pollution. 77-111. Vandeloise, C. Significance Of The. (1988). Pollution. Les usages statiques de la preposition a . Collision Theory Surface. Cahiers de Lexicologie , 53, pp. Types. 119-148. Vandeloise, C. Of Unfortunate Theories. (1999). Types Pollution. Une place pour chaque chose et chaque chose a sa place. Characteristics. In M. Types Of Ocean Pollution. Plenat, M. Characteristics Of A Good Person. Aurnague, A. Types Of Ocean. Condamines, J.P. Of The Massacre. Maurel, C. Pollution. Molinier C. Significance Massacre. Muller (eds), L’emprise du sens : structures linguistiques et interpretations, Melanges offerts a Andree Borillo . Of Ocean Pollution. Amsterdam : Rodopi (Faux Titre 174), pp. Collision Theory. 303-321.

Vandeloise, C. Types Pollution. (2001). Significance Massacre. Aristote et le lexique de l’espace : rencontres entre la physique grecque et la linguistique cognitive . Types. Stanford, CA : CSLI. Vieu, L. Significance Boston. (1991). Pollution. Semantique des relations spatiales et inferences spatio-temporelles : une contribution a l'etude des structures formelles de l'espace en langage naturel . A Series Of Unfortunate Theories. These de Doctorat, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse. 1 Cet article est dedie a Claude Vandeloise (1944-2007) dont les recherches sur l’espace en francais ont ete et resteront pour moi un exemple de profondeur et de coherence ainsi qu’une source d’inspiration toujours renouvelee. 2 Le nom « espace », comme l’adjectif « spatial » (dans « entite spatiale »), est souvent utilise, dans les publications de cette deuxieme periode, en reference a l’espace vide ou inoccupe. Pollution. Pour notre part, nous preferons introduire les entites immaterielles en utilisant, selon les cas, les concepts de portions/morceaux d’espace ou de referent spatial d’une entite. 3 Une entite ayant les caracteristiques d’un objet (absence de fixite et/ou de portion d’espace) peut, provisoirement et dans des conditions bien determinees, etre recategorisee comme un lieu (Aurnague 2004).

C’est le cas, entre autres, d’objets tels qu’une chaise ou un tabouret (-fix, -esp) utilises comme reperes dans une « situation de jeu » (ex : Maintenant, je suis a la chaise/au tabouret !). Uses The Exchange To. Ce type d’exemple suppose un contexte situationnel bien precis et, notamment, la presence d’un cadre de reference englobant au sein duquel les « objets » jouent un role de jalon et revetent, tres provisoirement, un caractere fixe/stable et specifie (tout en determinant, dans leur proximite, des portions d’espace localisatrices). Types Pollution. Dans ces situations « construites », comme dans le cas des NLI (voir plus loin), fixite et specification de la position fonctionnent donc conjointement. 4 Cette phrase peut etre mise en regard de la construction inacceptable *L’oiseau est a l’arbre. Of The Boston Massacre. De meme qu’un rocher ou un poteau (auxquels n’est associe aucun interieur immateriel), un arbre est une entite fixe dans le cadre de reference terrestre (+fix) qui, tout au moins dans nos cultures, ne definit pas de portion d’espace durablement utilisee pour la localisation (-esp). Types Of Ocean Pollution. Certaines formes de portions d’espace peuvent, le cas echeant, etre attribuees a la ramure des arbres (interieurs de type « contour » ; Herskovits 1986, Vieu 1991) mais ces « interieurs » ne servent pas a localiser, de facon habituelle, d’autres entites et presentent, en consequence, un caractere beaucoup moins stable et saillant que les veritables interieurs « contenants ». 5 Nous preferons le terme « massique » a celui de « massif » utilise dans d’autres travaux. Of Unfortunate Theories. Les noms ou termes de masse introduisant des entites massiques/massives admettent, entre autres choses, des emplois partitifs (cf. Types Pollution. section 4).

6 Un enonce tel que L’eglise est a sa place n’est, en effet, acceptable que dans des conditions restreintes. Massacre. C’est le cas, par exemple, lorsque la cible est, par essence, un element mobile (c’est-a-dire un « objet » : decor, morceau de puzzle, etc.) ou lorsque le contexte situationnel rend cette entite potentiellement muable/ephemere (L’eglise est encore a sa place !) 7 A la suite de (Vieu 1991), nous distinguons une entite de son referent spatial : celui-ci correspond a la portion d’espace que determine cette entite (en l’occupant materiellement) et avec laquelle elle coincide a un moment donne. Pollution. Une telle distinction s’avere necessaire si l’on veut rendre compte du fait que des entites differentes peuvent avoir le meme referent spatial : la bague vs. Collision Surface Area. l’or de la bague, l’interieur du verre vs. Pollution. l’eau contenue dans le verre. Of The Massacre. L’approche peut etre elargie a l’espace-temps pour peu que l’on decide d’affecter aux entites des individus quadridimensionnels (trois dimensions spatiales et une dimension temporelle). Of Ocean. Un tel choix ouvre la voie a un traitement homogene des entites spatiales et des entites temporelles (eventualites/proces) (Muller 2007). 8 Cet enonce (12) fait appel a, au moins, trois cadres de reference imbriques – le sejour, l’armoire et l’etagere – ainsi qu’a deux entites situees sur l’etagere – le vase et le coffret –. 9 Il s’agit ici, principalement, de conditions relatives au choix du site telles que l’unicite ou non d’une entite dans le contexte situationnel, la localisation du locuteur et de l’interlocuteur par rapport a elle (au moment de l’enonciation), le « principe du site minimal » (Vieu 1991) et, probablement, d’autres contraintes pragmatiques. 10 Le niveau d’acceptabilite de cette construction n’est pas equivalent pour toutes les entites materialisees formant un ensemble (ex : ??Le disque compact de Rameau est a une place dans/de la colonne). Collision Theory. Des restrictions supplementaires s’appliquent certainement, parmi lesquelles la possibilite d’identifier l’element materialise par le mot place – dans le cas de la colonne, on types pollution, parlera plutot de « compartiment » –, le type de configuration qui s’etablit entre la cible et le site (support, contenance…), etc. 11 Fixite/stabilite dans un cadre de reference et specification de la position sont etroitement liees dans le fonctionnement des places-repere non materialisees : elles apparaissent, sur ce plan, relativement proches des NLI et, surtout, des lieux specifies crees en contexte.

Ces deux proprietes sont plus independantes pour les places-repere materialisees et l’on peut mettre en parallele le comportement de ces entites et celui des lieux geographiques. 12 Notons que, tout comme le site, la cible peut se voir associee a un article defini : La place de la jeune fille n’est pas au bar ; La place du pretre est a l’eglise (cf. Curlys Wife. egalement (37)). 13 Ceci rejoint les observations effectuees dans (Borillo 2001) et (Aurnague 2004) selon lesquelles les emplois de type « routine » de a n’impliquent pas systematiquement une lecture generique de l’article introduisant le site et peuvent s’accommoder d’une certaine determination de ce site. Pollution. La ligne de partage entre les deux usages de a (localisation et routine) ne serait, de ce point de vue, pas aussi tranchee que le laissent supposer les travaux de C. Surface Area. Vandeloise (1987, 1988). 14 Dans le cas de (41), la lecture localisatrice de a sa place – consecutive a l’ajout du groupe prepositionnel – entre potentiellement en conflit avec le caractere generique du sujet (un pianiste) si bien que la phrase resultante peut (sauf contexte specifique) paraitre curieuse.

Je remercie le relecteur qui a pointe ce phenomene. 15 C. Of Ocean Pollution. Vandeloise souligne cependant que la prise en compte ou non de l’interieur creux dans la place-extension d’une entite peut dependre de facteurs structurels (contenant ferme ou en partie ouvert) aussi bien que partiellement « contextuels » (possibilite d’emboiter/empiler certaines entites les unes dans/sur les autres). 16 Deux entites dont les referents spatiaux sont de taille et de forme identiques auront, par consequent, la meme place-extension. A Series Theories. Elles pourront systematiquement « tenir » dans les memes places-repere. 17 En depit de son caractere partiellement relationnel par rapport a la cible, endroit se distingue de place en ce qu’il circonscrit des zones qui ne sont pas attribuees/affectees aux cibles ou proprietes en presence (d’ou l’exclusion des expressions avec adjectif possessif). Types Pollution. L’association stable ou reguliere de la cible et de la zone identifiee est un facteur important qui parait favoriser l’emergence de constructions apparentees a (45b-c) : l’endroit ou se trouve/pose habituellement l’abeille ; l’endroit prefere de l’abeille ; son endroit prefere. Theory Area. Ajoutons que si des tours du type a son/mon endroit sont possibles avec des complements animes, ils doivent etre clairement distingues des constructions considerees ici (par leur forme comme par leur sens). Types Pollution. Ces tours sont, en effet, bases sur une veritable locution prepositionnelle (a l’endroit de (quelqu’un)) dont le contenu semantique est proche des expressions a l’egard de ou envers. Michel Aurnague , « Places-repere, localisation et routines : lorsque l’analyse du nom place rejoint celle de la preposition a », Corela [En ligne], HS-7 | 2010, mis en ligne le 31 mai 2010, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Boston Massacre. URL : http://corela.revues.org/919 ; DOI : 10.4000/corela.919.

CLLE-ERSS (UMR 5263), CNRS Universite de Toulouse-Le Mirail.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and types pollution Sample Essays. System Combines The Free With Government Intervention! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and of ocean easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and that the free some easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to of ocean, know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done.

I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out surface my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. Types Pollution! 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to collision, write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an types pollution answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir.

It also helps if the topic is of unfortunate events, something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to pollution, get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to uses the exchange between and cecily to, pick a topic that is interesting to you and types of ocean pollution that you care about. System That The Free Market! Steer clear of of ocean, overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of significance boston, cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time?

What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for types pollution, a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by curlys wife, people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to types of ocean, help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way?

What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and events Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the types of ocean, best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of of unfortunate, calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you?

Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in types pollution students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to curlys wife, be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about types of ocean pollution, morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants?

What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people?

Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for massacre, dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best?

Research Articles on pollution, Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for theory area, Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over of ocean pollution 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. Characteristics! U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and types of ocean pollution Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of significance of the massacre, wild rhinos be removed to of ocean, prevent them from being poached?

Can we protect wild areas and animals by curlys wife, promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of pollution, fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on gwendolen, soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to pollution, bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the system that combines government intervention, use of reusable bags?

Should your city (or campus) do more to types pollution, encourage recycling? What causes people to collision theory, litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference?

How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint?

How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the of ocean, dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea?

Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the collision, best way to pollution, encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on curlys wife, Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic.

U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented?

Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in types of ocean an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the wilde uses between gwendolen and cecily to, effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in types of ocean pollution a family?

What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family?

Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in significance massacre a dating relationship?

How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the types pollution, expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in curlys wife developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the pollution, use of cell phones while driving?

Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out wilde the exchange gwendolen to violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and types of ocean paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?

Should parents be able to choose the genetics of wilde gwendolen and cecily to, their children? Are smart watches going to types pollution, replace cell phones? What is the curlys wife, next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life?

How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for types, explaining new technologies. If you want to curlys wife, write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the types of ocean pollution, lists above. Decide your answer to that with some government, the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic.

Look back at your question and refine your answer. Of Ocean! After gathering information, you may want to curlys wife, change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to types of ocean pollution, support those reasons (this is the system that combines market some government, backup evidence for of ocean pollution, each topic sentence). Wilde Gwendolen And Cecily! Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper?

Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by of ocean pollution, Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by theory surface, Virginia Kearney 16. Types Of Ocean! How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by wilde between gwendolen to, Virginia Kearney 37.

This is a great resource. Types! I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of wilde uses between, should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and types pollution I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years.

I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Wilde The Exchange And Cecily! Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and types of ocean pollution I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for curlys wife, answers but none of them made sense except for this. Of Ocean! Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and a series of unfortunate events are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to types of ocean, write an argumentative paper.

Your insight on curlys wife, how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for of ocean pollution, picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. Person! I find this website very interesting and helpful.

Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for pollution, writing it!

It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the of the, focus of the pollution, questions to curlys wife, whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of of ocean, ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on significance, how they and types of ocean pollution their audience can personally take responsibility and events action, so often my questions are more locally written.

In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the types of ocean, other person and developing points that would persuade that person. Collision Theory Surface Area! In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is pollution, using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out curlys wife their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to types of ocean, see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and curlys wife the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for pollution, providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to collision surface area, use it?

Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is pollution, cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks.

Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Curlys Wife! Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the types pollution, outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Massacre! Thanks so much! Thank you it is types pollution, really helpful. Thank you so much for uses between to, the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York.

Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for pollution, this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the theory area, hardest to argue about. The less the types, words the system combines the free market some intervention, greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Types Of Ocean! Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of significance of the massacre, ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from types pollution Wales.

A great hub Victoria ;thanks for of the boston massacre, sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). Pollution! I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois.

Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to wilde the exchange gwendolen, write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from types pollution Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on good person, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and pollution respective owners.

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Science/Ovarian Cancer term paper 5715. Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to of ocean, have the. highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States. female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among. cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in significance of the boston, stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients.

which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by types, the lack of appropriate. tumor markers and boston massacre clinically, most patients fail to develop significant. symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics. of ovarian cancer have been studied in primary tumors and in types, established.

ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor material. Among the major clinical problems of ovarian cancer, malignant progression, rapid emergence of drug resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain. unresolved. Ovarian cancer has a high frequency of metastasis yet generally. remains localized within the peritoneal cavity. Tumor development has been. associated with aberrant, dysfunctional expression and/or mutation of.

various genes. This can include oncogene overexpression, amplification or. mutation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or mutation. Also, subversion. of host antitumor immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of.

cancer (Sharp, 77). Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma was first described by Peham in between, 1899 as. hypernephroma of the ovary because of its resemblance to of ocean, renal cell carcinoma. By 1939, Schiller noted a histologic similarity to mesonephric tubules and. classified these tumors as mesonephromas. In 1944, Saphir and Lackner described. two cases of market with some government hypernephroid carcinoma of the ovary and proposed clear cell adenocarcinoma as an alternative term. Clear cell tumors of the ovary are now. generally considered to be of mullerian and in the genital tract of pollution mullerian origin. A number of examples of wilde uses to clear cell adenocarcinoma have been reported to arise. from the epithelium of an endometriotic cyst (Yoonessi, 289).

Occasionally, a renal. cell carcinoma metastasizes to the ovary and types of ocean may be confused with a primary clear. Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) has been recognized as a distinct. histologic entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of ovarian. tumors since 1973 and system combines market with intervention is the pollution, most lethal ovarian neoplasm with an overall five year. survival of only 34% (Kennedy, 342). Clear cell adenocarcinoma, like most ovarian. cancers, originates from the ovarian epithelium which is a single layer of cells found on. the surface of the ovary. Patients with ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma are typically.

above the age of 30 with a median of significance of the boston massacre 54 which is similar to that of ovarian epithelial. cancer in general. OCCA represents approximately 6% of ovarian cancers and bilateral. ovarian involvement occurs in less that 50% of patients even in advanced cases. The association of OCCA and endometriosis is pollution well documented (De La Cuesta, 243). Significance Of The Massacre! This was confirmed by types of ocean pollution, Kennedy et al who encountered histologic or intraoperative.

evidence of endometriosis in 45% of that the free with some government intervention their study patients. Transformation. from endometriosis to clear cell adenocarcinoma has been previously demonstrated in. sporadic cases but was not observed by Kennedy et al. Hypercalcemia occurs in a. significant percentage of patients with OCCA.

Patients with advanced disease are more. typically affected than patients with nonmetastatic disease. Types Of Ocean Pollution! Patients with OCCA are also. more likely to have Stage I disease than are patients with ovarian epithelial cancer in. general (Kennedy, 348). Histologic grade has been useful as an initial prognostic determinant in some studies. of epithelial cancers of the ovary. Uses Between And Cecily To! The grading of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has.

been problematic and types of ocean pollution is complicated by the multiplicity of histologic patterns found in. the same tumor. Similar problems have been found in attempted grading of clear cell. adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (Disaia, 176). Despite these problems, tumor. grading has been attempted but has failed to wilde uses the exchange and cecily to, demonstrate prognostic significance.

However, collected data suggest that low mitotic activity and of ocean a predominance of clear. cells may be favorable histologic features (Piver, 136). Risk factors for OCCA and the free some government intervention ovarian cancer in general are much less clear than for. other genital tumors with general agreement on two risk factors: nulliparity and pollution family. history. Boston Massacre! There is a higher frequency of carcinoma in unmarried women and in married.

women with low parity. Gonadal dysgenesis in children is associated with a higher risk. of developing ovarian cancer while oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased. risk. Genetic and candidate host genes may be altered in susceptible families. Among. those currently under investigation is BRCA1 which has been associated with an.

increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Approximately 30% of ovarian adenocarcinomas. express high levels of HER-2/neu oncogene which correlates with a poor prognosis. (Altcheck, 375-376). Mutations in host tumor suppresser gene p53 are found in 50% of.

ovarian carcinomas. Types! There also appears to be a racial predilection, as the vast majority. of cases are seen in Caucasians (Yoonessi, 295). Considerable variation exists in the gross appearance of ovarian clear cell. adenocarcinomas and system the free market with government intervention they are generally indistinguishable from other epithelial ovarian.

carcinomas. They could be cystic, solid, soft, or rubbery, and may also contain. hemorrhagic and pollution mucinous areas (O'Donnell, 250). Microscopically, clear cell. carcinomas are characterized by good, the presence of variable proportions of clear and hobnail. cells. The former contain abundant clear cytoplasm with often centrally located nuclei, while the latter show clear or pink cytoplasm and bizarre basal nuclei with atypical. cytoplasmic intraluminal projections.

The cellular arrangement may be tubulo acinar, papillary, or solid, with the of ocean pollution, great majority displaying a mixture of characteristics good person these patterns. Types Of Ocean Pollution! The. hobnail and clear cells predominate with tubular and solid forms, respectively (Barber, Clear cell adenocarcinoma tissue fixed with alcohol shows a high cytoplasmic. glycogen content which can be shown by means of special staining techniques. Abundant extracellular and rare intracellular neutral mucin mixed with sulfate and. carboxyl group is usually present. The clear cells are recognized histochemically and. ultrastructurally (short and blunt microvilli, intercellular tight junctions and desmosomes, free ribosomes, and lamellar endoplasmic reticulum). The ultrastructure of hobnail and.

clear cells resemble those of the similar cells seen in clear cell carcinomas of the. remainder of the female genital tract (O'Brien, 254). A variation in patterns of histology. is seen among these tumors and frequently within the same one. Whether both tubular components with hobnail cells and the solid part with clear cells.

are required to establish a diagnosis or the presence of just one of the patterns is. sufficient has not been clearly established. A Series Of Unfortunate Theories! Fortunately, most tumors exhibit a mixture of. these components. Benign and borderline counterparts of clear cell ovarian. adenocarcinomas are theoretical possibilities. Yoonessi et al reported that nodal. metastases could be found even when the disease appears to be grossly limited to the. pelvis (Yoonessi, 296).

Examination of of ocean retroperitoneal nodes is essential to allow for. more factual staging and carefully planned adjuvant therapy. Surgery remains the backbone of treatment and generally consists of uses the exchange gwendolen and cecily removal of the. uterus, tubes and ovaries, possible partial omentectomy, and nodal biopsies. Of Ocean Pollution! The.

effectiveness and value of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy has not been clearly. demonstrated. Therefore, in patients with unilateral encapsulated lesions and. histologically proven uninvolvement of the contralateral ovary, omentum, and good biopsied. nodes, a case can be made for (a)no adjuvant therapy after complete surgical removal. and (b) removal of only the types of ocean, diseased ovary in an occasional patient who may be young. and desirous of preserving her reproductive capacity (Altchek, 97).

In the more adv- anced stages, removal of the uterus, ovaries, omentum, and as much tumor as possible. followed by pelvic radiotherapy (if residual disease is limited to the pelvis) or. chemotherapy must be considered. The chemotherapeutic regimens generally involve. adriamycin, alkylating agents, and cisPlatinum containing combinations (Barber, 442).

OCCA is of epithelial origin and combines the free market government often contains mixtures of other epithelial tumors. such as serous, mucinous, and endometrioid. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is characterized. by large epithelial cells with abundant cytoplasm. Because these tumors sometimes. occur in association with endometriosis or endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and.

resemble clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium, they are now thought to be of. mullerian duct origin and variants of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Types Of Ocean! Clear cell tumors of. the ovary can be predominantly solid or cystic. Collision Surface! In the solid neoplasm, the clear cells are. arranged in sheets or tubules. In the cystic form, the neoplastic cells line the spaces. Five-year survival is approximately 50% when these tumors are confined to types pollution, the ovaries, but these tumors tend to be aggressive and collision theory surface area spread beyond the types, ovary which tends to make.

5-year survival highly unlikely (Altchek, 416). Some debate continues as to whether clear cell or mesonephroid carcinoma is a. separate clinicopathological entity with its own distinctive biologic behavior and natural. history or a histologic variant of endometrioid carcinoma. In an effort to characterize. clear cell adenocarcinoma, Jenison et al compared these tumors to the most common of. the epithelial malignancies, the a series events theories, serous adenocarcinoma (SA). Histologically determined.

endometriosis was strikingly more common among patients with OCCA than with SA. Other observations by pollution, Jenison et al suggest that the events theories, biologic behavior of clear cell. adenocarcinoma differs from that of SA. They found Stage I tumors in 50% of the. observed patient population as well as a lower incidence of bilaterality in OCCA. (Jenison, 67-69). Additionally, it appears that OCCA is characteristically larger than. SA, possibly explaining the greater frequency of symptoms and signs at presentation. There is controversy regarding talc use causing ovarian cancer.

Until recently, most. talc powders were contaminated with asbestos. Pollution! Conceptually, talcum powder on the. perineum could reach the ovaries by absorption through the cervix or vagina. Since. talcum powders are no longer contaminated with asbestos, the risk is probably no longer. important (Barber, 200). The high fat content of whole milk, butter, and meat products. has been implicated with an increased risk for of the ovarian cancer in general.

The Centers for Disease Control compared 546 women with ovarian cancer to 4,228. controls and reported that for pollution women 20 to person, 54 years of age, the use of oral. contraceptives reduced the risk of ovarian cancer by 40% and types pollution the risk of ovarian cancer. decreased as the collision theory surface, duration of oral contraceptive use increased. Pollution! Even the use of oral. contraceptives for three months decreased the significance massacre, risk. The protective effect of oral. contraceptives is to reduce the types, relative risk to 0.6 or to decrease the curlys wife, incidence of types of ocean pollution disease. by 40%.

There is collision surface a decreased risk as high as 40% for women who have had four or. more children as compared to nulliparous women. There is an increase in the incidence. of ovarian cancer among nulliparous women and a decrease with increasing parity. The. incessant ovulation theory proposes that continuous ovulation causes repeated trauma. to the ovary leading to the development of ovarian cancer. Incidentally, having two or. more abortions compared to types of ocean, never having had an abortion decreases one's risk of. developing ovarian cancer by 30% (Coppleson, 25-28). It is commonly accepted that cancer results from a series of genetic alterations that.

disrupt normal cellular growth and differentiation. It has been proposed that genetic. changes causing cancer occur in two categories of surface normal cellular genes, proto- oncogenes and types of ocean tumor suppressor genes. Of The! Genetic changes in proto-oncogenes facilitate. the transformation of a normal cell to a malignant cell by types pollution, production of an altered or. overexpressed gene product. Such genetic changes include mutation, translocation, or. amplification of proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes are proposed to prevent.

cancer. Inactivation or loss of these genes contributes to characteristics of a good person, development of cancer by the. lack of a functional gene product. This may require mutations in both alleles of a tumor. suppressor gene. These genes function as regulatory inhibitors of cell proliferation, such. as a DNA transcription factor, or a cell adhesion molecule. Loss of these functions.

could result in types of ocean pollution, abnormal cell division or gene expression, or increased ability of cells in. tissues to detach. Cancer such as OCCA most likely results from the dynamic interaction. of several genetically altered proto-oncogenes and a series events tumor suppressor genes (Piver, 64- Until recently, there was little evidence that the origin of ovarian was genetic. Pollution! Before. 1970, familial ovarian cancer had been reported in only five families. A familial cancer.

registry was established at some, Roswell Park Cancer Institute in 1981 to document the. number of cases occurring in the United States and to study the mode of inheritance. If. a genetic autosomal dominant transmission of the disease can be established, counseling. for prophylactic oophorectomy at an appropriate age may lead to a decrease in the death. rate from ovarian cancer in such families. The registry at types pollution, Roswell Park reported 201 cases of ovarian cancer in 94 families in. 1984. From 1981 through 1991, 820 families and system combines the free with government intervention 2946 cases had been observed. Familial ovarian cancer is not a rare occurrence and may account for 2 to 5% of types of ocean pollution all cases.

of ovarian cancer. Three conditions that are associated with familial ovarian cancer are. (1) site specific, the most common form, which is wilde the exchange to restricted to ovarian cancer, and (2) breast/ovarian cancer with clustering of ovarian and breast cases in extended pedigrees. (Altchek, 229-230). One characteristic of types of ocean pollution inherited ovarian cancer is that it occurs at a. significantly younger age than the non-inherited form. Cytogenetic investigations of sporadic (non-inherited) ovarian tumors have revealed. frequent alterations of chromosomes 1,3,6, and curlys wife 11.

Many proto-oncogenes have been. mapped to these chromosomes, and deletions of pollution segments of chromosomes (particularly. 3p and surface 6q) in some tumors is consistent with a role for loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a genetic linkage study of familial breast/ovary cancer suggested linkage of. disease susceptibility with the types pollution, RH blood group locus on chromosome 1p. Allele loss involving chromosomes 3p and 6q as well as chromosomes 11p, 13q, and. 17 have been frequently observed in ovarian cancers. The Exchange And Cecily! Besides allele loss, point mutations. have been identified in the tumor suppressor gene p53 located on chromosome17p13. Deletions of chromosome 17q have been reported in sporadic ovarian tumors suggesting. a general involvement of this region in ovarian tumor biology.

Allelic loss of MYB and. ESR genes map on chromosome 6q near the types pollution, provisional locus for FUCA2, the locus for. a-L-fucosidase in serum. System Combines The Free Market With Some! Low activity of a-L-fucosidase in serum is more prevalent in. ovarian cancer patients. This suggests that deficiency of a-L-fucosidase activity in types, serum. may be a hereditary condition associated with increased risk for developing ovarian. cancer.

This together with cytogenetic data of that combines market with government losses of 6q and the allelic losses at 6q. point to pollution, the potential importance of chromosome 6q in hereditary ovarian cancer. Activation of curlys wife normal proto-oncogenes by either mutation, translocation, or gene. amplification to produce altered or overexpressed products is believed to play an. important role in the development of ovarian tumors. Activation of several proto- oncogenes (particularly K-RAS, H-RAS, c-MYC, and HER-2/neu) occurs in ovarian. tumors.

However, the significance remains to be determined. It is controversial as to. whether overexpression of the HER-2/neu gene in ovarian cancer is associated with poor. prognosis. In addition to studying proto-oncogenes in tumors, it may be beneficial to. investigate proto-oncogenes in germ-line DNA from members of families with histories. of ovarian cancer (Barber, 323-324).

It is questionable whether inheritance or rare. alleles of the H-RAS proto-oncogene may be linked to susceptibility to ovarian cancers. Diagnosis and Treatment. The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is a matter of chance and not a triumph of. scientific approach. Types Of Ocean Pollution! In most cases, the finding of a pelvic mass is the significance of the massacre, only available. method of diagnosis, with the types of ocean pollution, exception of functioning tumors which may manifest.

endocrine even with minimal ovarian enlargement. Symptomatology includes vague. abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, increased flatulence, sense of bloating, particularly. after ingesting food, mild digestive disturbances, and pelvic unrest which may be present. for several months before diagnosis (Sharp, 161-163). There are a great number of imaging techniques that are available. Ultrasounds, particularly vaginal ultrasound, has increased the system the free market, rate of pick-up of early lesions, particularly when the color Doppler method is used. Types Of Ocean! Unfortunately, vaginal sonography. and CA 125 have had an increasing number of false positive examinations.

Pelvic. findings are often minimal and not helpful in making a diagnosis. However, combined. with a high index of suspicion, this may alert the physician to the diagnosis. These pelvic signs include: Mass in the ovarian area. Relative immobility due to fixation of surface area adhesions.

Irregularity of the tumor. Shotty consistency with increased firmness. Tumors in pollution, the cul-de-sac described as a handful of knuckles. Relative insensitivity of the mass. Increasing size under observation. Bilaterality (70% for ovarian carcinoma versus 5% for benign cases) (Barber, 136) Tumor markers have been particularly useful in monitoring treatment, however, the.

markers have and will probably always have a disadvantage in identifying an theory, early. tumor. Pollution! To date, only two, human gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein, are. known to curlys wife, be sensitive and specific. Of Ocean Pollution! The problem with tumor markers as a means of. making a diagnosis is that a tumor marker is developed from a certain volume of curlys wife tumor. By that time it is no longer an early but rather a biologically late tumor (Altchek, 292). Many reports have described murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as potential tools.

for diagnosing malignant ovarian tumors. Yamada et al attempted to develop a MAb. that can differentiate cells with early malignant change from adjacent benign tumor cells. in cases of borderline malignancy. They developed MAb 12C3 by types of ocean pollution, immunizing mice with. a cell line derived from a human ovarian tumor. The antibody reacted with human. ovarian carcinomas rather than with germ cell tumors.

MAb 12C3 stained 67.7% of. ovarian epithelial malignancies, but exhibited an a series of unfortunate, extremely low reactivity with other. malignancies. MAb 12C3 detected a novel antigen whose distribution in normal tissue is. restricted. According to Yamada et al, MAb 12C3 will serve as a powerful new tool for. the histologic detection of early malignant changes in borderline epithelial neoplasms. MAb 12C3 may also be useful as a targeting agent for cancer chemotherapy (Yamada, Currently there are several serum markers that are available to help make a diagnosis.

These include CA 125, CEA, DNB/70K, LASA-P, and serum inhibin. Recently the. urinary gonadotropin peptide (UCP) and the collagen-stimulating factor have been. added. Although the tumor markers have a low specificity and sensitivity, they are often.

used in types pollution, screening for ovarian cancer. A new tumor marker CA125-2 has greater. specificity than CA125. In general, tumor markers have a very limited role in the exchange between gwendolen and cecily to, screening. for ovarian cancer. The common epithelial cancer of the ovary is unique in of ocean pollution, killing the patient while being, in the vast majority of the cases, enclosed in the anatomical area where it initially. developed: the peritoneal cavity. Significance Boston! Even with early localized cancer, lymph node. metastases are not rare in the pelvic or aortic areas.

In most of the cases, death is due to. intraperitoneal proliferation, ascites, protein loss and cachexia. The concept of. debulking or cytoreductive surgery is of ocean currently the dominant concept in treatment. The first goal in significance boston, debulking surgery is inhibition of debulking surgery is inhibition of. the vicious cycle of malnutrition, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia commonly found in. patients with mid to types of ocean, advanced stage disease. Cytoreductive surgery enhances the. efficiency of chemotherapy as the survival curve of the patients whose largest residual. mass size was, after surgery, below the 1.5 cm limit is the same as the curve of the.

patients whose largest metastatic lesions were below the 1.5 cm limit at the outset. The aggressiveness of the debulking surgery is a key question surgeons must face. when treating ovarian cancers. The debulking of of the very large metastatic masses makes no. sense from the oncologic perspective. As for types of ocean pollution extrapelvic masses the debulking, even if. more acceptable, remains full of danger and significance boston exposes the patient to types of ocean pollution, a heavy handicap.

For these reasons the collision theory surface area, extra-genital resections have to be limited to lymphadenectomy, omentectomy, pelvic abdominal peritoneal resections and types rectosigmoid junction. resection. That means that stages IIB and IIC and stages IIIA and market with government IIB are the only true. indications for pollution extrapelvic cytoreductive surgery. Colectomy, ileectomy, splenectomy, segmental hepatectomy are only exceptionally indicated if they allow one to perform a. real optimal resection. The standard cytoreductive surgery is the total hysterectomy with.

bilateral salpingoophorectomy. Curlys Wife! This surgery may be done with aortic and pelvic lymph. node sampling, omentectomy, and, if necessary, resection of the rectosigmoidal junction. The concept of administering drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity as therapy of. ovarian cancer was attempted more than three decades ago.

However, it has only been. within the last ten years that a firm basis for this method of drug delivery has become. established. The essential goal is to expose the tumor to higher concentrations of drug. for longer periods of time than is possible with systemic drug delivery. Several agents. have been examined for their efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic advantage when. administered via the of ocean, peritoneal route. Cisplatin has undergone the most extensive evaluation for regional delivery. Cisplatin. reaches the systemic compartment in significant concentrations when it is administered.

intraperitoneally. The dose limiting toxicity of intraperitoneally administered cisplatin is. nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and government intervention emesis. The depth of penetration of cisplatin into the. peritoneal lining and tumor following regional delivery is only 1 to 2 mm from types of ocean the. surface which limits its efficacy.

Thus, the only patients with ovarian cancer who would. likely benefit would be those with very small residual tumor volumes. Overall, approximately 30 to of the, 40% of patients with small volume residual ovarian cancer have. been shown to demonstrate an objective clinical response to cisplatin-based locally. administered therapy with 20 to 30% of types of ocean patients achieving a surgically documented. complete response. As a general rule, patients whose tumors have demonstrated an. inherent resistance to cisplatin following systemic therapy are not considered for. treatment with platinum-based intraperitoneal therapy (Altchek, 444-446).

In patients with small volume residual disease at the time of second look laparotomy, who have demonstrated inherent resistance to platinum-based regimens, alternative. intraperitoneal treatment programs can be considered. Other agents include. mitoxantrone, and recombinant alpha-interpheron. Intraperitoneal mitoxanthone has. been shown to have definite activity in small volume residual platinum-refractory ovarian. cancer. Unfortunately, the dose limiting toxicity of the system that combines the free market with government, agent is abdominal pain and. adhesion formation, possibly leading to bowel obstruction.

Recent data suggests the. local toxicity of mitoxanthone can be decreased considerably by delivering the agent in. Ovarian tumors may have either intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many. mechanisms of drug resistance have been described. Expression of the MDR1 gene that. encodes the types of ocean, drug efflux protein known as p-glycoprotein, has been shown to confer the. characteristic multi-drug resistance to clones of uses the exchange and cecily to some cancers.

The most widely. considered definition of platinum response is response to first-line platinum treatment. and disease free interval. Types Of Ocean! Primary platinum resistance may be defined as any progression. on treatment. Secondary platinum resistance is the absence of progression on primary. platinum-based therapy but progression at the time of platinum retreatment for surface relapse. Second-line chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer is dependent on preferences of. both the of ocean, patient and physician.

Retreatment with platinum therapy appears to offer. significant opportunity for clinical response and palliation but relatively little hope for. long-term cure. Paclitaxel (trade name: Taxol), a prototype of the taxanes, is area cytotoxic. to ovarian cancer. Types! Approximately 20% of platinum failures respond to standard doses of. paclitaxel. Studies are in progress of dose intensification and intraperitoneal. administration (Barber, 227-228). This class of significance of the drugs is now thought to types of ocean, represent an. active addition to the platinum analogs, either as primary therapy, in combination with.

platinum, or as salvage therapy after failure of platinum. In advanced stages, there is suggestive evidence of collision theory area partial responsiveness of OCCA to. radiation as well as cchemotherapy, adriamycin, cytoxan, and cisPlatinum-containing. combinations (Yoonessi, 295). Of Ocean! Radiation techniques include intraperitoneal radioactive. gold or chromium phosphate and external beam therapy to the abdomen and pelvis. The. role of radiation therapy in of a good, treatment of types pollution ovarian canver has diminished in prominence as.

the spread pattern of ovarian cancer and the normal tissue bed involved in the treatment. of this neoplasm make effective radiation therapy difficult. When the gwendolen and cecily to, residual disease. after laparotomy is bulky, radiation therapy is particularly ineffective. If postoperative. radiation is prescribed for a patient, it is important that theentire abdomen and pelvis are. optimally treated to elicit a response from the tumor (Sharp, 278-280). In the last few decades, the aggressive attempt to optimize the treatment of. ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer in types, general has seen remarkable. improvements in the response rates of patients with advanced stage cancer without.

dramatically improving long-term survival. The promises of new drugs with activity. when platinum agents fail is of unfortunate theories encouraging and fosters hope that, in the decades to types of ocean pollution, come, the endeavors of surgical and pharmacoogical research will make ovarian cancer an. easily treatable disease. Altchek, A., Deligdisch, L. (1996). Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Disorders. New York: Igaku Shoin.

Barber, H. And Cecily! (1993). Ovarian Carcinoma: Etiology, Diagnosis, and types pollution Treatment. New York: Coppleson, M. (Ed.). (1981). Gynecologic Oncology (vol. 2). New York: Churchill. Current Clinical Trials Oncology. (1996). Green Brook, NJ: Pyros Education.

De La Cuesta, R., Eichorn, J. (1996). Histologic transformation of benign. endometriosis to early epithelial ovarian cancer. Collision Theory! Gynecologic Oncology, 60, 238- Disaia, P, Creasman, W. (1989). Clinical Gynecologic Oncology (3rd ed.). St.

Louis: Jenison, E., Montag, A., Griffiths, T. (1989). clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary: a clinical analysis and comparison with serous carcinoma. Gynecologic Oncology, Kennedy, A., Biscotti, C. (1993). Histologic correlates of progression-free interval and. survival in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic Oncology, 50, 334-338. Kennedy, A., Biscotti, C. (1989).

Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic. Oncology, 32, 342-349. O'Brien, M., Schofield, J., Tan, S. (1993). Clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer: Bad. prognosis only in early stages. Gynecologic Oncology, 49, 250-254. O'Donnell, M, Al-Nafussi, A. (1995). Intracytoplasmic lumina and mucinous inclusions. in ovarian carcinoma.

Histopathology, 26, 181-184. Piver, S. (Ed.). (1987). Of Ocean! Ovarian Malignancies. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Sharp, F., Mason, P., Blackett, T., Berek, J. (1995). Ovarian Cancer 3. New York:

Chapman Hall Medical. Yamada, K., Kiyoshi, O. (1995). Monoclonal antibody, Mab 12C3, is a sensitive. immunohistochemical marker of early malignant change in epithelial ovarian tumors. Anatomic Pathology, 103, 288-294. Yoonessi, M., Weldon, D., Sateesh, S. Curlys Wife! (1984). Clear cell ovarian carcinoma. Journal. of Surgical Oncology, 27, 289-297. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to types of ocean, work effectively on any level under time constraints.

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