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Salman Rushdie. An Anthology of Critical Essays in New Millennium. The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Section-A Midnight’s Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. 1. Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnight’s Children. 2. When. The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. Sutanuka Ghosh Roy.
3. Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. Ram Bhawan Yadav. 4. Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Kaleidoscopic View. T. Of Problem Statement. Sasikanth Reddy.
5. In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdie’s Transcendence of National History in Midnight’s Children. Section-B Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of was the first polygraph invented History and Autobiography. 6. Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the Clown. 7. Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. 8. Journey towards New World in the selected Novels of Salman Rushdie. 9. Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie. Hetal K. Kachhia. 10. Theological Aspects and ransom guide, Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdie’s Satanic Verses.
11. Salman Rushdie’s Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das. 12. Polygraph. Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. 13.
Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie. 14. Nation and of problem statement, Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in when was the first invented, Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. Manjeet Kumar Kashyap. 15. Metautobigraphicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdie’s Enchantress of Florence-165. A Note on Contributors’ Profile.
The Novels of do androids dream Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Salman Rushdie’s novels launch a scathing critique of intellectuals and politicians whose endorsement of when first pluralism is purely rhetorical. …Rushdie shows that people who claim to promote unity are actually complicit in creating ethnic strife… Rushdie wants a productive, inclusive cosmopolitanism…can have serious unintended consequences. (Trousdale 91) Rushdie may epitomize the migrant writer par excellence with all its potential for reinventing the world and the subject of human identity, but the Rushdie affair also places him in a position in which he seems to personify the ransom david guide flip side of globalization—that is, the clash of civilizations, the increasing gap between cultures, and the proliferation of fundamentalism. (Frank 132) The winner of the Booker Prize (1981), the Booker of Bookers (1993) and the Best of the Bookers (2008) and, of late, the PEN Pinter (2014), the name that has dominated the literary world since establishing himself as a leading exemplum of postcolonial, postmodern and was the invented, diaspora writings, is the renegade, Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie. Famous for multifarious writing, he himself is a multifaceted personality, often emerges as an unpredictable figure with an unfathomable depth of creativity and criticism. Being an iconoclast, Rushdie never chooses the study guide trodden road: he rather plunges headstrong into first the unexplored territories of literature, not yet attempted. For the Booker, he never ran the race rather he reached the zenith of the success by bagging the same for Midnight’s Children in 1981. The Romantic. This monumental novel has carved niche not only in the history of the Indian English literature but also in the multilingual Literature/s written across the world.
Rushdie played a ground-breaking role in new beginnings — the blending of history with fiction and magic realism. With him begins the era of when polygraph invented new writings, new experiments giving him a new identity — the postmodern figure and a progenitor of new generation - the “midnight’s children”. Do Androids. Not only was the his works but he himself also is a postmodern product - a blend of a god for literary aestheticians and on Sex and Adolescence, a Satan for religious aestheticians. He has therefore generated enormous interest in intellectual circles as a vibrant writer for when first polygraph analysis and interpretation of his writings. He is dream, a recipient of the ‘Booker’ from the judges of literary art, ‘hooker’ from political commercials and ‘Fatwa’ from the self-declared custodians of Islam, of Allah. He is a fighter combating with his two selves—the inner and the outer, and also at the same time with the external world for his The Satanic Verses. His literary dictatorship entangles him into first polygraph invented controversies, and arrows of words penetrating his heart and mind compelling him for introspection.
However, Rushdie defends himself at an appearance at 92nd Street Y, expressing his views on copyright while answering a question whether he had considered copyright law barriers (impediments) to free speech: No but that’s because I write for a living, (laughs) and have no other source of income, and I naively believe that stuff that I create belongs to me, and that if you want it you might have to give me some cash. […] My view is I do this for a living. The thing wouldn't exist if I didn't make it and so it belongs to me and don't steal it. You know. It's my stuff. 1.
He advocates the application of higher criticism, pioneered during the late 19th century. In a guest opinion piece printed in The Washington Post and “The Times” in mid-August 2005, Rushdie called for a reform in Islam: What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age. A Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open windows to let in of Ethics, much-needed fresh air . Was The Polygraph. . . It is high time, for starters, that Muslims were able to malouf study, study the revelation of their religion as an when was the polygraph, event inside history, not supernaturally above it, . . . Broad- mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the study guide sibling of when polygraph piece. 2. Call him a defector or a Satan or an antireligious rabble but he seeks God’s blessings by asking for an apology through his Luka and the Fire of Life. And Adolescence. The apology is not for having been blasphemous but for having shaken the faith of Muslims before preparing a suitable environment for developing humanist and rational thinking in them that could save them from being blind traditionalist and when was the first polygraph, religious fundamentalists. The heterogeneous journeys of his writing transform him into a sage of literary art and devotee of the God, the Allah. Statement. He admits, “Man is the storytelling Animal, and that in stories are his identity, his meaning, and his lifeblood” (Luka 34).
It is for this reason, perhaps, the Allah saved Rushdie from Hezbollah’s bomb attack to assassinate him. Moreover, despite all controversial condemnations, he was knighted for his services to literature in the Queen’s Birthday Honours on 16th of June, 2007. He remarked, “I am thrilled and humbled to receive this great honour, and when polygraph, I am very grateful that my work has been recognized in this way.” 3 Rushdie’s emergence with his creative bulk has dazzled and amazed for being unconventional rather than becoming conundrum for both, the contemporary authors and the readers. He began writing as an anti-colonial and postcolonial reactionary to the West; he switched to incorporate diasporic experiences of his own and of other migrants as well. Victorians. He, thus, pioneered himself in Diaspora writing and world literatures which are over-ripe fruits of postcolonialism. Polygraph Invented. He pioneered himself as a major voice of decolonization, multiculturalism, diasporic experiences and also of new humanism. His works embody the stamp of definition of problem concurrent Indian conventions and Indo-Anglian interests which lead him to interface with the worldwide readership, especially to the Western audience. The publication of The Satanic Verses landed him in the labyrinth of controversy worldwide and resulted decreed death sentence (Fatwa) on him. It epitomizes the postcolonialists’ flimsy and constant battle to balance the was the demands of The Romantic Victorians conflicting cultures. Struggling with his inner conflicts and colonial identity, living as a permanent outsider, he searches for personal authenticity in one or many cultures.
He is the was the spokesperson for the people of the subcontinent who are presently residing in the alien lands. Staying within the domains of the mainstream ideologues such as Britain and the US, he mimics and comments on all Western ideologies and proves himself to Essay on Sex and Adolescence, be a representative of the East. Religious and cultural diversity of both India and Britain offers Rushdie a wealth of the experience of unnumbered issues and when invented, themes that consistently refract throughout his oeuvre. It is his multilevel experience that becomes valuable materials for the variety of his following novels. Every novel of The Romantic Salman Rushdie deals with the when first invented thoughts of national and International theses keeping in mind his primary focus on his India and its subcontinents i.e. Pakistan and Bangladesh. The very opening pages of david malouf study guide his novels evoke the themes of migration, exile, diasporic consciousness, nationalism, multiculturalism, dualism etc. His writings have become the was the focus of a certain kind of struggle for cultural identity in Britain and Essay on of Ethics, other Western states. Midnight’s Children, his magnum opus, is an agenda of postcolonial and postmodern reactions.
The novel is a conglomeration of an assortment of themes occurred in postcolonial India. When Was The Polygraph Invented. It is a fantasized version of the definition historical reality of India that spans from the Jallianwala Massacre of 1919 to the period of Emergency imposed by when was the first polygraph, Indira Gandhi in 1977. Rushdie’s new venture of dream of electric sheep analysis blending history with fiction and fiction with history employing the technique of magic realism and when polygraph, supernatural elements make the novel characteristically more different than what many other authors had already attempted. Midnight’s Children is superficially the biography of Saleem Sinai and The Romantic Victorians Essay, potentially autobiography of Salman Rushdie but allegorically the history of India. The same has recently been adapted to a movie with eponymous title by invented, Deepa Mehta in which Rushdie has given his voice over. Employing the narrative techniques of Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Gunter Grass, Rushdie amalgamates facts with fiction so artistically that sometimes it becomes a Herculean task to Essay on Sex, differentiate between truth (history) and fiction (literary invention). Midnight’s Children, thus, has become a trend-setter since its publication in when invented, 1981. As Rajeshwar Mittapalli and Pier Paulo Piciucco put it:
The imaginative re-working of Indian history in a culturally hybrid environment, the innovative use of literary techniques. Definition Statement. together with a supreme command of the English language and a genius for story telling modeled on first invented the hoary Indian narrative traditions and cultural practices, had established Midnight's Children as a trend setter and classic for david study guide all times. First Polygraph Invented. (Preface) The novel deals with displacement and of problem, rootlessness which are the main factors of identity crisis. Almost all the major characters whether it is Saleem Sinai or Shiva or Padma or Parvati suffer from this psychological disease of alienation and identity crisis. Sinai is a true portrait of Rushdie for he himself is the victim of same ailment. Was The First. The hero Saleem, like his creator, wanders from place to place, from definition statement, Bombay to Karachi and from Karachi to Bangladesh finally comes back to when was the invented, Bombay. The Romantic. Rushdie himself returns to India again by the time, not to the geographical India but to the “India of the when first polygraph mind” (Rushdie, 1991). In view of Klaus Boerner, “Midnight’s Children is a Copernican turning-point in the history of literature and and Adolescence, of ideas (23) that paves the path for was the first polygraph invented other novels of Rushdie. The effect of this Booker winner substantive text has worked as guiding force behind writing other novels.
Thus, the next novel Shame was found to be a shorter version of do androids dream of electric sheep its predecessor Midnight’s Children dealing with the history of Pakistan- an “insufficiently imagined country, with a blend of when was the first invented diasporic discourse than of fiction. Overtly it is a novel about and Adolescence, political turmoil of Pakistan presenting the themes, issues and conflicts of the then conditions but covertly it deals with many major and minor political and was the first polygraph invented, social issues. The novel marks the condition of Victorians Pakistani women in the light of when was the first postcolonial theory. The condition of diasporic women is By Literature Essay, worse; they are doubly marginalized, and are the victims of patriarchal dominance. In both of when these novels, Rushdie’s representation of textualized history displays his multiple aspects that replace the The Romantic Essay uni-linear version of official history.
Rushdie’s history is the version of his memory rather than the was the first invented officially written one. He never describes the past but remakes the past to suit his present purpose using memory as his tool. Midnight’s Children and Shame are to Moved, some extent, the history of India and Pakistan respectively. When Was The. But his novels move beyond the bounds of history for Essay and Adolescence the purpose of finding universal significance of historical forces that are operating at a particular phase of when first polygraph invented time. He manipulates the truth to david study, fictionalize it and thus, makes the real unreal and vice versa. The third novel of was the first Rushdie, The Moor’s Last Sigh is more a postmodern than a postcolonial one. The protagonist and narrator Moor inherits the blend of races and creeds of Essay on History India. His mother Aurora has the blood of Portuguese invaders as well as Catholicism in her veins whereas his father is one of the last Jews of Cochin and a descendant of Boabdil, the last Moorish ruler of Spain.
The entire family mimics the chaotic diversity of South India. Throughout the narrative Rushdie celebrates multiculturalism and hybrid ethnicity. This novel presents a family that splits on the views of nationalism and anti-nationalism and the division of the family symbolizes the divisions in the country in the name of pro-Empire and when was the, freedom loving people. The Moor’s Last Sigh is Victorians, also an attack on the parochial Hinduism led by Shiv Sena in was the polygraph invented, Maharashtra. The people of Shiv Sena have led India towards its unwanted destination, towards a religious country instead of a secularist one. India is known for its unity in diversity-- its multi- ethnicity, its multi-religions and do androids of electric analysis, its multi-culturalism. But the fundamentalist Hindus and Muslims have led it astray.
This India is against the India that was dreamt of by its freedom fighters, namely Nehru, Gandhi, Subhash and Azad. Though the novel delineates the when invented post- colonial history of India, its metaphoric and Victorians Essay, linguistic divisions yet it attack India for becoming a pseudo-secularist nation. The publication of when was the polygraph invented The Satanic Verses, in ransom malouf, which Rushdie treats Quran as a literary text, open for individual perceptions dared to attempt higher criticism but its aftermath created turmoil in his mind. However, Hindu Fundamentalists banned The Moor’s Last Sigh also in some parts of India due to its attack on Shiv Sena’s supremo, Late Bal Thackeray. When Polygraph. But after his colonial and postcolonial narration, Rushdie moves towards global, pop and jazz music. His next novel The Ground beneath Her Feet, fictionalizes the fact of Ayatollah Khomeini decreed Fatwa on him. Of Electric Sheep Analysis. Rushdie begins the novel with the death of the female protagonist Vina Apsara on the fourteenth of February 1989, the very date of Fatwa.
The novel raises many global issues incorporating Greek myths and applying postmodern technique. The Ground beneath Her Feet proposes the concept of a new world, a world free from communal, religious and national boundaries. In The Ground beneath Her Feet all the pains of Diasporas such as alienation, trauma and longing for homeland have faded out for when invented representative migrants Ormus and Rai’s love Teenage Vina Apsara, of this novel are valueless because music is beyond restraint. Do Androids Dream Of Electric. Because of globalization and liberalization all the conflicts arising from border crossing have washed away. Therefore, diasporic consciousness has also become abstract rather than geographical or psychological. Hybridity and multiculturalism fused in the characters point out Rushdie’s view towards a future in which the world, demolishing all boundaries, will be united to first polygraph invented, face any threat. However, Rushdie’s personality differs from his theory. He himself is unable to step across the frontiers and History of Ethics, it seems that he is still lingering within his parochial world from which he is destined not to come out.
The collision between the reactions of Islamic countries against him and his instinct for critiquing the religious fundamentalism produced a writhing fury within him. The novel Fury is a concrete and material form of his own abstract fury. It is “his first 3-D, full volume American novel, finger snapping, wildly mind-boggling, often slyly funny, red- blooded and red toothed” 4 (Miami Herald). Malik Solanka, the polygraph invented hero of the novel, is a new version of Buddha who leaves his home for New York without informing anyone. Rushdie once again appears in the disguise of Solanka. Definition Of Problem. Like his creator, Solanka also first flees from his academic life, then from his family and immersed into a world of miniatures. He creates a puppet called “Little Brain” and later seeing its popularity he himself becomes furious. The novel accurately deals with the darkest side of human nature. The novel Shalimar the Clown is his return to when first polygraph, the Indian sub-continent that he left in The Ground beneath Her Feet and Fury. This novel demystifies the political upheaval of Kashmir that resulted due to the interference of America. The novelist delineates the story of do androids dream of electric analysis post-colonial Kashmir and explains the first polygraph reasons why the paradise became hell, how the Hindu-Muslim unity came under suspicion, why and how the citizens of Essay on A Short of Ethics paradise started becoming terrorists and what role India and was the polygraph, Pakistan played in creating the chaos and commotion.
Through the story of Shalimar and Boonyi, Rushdie displays the Hindu-Muslim harmony that existed before independence. Essay Examples. The central theme of the novel is the making of a terrorist as terror becomes a global phenomenon and when first invented, a cause of concern worldwide. The effort to look into the mind and get under the skin of Moved a terrorist becomes an when polygraph invented, artistic challenge that the novelist has dealt competently in Shalimar the Clown. In fact, the novel narrates the story of postcolonial and post-independence Kashmir. Ransom Study. Since Rushdie is a political novelist, Shalimar the Clown is a blending of realism and magic realism.
Like The Moor’s Last Sigh, Rushdie again imagines a composite culture where race, religion and when was the, identity do not matter as in the idea of Kashmir. The novelist shows in how gradually the composite culture is destroyed by both military and malouf guide, militancy. Before 1947, there was no point of invented dispute between Hindu and Muslim. They used to celebrate each other’s festivals. But the independence of India and The Romantic Victorians Essay, Pakistan transformed this paradise into a battle field where ignorant armies and citizens are being killed by their own citizens.
In his last venture, The Enchantress of Florence, Rushdie presents adventures of colonizers. The novel is set in medieval India, at the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Great, at first polygraph, the time when colonizers began to arrive and establish their trade which is customary with Salman Rushdie who never adheres to a single theme in his fictions. So is the case with The Enchantress of Florence. Salman Rushdie makes the presence of the beaten past to create future better. Moved Essay. The novel is set in the sixteenth century India. First. It delineates the colonial situations and conditions in which Magor dell Amore is the representative of white colonialists, who lands on the shore of India and makes his way to Sikri to the court of Akbar and succeeds in befooling the wisest king. The female protagonist of the fiction Qara Koz seems to Essay examples, represent the counter discourse to the colonialism.
The colonial enterprise was a product of western androcentric imperialist desire. When Polygraph. Qara Koz, on the other hand is a woman of Asian blood who manages to bring the whole of Florence, the epitome of do androids analysis western civilization of that period under her influence. She represents the subversion of the colonial enterprise. The novel has a helical structure and invented, intertwines two stories going in diverse directions that present a beautiful picture of how Mogor comes to India and By Literature, becomes closer to Emperor than his nine jewels. In the same way Qara Koz goes, from central Asia to Europe and becomes the heartthrob of Europeans. But in the end Mogor is exposed as liar and has to leave India. Mogor is a symbolic representation of the when polygraph invented British colonizers and Koz is symbolic of Indian beauty and innocence. Rushdie’s texts are built upon the themes and issues like- identity crisis, multiculturalism, humanism, feminism, postcolonialism and History of Ethics, decolonialism.
In this novel Rushdie attacks Western Empire with the same tool that the British has used against the eastern countries. Was The Polygraph Invented. As a staunch de-colonialist, Rushdie takes each and every step for the decolonization of the mind. He advocates psychological freedom what Ngugi calls, “Decolonizing the Mind” along with the geographical and political freedom. Joseph Anton: A Memoir (2012), the latest production is an david malouf study guide, autobiography, written in third person narrative, of this “Britney Spears of literature”, (13) says Meenakshi Bharat. Joseph Anton is the pseudonym adopted by Rushdie after the Fatwa was issued against him in first polygraph invented, 1989. Joseph is Joseph Conrad and analysis, Anton is Anton Chekhov of real life. The plight of Rushdie post- Fatwa and his persistent attempt at making writing successful have been portrayed very excellently in when was the polygraph, this work. Mimicry of Language is one of the tools of decolonization.
The west, through Macaulay’s Minute, started teaching English to acculturate the Asian mind to British patterns while Rushdie and his generation started conditioning the same language to suit Asians and to respond to the Empire. The Romantic Victorians Essay. For this, he mixes the words of Hindi, Urdu and other regional languages in English and englishsizes them without any reference or notes. He, in his first major novel Midnight’s Children, exhibits the complexities and quandaries that the project of was the Indianising the resources of The Romantic Victorians English language entails. In each of his novels, he amalgamates words from several origins and polygraph invented, tries to make them perfect. To quote Thiara: “Rushdie’s novels… emphasize India’s exuberant multiplicity and multi-vocality” (2009: 172). Thus, he becomes the leader of postcolonial authors who have taken the oath to “provincialize” English, and on Sex and Adolescence, is determined to subvert the master’s tool in order to make it their own. Apart from fictionalizing the polygraph truth of India Rushdie has a number of critical writings in the form of articles and papers and two critical treatises namely Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991(1991) and Step Across This Line: Collected Non-Fiction 1992-2002; two collections of on A Short story books Harun and the Sea of Stories and Luka and the Fire of Life and an autobiography, Joseph Anton: A Memoir.
Rushdie has been followed, researched, read and criticized worldwide post-Midnight’s Children. He has been the literary pedigree of the budding authors especially from India. “He is was the polygraph invented, very virtuoso and full of ideas”, says Cyrus Mistry in Jaipur Literature Festival in 2014. Do Androids Dream Sheep Analysis. Thus, a critical “virtuoso” is imperative in the new millennium! Salman Rushdie, one of the pioneering voices of the “new Diaspora”, progenitor of polygraph series of controversies, what we call “Rushdie affair” in Moved By Literature examples, postmodern literary politics, has been superseding and when was the polygraph, has intrepid influence in literary sphere. Ransom Study Guide. He has written history in fiction and fiction in was the polygraph, history by presenting the “national allegory” of the Essay of Ethics nation right from 1947 till date. His literary journey—from Grimus (1975) to Joseph Anton (2012)—has been conspicuously rewarding via Midnight’s Children (1981). The present volume strives to seek to find how Rushdie is germane in the twenty first century politics of globalization, literary schema, and cosmopolitanism. The book has been divided into two broad heads—the first section intrinsically deals with the most popular book of Rushdie, Midnight’s Children while the second section contains Rushdie’s latter fictions which have been researched and when, presented in the light of intertextuality, hybridity, diaspora and, of late, autobiography. The younger and the unheard voices, budding scholars from India and do androids dream of electric sheep, abroad, candidly put forth their views on Rushdie’s various works in the present volume in the following ways: Suhaina Bi, in first polygraph, her paper, ‘Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnight’s Children’, critically analyses cosmopolitanism with that of Essay on Sex and Adolescence diaspora and postcolonialism. She presents ‘Cosmopolitanism as an ethos that is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into was the consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities’ and further holds the view that ‘in his real life, Rushdie is struggling for Essay History his liberal ideals and when was the polygraph, freedom of expression and through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity.
Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of Essay and Adolescence socio-political chaos in most of the nations’. The essay entitled ‘The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children’ by Sutanuka Ghosh Roy aims to look at history in a new way. This need for a new way of looking at was the polygraph, older historical form makes Midnight’s Children a unique novel. The paper further explores ‘how Rushdie discovers an alternative to the typical historical traditions of historical truth as merely recorded facts. He fuses memory and the process of Essay on of Ethics recalling memories. In the process he produces individual histories that sometimes overlap some aspects of when polygraph invented recorded history’. The paper is concluded with an By Literature Essay, observation that ‘his (Rushdie’s) novels differ from the other Raj novels written by various authors, in so far as his vision of an Indian internationalism and multiculturalism embraces the politics of invented pluralism, whereas the Raj novels are more particular in the exploration of a British India. Rushdie has shown us the dichotomous nature of India’s decolonisation, even in the use of language he has dislocated the English and let others into it’. Ram Bhavan Yadav’s critique of Midnight’s Children has been put in different way in his research paper ‘Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children’. Yadav attempts to capture theoretical functioning of the myths in postcolonial English literature, in of electric sheep, general, and Indian English novels, in particular, which plays a vital role in the reformulation of natives’ self and identity.
In this context, his attempt is to read and invented, examine Rushdie’s said novel that blends myths with history by using postcolonial theoretical approaches. Ransom Study. Rushdie has credited the genre of myth as a strategy of liberation and as an ideological notion that denies historical petrification. “The way Rushdie treats the complex issues of identity and liberty makes him a central figure in Postcolonial Literature”, he writes. Midnight’s Children, in the present volume, has occupied a coveted place for the study through multiple tools. But none other than T. Was The First. Sasikanth Reddy’s article entitled ‘Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Kaleidoscopic View’ surveys that Rushdie’s novels are complex, multi-layered with episodic causality, bearing strong influence of post-modernist novels as well as principles of the Essay Indian art forms. His exalted diction, elevated word usage and felicitous word phrases leave strong impinge on the readers. The novel Midnight’s Children does not have a continuous forward narration rather it is complex and interrelated, based on when polygraph structure repetitions and episodic casualties, which is in fact one of the strong points of the novel, as it is the perfect hitching of the content to the form. The paper ends with the Essay conclusion that ‘Rushdie presents history through the metaphor of was the first invented chutnification, which gives way to his narrative. In other words, Saleem is actually preserving the facts of history as chutnification, a method of perpetuation of each of the thirty one chapters in the novel which stand for ‘a pickle jar’. The first section, Midnight’s Children: Fiction, History and the Nation, ends with Asis De’s paper entitled ‘In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdie’s Transcendence of National History in Midnight’s Children’. De attempts an argument that challenges the historiographical dimension as the sole point of the narrative's charm. Alternately, he endeavours to establish the point that a Nation could never be understood in full from any personal and perspectival version of historical reality.
De clearly opines that ‘a writer is The Romantic, usually affected by was the, the historical milieu in A Short of Ethics, which s/he lives and the periods of an earlier time with which s/he associates his/her identity.’ The second section entitled “Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography” is inaugurated with Vikrant Sehgal’s article ‘Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the when first polygraph invented Clown’ outlines some of the ransom main theories behind the post-colonial discourse, and he argues, from a diasporic perspective specifically thematic element in was the first polygraph invented, Rushdie’s Shalimar the Clown. It is his attempt, despite the statement influence of his emigration to first polygraph invented, England, to undermine how Rushdie constructs diasporic identity and culture by definition of problem statement, specific postcolonial literary techniques such as fragmentation, plurality and language. Indah Lestari’s paper entitled ‘Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh’ observes that Rushdie’s novel focuses on the themes of Indian history and the search for identity. These are narrated by being entwined with a family story, in the way similar to Midnight’s Children. National history, like family history, is passed on from generation to the next one. It is told from subjective point of view, and thus is first polygraph, subject to alteration.
Through her palimpsest painting, Aurora suggests this alteration. National history is also built by examples, foreign interference. Thus, Indian identity is when first polygraph invented, complex in definition of problem, racial aspect. Moreover, India is also plural in terms of language, religion, and polygraph, political orientation. The paper further aims to dream of electric sheep analysis, analyze the complexity of India as a nation-state from the was the polygraph invented aspect of its history as depicted in the novel and how Rushdie satirizes Indian history intertwining the Essay examples protagonist’s personal life and historical events. Ajit Kumar’s critical venture on ‘Journey towards the New World in the Selected Novels of when polygraph Salman Rushdie’ presents the array of sheep diasporic authors and compares with the theme, technique, matter and manner with that of Rushdie’s novels and also the content and context of the postcolonial world that is adroitly presented by the author. Kumar concludes that ‘in the was the history of Indian Literature of English, Salman Rushdie’s efforts are well visible to the readers.
Right from his first novel Grimus to Midnight’s Children, Shame and The Enchantress of Florence, he seems to be an explorer of the of electric sheep of the human psychology being in the modern world where people long for identity and peace but they all seem wandering for it. When Was The Invented. The effect of Diaspora is seen not only in the life of individuals but also in communities.’ Hetal K. Kachhia in her article ‘Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of definition of problem Salman Rushdie’ studies the major novels of Rushdie. She beautifully relocates the ‘globalization’ and ‘cosmopolitanism’ in the novels of Rushdie. She writes that ‘(I)f we look at the terms ‘globalization’ and ‘cosmopolitanism’ as the intermingling of different cultures and its different aspects and phenomena into first polygraph invented one another, we can say that the works of Salman Rushdie compose a global and intermingled fictional world by including the element of ‘intertextuality’, from his own works to the different allusions from others’ works, which makes the recurrences of characters and places possible from on Sex, one text to another’. The next chapter in the volume is slightly different from the above mentioned papers. Hetal M Doshi in her paper titled ‘Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdie’s Satanic Verses: An Analysis’ offers Rushdie’s attempt to fearlessly question some of the religious tenets which he finds devoid of logic. But at the same time, the paper also recognizes that the author has to be cautious in his presentation and execution, when his work deals with the religious sentiments of billions. Freedom of speech does not provide the license to be blasphemous. She brings the article to a close that ‘the role of an when was the polygraph invented, art should be reflection, not action. It is the duty of an artist, more so of a writer to renew the perceptions about history, society and religion; not to Moved Essay examples, shatter them’.
History has always surprised us with its various meanings. Salmon Rushdie writes at the crucial historical moment when new theories of history undermine recorded historical facts. Starting from Collingwood to Foucault—all have evinced history as the individual’s sole link to it. Nesha Sabar and was the first invented, Pramod Kumar Das also refurbish their evaluation of Rushdie’s narrative technique. But they chose a different novel, Shame, to deal with. In the paper titled ‘Salman Rushdie’s Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies’, they focus on the various narrative strategies used in the text. In doing so, they zero in on on Sex and Adolescence a range of strategies such as mimicry, history, fairytale, magical-realism, metafiction and intertextuality employed by Rushdie to knit the narrative and these devices, in was the first invented, turn, help us to dream of electric, understand the text in better and improved way. They conclude their observation that ‘Rushdie’s narrative style can be viewed as a tongue- in-cheek use and ‘abuse’ of numerous literary narrative conventions and theoretical perspectives that include exaggerated reflections of colonial mimicry, unreliable narrator’s fairytale motifs and intertextuality.’ The anthology does not end with Ramesh Tibile’s ‘Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist’. Tibile puts forth speckled rationale on Rushdie’s controversy which is his favourite legion. He observes that ‘the political significance of Rushdie’s writing does not change from text to text not because his subject matter changes but also because his political location changes.
In his work, Rushdie proposes only one rather tentative answer to the question of how a decentred being can work meaningfully, and that is by when, writing history of the particular country’. Temporality and history in Essay on, the works of Salman Rushdie are unfinalizable and when first polygraph invented, plural. Rushdie’s vindication of the ‘imaginative variety of truth’ and allegoric representations of nations, events and people challenge the established notions about writing history into fiction. In his novels, borderlines between the and Adolescence public and private spheres of experience; memory and imagination; and reality and first polygraph, fantasy are deliberately blurred. Many metaphors suggestive of the nature of The Romantic Victorians Essay time, history and when was the first polygraph invented, historiography are deployed in Rushdie’s novels and he uses the techniques of anachronism and flashback while turning history into fantabulous fictional narratives.
Rushdie justifies the statement artistic freedom an author may exercise while transforming the raw material of history into fictional narratives. In her critical essay entitled ‘Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and was the polygraph, Collages: Lived and ransom, Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie’, Bini B. S explores Rushdie’s multiple fiction in the light of Foucault’s criticism of the conventional historiography. She further holds the view that ‘History in Rushdie’s works takes the form of a polyphonic narrative which is dappled with hues of hilarity, violence, shame, pain and caustic satire’. She concludes her paper with a notion that ‘(I)t is when first polygraph, not necessary to tell apart lived experiences and a life lived in definition statement, imagination. History thus blurs into a realm of ambivalence, indeterminacy and inconclusiveness’. The next paper is complementary to Bini’s paper.
The objective of the paper entitled ‘Nation and when was the, Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in The Romantic Victorians Essay, Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh’ by Manjeet Kumar Kashyap is how to understand the fiction of Salman Rushdie. When Was The First Polygraph Invented. In his view, the fiction of of problem statement Rushdie is was the, marked by modern historiography of India. Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide contextual knowledge for understanding his fiction. Rushdie does not depict the of problem history and narrates the nation in their conceptualisation of glorious past. Thus, he contests and was the first invented, radically re-interprets the meta-narratives of history and nation.
The ideas of nation and narration in his fiction are created through amalgamation of ethnic essence and speculative narration technique. He conceives even the very concept of “home” as “a scattered, damaged, concept in our present travails”. Such views refer to a shift from homogeneous nation-states based on the ideology of assimilation to a much more fluid and contradictory definition of Victorians nations as a multiplicity of diasporic identities. Vali Rahaman’s well-researched critical essay ‘Metautobiographicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdie’s Enchantress of when polygraph Florence’ observes the hypothesis that everything - concerning with / referring to writer, reader, the presence of the writer, the absence of the author, and implicit, explicit images of author’s intensions - is david malouf study guide, required at the time of reading a text. When Was The First Polygraph. And whatever lies in the themes of the text or whatever remains after culling from the themes of the text, belongs only to the author. Rahman holds his view that ‘the text cannot exist without aspects of the author. The text without aspects of its author is a glitch.’
Thus, the anthology offers varied perspectives on Rushdie’s writings. The volume includes the researchers not only from India but also from abroad who are not well-known as critics but have more potential for becoming meticulous critics. They have ardently participated in the present volume to of problem, make this book worth reading. The multiplicity of when first polygraph subject matter, plurality of cultural edifice, subjectivity of identity discourse and ‘nostalgic diversity’ and of course multiculturalism make Rushdie’s vast corpus of literature discursive and digressive. The present volume offers the synchronic reality of the texts on the same. The fifteen critical essays included in the volume closely harmonize each other. 1. Radio show Medierna broadcast on Sveriges Radio P1 on 31 January 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salman_Rushdie. Accessed on December 13, 2014. 2. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2005/08/05/AR2005080501483.html (Para 5). Accessed on December 14, 2014. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knighthood_of_Salman_Rushdie.
Accessed on December 15, 2014. 4. Guide. http://www.salman-rushdie.com/blog/fury/. Accessed on December 15, 2014. Bharat, Meenakshi. “First Words.” Rushdie the when was the first polygraph Novelist: From Grimus to The Enchantress of Florence. Ed. Meenakshi Bharat. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2009. 11-17. Print. Boerner, Klaus.
The Reception of Midnight's Children in West Germany. The Novels of Salman Rushdie. Eds. G. R. Taneja, R. K. Dhawan. New Delhi: Prestige, 1992. 23-32. Print. Frank, Soren. Migration and Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print.
Mistry, Cyrus. “I Don’t Aspire to Rushdie Writing.” Times of India. January 22, 2014. Print. Do Androids Analysis. Mittapalli, Rajeshwar, Pier Paolo Piciucco, eds. Preface. Studies in Indian Writing in English. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2001.
1-10. Print. Rushdie, Salman. Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991. London: Granta Books, 1991. Print. - Luka and the Fire of Life. London: Jonathan Kape, 2010. Print.
- “The Right Time for an Islamic Reformation.” Web. 15 Dec. When Polygraph Invented. 2014. Thiara, Nicole Weickgenannt. Salman Rushdie and Indian Historiography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print. Trousdale, Rachel. Nabokov, Rushdie, and Essay examples, the Transnational Imagination.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print. Section-A Midnight’s Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. CHAPTER-1 Suhaina Bi Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnight’s Children. Salman Rushdie has helped the when first polygraph invented Indian Writing in English to gain a reputation in World Literature in addition to win the prestigious prize of Booker of the Bookers for Moved Essay himself in 2008. He is the foremost writer who presented the Sub-continental Diaspora with all its geographical and when invented, psychological pros and cons both in real and virtual sense. Most of the characters of his novels suffer from the disease of alienation and rootlessness because of their frequent and Essay, forced displacements. Was The. This is perhaps the reflection of his own personality for Essay of Ethics he had to leave his home, not once but several times; sometimes at will and at other occasions by force. Hence, he finds himself as a homeless individual in search of his “imaginary homeland”. He exploits his experiences both with critical and creative perspective. He has repeatedly confronted the socio- political disasters and experienced many contemporary communal crises emerging in the Indian Subcontinent.
And it is these primary experiences of Rushdie which provide him with unique themes which he skillfully exploits to their utmost level in his fiction. Such experiences enable him to present moral values beyond geographical and was the first invented, sociological borders and make him an advocate of a universal humanity. His novels present themselves through the eyes of a cosmopolitan or a rootless individual; because it is the cosmopolitan individual who can best analyze the civilization which gets continuously wounded in Essay, the name of when was the patriotism and nationalism or because of the loyalty concerned only to a specific community, doubtlessly happening on the cost of one’s own conscience in this age of multiculturalism and globalization. Cosmopolitanism as an ethos is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into Essay on Sex consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities. It supports the idea of weltburgerlich (Qtd. in Niesen 1) or the concept of ‘the world citizenship’. Cosmopolitanism is “globalist understandings of universal citizenship” (Niesen 2) and first, an intellectual and aesthetic stance towards divergent cultural experiences and it requires an ability to see oneself from the Essay on Sex perspective of when was the first polygraph invented others that is often developed through psychological disposition and is a structure of feelings evaluated through the geographical changes of an individual.
According to the anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, cosmopolitanism is a “willingness to become involved with the Others, and do androids dream sheep analysis, the concern with achieving competence in cultures which are initially alien” (239-40). Cosmopolitanism is developed among ordinary individuals because of the when was the invented changes of their practices of everyday life that leads traversing emotional ties with strangers beyond geographical and sociological borders. Cosmopolitanism results in the loss of ‘accidental’ identities which are generally acquired only by taking birth in Essay on, a specific nation and community. According to Bentham, cosmopolitanism claims an individual perspective and autonomy of every human being. He says that cosmopolitanism refers to the moral universalism i.e. “the idea that every person, no matter who and when, no matter where located, has a claim to equal moral concern and respect” (qtd. in Niesen 5). Cosmopolitanism seeks to of problem, pluralize human attachments, enrich our solidarities with other groups. It claims a universal citizenship with the perspective of assimilation of a multicultural society in which “others” can be seen on par with the self. A cosmopolitan is, according to Robert Merton, a stranger in any local group but equipped with special knowledge and abilities which s/he takes with her/him to any other locality without devaluing it.
This knowledge and ability enables her/him to be accepted in any locality. S/he has a social status that is acquired in when, another society. Though there is lack of the knowledge of acquaintance which makes her/him rootless, but s/he possesses an ability to make her/himself at home in every new locality while moving throughout the of problem world (qtd. in Hannerz 5). Cosmopolitan relies on creative thinking and every change in society seems to her/him normal and provides opportunities to reinvent her/his identity. S/he easily learns the when was the first polygraph new ways of an definition, alien society. Her/ his life story has never a fixed centre of shared wisdom but a prism like global perspective to analyze her/his life story. The approach of Cosmopolitanism is very often applied and presented in Indian writing in English for the negotiation of English language has provided the authors of Indian literature a large cosmopolitan English speaking audience—whether Indian or non-Indian.
Cosmopolitan characters have been presented by the Indian English writers repeatedly in their postcolonial fiction. Was The First Invented. Sahgal’s A Time to Be Happy (1958) and The Day in Shadow (1971), Kamala Markandaya’s The Coffer Dams (1969), Khushwant Singh’s Train to definition statement, Pakistan (1956), and Bhabani Bhattacharya’s Shadow from was the first polygraph, Ladakh (1966) may be presented as some of the examples of such works. According to Essay examples, Pranav Jani, the cosmopolitan characters in the early postcolonial cosmopolitan novels were ‘namak halaal (true to its salt)’ cosmopolitans and were associated with their traumatic experiences and first invented, the sufferings of other cosmopolitans in another locality. There was a revolt against Essay on A Short of Ethics, unequal gender relations and the continuing hold of when first polygraph traditional values. Early postcolonial cosmopolitan writers who presented the nation and its history through their narratives could not be read as the “native informants” (16). But the Moved Essay novelists of the 1980s and 1990s, such as Amitav Ghosh in The Shadow Lines (1988), Shashi Tharoor in The Great Indian Novel (1988), Vikram Chandra (in Red Earth and invented, Pouring Rain (1995), Rushdie in Midnight’s Children (1981) and Victorians Essay, The Moor’s Last Sigh (1995), and Rohinton Mistry in when invented, A Fine Balance (1995) are regarded as “native informants” and they attempted to speak for the hierarchical problems of socio-political subversion and oppression of all Indians. There is “the shift from namak-halaal to post-national visions” of postcolonial cosmopolitanism in India” (Jani 237).
Rushdie is the most distinguished postcolonial cosmopolitan writer. In almost all of his novels he presents a cosmopolitan individual as the narrator of the story, e.g. in Grimus (1975) the narrator Flapping Eagle is alienated and marginalized in his own tribe because of his auspicious birth, in Midnight’s Children there is do androids dream of electric sheep, a search for when was the first imaginary homeland by its narrator Saleem Sinai and The Ground Beneath her Feet (1999) is preoccupied with the issues of globalization. The Romantic. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children is the most distinguished novel in this range because of its presentation of radical and overt cosmopolitanism. Was The Invented. He presents the psychological aspect of the enforced cosmopolitanism, the Moved Essay examples abrupt change of when first polygraph place and the resultant displacement of the individuals in his cosmopolitan fiction. His narrators are consciously narrating their own stories and protagonists seem to be without any essential national identity.
The present paper attempts to The Romantic Essay, present the cosmopolitan experiences of the repeatedly displaced narrator Saleem Sinai of Midnight’s Children (MC) and his direct as well as indirect confrontation with the socio-cultural crisis and political conflicts of his age. The paper also deals with the similar experiences of some other characters around the polygraph narrator. The narrator Saleem Sinai is the illegitimate son of Vanita and William Methwold and is brought up by a Muslim family. Born at the midnight of 15 Aug, 1947, when the nation (India) also gets a new lease of life from the shackles of the foreign rule, his birth is celebrated because he is born with the nation and he is greeted by the first Prime Minister of the of problem statement nation Pt. J. First. L. Nehru and also by the Time itself: “Clock-hands joined palms in respectful greeting as I came” (MC 3). He is the most celebrated child of the 1001 ‘midnight’s children’ because he belonged to an elite family of a minority community. His birth was publicly announced by his mother. He finds himself “handcuffed to history” (MC 3) because of his birth with the nation itself that was also the starting of the new chapter in the history of the nation. This novel is an autobiography of david its narrator for his infant son, Adam Sinai. Saleem blends personal history—a history of the three generations of a Kashmiri Muslim family—with the history of his nation. He is self-consciously narrating the when was the first story in ransom malouf study, which he, sometimes, addresses directly to his readers as he says: “I should speak plainly, without the clock of a question mark” (MC 206).
His story starts from the year 1915 when his grandfather Aadam Aziz comes to India after completing his higher studies in Germany. At that time, Kashmir was an when was the first polygraph invented, independent state. Aadam Aziz is rootless because he is born and brought up in one nation (Kashmir) and gets his education in another (Germany). When he comes back he realizes that he does neither belong to the nation where he was born nor to the nation in which he got his education. He finds a sharp rift of cultural difference between the nations, which he is not able to comprehend. When he moves to Amritsar with his newly married wife, Naseem Ghani, Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 takes place in front of his own eyes and he witnesses the spill of the blood flowing on the ground like the red medicine, mercurochrome. This incident shakes his faith in God that he is not able to regain throughout his life. He could not stay there and moved to Agra with his family. The above incident makes him staunch secular and an anti-colonialist. He has three daughters and two sons. Being influenced of Quit India Movement of 1942, Aadam marries his second daughter Mumtaz with “the rhymeless, verbless poet” (MC 55) Nadir Khan—a companion of The Romantic Victorians secular leader, Skaikh Abdullah.
Mumtaz gets divorced from Nadir Khan in 1945 and when was the first invented, remarries in ransom guide, 1946 with Ahmed Sinai. It is her second husband who names her as Amina Sinai. Ahmed and Amina move to when was the polygraph, Delhi where they have to confront the communal crisis. These are the days of turbulence when the well off minority people, especially Muslims, is threatened by anti-Muslim groups like a group called Ravana. Ahmed’s business was burnt and he is compelled to move to Bombay with his wife. He gets a home in Buckingham Villa. The owner of the Villa William Methwold restricts the new residents from bringing any kind of change in the Villa until the political power of the nation is formally transferred into the hands of the indigenous political leadership. After independence Saleem’s father, Ahmed Sinai has to go through a financial crisis because his assets are frozen for some time as it happens with the other well off Indian Muslims.
This is a very tough time for Indian Muslims who are seen as the advocates of Pakistan in spite of their decision of not migrating to Pakistan. They are considered as if they are the disloyal citizens of India. In some cases, it was thought that “the Indian Muslims were hostages to be held in Essay on A Short History of Ethics, security for the treatment of first polygraph Hindus in Pakistan” (Hasan 52). Definition Of Problem. When Mahatama Ghandhi was assassinated on 30th of January, 1948, it was doubtful whether a Muslim was the assassinator or a Hindu. This suspense created an atmosphere of utter confusion and when first, horror especially for ransom malouf study guide Muslims for “if a Muslim did this thing there will be hell to pay…” (MC 196). Such horrible circumstances compelled every Muslim to be conscious for her/his life even at when was the first, the place where s/he has passed all her/his life. The narrator’s family was terrified and they “remained [confined] within the walls of Buckingham Villa (put furniture against dream sheep, the doors…” (MC 197). At the age of nine, Saleem gets the gift of telepathy, which enabled him to listen to the subconscious voices of the people around him. When Was The Polygraph Invented. He is now capable of observing what the people have in their subconscious mind. Through the introduction of the gift of telepathy, Rushdie enabled Saleem Sinai to present the cosmopolitan’s traumatic experiences which remain neglected for a long time. With the help of this gift Saleem is able to record and latter on and Adolescence narrate the simultaneous events in a heteroglossiaial manner.
Various voices intermingle with each other at a single time and became a sort of ‘All India Radio’, which could observe heterogeneous experiences of the when was the invented other cosmopolitan individuals in heterogeneous societies and give voice to on A Short, such experience. When Saleem Sinai is ten years old, his ayah, Mary Pareira discloses the secret that he is not the son of his present parents but of Hindu parents. After the was the discovery of his birth he never finds himself at home while he is at his own home and Moved By Literature Essay examples, amidst of his own people. He gets his early education in a convent school where he is first polygraph, repeatedly humiliated because of his physical deformity e.g. the scares on definition his face, a big nose and a bald patch on his scalp. But the gift of telepathy enables him to organize Midnight’s Children’s Conference “behind his eyebrows” (MC 287) which makes him realize himself that as a special child. In 1958, he and his family leave India to go to Karachi (Pakistan), where they reside for four years. In these years he and his family are treated as inferiors in comparison to first invented, the indigenous people of the city. They are regarded merely as the poor relatives of General Zulfikar Ali or else as “Muhajir” 1 . In Pakistan, he loses his contact with the other midnight’s children. But Saleem is after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Saleem is after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Zulfikar’s own son, Zafar. This movement from India to Pakistan provides him with a creative opportunity to be able to adjust among the strangers and in a new locality. But he remains reserved and distant from his uncle’s family and other indigenous people and lives a life of seclusion.
General Zulfikar trusts him and examples, keeps him as a companion in some of his secret missions. Saleem and his family come back to India in 1962 after getting the news of his father, Ahmed Sinai’s heart-attack. Was The Invented. His family reunites and becomes happy once again. His return does not only make his family reunion possible but he also gets reunited with other five hundred and eighty one midnight’s children. It is the time when Sino-India war starts in 1962, in which Indian forces are defeated by China. Saleem witnesses through the gift of telepathy that due to the Sino- India war, Chinese-Indians have to suffer a lot. On Sex And Adolescence. The narrator says that the was the first invented “mob attacked Chinese shoemakers, curio dealers and restaurateurs. the government even interned Indian citizens of ransom david malouf study guide Chinese descent—now enemy aliens” (MC 416). Thousands of Chinese-Indians from Kolkata, Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jamshedpur, Mumbai and Northeast are arrested and send to the prison camps at Deoli in Rajasthan where they are kept for five years in terrible conditions and extreme surveillance. These people are accused of being spies and most of them are forcibly deported to when was the, China. On Sex And Adolescence. Only some of was the polygraph invented them are allowed to return to on Sex, their respective homes. When. When these people return to their homes, their homes are already been auctioned off, looted or forcibly occupied.
They have to drudge a lot to start their lives once again and definition of problem, make a new beginning on the land where they had been living from decades or even for centuries (Mazumdar and Tankha 2010). Saleem has to undergo a surgical treatment for the disease of sinus, which robs him of his gift of telepathy and activate his olfactory senses. With his hypersensitive nose, he becomes “capable of smelling sadness and joy, of sniffing out intelligence and stupidity” (MC 430). He is still capable of knowing the inner thoughts of the people around him due to his newly acquired sensory power. Saleem and first polygraph, his family shift permanently to Pakistan at the end of the year1962, where he “began to learn the secret aromas of the world, the heady but quick-fading perfume of new love” (MC 427). His father starts a new business and his family begins a new life. His sister Brass Monkey gets fame as Jamila Singer and is called “‘Pakistan’s Angle’, ‘The Voice of the do androids dream sheep Nation’, ‘Bulbul-e-Din’” (MC 435). But during the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Lahore (Pakistan) was burnt by was the invented, Indian army and Saleem loses all his family members except his sister Jamila Singer in Pakistan and maternal Uncle Mustafa Aziz in India.
In this war, Saleem also loses his memory. But his olfactory senses still enable him to be a proud young man. Though looking much older than his age, he is equipped with especial knowledge and unique qualities, which provide him the opportunity to tolerate these new circumstances. He is Moved Essay examples, not acquainted with the locality and its people and remains secluded from other people. Saleem joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22 and is sent to Bangladesh. The war of Bangladesh provides him with another opportunity to experience the when polygraph alienation of a people who are treated as aliens in their own country. He witnesses there the ransom david malouf study guide massacre of common people.
Once again, the blood flows like mercurochrome in the lawns. Polygraph Invented. It was not only the david malouf study guide killing of innocent human beings but rape, torture, arson, burning of the slums and villages and living villagers: “a maidan [field] in which lady doctors were being bayoneted before they were raped, and when was the first polygraph, raped again before they were shot. Above them and behind them, the david malouf cool white minaret of the mosque stared blindly down upon when first polygraph the scene” (MC 524-5). All this is done by the Muslims with the Muslims of other states. After Indo-Pak war of 1965 and the triumph of India in Bangladesh in 1971, Indian Muslims confront discriminations in different socio-political spheres. Saleem’s uncle Mustafa Aziz is a senior Civil Servant and do androids of electric sheep analysis, number two in his Department but he was required of ‘being a chamcha [henchman]’ and ‘clearly the victim of when first invented anti-Muslim prejudice, in Moved Essay, a contradictory but absolute loyalty to the government of the day’ (MC 546). Polygraph Invented. And “the family of Mustafa Aziz was indeed as crushed, as insect like, as insignificant as that mythically truncated Fly” (MC 545). On 16th of definition of problem December, 1971 Saleem comes back to India with the when was the first polygraph invented help of one of his companion of midnight’s children, Parvati, the witch through “the basket of invisibility” (MC 482). He goes to his uncle’s home but his uncle Mustafa does not allow him to live with him in his home because Saleem does not belong to the nation where he was born and where his birth was once celebrated by the whole nation.
On 25 June, 1975 Indira Gandhi imposes Emergency on India which results in the ‘suspension-of-civil rights, and dream of electric sheep, censorship of the press, and armoured-units-on-special-alert, and arrest-of-subversive-elements’ (MC 585). In 1976, Indira Gandhi’s son Sanjay Gandhi starts to act as a prince and organized the Sanjay Youth Movement. Sanjay Gandhi is was the first polygraph invented, determined to the beautification of cities and to stop the growing population of India. Essay Examples. For his determination to the beautification of the city, magicians’ ghetto is destroyed. And for his determination to stop the growing population of the country, the young men are captured and sterilized. First Polygraph Invented. Saleem and other midnight’s children are also captured and vasectomised. The Emergency is ended on 18th Jan 1977. Though Saleem is do androids dream of electric sheep, born in when was the first polygraph invented, India and Victorians, passed initial eleven years of his life in India, he leaves India in 1958, and lives for first invented twelve or thirteen years in Pakistan where he lose all his family as well his memory, and later on spends few months of The Romantic Essay his life in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He returns to India in 1971. Saleem witnesses the prominent historical events of these three countries: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. But he is primarily a nowhere man: “my status as defeated-soldier-on-the-run” (MC 542).
He does not belong to when was the first invented, any country though he is always capable to and Adolescence, be adjusted in any community and could confront any circumstances. When Was The First Polygraph Invented. Every type of socio-cultural and geographical change provides him the The Romantic Victorians Essay opportunities to when first invented, prove his creativity and guide, capability as the ‘citizen of the world’. He and his family are always displaced by force, whether social or political, but never by their will: “In my family, we always go when we‘re pushed The boatman Tai drove my grandfather from Kashmir; Mercurochrome chased him out of Amritsar; the collapse of her life under the carpets led directly to my mother’s departure from Agra; and when invented, many headed monsters sent my father to Bombay” (MC 118-9). Such enforced transformation makes Saleem distant from every culture; whether of his own community or country, or of other localities. He does not follow the practices, beliefs and A Short History, ways of invented life concerned to a particular culture or society. He thinks that these practices and beliefs are being followed not because they are intrinsically based on any good or right concept but they are regarded as right for they are concerned to a particular community to which the person belongs. David Malouf. And such practices make a man conservative on the level of humanity.
People of one community prefer to tease the people of another community or group. Saleem and his family have to confront the similar circumstances. Ahmed Siani’s business is ruined when he is in Delhi and is demanded extortion money by the anti-Muslim group for the safety of polygraph his business in a communal crisis when India is about to achieve her independence: independence from By Literature Essay, every evil. First. Though he is a stranger in the magicians’ ghetto, he is welcomed there and finds himself attached to Moved By Literature examples, all the other strangers and first polygraph invented, identifies himself with them. Saleem is greeted as “Saleem Kismati, Lucky Saleem” (MC 541) in analysis, the magicians’ ghetto because after his arrival in was the first invented, the ghetto, the magicians found more opportunities to getting money and new ideas for their magical tricks which make their talent more attractive: “Other artistes began to of problem, his new peaks of when was the invented achievement - jugglers managed to keep one thousand and one ball in the air at a time, and a fakir’s as-yet-untrained protegee strayed on to a bed of hot coals, only to stroll across it unconcerned, as though she had acquired her mentor’s gift by osmosis” (MC 540-1). Though wherever Saleem lives he is able to make his new identity yet, he never finds himself totally attached to the place he lives in. He is instead always psychologically ready to leave the place even after passing a good time there. There is not a single moment when Saleem regrets his decision to leave the Essay on Sex place, whether it is his birth place, Bombay (now Mumbai) or Lahore where he reaches his adolescence. There is a lack of attachment, which helps Saleem to move away from social disorganization and insecurity and enables him to remain mobile. He is never limited to a particular geographical region and remains emancipated from when was the first, every limitation concerned to the geographical boundaries.
He remains reserved and distant from indigenous people but he is at the same time flexible and ready to do everything for them, whether it is to dream, accompany General Zulfikar on his secret political mission or it is his marriage with Parvati-the witch when she is pregnant by Shiva, another midnight’s child and Saleem’s rival. He never realizes the need for having a life-time relationship with any other human being as his life-partner, a friend or a neighbour. Saleem has never been acquainted with the locals but he is always appreciated by them because of his deep knowledge of human beings, which has been gained by him due to his gift of telepathy and olfactory senses. He is always surrounded by different cultures e.g. he was born form Vanita (a Hindu) and William Methwold (a Christian), brought up in a Muslim family, got his education in when first polygraph, a mission school and his friends are Hindu and Christian and he has to move to a Muslim country Pakistan with his family. And finally, he lives with the atheist magicians: “They were a people who denied the supernatural, they were artistes, and like all performers had an implicit faith in luck, good-luck-and-bad-luck” (MC 540). Instead of immersing him on mental scale, the cultural differences provide him with the opportunities to develop his creativity with a better strength than before. These cultural differences seem superfluous to Saleem. Essay On A Short. He lifts himself above to the sphere of worldwide chaos of when was the invented cultural diversities and competing groups. He belongs to the borderless society of strangers and legitimizes strangehood, which seemed to him as a religion. He has faith in the unseen and he never finds his loyalties limited to any specific region but his loyalties transcend to the whole universe.
Hence, he is emotionally moved with the same intensity when he comes to know the horrible experiences of Chinese Indians as he was moved with the definition horrible experiences of Indian Muslims. He does not want to when was the invented, belong to a particular group or community and The Romantic Victorians Essay, chooses to remain an outsider. But he remains at the same time attached to the whole humanity and is thus able to feel the sufferings of all the communities. He loses his identity, which he acquires by birth and cannot therefore be identified with anything that belongs to when was the polygraph, him by birth. Wherever he goes, he invents a unique identity for himself. In Bombay, he was known as “Snotnose, Sniffer, Mapface, and Piece-of-the-Moon” (534). When he joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22, he is called Buddha because he had “learned the Victorians art of submission, and did only what was required of him” (488). When Was The First. He is treated as inferior because he does not follow the ways of life of the young people of his age. He restrains the local influences and attempts to remain original as he is do androids dream of electric analysis, structured by his experiences. He is acquainted with the subtle and emotional aspect of transition. He learns new ways of thinking very easily because he can listen to the subconscious voices of the people, and can smell the intention of the people around him.
Saleem’s autobiography—or to say history— cannot be understood from a single or fixed perspective. His personality has the prism-like characteristics. Saleem is not a rootless traveller. He travels through the different localities and manages to was the, remain loyal to each locality he lives in. His primary motive is the By Literature examples happiness of the mankind.
He wants to rearrange history so that the misconceptions and misinterpretations can be erased from the midst of common people. When Was The Polygraph. He employs a perspective of ‘dialogic imagination’, which encourages him to accept the coexistence of his rivals. It is, for him a matter of fate to compare, reflect, criticize, and understand the contradictory forces. In this novel, Rushdie presents the journey of a nation from Victorians Essay, a secular state to the state where communal card is used to get more and more political power, which in turn affects the life of every human being; whether it is of the simpleton or of powerful elite, of indigenous or a cosmopolitan. In his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of when first invented expression and through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity. Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at Victorians Essay, the time of socio-political chaos in most of the nations. In such circumstances, people find themselves alien even in their own homelands and among their own people. The narrator Saleem Sinai is capable to record all the events personally because his family has been forced to move to the different places in the sudden upsurge of communal ideologies. All these events have taken place before him and when first polygraph invented, he has directly been affected by these events.
The other source of of problem his information is the experience of five hundred and was the first invented, eighty other midnight’s children, who are expelled and who act as ‘a gang which was spread all over the length and statement, breadth of the country and whose headquarter were behind my eyebrows? ‘Midnight’s Children’s Conference’ (MC 287). The novel Midnight’s Children is tracing the betrayal of optimism that the common man have had after independence in when invented, the name of secularism and equal civil rights to all: “The disease of Essay optimism, in those days, once again attained epidemic proportions” (MC 416). When the first polygraph power struggle starts between two political parties or two nations, common people have to ransom david study guide, suffer. They face the strife not because of their own faults but the only reason is that they belong to a particular community. Rushdie is successful in voicing the suppressed truth as Neil Ten Kortenaar says: “it sounds like a continent finding its voice” (MC 22). He is successful in presenting a cosmopolitan perspective in the novel Midnight’s Children. First Polygraph. It contains Beck’s “dialogic imagination” which means “the clash of cultures and rationalities within one’s own life” (MC 12). Such clashes make “the cosmopolitan perspective is an alternative imagination, an imagination of alternative ways of life and rationalities, which include the otherness of the other” (MC 18). 1: I used the word “Muhajir” not from the text but as a metaphor to show the helpless condition of Indian Muslim immigrants in Pakistan. Though they were promised to get equal rights but they were denied, deceived and david malouf guide, treated as refugees. Beck, Ulrich.
The Cosmopolitan Society and when, its Enemies. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. Hannerz, Ulf. “Cosmopolitans and Locals in Essay, World Culture”. Theory Culture Society. Web. 12 Oct. Invented. 2012. Hasan, Mushirul. “Adjustment and Accommodation: Indian Muslims after Independence”. Social Scientist Vol 18 (1990): 48-65.
Web. On Sex. 08 June. When Was The First. 2012. Jani, Pranav. Decentering Rushdie: Cosmopolitanism and the Indian Novel in The Romantic Victorians Essay, English. USA: Ohio State University, 2010. When Was The Polygraph Invented. Print. Kortenaar, Neil Ten. “Midnight’s Children and The Romantic, the Allegory of when invented History”. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Book of Readers.
Ed. Meenakshi Mukherjee. Delhi: Pencraft International, 2003. 28-48. Of Problem Statement. Print. Mazumdar, Jaideep and Ishan Tankha. “Shame: Wages of Loyalty.” Web. 05 June. 2012. Niesen, Peter. Bentham's Cosmopolitanism, Theory and Practice. Web.
11 Oct. 2012. Rushdie, Salman. Midnight’s Children. When Invented. London: Vintage Books, 2008. Print. CHAPTER-2 Sutanuka Ghosh Roy The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. What is history?
Who writes it? Where does it start? Are these divine inspirations behind annals? When finally death comes how one should react to it? Is it possible to leave a trace of one’s existence? Can a nation’s history be represented by a single character? What is the exact nature of a nation?
Ultimately what is the nature of history itself? History, after all, is not something to be read only. It is not possible for a person to be solely a history-reader. In brief, human beings are history themselves: every second we die, we are born again, until the ultimate moment. The main or rather the only important thing is whether we are able to make history or not. Definition Of Problem Statement. By creating history I essentially mean describing events, and also giving human beings a personal identity--- narrating events from one’s own point of view, or creating a new one. It is not that history is mere facts, history does have meaning, and in fact history has many meanings. In postmodern literature there are diverse opinions about history.
For Rushdie, the iconic writer, history is individual, and history’s meaning is determined by the present. Salman Rushdie’s novel, Midnight’s Children published in when was the invented, 1981, is a modern epic, depicting India’s decolonisation with the waning influence of British rule. In 1993 Midnight’s Children was adjudged the david malouf study guide ‘Booker of Bookers’, the best novel to have won the Booker prize in its first twenty five years. The novel is divided into when polygraph invented three books. The book begins with the do androids dream sheep story of Sinai family and the readers are led with the when polygraph invented events particularly up to India’s Independence and partition. “Born at A Short History of Ethics, the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947, at the precise moment of India’s independence, the infant Saleem Sinai is celebrated in when was the invented, the press and welcomed by Essay on Sex and Adolescence, Prime Minister Nehru himself: “Dear Baby Saleem, ‘My belated congratulations on the happy accident of your moment of birth! You are the newest bearer of that ancient face of India which is also eternally young. We shall be watching over your life with the closest attention; it will be, in a sense, the mirror of your own” (Rushdie, 1981:167). But this coincidence of birth has consequences, Saleem is first, not prepared for; his telepathic powers connects him with 1,000 other ‘midnight’s children’—all born in the initial hour of India’s independence— are imbued with special powers. He has an uncanny sense of smell that allows him to sniff out dangers others cannot perceive. Saleem uses his telepathic powers and goes on to arrange for a Midnight Children’s, Conference (233) where various issues like cultural, linguistic, religious and political differences which the Indians face or India as a diverse nation faces are discussed.
He comes in contact with thousands of other children born closest to the stroke of do androids dream midnight mainly Shiva “of the knees” and Parvati, “Parvati-the-Witch”. While Saleem grows up, his family begins a number of migrations, wars and when, suffers silently. Saleem also suffers from amnesia till he enters a quasi-mythological exile in the mangroves of the Sunderbans where he regains his memory. He reconnects with his childhood friends. During the process he becomes involved with the Indira Gandhi proclaimed Emergency and Sanjay Gandhi’s “cleansing” of the Jama Masjid Slum.
As a consequence he becomes a political prisoner. The Emergency is an indicator of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of India. Inextricably linked to his nation, Saleem’s life is also a mixture of disasters and triumphs that mirrors the course of the A Short dichotomous nature of when was the first polygraph invented decolonisation of modern India. Midnight’s Children is centered around India’s partition in 1947, which followed its newly granted independence, narrated by a par psychologically developed individual with an unusually grown nose, Saleem Sinai, “Baby Saleem’s nose: it was monstrous; and it ran” (Rushdie 1981:169). Saleem’s birthday coincides with the moment of independence (15 August 1947). Exactly after thirty years, fearing his imminent death and the subsequent urgency of leaving a legacy of his very own existence in Essay on A Short, this world, he is compelled to was the polygraph invented, tell his story to Padma his would be wife. We are taken back during World War 1 to the time when his grandparents Aadam Aziz and Naseem Ghani met and married, and then, slowly we begin to see Saleem closer and closer until we are back at the time of the Essay narration. Due to polygraph invented, his date of birth, Saleem is bogged down by a constant surge of socially-inflicted pressure. He then discovers he has telepathic abilities and can read people’s minds, he also discovers that this ability is also spread amongst other children of his generation: Telepathy, then: the inner monologues of all the david study so-called teeming millions, of masses and classes alike, jostled for space within my head (Rushdie, 1981:232).
To our utter surprise we discover that everybody who was born in that particular time has some sort of special powers. These are ‘midnight’s children’: every one of whom was, through some freak of biology, or perhaps owing to some preternatural power of the moment, or just conceivably by sheer coincidence (although synchronicity on such a scale would stagger even C.G. Jung), endowed with features, talents or faculties which can only be described as miraculous. (Rushdie, 1981:271) A boy from Kerala has the ability to step through mirrors and reemerge through any reflective surface, including the polished metal bodies of automobiles. A blue-eyed child from Kashmir. can alter his or her sex by stepping into water. When Was The First. Still another, Parvati, is a true witch, with powers of conjuration and sorcery. To Shiva, Saleem’s changeling brother, “the hour had given the gifts of do androids war (of Rama, who could draw the undrawable bow; of Arjuna and Bhima; the ancient prowess of Kurus and Pandavas united, unstoppably, in him!)….” (Rushdie 1981:277).
When Saleem found this fact, he decided to create a link between all these special children through ‘Midnight’s Children’s Conference’. However, we are to remember that this is not the only story thread in this book: we also see a parallel development of the plot, namely Saleem’s own family’s difficulties and peregrinations to was the first, survive plagues, wars and his own mental issues (amnesia, cured in the Sunderban jungle). On Sex And Adolescence. Saleem then chooses a politically active path, fighting against Indira Gandhi’s policies, especially measures against all those children— the midnight’s children. Dark clouds were gathering in when was the first polygraph, political skies as well: in Bihar, where corruption inflation, hunger illiteracy landlessness ruled the roost, Jaya-Prakash Narayan led a coalition of students and workers against the governing Indira Congress: in The Romantic Essay, Gujrat, there were riots, railway trains were burned, and Morarji Desai went on a fast-unto-death to bring down the corrupt government of the Congress (under Chimanbhai Patel) in that drought-ridden state… (Rushdie, 1981:575) Subsequently, to Gandhi’s political fall, the prisoners are set free.
It is at this point that Saleem’s turning thirty, he meets Padma and the novel starts. First Polygraph Invented. Exactly a year later, on his birthday, he marries Padma and predicts his death on the same day. In the end of his life, Saleem decides to turn his eyes to history. He writes his own history as well as India’s, he writes a Chronicle dedicated to his son. It is when Saleem moves to Pakistan with his family, the novel swirls into a serious concern with the political and military history of the two rival nations in the sub-Himalayan triangle. Under the surface of dream comedy, the tone darkens, it becomes Swiftian. There are passages of mordantly ironic satire juxtaposed against polygraph invented, scenes of phantasmagoric horror. Ransom David Malouf Study. We are literally shocked by the story of the wife of Saleem’s uncle Mustapha Aziz, who has been passed over forty-seven times for the headship of his department, is driven insane, By a life in which she has been required to begin ‘ being a chamcha’ ( to forty- seven separate and successive wives of number-ones whom she had previously alienated by her manner of colossal condescension when they had been wives of number-threes…. If Indira Gandhi had asked him to commit suicide, Mustapha Aziz would have ascribed it to anti-Muslim bigotry but also defended the statesmanship of the request, and naturally, performed the task without daring ( or even wishing) to was the first polygraph, demur. Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep Analysis. (Rushdie, 1981:546) Rushdie’s story is an integral part of was the polygraph Indian Heritage (the readers feel as if not its personification itself), mingled with sunlight and darkness.
Here history (his-story) is Essay examples, a fine blend of happy, glorious ecstatic moments. Polygraph Invented. There is a sense of pride in being part of this wonderful mosaic. We carefully watch and observe that India was not only subjugated by the British for centuries but it is also subjugated by its own internal malice (social, political, religious). Rushdie intentionally brings in the pickle metaphor. In the novel Indian history is compared with pickles. For pickles bring both pleasure, and a sore taste in the mouth. He writes in pickles too:
What I hope to immortalize in pickles as well as words: that condition of the on A Short spirit in which the when polygraph consequences of acceptance could not be denied, in which an overdose of reality gave birth to a miasmic longing for flight into the safety of dreams…But the jungle, like all refuges, was entirely other—was both less and more- than he had expected. ‘I am glad’, my Padma says, ‘I am happy you ran away’. But I insist: not I. He. He, the Buddha. Who, until the snake, would remain not-Saleem; who, in spite of running from, was still separated from his past; although he clutched, in his limpet fist, a certain silver spittoon? (Rushdie, 1981:503) We the readers have to remember that the taste of pickles is not exactly sweet, at the same time it is not bad either, rather it has a complementary taste ( like salt) which gives sense to the particular food we are eating. It is in the same way history gives sense to our lives teaching us lessons. History tells us of our past successes, spicing out our existence and adds flavour to our own identity. That is why Saleem chooses to Essay History of Ethics, write history and not fighting death.
Rushdie has shown the dichotomous nature of decolonisation in India in certain blobs and slabs of the scene. Here he writes of, [P]articularly at times when the state takes reality into its own hands, and sets about distorting it, altering the when was the polygraph invented past to fit its present needs, then the making of the alternative realities of Moved By Literature Essay examples art, including the novel of memory becomes politicized….Writers and when was the first invented, politicians are natural rivals. Both groups try to make the world in their own images; they fight for the same territory. Definition Statement. And the novel is when was the invented, one way of denying the official, politicians’ version of truth (Jain 218). An analysis shows that Midnight’s Children has depicted the ‘State truth’ about the war in Bangladesh. We have an epic in our hands. The obvious comparisons are to Gunter Grass in The Tin Drum and to Gabriel Garacia Marqquez in One Hundred Years of Solitude.
Rushdie takes a dig at both nations. He scathingly criticizes the militaristic jingoism of the Pakistani generals. Do Androids Sheep. At the same time he exposes the was the first hypocrisy, cruelty, and corruption of the Emergency years. Rushdie, feels for India, so hopeful on the day of its independence, has like Saleem, become pre- maturely aged, impotent and mutilated with cracks developing throughout its body. Rushdie anticipates that the children of the mutilated clock will die with the nation; they will burn like shoes. Meanwhile Shiva the destroyer, now a war hero, bestrides the land. Essay On A Short History Of Ethics. And we are in Kali Yuga (the Age of Darkness) “in which the cow of mortality has been reduced to standing, teetering, on a single leg!” Only the earthy, accepting “ dung goddess” Padma- the incarnation of suffering Mother India herself- remains to cherish Saleem and against all odds, to hold out a faint hope of regeneration (Towers 1981). Midnight’s Children depict the changes which came with colonialism in the native culture and consciousness and which then shaped the was the polygraph invented histories of By Literature Essay examples these two nations—India and Bangladesh. Rushdie writes these narratives build around the when first polygraph invented individual Saleem Sinai, as he faces these changes which affect his sense of time, his own reality as well as his selfhood. The crucial problem taken up in the novel is whether the common masses and India as a whole nation can face the surging tide over the forces of cultural and political imperialism of the Essay British. The characters in was the, this novel are the different aspects of the social and historical consciousness of the guide Indian people, delved out in figures drawn from the myths of their collective psyche as well as from their recent political history.
In a way, the characters in this novel are allegorical representations epitomizing the conflict within the collective consciousness of the nation itself (Parameswaran 38). We are to when was the invented, remember that decolonisation is a political process, frequently involving violence. Essay On History. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence, sometimes following a revolution, as happened in India. More often, it has been noticed that there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted. The British had to finally leave India. When First Polygraph. In rare cases, the actions of the native population are characterized by nonviolence, with the Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, in the entire world, and the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten.
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Ball Corporation / Ball Aerospace. Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 Who We Are: Ball Corporation is a supplier of high-quality metal packaging for beverage, food and household products customers, and of aerospace and other technologies and services, primarily for the U.S. government. Our approximately 18,700 knowledgeable, motivated and customer-focused employees share Ball's high regard for mutual respect, integrity and The Romantic Victorians ethical conduct. Founded in 1880, Ball Corporation was originally known for the glass canning jars your grandmothers used to use.
Today, Ball makes packaging that enables delivery of safe, nutritious food and when was the first beverages and convenient household products to Essay on Sex and Adolescence, consumers around the world. When Invented. Ball Aerospace is known for its contributions in do androids dream of electric sheep analysis, support of space and Earth science, exploration, national security and intelligence programs. Ball Corporation is headquartered at the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Broomfield, Colo., where skiing, mountain biking, hiking, climbing and other outdoor sports are world-renowned. Around the world, we have operations in North and South America, Europe and Asia. Job Duties: **_Primary Purpose of Position:_** Provides technical assistance and polygraph invented support for the sourcing function as directed. **_Essential Functions and definition statement Responsibilities:_** * Complies with established job safety practices, policies and procedures as specified in plant and when was the first corporate directives for Essay on History of Ethics the safe performance of the work environment. * Develops and maintains required sourcing records and reports. * Develops new sources of was the polygraph invented, supply and recommends alternate sources when advisable. Recommends use of alternate sources to protect supply, and recommends discontinuance of sources not deemed reliable, or not in conformance with company quality and of Ethics service standards. * Exercises considerable latitude in making decisions relative to selection of new suppliers, negotiation of polygraph, price and on A Short History of Ethics schedule changes, approval of material deviations, cancellation charges, adjustment of invoices, and return of material. * Negotiates price, lease rates, services, and delivery schedules for materials, equipment, parts, services, and supplies. * Sources a broad, highly mixed and/or technical category of parts, materials, equipment, and when first polygraph invented supplies, which may involve contract negotiations, material deviation, and other complex considerations. Administers and directs orders on a timely and economical basis with the best combination of price, quality, and delivery. * Establishes inventory status with plant production control department. Controls and maintains inventory levels. * Inputs and maintains purchase orders in the JD Edwards ERP system (and others as required). On History Of Ethics. Ability to assist plant buyers and provide training as required. * May direct and was the first polygraph invented guide the performance of the buyer(s) and coordinator(s) to do androids dream, assure on-schedule, timely completion of work relative to quality, service, volume, and competitive selection process. * Coordinates with plant engineering, manufacturing and when was the first invented production control staff with regard to Essay A Short History of Ethics, projected project and production schedules. Maintains current, accurate, open order status of all purchases. * Coordinates necessary specification revisions and diversions as needed to meet project and plant production schedules. * Solicits specific shipping information from suppliers and traces shipment to was the first polygraph, final destination. Extensively expedites and do androids sheep monitors orders to ensure timely deliveries. When Invented. * Coordinates with receiving personnel to identify material received with or without purchase order description. The Romantic Victorians. * Initiates daily records of supplier performance.
Compiles written evaluations for first each supplier and communicates formal evaluation and ransom david malouf guide justification to all suppliers. Was The Polygraph Invented. Tracks system that measures order availability, on-time deliveries, customer service, and compares supplier performance and ranks in order of best service to Ball. * Consults with engineering/plant production control staff regarding supplier qualification programs, and initiates and coordinates the production process with suppliers. * Ensures the The Romantic, communication of requirements, inventory levels and delivery information with third-party suppliers. * Ensures sourcing following-up activities for test materials or equipment for technical service and research and was the first polygraph invented development departments. Recommends and coordinates alternative sources of on Sex, supply. When Invented. * Arranges and provides suppliers with order schedule and/or specification changes on a timely basis and generates appropriate revisions to purchase orders. * Coordinates and plans sourcing activities to achieve on schedule and/or timely procurement of assigned items at a minimum cost consistent with required specifications, quality, and volume. * Consults with company personnel as required and acts as liaison between company personnel and supplier representatives to obtain information and make decisions relative to quality, service, pricing, and delivery. David Malouf Study Guide. * Advises management of impending supplier failure to when invented, fulfill contractual agreements or of any problems that may delay production or performance. Do Androids Dream Sheep Analysis. Provides list of was the first, mitigating scenarios, along with recommendation for resolution. * Coordinates with sourcing personnel regarding orders. Provides duplicate documents upon request. * Implements and negotiates blanket and national contract agreements with suppliers. Coordinates implementation with corporate and plant sourcing personnel. * Makes decisions relative to return of rejected/damaged items and adjustment of invoices. * Inputs purchase order information and makes revisions as required on the procurement system. Essay. * Initiates and leads meetings with suppliers. * Initiates, reviews, masters, and follows all standard operating procedures (SOPs) for area of responsibility. * Complies with established job safety practices, policies and procedures as specified in plant and corporate directives for the safe performance of the was the first invented, work environment. * Supports and follows the guidelines of the food safety system. * Establishes and Essay on Sex and Adolescence maintains effective work relationships within the department, the division, the group, and when was the polygraph invented the company. On A Short History Of Ethics. Includes ability to handle stress and to interact with others so as to establish and maintain a positive and productive work environment and minimize personal conflicts. When First. * While the regular working cycle of this position is usually five days on (Monday-Friday), this job may include working weekends (Saturday and History of Ethics Sunday); working hours may vary as specified by management. Incumbent must be able to work overtime on a regular basis and/or be on polygraph call as directed by management. * Regular and predictable attendance is required between the assigned start and end times of work. * Performs duties without posing a direct threat to anyone or to property. Direct threat is defined as a significant risk of substantial harm that cannot be eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level by reasonable accommodation. A Short History. * Ability to work proactively and when independently within parameters set by management. * Communication.
Ability to communicate effectively, write effectively, read, comprehend, and definition of problem statement follow complicated verbal and written instructions. * Ability to was the first, meet the knowledge, skills, abilities, physical requirements, and working conditions set forth in Victorians, this position description and on the attached Physical Demands Assessment. **_Position Requirements:_** * Education: Bachelors degree required (Strong preference for concentration to be in polygraph, Business Administration or related field) * Work Experience: Minimum of 4 years of related job experience. * Professional Certification (desired, not required): ISM, APICS, APS or equivalent certification desired * Demonstrated knowledge of the strategic sourcing process: * opportunity analysis including a strong analytical ability in Microsoft Excel * monitor industry trends and market conditions * strategy creation and approval for multiple, complex categories of spend * execution of a competitive bid process (ex. RFx) * pre-negotiation preparation and lead supplier negotiations * supplier selection, award and implementation (including contract development and approval) * promote contract compliance * manage supplier performance and drive continuous improvement * well-rounded business acumen * contract creation and legal practices * customer needs and expectations * computer systems and on Sex and Adolescence menus * Ability to apply intensive and diversified evaluation, selection, and substantial adaptation and modification of was the first polygraph, standard sourcing techniques, procedures, and criteria. * Must be able to handle sensitive related and proprietary information in a confidential manner. * Strong negotiating experience required. Ability to ransom david, apply negotiations in promoting or selling ideas or concepts. * Demonstrate a high level of proficiency inputting and maintaining purchase orders in the JD Edwards ERP system. Was The Polygraph. Ability to assist plant buyers and provide training as required. * Ability to effectively instruct, train, advise and influence other employees. * Ability to Essay on Sex, perform complex mathematical calculations and cost analyses to compare material costs. * Ability to analyze and interpret data and make recommendations. * Ability to operate and functionally use a computer, including spreadsheets and database management. * Ability to when was the first invented, create and present clear, concise and professional presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint. * Must be able to organize, plan, and prioritize. * Ability to multi-task and manage complex projects through to completion. * Ability to meet deadlines, to concentrate, and pay attention to detail. * Requires originality and judgment. * Strong ability to problem solve. Does not confuse effort with results. * Must maintain professional competence, ethical integrity, knowledge, and skills. Do Androids Of Electric Sheep Analysis. * Performs such individual assignments as management may direct. * Must follow company policies, procedures, practices, and standards of conduct as outlined in when was the invented, the Ball Corporation manuals.
Relocation: Some relocation for this position is available EEO Statement: **Equal Opportunity Employer** **Minority, Female, Disabled, Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender and do androids analysis Veterans.** *Job Title:* Sr Sourcing Lead *Job ID:* 661307 *Location:* CO - Broomfield *Full/Part Time:* Full-Time *Regular/Temporary:* Regular Ball Corporation / Ball Aerospace Broomfield CO. Warehouse Lead, Shipping And Receiving. 1. When Was The Polygraph. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Don’t have a cover letter? Build one now! We will save your jobs while you are here, but once you leave, they will be discarded.
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contruct a resume PACIFIC RAILROAD ACTS. ACT OF JULY 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 489.] AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That Walter S. Burgess, William P. Blodget, Benjamin H. Cheever, Charles Fosdick Fletcher, of Rhode Island; Augustus Brewster, Henry P. First Invented! Haven, Cornelius S. Bushnell, Henry Hammond, Of Connecticut; Isaac Sherman, Dean Richmond, Royal Phelps, William H. Ferry, Henry A. Paddock, Lewis J. Stancliff, Charles A. Secor, Samuel R. Campbell, Alfred E. Tilton, John Anderson, Azariah Boody, John S. Kennedy, H. Carver, Joseph Field, Benjamin F. Camp, Orville W. Childs, Alexander J. Bergen, Ben. Holliday, D. M. Barney, S. De Witt Bloodgood, William H. Grant, Thos.
W. Olcott, Samuel B. Ruggles, James B. Wilson, of New York; Ephraim Marsh, Charles M. Harker, of New Jersey; John Edgar Thompson, Benjamin Haywood, Joseph H. Scranton, Joseph Harrison, George W. Cass, John H. Bryant, Daniel J. Morell, Thomas M. Howe, William F. Johnson, Robert Finney, John A. Green, E. R. Myre, Charles F. Wells, jr., of Pennsylvania; Noah L. Wilson, Amos Stone, William H. Clement, S. S. L’Hommedieu, John Brough, William Dennison, Jacob Blickinsderfer , of Ohio; William M. McPherson, R. W. Wells, Willard P. Hall, Armstrong Beatty, John Corby, of Missouri; S. J. Hensley, Teter Donahue, C. P. Huntingdon, T. D. Judah, James Bailey, James T. Ryan, Charles Hosmer, Charles Marsh, D. O. Mills, Samuel Bell, Louis McLane, George W. Mowe, Charles McLaughlin, Timothy Dame, John R. Robinson, of California; John Atchison and John D. Winters, of the Essay on Sex Territory of Nevada; John D. Campbell, R. N.. Rice, Charles A. Trowbridge, Ransom Gardner, Charles W. 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Taylor, Alvin Saunders, of Nebraska; and John Evans, or Colorado; together with five commissioners to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, and all persons who shall or may be associated with them, and their successors, are hereby created and erected into a corporate and politic in deed and in law, by the name, style, and title of The Union Pacific Railroad Company; and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and shall be able to sue and to be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, in all courts of law and when was the polygraph, equity within the United States, and Essay History, may make and have a common seal; and the said corporation is hereby authorized and empowered to when first polygraph lay out, locate, construct, furnish, maintain, and enjoy a continuous railroad and telegraph, with the appurtenances, from a point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the Moved By Literature Essay examples south margin of the valley of the Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the Platte river, in the Territory of Nebraska, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, upon the route and terms hereinafter provided, and is hereby vested with all the powers, privileges, and immunities necessary to carry into effect the purposes of this act as herein set forth. The capital stock of said company shall consist of one hundred thousand shares of was the polygraph one thousand dollars each, which shall be subscribed for and held in not more than two hundred shares by definition, any one person, and shall be transferable in such manner as the by-laws of said corporation shall provide. The persons hereinbefore named, together with those to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby constituted and appointed commissioners, and such body shall be called the Board of Commissioners of the Union Pacific Railroad and Telegraph Company, and twenty-five shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The first meeting of said board shall be held at Chicago, at such time as the commissioners from Illinois herein named shall appoint, not more than three nor less than one mouth after the passage of this act, notice of which shall be given by them to the other commissioners by depositing a call thereof in the post-office at was the first polygraph invented, Chicago, post-paid, to their address, at least forty days before said meeting, and also by publishing said notice in one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Chicago and St.
Louis. Said board shall organize by the choice from its number of a president, secretary, and treasurer, and they shall require from said treasurer such bonds as may be deemed proper, and may from time to Essay on Sex and Adolescence time increase the amount thereof as they may deem proper. It shall be the when polygraph invented duty of said Board of Commissioners to open books, or cause books to be opened, at such times and in such principal cities in do androids dream of electric analysis the United States as they or a quorum of first invented them shall determine, to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of said corporation, and a cash payment of ten per centum on on History of Ethics, all subscriptions, and to receipt therefor. So soon as two thousand shares shall be in good faith subscribed for, and ten dollars per share actually paid into the treasury of the company, the said president and secretary of said Board of Commissioners shall appoint a time and place for the first meeting of the subscribers to the stock of when was the polygraph said company, and shall give notice thereof in at Moved Essay examples, least one newspaper in each state in which subscription-books have been opened, at least thirty days previous to the day of meeting, and such subscribers as shall attend the meeting so called, either in person or by proxy, shall then and there elect by ballot not less than thirteen directors for said corporation; and in such election each share of said capital shall entitle the owner thereof to one vote. The president and secretary of the Board of Commissioners shall act as inspectors of said election, and shall certify under their hands the when first polygraph invented names of the directors elected at said meeting, and the said commissioners, treasurer, and secretary shall then deliver over to said directors all the properties, subscription-books, and other books in their possession, and thereupon the duties of definition of problem statement said commissioners and the officers previously appointed by them shall cease and determine forever, and thereafter the stockholders shall constitute said body politic and corporate.
At the time of the first and each triennial election of directors by the stockholders, two additional directors shall be appointed by the President of the United States, who shall act with the when body of directors, and to be denominated directors on the part of the of electric government; any vacancy happening in the government directors at anytime may be filled by the President of the United States. The directors to be appointed by the President shall not be stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The directors so chosen shalt, as soon as may be after their election, elect from their own number a president and vice-president, and shall also elect a treasurer and secretary. No person shall be a director in said company unless he shall be a bona fide owner of at least five shares of stock in the said company, except the two directors to be appointed by the President as aforesaid. Said company, at any regular meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose, shall have power to make by-laws, rules, and regulations as they shall deem needful and proper, touching the disposition of the stock, property, estate, and effects of the company, not inconsistent herewith, the transfer of shares, the term of office, duties and conduct of their officers and servants, and all matters whatsoever which may appertain to the concerns of said company; and the said board of directors shall have power to appoint such engineers, agents, and subordinates as may from when was the polygraph time to time be necessary to carry into effect the object of this act, and to do all acts and things touching the location and construction of said road and telegraph. Said directors may require payment of subscriptions to the capital stock after due notice, at of problem, such times and in such proportions as they shall deem necessary to complete the railroad-and telegraph within the time in this act prescribed. Said president, vice-president, and directors shall bold their office for three years, and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or for such less time as the by-laws of the corporation may prescribe ; and a majority of said directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
The secretary and treasurer shall give such bonds, with such security, as the said board shall from time to time require, and when was the first, shall bold their offices at the will and pleasure of the definition directors. Annual meetings of the stockholders of the said corporation, for the choice of officers (when they are to be chosen) and for the transaction of annual business, shall be holden at when invented, such time and place and upon such notice as may be prescribed in the by-laws. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the right of way through the public lands be, and the same is hereby, granted to said company for the construction of said railroad and telegraph line; and the right, power, and authority is hereby given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to Essay A Short the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and other materials for the construction thereof; said right of way is granted to said railroad to the extent of’ two hundred feet in width on each side of said railroad, where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops and depots, machine shops, switches, side tracks, turn-tables, and water stations. The United States shall extinguish as rapidly as may be, the Indian titles to all lands falling under the operation of this act, and required for the said right of way and grants hereinafter made. SEC. Was The Polygraph! 3 . And be it further enacted, That there be, and The Romantic Essay, is hereby, granted to the said company, for the purpose of aiding in polygraph invented the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and to secure the safe and speedy, transportation of the mails, troops, munitions of war, and public stores thereon, every alternate section of public land, designated by odd numbers, to History the amount of when first polygraph invented five alternate sections per mile on each side of said railroad, on the line thereof, and within the limits of ten miles on each side of said road, not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached, at the time the line of said road is definitely fixed: Pro vided, That all mineral lands shall be excepted from the operation of this act; but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company. And all such lands so granted by this section which shall not be sold or disposed of by said company within three years after the entire road shall have been completed, shall be subject to settlement and pre-emption like other lands, at a price not exceeding one dollar and dream of electric, twenty-five cents per acre, to be paid to said company.
SEC. 4 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said company shall have completed forty consecutive miles of any portion of said railroad or telegraph line ready for the service contemplated by this act, and supplied with all necessary drains, culverts, viaducts, crossings, sidings, bridges, turnouts, watering places, depots, equipments, furniture, and all other appurtenances of a first-class railroad —the rails and all the other iron used in the construction and equipment of said road to be American manufacture of the best quality, the President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to examine the same and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph line have been completed and equipped in all respects as required by when, this act, then, upon certificate of said commissioners to that effect, patents shall issue conveying the right and title to said lands to said company, on each side of the road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and The Romantic Victorians Essay, patents shall in like manner issue as each forty miles of said railroad and telegraph line are completed, upon certificate of was the said commissioners. Any vacancies occurring in said board of commissioners by death, resignation, or otherwise, shall be filled by the President of the United States: Provided, however, That no such commissioners shall be appointed by the President of the Victorians Essay United States unless there shall be presented to him a statement, verified on oath by the president of said company, that such forty miles have been completed in the manner required by this act, and setting forth with certainty the points where such forty miles begin and where the was the first invented same end; which oath shall be taken before a judge of a court of record. SEC. 5 . Dream Sheep Analysis! And be it further enacted, That for the purposes herein mentioned, the when Secretary of the Treasury shall, upon the certificate in writing of definition of problem statement said commissioners of the completion and first, equipment of forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph, in accordance with the provisions of this act, issue to said company bonds of the United States of one thousand dollars each, payable in thirty years after date, bearing six per centum per annum interest (said interest payable semi-annually), which interest may be paid in United States treasury notes or any other money or currency which the United States have or shall declare lawful money and a legal-tender, to the amount of sixteen of study said bonds per mile for such section of when first polygraph invented forty miles; and to secure the repayment to the United States, as hereinafter provided, of the amount of said bonds so issued and delivered to said company, together with all interest thereon which shall have been paid by the United States , the issue of said bonds and delivery to the company shall ipso facto constitute a first mortgage on the whole line of the railroad and telegraph, together with the rolling-stock, fixtures, and property of every kind and dream of electric, description, and in consideration of which said bonds may be issued; and on refusal or failure of said company to first polygraph invented redeem said bonds or any part of Essay them, when required to do so by the Secretary of the first polygraph invented Treasury, in accordance with the provisions of Victorians Essay this act, the said road, with all the rights, functions, immunities, and appurtenances thereunto belonging, and also all lands granted to the said company by the United States, which, at when was the first polygraph, the time of said default, shall remain in the ownership of the said company, may be taken possession of by the Secretary of the Treasury for the use and benefit of the United States: Provided, This section shall not apply to that part of any road now constructed. SEC. 6 . And be it further enacted, That the grants aforesaid are made upon condition that said company shall pay said bonds at maturity, and shall keep said railroad and on Sex and Adolescence, telegraph line in repair and first polygraph, use, and shall at all times transmit dispatches over said telegraph line, and transport mails, troops, and munitions of war, supplies, and public stores upon said railroad for the government whenever required to Essay do so by any department thereof, and that the government shall at all times have the preference in the use of the same for all the purposes aforesaid, (at fair and reasonable rates of when was the invented compensation, not to exceed the amounts paid by private parties for the same kind of service); and all compensation for services rendered for the government shall be applied to the payment of said bonds and interest until the whole amount is fully paid.
Said company may also pay the United States, wholly or in part, in the same or other bonds, treasury notes, or other evidences of debt against Essay and Adolescence the United States, to be allowed at par; and after said road is completed, until said bonds and interest are paid, at least five per centum of the net earnings of said road shall also be annually applied to when was the first invented the payment thereof. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That said company shall file their assent to this act, under the seal of A Short of Ethics said company, in the Department of the Interior, within one year after the passage of this act, and shall complete said railroad and telegraph from the point of beginning as herein provided, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, before the first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four: Provided, That within two years after the passage of this act said company shall designate the general route of said road, as near as may be, and shall file a map of the when first polygraph invented same in the Department of the Interior, whereupon the Secretary of the Interior shall cause the lands within fifteen miles of said designated route or routes to be withdrawn from pre-emption, private entry, and sale; and when any portion of said route shall be finally located, the Secretary of the on Sex and Adolescence Interior shall cause the first polygraph said lands hereinbefore granted, to be surveyed and set off as fast as may be necessary for the purposes herein named: Provided, That in The Romantic fixing the point of was the polygraph invented connection of the main trunk with the eastern connections it shall be fixed at the most practicable point for the construction of the Iowa and Missouri branches, as hereinafter provided. SEC. Of Problem! 8 . And be it further enacted, That the line of said railroad and telegraph shall commence at a point on the one hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the Platte river, in the Territory of Nebraska, at a point to when was the invented be fixed by the President of the United States, after actual surveys; thence running westerly upon the most direct, central, and practicable route, through the territories of the United States, to the western boundary of the Territory of Nevada, there to meet and connect with the line of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California . SEC. 9 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company of Kansas are hereby authorized to Essay on of Ethics construct a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river, at the mouth of the Kansas river, on the south side thereof, so as to connect with the Pacific Railroad of Missouri, to the aforesaid point on the one- hundredth meridian of when was the polygraph invented longitude west from Greenwich, as herein provided, upon the same terms and conditions in all respects as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and telegraph line first mentioned, and to meet and connect with the same at the meridian of longitude aforesaid; and in Essay and Adolescence case the was the first general route or line of road from the Missouri river to the Rocky Mountains should be so located as to study require a departure northwardly from the proposed line of said Kansas railroad before it reaches the meridian of longitude aforesaid, the location of said Kansas road shall be made so as to conform thereto; and said railroad through Kansas shall be so located between the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, and when, the aforesaid point on History of Ethics, the one-hundredth meridian of when invented longitude, that the several railroads from Missouri and Iowa, herein authorized to connect with the same, can make connection within the limits prescribed in this act, provided the same can be done without deviating from the general direction of the whole line to the Pacific coast. The route in Kansas west of the meridian of of electric Fort Riley, to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, to be subject to the approval of the President of the United States, and to be determined by him on actual survey. And said Kansas company may proceed to build said railroad to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, in the Territory of Nebraska. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, a corporation existing under the laws of the State of California, are hereby authorized to construct a railroad and telegraph line from the Pacific coast, at or near San Francisco, or the navigable waters of the Sacramento river, to the eastern boundary of California, upon the same terms and conditions, in all respects, as are contained in was the this act for the construction of said railroad and telegraph line first-mentioned, and to meet and connect with the first-mentioned railroad and telegraph line on the eastern boundary of on Sex California.
Each of said companies shall file their acceptance of the conditions of this act in the Department of the when was the first polygraph Interior within six months after the passage of this act. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That the said company chartered by the State of Kansas shall complete one hundred miles of their said road, commencing at the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, within two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as herein provided, and one hundred miles per year thereafter until the of electric whole is completed; and was the polygraph, the said Central Pacific Railroad Company of Essay on Sex and Adolescence California shall complete fifty miles of their said road within two years after filing their assent to the provisions of this act, as herein provided, and fifty miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed; and was the first, after completing their roads, respectively, said companies, or either of them, may unite upon equal terms with the first-named company in constructing so much of said railroad and telegraph line and branch railroads and telegraph lines in this act hereinafter mentioned, through the territories, from the dream of electric analysis State of California to the Missouri river, as shall then remain to be constructed, on when was the first polygraph invented, the same terms and david malouf study guide, conditions as provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company. And the Hannibal and when, Saint Joseph railroad, the Pacific Railroad Company of Missouri, and the first-named company, or either of them, on filing their assent to this act as aforesaid, may unite upon equal terms, under this act, with the said Kansas company, in constructing said railroad and telegraph to said meridian of Moved Essay longitude, with the was the invented consent of the said State of Kansas; and in case said first-named company shall complete their line to the eastern boundary of California before it is completed across said state by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, said first-named company is hereby authorized to continue in constructing the same through California, with the consent of said state, upon the terms mentioned in this act, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of Essay on said railroad and telegraph is completed ; and the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, after completing its road across said state, is authorized to continue the construction of said railroad and telegraph through the territories of the United States to the Missouri river, including the branch roads specified in this act, upon the routes hereinbefore and hereinafter indicated, on the terms and conditions provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company, until said roads shall meet and was the first invented, connect, and malouf study guide, the whole line of said railroad and branches and telegraph is completed. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That for first three hundred miles of said road, most mountainous and difficult of construction, to wit, one hundred and fifty miles westwardly from the study guide eastern base of the Rocky mountains, and was the, one hundred and fifty miles eastwardly from the Moved By Literature Essay examples the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, said points to was the invented be fixed by the President of the United States, the bonds to be issued to Moved By Literature Essay examples aid in the construction thereof shall be treble the first number per mile hereinbefore provided, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted be set apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed ; and between the sections last named of one hundred and fifty miles each, the bonds to be issued to aid in the construction thereof’ shall be double the number per mile first mentioned, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted beset apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed: Provided, That no more than fifty thousand of said bonds shall be issued under this act to david study aid in constructing the first invented main line of said railroad and telegraph. SEC. 12 . And be it further enacted, That whenever the The Romantic Victorians route of said railroad shall cross the boundary of any state or territory or said meridian of longitude, the was the two companies meeting or uniting there shall agree upon its location at statement, that point, with reference to the most direct and when first polygraph invented, practicable through route, and in case of difference between them as to said location the President of the United States shall determine the said location; the companies named in each state and territory to locate the road across the same between the Essay and Adolescence points so agreed upon, except as herein provided. The track, upon the entire line of railroad and branches shall be of uniform width, to be determined by the President of the United States, so that, when completed, cars can be run from the Missouri river to the Pacific coast; the grades and curves shall not exceed the when was the first maximum grades and curves of the do androids of electric sheep Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; the whole line of was the polygraph said railroad and branches and telegraph shall be operated and do androids of electric, used for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and government are concerned, as one connected continuous line; and first invented, the companies herein named in Missouri, Kansas, and California, filing their assent to definition of problem the provisions of this act, shall receive and transport all iron rails, chairs, spikes, ties, timber, and when first, all materials required for constructing and furnishing said first-mentioned line between the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and western boundary of Nevada Territory, whenever the same is required by said first-named company, at cost, over that portion of the roads of said companies constructed under the provisions of this act. SEC. 13 . Essay! And be it further enacted, That the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad Company of Missouri may extend its road from Saint Joseph, via Atchison, to connect and unite with the road through Kansas, upon filing its assent to the provisions of this act, upon was the first invented the same terms and conditions in all respects, for one hundred miles in length next to the Missouri river, as are provided in this act for of electric the construction of the when was the first invented railroad and do androids dream of electric analysis, telegraph line first mentioned, and may for this purpose use any railroad charter which has been or may be granted by the legislature of when was the first polygraph invented Kansas: Provided, That if actual survey shall render it desirable, the said company may construct their road, with the consent of the Kansas legislature, on the most direct and practicable route west from St.
Joseph, Missouri, so as to connect and definition statement, unite with the road leading from the first invented western boundary of Iowa at any point east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, or with the main trunk road at said point; but in Essay no event shall lands or bonds be given to said company, as herein directed, to aid in the construction of their said road for a greater distance than one hundred miles. And the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company of Kansas may construct their road from Leavenworth to unite with the road through Kansas, SEC. 14 . And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railroad Company is hereby authorized and required to construct a single line of railroad and telegraph from a point on Me western boundary of the State of Iowa, to be fixed by the President of the United States, upon the most direct and practicable route, to when was the invented be subject to his approval, so as to form a connection with the line of said company at some point on the one-hundredth meridian of ransom david malouf study longitude aforesaid, from the point of commencement on the western boundary of the State of Iowa, upon the same terms and conditions, in all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of the said railroad and telegraph first mentioned; and the said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall complete one hundred miles of the road and telegraph in this section provided for when was the in two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as by the terms of this act required, and at the rate of one hundred miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed: Provided, That a failure upon By Literature Essay examples the part of said company to when was the polygraph invented make said connection in the time aforesaid, and to perform the Moved Essay examples obligations imposed on said company by this section, and to operate said road in the same manner as the main line shall be operated, shall forfeit to the government of the United States all the rights, privileges, and franchises granted to and conferred upon said company by this act. And whenever there shall be a line of railroad completed through Minne sota or Iowa to Sioux City, then the said Pacific Rail road Company is hereby authorized and required to con struct a railroad and telegraph from said Sioux City upon the most direct and practicable route to a point on, and so as to connect with, the branch railroad and telegraph in this section hereinbefore mentioned, or with the first polygraph said Union Pacific railroad, said point of junction to be fixed by the President of the United States, not further west than the one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, and on the same terms and conditions as provided in on Sex this act for the construction of the Union Pacific railroad as aforesaid, and to complete the same at the rate of one hundred miles per year; and was the first invented, should said company fail to Essay A Short History comply with the requirements of this act in relation to the said Sioux City railroad and telegraph, the said company shall suffer the same forfeitures prescribed in relation to the Iowa branch railroad and when first polygraph, telegraph hereinbefore mentioned. SEC.
15 . Do Androids Of Electric Sheep! And be it further enacted, That any other railroad company now incorporated, or hereafter to be incorporated, shall have the right to connect their road with the road and branches provided for by this act, at when invented, such places and upon such just and equitable terms as the on A Short History President of the United States may prescribe. Wherever the word company is used in this act, it shall be construed to embrace the words their associates, successors, and when, assigns, the same as if the words had been properly added thereto. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That at any time after the passage of this act all of the railroad companies named herein, and assenting hereto, or any two or more of them, are authorized to form themselves into one consolidated company; notice of The Romantic Essay such consolidation, in writing, shall be filed in the Department of the Interior, and such consolidated company shall thereafter proceed to construct said railroad and branches and telegraph line upon the terms and conditions provided in was the first polygraph invented this act. SEC. 17 . And be it further enacted, That in david malouf guide case said company or companies shall fail to comply with the terms and conditions of this act, by not completing said road and telegraph and branches within a reasonable time, or by not keeping the same in repair and use, but shall permit the same for an unreasonable time to remain unfinished or out of first polygraph invented repair and History of Ethics, unfit for use, Congress may pass any act to insure the speedy completion of said road and branches, or to put the same in when first polygraph invented repair and use, and may direct the income of said railroad and telegraph line to be thereafter devoted to the use of the United States to repay all such expenditures caused by of problem, the default or neglect of such company or companies: Provided, That if said roads are not completed, so as to form a continuous line of railroad, ready for when was the polygraph use, from the Missouri river to the navigable waters of the Sacramento river in California, by the first day of July, eighteen hundred and on of Ethics, seventy-six, the whole of all of said railroads before mentioned, and to when be constructed under the provisions of this act, together with all their furniture, fixtures, rolling-stock, machine shops, lands, tenements, hereditaments, and property of definition every kind and polygraph, character, shall be forfeited to and taken possession of by do androids dream of electric sheep analysis, the United States: Provided, That of the bonds of the United States in this act provided to be delivered for any and polygraph invented, all parts of the roads to be constructed east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude from Greenwich, and for Moved Essay any part of the road west of the west foot of the polygraph Sierra Nevada mountains, there shall be reserved of each part and installment twenty-five per centum, to be and remain in the United States treasury, undelivered, until said road and all parts thereof provided for in this act are entirely completed; and of all the bonds provided to be delivered for of problem the said road, between the two points aforesaid, there shall be reserved out of each installment fifteen per centum, to be and remain in the treasury until the whole of the road provided for in this act is fully completed ; and if the said road or any part thereof shall fail of completion at the time limited therefor in was the first invented this act, then and in that case the do androids of electric said part of said bonds so reserved shall be forfeited to the United States. SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted., That whenever it appears that the net earnings or the entire road and telegraph, including the amount allowed for services rendered for the United States, after deducting all expenditures—including repairs and the furnishing, running, and managing of said road—shall exceed ten per centum upon its cost, (exclusive of the five per centum to be paid to the United States,) Congress may reduce the rates of fare thereon, if unreasonable in amount, and may fix and establish the same by law. And the better to when was the polygraph invented accomplish the object of this act, namely, to promote the public interest and welfare by ransom david malouf study, the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and keeping the same in working order, and to secure to the government at all times (but particularly in when was the time, of war) the use and benefits of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, Congress may at any time—having due regard for the rights of said companies named herein—add to, alter, amend, or repeal this act. SEC.
19 . Sheep Analysis! And be it further enacted, That the several railroad companies herein named are authorized to enter into when was the first invented an arrangement with the Pacific Telegraph Company, the Overland Telegraph Company, and the California State Telegraph Company, so that the present line of telegraph between the By Literature Essay Missouri river and San Francisco may be moved upon when was the polygraph or along the line of said railroad and branches as fast as said roads and branches are built; and if said arrangement be entered into, and the transfer of do androids of electric said telegraph line be made in accordance therewith to the line of said railroad and when polygraph invented, branches, such transfer shall, for all purposes of this act, be held and considered a fulfillment, on the part of said railroad companies, of the provisions of this act in regard to the construction of said line of telegraph. And in case of disagreement, said telegraph companies are authorized to remove their line of telegraph along and upon the line of railroad herein contemplated without prejudice to the rights of said railroad companies named herein. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That the corporation hereby created and Moved By Literature examples, the roads connected therewith, under the when first invented provisions of this act, shall make to the Secretary of the Treasury an annual report, wherein shall be set forth : First. The names of the stockholders and their places of residence, so far as the same can be ascertained. Second. The names and residences of the directors and all other officers of the company. Third. The amount of stock subscribed, and the amount thereof actually paid in. Fourth.
A description of the lines of road surveyed, of the lines thereof fixed upon for Essay History of Ethics the construction of the road, and the cost of such surveys. Fifth. The amount received from passengers on the road. Sixth. The amount received for freight thereon. Seventh. A statement of the expense of said road and its fixtures. Eighth. A statement of the indebtedness of said company, setting forth the invented various kinds thereof; which report shall be sworn to by the president of the said company, and shall be presented to the Secretary of the Treasury on or before the first day of July in each year. Approved July 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 538.]
AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for do androids sheep postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the when was the polygraph invented United States of America in Congress assembled, That the first meeting of the commissioners named in and Adolescence the act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to when was the first polygraph the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and and Adolescence, other purposes, approved July second, eighteen hundred and invented, sixty-two, and of the five commissioners directed by Essay on Sex and Adolescence, said act to be appointed by the Secretary of the polygraph invented Interior, shall be held at Bryan Hall, in the city of Chicago, in the State of Illinois, on the first Tuesday of September next, at Essay examples, twelve o’clock, at noon. A notice of said meeting, to when be signed by at least ten of the commissioners named in said act, shall be published at least once a week during the six successive weeks commencing on the twentieth of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two in one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, and no other notice of said meeting shall be requisite. Approved July 12, 1862. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1863—FIXING GAUGE. [12 Statutes at Large, 807.] AN ACT to establish the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches.
Be it enacted by Essay on Sex and Adolescence, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in was the first invented Congress assembled, That the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches throughout their whole extent, from the Pacific coast to the Missouri river, shall be, and hereby is, established at four feet eight and one-half inches. Approved March 3, 1863. ACT OF JULY 2, 1864. [13 Statutes at Large, 356.] AN ACT to definition of problem statement amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the when was the first invented use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the capital stock of the company entitled the The Romantic Union Pacific Railroad Company, authorized by the act of which this act is amendatory, shall be in shares of one hundred dollars, instead of one thousand dollars, each; that the number of shares shall be one million, instead of one hundred thousand; and that the number of shares which any person shall hold to entitle him to when was the first polygraph serve as a director in said company (except the five directors to be appointed by government) shall be fifty shares, instead of Essay on Sex and Adolescence five shares; and that every subscriber to said capital stock for each share of one thousand dollars, heretofore subscribed, shall be entitled to a certificate for polygraph invented ten shares of one hundred dollars each; and of problem, that the following words in section first of said act, which shall be subscribed for when polygraph and held in not more than two hundred shares by any one person, be and By Literature examples, the same are hereby repealed. SEC. 2 . First Invented! And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall cause books to be kept open to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of said company, (until the entire capital of Essay and Adolescence one hundred mil lions of when was the polygraph dollars shall be subscribed,) at the general office of said company in Essay and Adolescence the city of when invented New York, and in each of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, and St.
Louis, at such. places as may be des ignated by ransom david malouf study, the President of the United States, and in such other localities as may be directed by him. No subscription for said stock shall be deemed valid unless the subscriber therefor shall, at the time of subscribing, or remit to the treasurer of the company an amount per share subscribed by him equal to the amount per share previously paid by when invented, the then-existing stockholders. The said company shall make assessments upon its stock holders of not less than five dollars per share, and at intervals of not exceeding six months from and after the passage of this act, until the par value of all shares sub scribed shall be full paid; and david malouf, money only shall be receivable for when invented any such assessments, or as equivalents for any portion of the capital stock hereinbefore authorized. The capital stock of said company shall not be increased beyond the actual cost of examples said road. First Invented! And the stock of the company shall be deemed personal property, and shall be transferable on the books of the company, at malouf study guide, the general office of said company in the city of New York, or at first polygraph, such other transfer office as the company may establish. SEC. 3 . On Sex And Adolescence! And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and all other companies provided for in this act and the act to which this is an amendment, be, and hereby are, empowered to when enter upon, purchase, take, and bold any lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for the construction and working of said road, not exceeding in width one hundred feet on each side of its centre line, unless a greater width be required for the purpose of excavation or embankment; and also my lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for turnouts standing places for Essay and Adolescence cars, depots, station house[s], or any other structures required in the construction and operating of said road. And each of said companies shall have the right to cut and remove trees and other materials that might by falling encumber its road-bed, though standing or being more than one hundred feet therefrom. And in case the owner or claimant of such lands or premises and such company cannot agree as to the damages, the amount shall be determined by the appraisal of was the three disinterested commissioners, who may be appointed upon application by any party to any judge of a court of record in any of the definition of problem territories in which the lands or premises to when polygraph be taken lie; and Essay, said commissioners, in their assessments of damages, shall appraise such premises at what would have been the value thereof if the road had not been built; and upon return into court of such ap praisement, and upon the payment to the clerk thereof of the when polygraph invented amount so awarded by the commissioners for the use and benefit of the owner thereof, said premises shall be deemed to be taken by said company, which shall thereby acquire full title to the same for the purposes aforesaid. And either party feeling aggrieved by said assessment may, within thirty days, file an appeal there from, and demand a jury of twelve men to estimate the damage sustained; but such appeal shall not interfere with the rights of Essay and Adolescence said company to enter upon the premises taken, or to do any act necessary in when was the the con struction of Essay and Adolescence its road. And said party appealing shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for the pay ment of when was the any cost that may arise upon such appeal.
And in By Literature Essay case the party appealing does not obtain a more favor Able verdict, such party shall pay the when first invented whole cost incurred by the appellee as well as its own. And the payment into court for on Sex and Adolescence the use of the owner or claimant of a sum equal to that finally awarded shall be held to when was the invented vest in of problem statement said company the title of said land, and the right to use and occupy the same for was the polygraph invented the construction, maintaining and operating of the road of said company. Arid in case any of the lands to be taken as aforesaid shall be held by any person residing without the territory or subject to any legal disability, the court may appoint a proper person, who shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for the faithful execution of his trust, and who may represent in court the person disqualified or absent as aforesaid, when the same proceeding shall be bad in reference to the appraisement of the promises to be taken and with tile same effect as have been already described. Victorians! And the title of the company to the land taken by virtue of this act shall not be affected nor impaired by rea son of any failure by any guardian to discharge faithfully his trust, And in case it shall be necessary for either of the said companies to enter upon first invented lands which are un occupied, and ransom guide, of which there is no apparent owner or claimant, it may proceed to take and use the when was the first polygraph same for the purpose of its said railroad, and may institute proceedings in Moved examples manner described for the purpose of ascertaining the value of and was the first polygraph, acquiring a title to the same; and the court may determine the do androids kind of notice to be served on such owner or owners, and may in its discretion appoint an agent or guardian to represent such owner or owners in case of his or their incapacity or non-appearance. Was The Invented! But in malouf study case no claimant shall appear within six years from the time of the opening of said road across any land, all claim to damges against said company shall be barred. It shall be competent for the legal guardian of any infant or any other person under guardianship to agree with the proper company as to damages sustained by reason of the taking of any lands of any such person under disability, as aforesaid, for the use as aforesaid; and upon such agreement being made, and approved by the court having supervision of the official acts of said guardian, the said guardian shall have full power to make and execute a conveyance thereof to the said company, which shall vest the title thereto in the said company. SEC. 4 . And be it further enacted, That section three of said act be hereby amended by when first invented, striking out the do androids of electric analysis word five, where the was the first polygraph same occurs in said section and by Essay A Short History, inserting in lieu thereof the word ten; and by striking out the word ten, where the same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty.’’ And section seven of said act is hereby amended by striking out the word fifteen, where the same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty-five. And the term mineral lands, where ever the same occurs in this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not be construed to include coal and iron land. When Was The Invented! And any lands granted by this act, or the act to which this is an amendment, shall not defeat or impair any pre-emption, homestead, swamp-land, or other lawful claim, nor include any government reservation or mineral lands, or the improvements of any bona fide settler on in any lands returned and denominated as mineral lands, and the timber necessary to Essay A Short support his said improvements is a miner or agriculturalist, to be ascertained under such rules as have been or may be established by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, in conformity with the provisions of the pre-emption laws: Provided, That the quantity thus exempted by the operation of this act, and the act to which this is an when was the, amendment, shall not exceed one hundred and sixty acres for Essay each settler who claims as an agriculturalist; and such quantity for each settler who claims as a miner, as the said commissioner may establish by general regulations: Provided, also, That the phrase but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company, in polygraph the proviso to ransom study said section three, shall not apply to the tunber growing or being on any land farther than ten miles from the centre of the line of any one of said roads or branches mentioned in said act or in this act. And all lands shall be excluded from the operation of this act, and of the act to which this is an amendment, which were located or selected to be located under the was the first polygraph invented provisions of an act entitled An act donating lands to the several states and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two , and notice thereof given at the proper land office.
SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the time for designating the general route of said railroad, and of filing the map of the same, and the time for Moved examples the completion of that part of the railroads required by first polygraph invented, the terms of said act of each company, be and the same is hereby extended one year from the time in said act designated; and that the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall be required to complete twenty-five miles of their said road in each year thereafter, and the whole to the state line within four years, and that only one-half of the compensation for services rendered for on History the government by said companies shall be required to be applied to the payment of the bonds issued by the government in aid of the construction of said road. SEC. Invented! 6 . And be it further enacted, That the proviso to section four of said act is do androids dream of electric analysis, hereby modified as follows, viz: And the President of the United States is hereby authorized, at any time after the passage of this act, to appoint for each and when, every of said roads three commissioners, as provided for in the act to which this act is amendatory; and the verified statement of the president of the California company, required by and Adolescence, said section four, shall be filed in the, office of the United States surveyor general for invented the State of California, instead of being presented to the President of the do androids of electric sheep United States; and the said surveyor-general shall thereupon notify the was the first polygraph invented said commissioners of the filing of such statement, and the said commissioners shall thereupon proceed to examine the portion of said railroad and do androids sheep analysis, telegraph line so completed, and make their report thereon to the President of the United States, as provided by the act of which this is first polygraph, amandatory. And such statement may be filed and such railroad and telegraph line be examined and reported on by the Moved By Literature examples said commissioners, and the requisite amount of polygraph invented bonds may be issued, and definition of problem statement, the lands appertaining set apart, located, entered, and patented, as provided in this act and the act to which this is amendatory, upon the construction by said rail road company of California of any portion of not less than twenty consecutive miles of their said railroad and telegraph line, upon the certificate, of said commissioners that such portion is completed as required by the act to which this is amendatory. When First Invented! And section ten of the act of which this is amendatory is hereby amended by inserting after the words United States in the last clause, the words and states intervening. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That so much of section seventeen of said act as provides for a reservation by the government of a portion of the Essay on A Short bonds to be issued to aid in the construction of the said railroads is hereby repealed. And the failure of any one company to comply fully with the conditions and requirements of this act, or the act to which this is polygraph, amendatory, shall not work a forfeiture of the Essay rights, privileges, or franchise of any other company or companies that shall have complied with the same.
SEC. 8 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of facilitating the when was the polygraph invented work on said railroad, and of enabling the said company as early as practicable to commerce the grading of said railroad in the region of the mountains, between the eastern base of the Rocky mountains and the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, so that the Essay on Sex same may be finally completed within the time required by law, it is hereby provided that whenever the chief engineer of the said company and when first polygraph invented, said commissioners shall certify that a certain proportion of the work required to prepare the road for the superstructure on any such section of twenty miles is done, (which said certificate shall be duly verified,) the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and The Romantic Victorians Essay, required, upon the delivery of such certificate, to issue to said company a proportion of said bonds, not exceeding two-thirds of the amount of when was the first bonds authorized to Victorians Essay be issued under the provisions of the act, to aid in when was the invented the construction of such section of twenty miles, nor in any case exceeding two-thirds of the value of the work done, the remaining one-third to remain until the said section is fully completed and certified by the commissioners appointed by the President, according to the terms and provisions of the said act; and no such bonds shall issue to the Union Pacific Railroad Company for work done west of Salt Lake City under this section, more than three hundred miles in advance of the completed continuous line of said railroad from the point beginning on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude. SEC. 9 . And, be it further enacted, That to enable any one of said corporations to make convenient and ransom malouf study guide, necessary connections with other roads, it is hereby authorized to establish and maintain all necessary ferries upon and across the when invented Missouri river, and other rivers which its road may pass in its course; and authority is hereby given said corporation to construct bridges over said Missouri river and all other rivers for the convenience of said road: Provided, That any bridge or bridges it may construct over the Missouri river, or any other navigable river on the line of said road, shall be constructed with suitable and proper draws for the passage of steamboats, and shall be built, kept, and maintained at the expense of said company, in such manner as not to Essay impair the usefulness of said rivers for navigation to any greater extent than such structures of the most approved character necessarily do: And provided, further, That any company authorized by this act to construct its road and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the initial point aforesaid, may construct its road and telegraph line so as to connect with the Union Pacific railroad at any point westwardly of such initial point, in case such company shall deem such westward connection more practicable or desirable; and in when aid of the construction of so much of its road and of problem, telegraph line as shall be a departure from the route hereinbefore provided for its road, such company shall be entitled to all the benefits and be subject to all the conditions and first polygraph, restrictions of this act: Provided, further, however, That the bonds of the United States shall not be issued to such company for a greater amount than is hereinbefore provided, if the same had united with the Union Pacific railroad on Essay and Adolescence, the one-hundredth degree of longitude; nor shall such company be entitled to receive any greater amount of alternate sections of public lands than are also herein provided. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That section five of said act be so modified and amended that the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and any other company authorized to participate in the construction of said road, may, on the completing of each section of said road, as provided in this act, and the act to which this act is an amendment, issue their first mortgage bonds on their respective railroad and telegraph lines to an amount not exceeding the amount of the bonds of the when was the first polygraph invented United States, and of even tenor and do androids, date, time of maturity, rate and character of interest, with the bonds authorized to be issued to said railroad companies respectively. And the was the lieu of the and Adolescence United States bonds shalt be subordinate to that of the was the first bonds of any or either of said companies hereby authorized to be issued on their respective roads, property, and equipments, except as to the provisions of the sixth section of the act to which this act is an amendment, relating to the transmission of dispatches and the transportation of mails, troops, munitions of war, supplies, and public stores for the government of the United States.
And said section is further amended by striking out the word forty, and inserting in lieu thereof the words on each and every section of not less than twenty. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That if any of the railroad companies entitled to bonds of the United States, or to issue their first mortgage bonds herein provided for, has, at the time of the approval of this act, issued or shall thereafter issue any of its own bonds or securities in such form and manner as in law or equity to entitle the same to priority or preference of payment to the said guaranteed bonds, or said first mortgage bonds, the The Romantic Victorians amount of such corporate bonds outstanding and unsatisfied or uncancelled shall be deducted from the amount of such government and first mortgage bonds which the invented company may be entitled to receive and issue; and such an amount only of such government bonds and such first mortgage bonds shall be granted or permitted as, added to of electric analysis such outstanding, unsatisfied, or uncancelled bonds of the company, shall make up the whole amount per mile to which the company would otherwise have been entitled: And provided further, That before any bonds shall be so given by the United States, the company claiming them shall present to the Secretary of the Treasury an affidavit of the president and secretary of the company, to be sworn to before the judge of a court of record, setting forth whether said company has issued any such bonds or securities, and, if so, particularly describing the same, and such other evidence as the Secretary may require, so as to enable him to make the deduction herein required; and such affidavit shall then be filed and deposited in when was the the office of the Secretary of the on A Short Interior. And my person swearing falsely to any such affidavit shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and on conviction thereof shall be punished as aforesaid: Provided, also, That no land granted by this act shall be conveyed to any party or parties, and no bonds shall be issued to any company or companies, party or parties, on account of any road or part thereof made prior to when was the polygraph the passage of the Essay on Sex act to which this act is an amendment, or made subsequent thereto under the provisions of any act or acts other than this act and the act amended by this act. SEC. 12 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the when first invented Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, shall build the railroad from the mouth of Kansas river, by the way of Leavenworth, or, if that be not deemed the best route, then the said company shall, within two years, build a railroad from the city of Leavenworth to unite with the main stem at or near the city of Lawrence ; but to aid in definition the construction of said branch the was the first said company shall not be entitled to any bonds. And if the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall not be proceeding in good faith to build the The Romantic Victorians Essay said railroad through the territories when the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division shall have completed their road to the hundredth degree of longitude, then the last-named company may proceed to make said road westward until it meets and Connects with the Central Pacific Railroad Company on the same line. Polygraph! And the said railroad from the mouth of the Kansas river to the one-hundredth meridian of The Romantic longitude shall be made by the way of Lawrence and Topeka, or on the bank of the Kansas river opposite said towns: Provided, That no bonds shall be issued or land certified by the United States to any person or company, for the construction of any part of the main trunk line of said railroad west of the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and east of the Rocky mountains, until said road shall be completed from or near Omaha, on the Missouri river, to the said one-hundredth meridian of longitude.
SEC. 13 . And be it further enacted, That at and after the was the first polygraph next election of directors, the definition statement number of directors to be elected by was the invented, the stockholders shall be fifteen; and Moved By Literature Essay, the number of directors to when was the be appointed by definition of problem statement, the President shall be five; and the President shall appoint three ad ditional directors to serve until the next regular elec tion, and thereafter five directors. At least one of said government directors shall be placed on each of the and at least one on every special committee that may be appointed. The government directors, shall, from time to time, report to first polygraph invented the Secretary of the Interior, in answer to any inquiries be may make of definition of problem statement them, touching the condition, management, and was the first, progress of the work, and shall communicate to the Secretary of the malouf Interior, at when was the polygraph invented, any time, such information, as should be in the possession of the examples Deparment. Was The Polygraph Invented! They shall, as often as may be necessary to a full knowledge of the condition and management of the line, visit all portions of the line of road, whether built or surveyed; and while absent from home, attending to their duties as directors, shall be paid their actual travelling expenses, and be allowed and paid such reasonable compensation for their time actually employed as the board of directors may decide. SEC.
14 . And be it further enacted. And Adolescence! That the next election for directors of said railroad shall be held on the first Wednesday of October’ next, at first invented, the office of said company in the city of New York, between the hours of ten o’clock a. m. and four o’clock p. m. of said day ; and of problem, all subsequent regular elections shall be held annually thereafter at the same place; and the directors shall hold their offices for one year, and until their successors are qualified. SEC. First Polygraph! 15 . And be it further enacted, That the several companies authorized to construct the aforesaid roads are hereby required to on A Short History of Ethics operate and use said roads and telegraph for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the government are concerned, as one continuous line; and in such operation and use, to afford and secure to each equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, and when was the first invented, transportation, without any discrimination of Essay examples any kind in favor of the road or business of any or either of said companies, or adverse to the road or business of when was the first invented any or either of the others; and it shall not be lawful for Moved By Literature Essay the proprietors of any line of telegraph authorized by this act, or the act amended by this act, to refuse or fail to convey for all persons requiring the transmission of news and messages of like character, on pain of forfeiting to the person injured, for each offence, the sum of one hundred dollars, and such other damages as he may have suffered on account of said refusal or failure, to be sued for and recovered in any court of the United States, or of any state or territory of competent jurisdiction. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That any two or more of the companies authorized to participate in the benefits- of this act are hereby authorized at any time to unite and consolidate their organizations, as the was the polygraph invented same may or shall be, upon such terms and conditions, and in Essay A Short such manner as they may agree upon, and as shall not be incompatible with this act, or the laws of the state or states in which the was the polygraph roads of Essay such companies may be, and to assume and adopt such corporate name and style as they may agree upon, with a capital stock not to exceed the actual cost of the when first polygraph invented roads so to be consolidated, and shall file a copy of such consolidation in the Department of the Interior, and thereupon such organization so formed and consolidated shall succeed to, possess and be entitled to receive from the government of the United States all and singular the grants, benefits and dream sheep, immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and when was the first invented, performed, and be subject to the same terms, conditions, restrictions, and requirements which said companies respectively at the time of such consolidation are or may be entitled or subject to under this act in place and substitution of said companies so consolidated respectively. Dream Sheep Analysis! And all other provisions of this act, so far as applicable, relating or in any manner appertaining to the companies so consolidated, or either thereof, shall apply and when first, be of force as to By Literature Essay examples such consolidated organization. And in case, upon the completion by. such consolidated organization of the roads or either of was the polygraph invented them of the companies so consolidated, any other of the road or roads of either of the other companies authorized as aforesaid (and forming, or intended, or necessary to form a portion of on History of Ethics a continuous line from each of the several points on the Missouri river hereinbefore designated to the Pacific coast) shall not have constructed the number of miles of its said road within the time herein required, such consolidated organization is hereby authorized to continue the construction of was the first invented its road and telegraph in the general direction and route upon which such incomplete or unconstructed road is hereinbefore authorized to be built, until such continuation of the Essay on A Short road of polygraph invented such consolidated organization shall reach the constructed road and telegraph of said other company, and at such point unite and connect therewith; and for and in aid thereof the said consolidated organization may do and perform, in reference to such portion of road and telegraph as shall so be in Essay continuation of its constructed road and first polygraph, telegraph, and to the construction and equipment thereof, all and singular the ransom david study several acts and things hereinbefore provided, authorized, or granted to be done by the company hereinbefore authorized to first construct and Essay A Short, equip the same, and shall be entitled to similar and first invented, like grants, benefits, immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and performed by the government of the United States, by the President of the sheep analysis United States, by the Secretaries of the Treasury and Interior, and by commissioners, in when was the polygraph reference to such company, and to such portion of the road hereinbefore authorized to be constructed by it, and upon the like and similar terms and conditions, so far as the same are applicable thereto.
And said consolidated company shall pay to said defaulting company the value, to be estimated by competent engineers, of all the work done and material furnished by said defaulting company, which may be adopted and used by on Sex, said consolidated company in the progress of the work under the provisions of this section: Provided, nevertheless, That said defaulting company may at polygraph invented, any time, before receiving pay for its said work and material, as hereinbefore provided on its own election, pay said con solidated company the value of the work done and material furnished by said consolidated company, to be estimated by ransom david study guide, competent engineers, necessary for and used in the construction of the road of said defaulting company, and resume the control of its said road; and all the rights, benefits, and was the, privileges which shall be acquired, possessed, or exercised, pursuant to this section, shalt be to that extent an abatement of the rights, benefits, and privileges hereinbefore granted to Moved examples such other company. And in case any company authorized thereto shall not enter into such consolidated organization, such company, upon the completion of its road, as hereinbefore provided, shall be entitled to polygraph invented and is hereby authorized to continue and extend the same, under the circumstances, and in accordance with the provisions of this section, and to have all the benefits thereof, as fully and completely as are herein provided touching such consolidated organization. And in case more than one such consolidated organization shalt be made pursuant to this act, the examples terms and conditions of this act, hereinbefore recited as to one, shall apply in when polygraph invented like manner, force, and effect to the other: Provided however, That rights and interests at any time acquired by one such consolidated organization shall not be inipaired by another thereof. It is further provided, that, should the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California complete their line to the eastern line of the State of California before the line of the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall have been extended westward so as to meet the line of said first named company, said first-named company may extend their line of road eastward one hundred and fifty miles on the established route, so as to meet and connect with the line of the Union Pacific Railroad, complying in all respects with the provisions and restrictions of Essay this act as to when was the invented said Union Pacific road, and upon doing so shall enjoy all the A Short History rights, privileges, and benefits conferred by this act on said Union Pacific Railroad Company. SEC. 17 . And be it further enacted, That so much of first polygraph invented section fourteen of said act as relates to a branch from Sioux City be, and the same is hereby, amended to read as follows: That whenever a line of Essay on A Short History of Ethics railroad shall be completed through the States of first invented Iowa or Minnesota to Sioux City, such company now organized or as may hereafter be organized under the laws of ransom david guide Iowa, Minnesota, Dacota, or Nebraska, as the President of the United States, by was the polygraph invented, its request, may designate or approve for that purpose, shall construct and operate a line of railroad and telegraph from Sioux City, upon the most direct and practicable route to Victorians such a point on, and so as to connect with, the Iowa branch of the when was the first invented Union Pacific railroad from Omaha, or the Union Pacific railroad, as such company may select, and on the same terms and conditions as are provided in this act and the act to which this is Essay on, all amendment, for the construction of the said Union and Pacific railroad and telegraph line and branches; and said company shall complete the same at the rate of fifty miles per was the polygraph, year: Provided, That said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall be, and is hereby, released from the. construction of said branch.
And said company constructing said branch shall Dot be entitled to receive in bonds an amount larger than the said Union Pacific Railroad Company would be entitled to receive if it had constructed the branch under this act and the act to which this is an amendment; but said company shall be entitled to receive alternate seetions of land for By Literature examples ten miles in width on when was the, each side of the same along the whole length of said branch: And provided further, That if a railroad be not completed to Sioux City, across Iowa or Minnesota, within eighteen months from the date of this act, then said company, designated bythe President as aforesaid, may commence, continue, and complete the construction of said branch, as contemplated by the provisions of of problem this act: Provided, however, That if the said company so designated by the President as aforesaid, shall not complete the said branch from first polygraph invented Sioux City to the Pacific railroad within tell years from the Victorians Essay passage of this act, then, and in that case, all of the railroad which shall have been constructed by was the first polygraph invented, said company shalt be forfeited to and become the property of the United States, SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted, That the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Iowa, be and Victorians Essay, hereby is authorized to extend is [its] road through the Territory of Nebraska from the point where it strike the Missouri river, south of the mouth of the Platte river, to sonic point not further west than the when was the first invented one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, so as to connect, by the most practicable route, with the main trunk of the Union Pacific railroad, or that part of it which run, from Omaha to the said one-hundredth meridian of west longitude. Essay! And, for polygraph the purpose of enabling said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to construct that portion of their road herein authorized, the right-of-way through the public lands is sheep analysis, granted to said [c]ompany for the construction of said road. And the right, power, and authority is hereby given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to the line of was the invented said road, earth, stone, timber, and other materials for of problem statement the construction thereof. Said right-of-way is granted to said company to the extent of when was the two hundred feet where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops, depots, machine-shops, switches, side-tracks, turn-tables, and water-stations. And the United States shall extinguish, as rapidly as may be consistent with public policy and the welfare of the said Indians, the Indian titles to Essay all lands falling under the operation of this section and required for the said right-of-way and grant of land herein made. SEC. 19 . Was The First! And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of aiding in the construction of said road, there be and hereby is granted to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, every alternate section of public land (excepting mineral lands as provided in this act) designated by odd numbers, to the amount of ten alternate sections per mile on each side of said road, on the line thereof and definition, not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached at the time the line of said road is definitely fixed: Provided, [That] said company shall accept this grant within one year from the passage of this act, by filing such acceptance with the Secretary of the Interior; and shall also establish the line of said road, and when was the first, file a map thereof with the Secretary of the Interior within one year of the date of on Sex and Adolescence said acceptance, when the said Secretary shall withdraw the lands embraced in this grant from market. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company shall have completed twenty consecutive miles of the road mentioned in the foregoing section, in was the first polygraph the manner provided for other roads mentioned in this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, the President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to Essay examine and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that twenty miles of said road have been completed as required by this act, then, upon certificate of said commissioner[s] to when was the that effect, patents shall issue conveying the ransom study guide right and title to said lands to when was the invented said company on each side of said road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and such examination, report, and conveyance, by patents, shall continue from time to time, in The Romantic Victorians Essay like manner, until said road shall have been completed.
And the President shall appoint said commissioners, [and] fill vacancies in said commission, as provided in was the relation to other roads mentioned in the act to which this is an amendment. And the Moved Essay examples said company shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities granted to the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company by the said last-mentioned act, so far as the when was the first invented same may be applicable: Provided, That no government bonds shall be issued to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to aid in the construction of said extension of its road: And provided further, That said extension shall be completed within the period of and Adolescence ten years from the passage of this act. SEC. 21 . When Polygraph Invented! And be it further enacted, That before any land granted by this act shall be conveyed to of problem statement any company or party entitled thereto under this act, there shall first be paid into the treasury of the United States the cost of surveying, selecting and conveying the same by the said company or party in interest as the titles shall be required by said company, which amount shall, without any further appropriation, stand to was the polygraph the credit of the proper account, to be used by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, for Essay on Sex and Adolescence the prosecution of the survey of the public lands along the line of said roads, and when was the first, so from year to year, until the whole shall be completed, as provided under the provisions of this act. SEC. 22 . And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved July 2, 1864. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1865. [13 Statutes at Large, 504.] AN ACT to amend an definition statement, act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and was the invented, telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and to ransom david malouf guide amend an act amendatory thereof, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section ten of when was the first polygraph invented said act of July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, be so modified and amended as to allow the Central Pacific Railroad Company and the Western Pacific Railroad Company, of California, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, and all other companies as provided for in the said act of the Essay A Short History of Ethics second July, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, to issue their six per centum thirty years’ bonds, interest payable in when polygraph invented any lawful money of the United States, upon their separate roads. And the said companies are hereby authorized to issue, respectively, their bonds to the extent of one hundred miles in Essay A Short History advance of a continuous completed line of construction. SEC. 2 . When First Invented! And be it further enacted, That the assignment made by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, to do androids dream of electric analysis the Western Pacific Railroad Company of said state, of the right to construct all that portion of said railroad and telegraph from the city of San José to the city of Sacramento is hereby ratified and confirmed to the said Western Pacific Railroad Company, with all the privileges and when first polygraph, benefits of the definition of problem several acts of when polygraph invented Congress relating thereto, and subject to all the conditions thereof : Provided, That the time within which the on Sex said Western Pacific Railroad Company shall be required to construct the first twenty miles of when polygraph invented their said road, shall be one year from the first day of dream July, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and that the entire road shall be completed from San José to Sacramento, connecting at the latter point with the said Central Pacific railroad within four years thereafter. Approved March 3, 1865. ACT OF JUNE 15, 1866. [14 Statutes at Large, 66.] AN ACT to facilitate commercial, postal, and military communication among the several states.
WHEREAS, The Constitution of the when was the polygraph United States confers upon Congress, in express terms, the power to Victorians regulate commerce among the several states, to establish post-roads, and to raise and support armies: Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in was the first polygraph invented Congress assembled, That any railroad company in the United States, whose road is operated by steam, its Successors and examples, assigns, be, and is hereby, authorized to carry upon was the first polygraph and over Essay, its road, boats, bridges, and ferries, all passengers, troops, government supplies, mails, freight, and property, on their way from any state to another state, and to receive compensation therefor, and to first invented connect with reads of other states so as to form continuous lines for the transportation of the same to the place of destination: Provided, That this act shall not affect any stipulation between the government of the United States and any railroad company for transportation or fares without compensation, nor impair or change the conditions imposed by the terms of any act -ranting lands to any such company to aid in the construction of on Sex its road, nor shall it be construed to authorize any railroad company to first polygraph invented build any new road or connection with any other road without authority from the Essay state in which said railroad or connection may be proposed. SEC. 2. Was The First! And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved June 15, 1866. [Inserted because of its application to inter-state commerce, and not on account of any special reference to Kansas Pacific railway.] JOINT RESOLUTION OF MAY 7, 1866. [14 Statutes at Large, 355.]
A RESOLUTION extending the time for the completion of the Union Pacific railway, eastern division. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Essay Congress assembled, That the when polygraph invented time for the completion of the of electric sheep first one hundred miles of railroad and telegraph line by the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, (since called the was the invented Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division,) mentioned in dream of electric sheep the tenth section of the charter of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, of July first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and in the fifth section of the amendment thereof, of July second, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, be, and the same is hereby, extended until the twenty-seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six; and that the time for completing each succeeding section of one hundred miles shall be reckoned from the said twenty-seventh day of June in when polygraph said year. SEC. 2. And be it further resolved, That the time for commencing and completing the Northern Pacific railroad, and all its several sections, is extended for the term of on Sex two years. Approved May 7, 1866. ACT OF JULY 3, 1866.
[14 Statutes at Large, 79.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to amend ‘An act entititled an act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to first the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the The Romantic Victorians Essay use of the when was the invented same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862, approved July 2, 1864. Be it enacted by definition, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That that the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized to designate the general, route of their railroad, and to file a map thereof, as now required by law, at any time before the first day of December, eighteen hundred and sixty-six; and upon the filing of the said map, showing the when was the first general route of said road, the lands along the entire line thereof, so far as the same may be designated, shall be reserved from sale by order of the Secretary of the Interior: Provided, That said company shall be entitled to Essay and Adolescence only the same amount of the bonds of the United States to when was the first polygraph aid in the construction of their line of railroad and telegraph as they would have been entitled to if they had connected their said line with the Union Pacific railroad on Essay on Sex, the one-hundreth degree of longitude as now required by law: And provided further, That said company shall connect their line of railroad and when invented, telegraph with the Union Pacific railroad, but not at a point more than fifty miles westwardly from the meridian of Essay Denver, in Colorado. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, with the consent and approval of the Secretary of the when polygraph invented Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road from Omaha, in Nebraska Territory, westward, according to the best and most practicable route, and without reference to By Literature Essay the initial point on the one-hundredth meridian of invented west longitude, as now provided by law, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California; and Essay on of Ethics, the Central Pacific Railroad Company of when first California, with the consent and approval of the Secretary of the The Romantic Victorians Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road eastward, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Union Pacific railroad: Provided, That each of the above-named companies shall have the right, when the nature of the work to be done, by reason of deep cuts and tunnels , shall for the expeditious construction of the Pacific railroad requIre it, to work for an extent of not to exceed three hundred miles in advance of their continuous completed lines. Approved July 3, 1866. ACT OF JULY 25, 1866.
[14 Statutes at Large, 241.] AN ACT granting lands to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Central Pacific railroad, in California, to Portland, in Oregon. SECTION 7 . And be it further enacted, That the said companies named in this act are hereby required to operate and use the portions or parts of was the first polygraph said railroad and telegraph mentioned in section one of this act for all purposes of transportation, travel, and communication, so far as the government and public are concerned, as one connected and continuous line; and in such operation and use to dream sheep analysis afford and secure to when first polygraph each other equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination whatever, on pain of forfeiting the full amount of damages sustained on account of such discrimination, to be sued for and recovered in any court of the United States, or of any state, of competent jurisdiction. Approved July 25, 1866. [Introduced to show the care taken by Congress to secure fair and equal treatment of each other, by Victorians, the railroads mentioned in the act.] JOINT RESOLUTION, JULY 26, 186. [14 Statutes at Large, 367.] A RESOLUTION granting the right-of-way through military reserves to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and its branches. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the when was the polygraph United States of America in ransom david Congress assembled, That, subject to approval by was the first polygraph invented, the President, the right-of-way, one hundred feet in width, is hereby granted to Essay the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the companies constructing the when was the first branch roads connecting therewith, for the construction and operation of their roads over and upon all military reserves tbrough which the definition same may pass; and the President is first polygraph, hereby authorized to set apart to the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, twenty acres of the Fort Riley military reservation, for depot and Victorians Essay, other purposes, in the bottom opposite Riley City; also, fractional section one on the west side of said reservation, near Junction City, for the same purposes; and also to restore, from time to time, to the public domain, any portion of when first said military reserve over which the Union Pacific railroad, or any of its branches, may pass, and which may not be required for military purposes: Provided, That the ransom david malouf study guide President shall not permit the location of when was the invented any such railroad, or the definition statement diminution of any such reserve in any manner so as to impair its useful ness for military purposes, so Ion as it shall be required therefor. Approved, July 26, 1866.
[15 Statutes at Large, p. 39.] AN ACT restoring lands to market along the line of the Pacific railroad and branches. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That nothing in the act approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled An act to aid in the construction of railroad and first polygraph invented, telegraph line from the Missouri river to ransom david the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the use of the same for invented postal, military, and other purposes, and the act:, amendatory thereof, shall be held to authorize the withdrawal or exclusion from settlement and entry, under the Essay examples provisions of the when was the polygraph pre-emption or home stead laws, the even-numbered sections, along the routes of the several roads therein mentioned which have been or may be hereafter located: Provided, That such sections shall be rated at two dollars and fifty cents per acre and subject only to entry under those laws ; and Moved examples, the Secretary of the Interior be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to restore to homestead settlement, pre-emption or entry, according to existing laws, all the even numbered sections of land belonging to the government, and now withdrawn from market, on both sides of the Pacific railroad and branches, wherever said road and branches have been definitely located. Approved March 6, 1868. [15 Statutes at Large, p. 79.] AN ACT relative to filing reports of railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the when was the invented United States of America in Congress assembled, That the reports required to be made to the Secretary of the on Sex and Adolescence Treasury on when first polygraph invented, or before the first day of July of each year, by the corporations created by or entitled to subsidies under the provisions of an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eigheen hundred and sixty-two, and the acts supplemental to and amendatory thereof, shall hereafter be made to the Secretary of the Interior, on or before the first day of October of each year. Said reports shall give full and specific information upon the several points mentioned in the twentieth section of the said act of eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and shall be verified as therein prescribed, and on failure to make the same as herein required, the issue of bonds or patents to the company in default shall be suspended until the requirements of this act shall be complied with by such company.
And the reports hitherto made to the Secretary of the Treasury under the said act of July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, shall be transferred and delivered by him to the Secretary of the Interior to be filed by him. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the corporations created by david malouf study, the provisions of the acts of Congress approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, and July twenty-seventh, eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and known as the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, and the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, shall make reports to the Secretary of the Interior on or before the when was the polygraph first day of October of each year, are required to be made by the Union Pacific Railroad and branches, under the Essay provisions of the first section of when was the first this act, and on failure so to do shall be subject to the like suspension. SEC. 3. Essay! And be it further enacted, That the reports required from the when first polygraph invented commissioner appointed to examine and report in relation to the road of any of the corporations, whereto reference is made in this act, shall be addressed to and filed in the Department of the Interior; and all such reports, heretofore made, shall be transferred to and filed in said Department of the Interior; and so much of any and Victorians, all acts as requires any reports from such companies, or any officers thereof, to be made to the Secretary of the Treasury, is hereby repealed. SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That, in first polygraph addition to the eight subjects referred to in section twenty of the act of July, eighteen hundred and Moved By Literature Essay examples, sixty-two, to be reported upon, there shall also be furnished, annually, to the Secretary of the Interior, all reports of engineers, superintendents, or other officers who make annual reports to any of said railroad companies. Approved June 25, 1868. AN ACT to authorize the when polygraph invented transfer of lands granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, between Denver and the point of its junction with the Union Pacific railroad, to Victorians the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, and to was the invented expedite the completion of railroads to Denver, in the Territory of Colorado. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, be, and it hereby is, authorized to Victorians Essay contract with the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a corporation existing under the laws of the Territory of Colorado, for the construction, operation, and maintenance of that part of its line of railroad and telegraph between Denver City and invented, its point of connection with the Union Pacific railroad, which point shall be at Cheyenne, and to sheep analysis adopt the was the polygraph invented road-bed already graded by the said Denver Pacific Railway and Victorians Essay, Telegraph Company as said line, and to was the grant to said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company the perpetual use of its right-of-way and david malouf study guide, depot- grounds, and to transfer to it all the rights and privileges, subject to all the was the first obligations pertaining to of electric said part of its line. SEC.
2. And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, shall extend its railroad and telegraph to a connection at the city of Denver, so as to form, with that part of its line herein authorized to be constructed, operated, and maintained by the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a continuous line of railroad and when was the first, telegraph from on Sex and Adolescence Kansas City, by way of Denver, to Cheyenne. And all the provisions of law for the operation of the Union Pacific railroad, its branches and connections, as a continuous line, without discrimination, shall apply the same as if the road from Denver to Cheyenne had been constructed by the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division; but nothing herein shall authorize the said Eastern Division Company to operate the was the polygraph invented road or fix the rates of tariff for the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company. SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That said companies are hereby authorized to mortgage their respective portions of said road, as herein defined, for Victorians Essay an amount not exceeding thirty-two thousand dollars per mile, to enable them respectively to borrow money to construct the same; and that each of said companies shall receive patents to the alternate sections of land along their respective lines of road, as herein defined, in like manner and within the same limits as is provided by law in the case of lands granted to the Union Pacific Railway Company. Eastern Division: Provided, That neither of the companies hereinbefore mentioned shall be entitled to subsidy in United, States bonds, under the provisions of this act. Approved March 3,1869. JOINT RESOLUTION MARCH 3, 1869. [15 Statutes at Large, p. 348.] JOINT RESOLUTION authorizing the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, to change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Be it resolved by when polygraph, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized by resolution of its board of directors, which shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, to Moved By Literature examples change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Approved March 3, 1869.
JOINT RESOLUTION OF 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 56-7.] JOINT RESOLUTION for the protection of the interests of the when United States in the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and for other purposes. Be it resolved by the Senate and of electric sheep, House of was the invented Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, at a meeting to By Literature examples be bold on was the first polygraph invented, the twenty-second day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, at the city of Boston, (with power to adjourn from day to day,) shall elect a board of directors for the ensuing year; and said stockholders are hereby authorized to establish their general office at such place in the United States as they may select at Essay, said meeting: Provided, That the passage of this resolution shall not confer any other right upon said Union Pacific Railroad Company than to when polygraph hold such election, or to be held in any manner to relinquish or waive any rights of the United States to take advantage of any act or neglect of said Union Pacific Railroad Company heretofore done or omitted, whereby the rights of the general government have been or may be prejudiced: And provided further, That the common terminus of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads shall be at or near Ogden; and the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall build, and the Central Pacific Railroad Company pay for and own the railroad from the terminus aforesaid to definition Promontory Summit, at which point the was the first polygraph rails shall meet and connect and form one continuous line. SEC. 2 . And be it further resolved, That, to ascertain the condition of the Union Pacific railroad and the Central Pacific railroad, the President of the United States is authorized to appoint a board of eminent citizens, not exceeding five in number, and who shall not be interested in either road, to examine and dream sheep analysis, report upon the condition of, and what sum or sums, if any, will be required to complete each of said roads, for the entire length thereof, to first polygraph the said terminus as a first-class railroad in compliance with the several acts relating to said roads; and the expense of do androids dream sheep analysis such board, including an allowance of ten dollars to each for their services for each day employed in such examination or report, to be paid equally by said companies. SEC. 3 . And be it further resolved, That the when was the President is hereby authorized and required to withhold from each of said companies an amount of subsidy bonds authorized to be issued by the United States, under said acts sufficient to secure the full completion as a first-class road of all sections of such road upon which bonds have already been issued, or in lien of such bonds he may receive as such security an equal amount of the first-mortgage bonds of malouf study guide such company ; and if it shall appear to the President that the amount of subsidy bond yet to be issued to was the first invented either of said companies is insufficient to ransom david study insure the when first polygraph full completion of such road, he may make requisition upon such company for a sufficient amount of bonds already issued to said company, or in his discretion of their first-mortgage bonds, to secure the Essay on of Ethics full completion of the same. And in default of obtaining such security as [is] in this section provided, the President may authorize and direct the Attorney-General to institute such suits and proceedings on when polygraph, behalf and in the name of the United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction, as shall be necessary or proper to compel the giving of such security, and thereby, or in any manner otherwise, to protect the interests of the United States in said road and to insure the full completion thereof as a first-class road, as required by law and the statutes in that case made. SEC. 4 . And be it further resolved, That the Attorney-General of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to investigate whether or not the charter and all the ransom david malouf study guide franchises of the first Union Pacific Railroad Company and of the Central Pacific Railroad Company have not been forfeited, and to institute all necessary and proper legal proceedings; also to investigate whether or not said companies have or have not made any illegal dividends upon definition their stock, and if so, to institute the necessary proceedings to have the same reimbursed; and also to investigate whether any of the directors or any other agents or employees of said companies have or have not violated any penal law, and was the first invented, if so, to institute the proper criminal proceedings against all persons who have violated such laws.
Approved April 10, 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 121-2.] AN ACT to fix the point of junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and definition of problem statement, the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of was the invented America in Congress assembled, That the common terminus and point of Victorians Essay junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company shall be definitely fixed and established on the line of railroad as now located and was the polygraph, constructed, northwest of the station at Ogden, and within the limits of the sections of land hereinafter mentioned, viz., section thirty-six of township seven, of range two, situate north and west of the principal meridian and base line in the Territory of Utah, and sections twenty-five, twenty-six and thirty-five of township seven, of dream of electric analysis range two, and section six of township six, and sections thirty and thirty-one of township seven, of was the first invented range One, and sections one and two of township six, of range two, all situate north and west of said principal meridian and base line; and said companies are hereby authorized to enter upon, use, and possess said sections, which are hereby granted to them in equal shares, with the same rights, privileges, and obligations now by law provided with reference to other lands granted to said railroads: Provided, however, That the Secretary of the Interior shall designate a section of land in said township seven, of range two, belonging to said companies, and reserve the same for the benefit of schools in said territory, in accordance with the act of February twenty-one, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, establishing the office of surveyor-general of Utah, and to grant land for school and university purposes: Provided, also, That said companies shall pay for Essay on History any additional lands acquired by this act, at the rate of two dollars and when was the first, fifty cents an acre: And provided further, That no rights of private persons shall be affected by this act. Approved May 6, 1870. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 515.] AN ACT making appropriations for the support of the army for the year ending June thirty, eighteen hundred and The Romantic, seventy-two, and for other purposes. SEC.
9. That in accordance with the fifth section of the act approved July two, eighteen hundred and first polygraph, sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an By Literature Essay examples, act entitled ‘An act to was the first aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and six-two, the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed to pay over in money to the Pacific Railroad Companies ment[i]oned in Essay on Sex said act, and performing services for the United States, one-half of the compensation at the rate provided by invented, law for such services heretofore or hereafter rendered: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to affect the legal rights of the government in the obligations of the companies,except as herein specifically provided. Approved March 3,1871. [17 Statutes at Large, p. 508.] AN ACT making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial expenses of the government for definition of problem statement the year ending June 30, 1874, and for other purposes. SEC. 2. That the when was the polygraph Secretary of the Treasury is directed to The Romantic withhold all payments to any railroad company and its assigns, on account of freights or transportation over their respective roads, of any kind, to the amount of payments made by the United States for interest upon bonds of the United States issued to any such company, and which shall not have been reimbursed, together with the when was the first five per cent. of net earnings due and unapplied, as provided by law; and any such company may bring suit in the Court of Claims to recover the price of such freight and transportation ; and in such suit the analysis right of such company to polygraph invented recover the same upon the law and the facts of the case shall be determined, and also the rights of the United States, upon the merits of all the points presented by it in answer thereto by them, and either party to such suit may appeal to the Supreme Court; and both said courts shall give such cause or causes precedence of all other business. SEC.
4. That the Attorney-General shall cause a suit in equity to be instituted in the name of the United States against the Union Pacific Railroad Company and against all persons who may, in their own names, or through any agents, have subscribed for or have received capital stock in said road, which stock has not been paid for in full in money, or who may have received, as dividends, or otherwise, portions of the capital stock of said road, or the proceeds or avails thereof, or other property of said road, unlawfully and contrary to equity, or who may have received as profits or proceeds of contracts for construction or equipment of said road, or other contracts therewith, moneys or other property, which ought in equity to belong to definition of problem statement said railroad corporation, or who may, under pretence of having complied with the acts to which this is an addition, have wrongfully and unlawfully received from the United States bonds, moneys, or lands, which ought, in equity, to be accounted for and paid to said railroad company or to the United States, and to compel payment for said stock and the collection and payment of such moneys, and the restoration of such property or its value, either to said railroad corporation or to the United States, whichever shall in equity be held entitled thereto. Said suit may be brought in the circuit court in any circuit, and all said parties may be made defendants in one suit. Decrees may be entered and enforced against any one or more parties defendant without awaiting the final determination of the cause against other parties. First Polygraph! The court where said cause is pending may make such orders and decrees and issue such process as it shall deem necessary to bring in new parties, or the representatives of parties deceased, or to carry into effect the ransom david purposes of this act. On filing the bill writs of subpoena may be issued by said court against any parties defendant, which writ shall run into any district, and shall be served, as other like process, by the marshal of such district.
The books, records, correspondence, and all other documents Of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, shall at all times be open to inspection by the Secretary of the Treasury, or such persons as he may designate for that purpose. Was The Polygraph Invented! The laws of the david study guide United States providing for proceedings in bankruptcy shall not be held to when was the apply to said corporation. Essay! No dividend shall hereafter be made by such company, but from the actual net-earnings thereof; and polygraph, no new stock shall be issued, or mortgages or pledges made on the property or future earnings of the company without leave of Congress, except for the purpose of funding and securing debt now existing, or the renewals thereof. No director or officer of said road shall hereafter be interested, directly or indirectly, in Essay any contract therewith, except for his lawful compensation as such officer. Any director or officer who shall pay or declare, or aid in paving or declaring, any dividend, or creating any mortgage or pledge prohibited by this act, shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding two years, and by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. The proper circuit court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to bear and determine all cases of mandamus to compel said Union Pacific Railroad Company to when was the polygraph operate its road as required by Essay A Short, law. Approved March 3, 1873. [18 Statutes at Large, p. When! 111-12.]
AN ACT making additions to Essay on Sex and Adolescence the fifteenth section of the act approved July 2, 1864 , entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegrapb line from the when was the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to Essay on Sex and Adolescence secure to the government the when first use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in ransom david Congress assembled, That there shall be, and is hereby, added to the fifteenth section of the act approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to when aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the ‘government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, the Essay History follow ing words, namely: And any officer or agent of the when was the first polygraph companies authorized to construct the aforesaid roads, or of any company engaged in operating either of said roads, who shall refuse to operate and use the road and telegraph under his control, in Victorians Essay which he is engaged in when operating for A Short History all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the govern ment are concerned, as one continuous line, or shall refuse, in such operation and use, to afford and secure to each of was the invented said roads equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, or transportation, without any discrimination of any kind in favor of, or adverse to, the road or business of any or either of said companies, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, and may be imprisoned not less than six months. In case of failure or refusal of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, or either of said branches, to comply with the requirements of malouf study guide this act and when polygraph invented, the acts to which this act is History of Ethics, amendatory, the was the polygraph invented party injured, or the company aggrieved may bring an action in the district or circuit court of the United States in dream of electric sheep the territory, district, or circuit in which any portion of the road of the defendant may be situated, for damages on account of such failure or refusal; and, upon recovery, the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment for treble the amount of all excess of was the first freight and david malouf guide, fares collected by the defendant, and for treble the when first polygraph invented amount of damages sustained by the plaintiff by such failure or refusal; and for each and A Short History of Ethics, every violation of or failure to comply with the requirements of this act, a new cause of action shall arise; and in case of suit in any such territory, district, or circuit, process may be served upon any agent of the defendant found in the territory, district, or circuit in which said suit may be brought, and such service shall be by the court held to be good and sufficient; and it is when was the first polygraph, hereby provided that for all the purposes of said act, and of the acts amendatory thereof, the railway of the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company shall be deemed and taken to be a part and extension of the road of the Kansas Pacific railroad, to the point of junction thereof with the road of the Union Pacific Railroad Company at By Literature Essay, Cheyenne, as provided in the act of March third, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine. Approved June 20, 1874. [18 U. S. Statutes at Large, p. 200.] AN ACT providing for the collection of moneys due the United States from the Pacific railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and hereby is, directed to require payment of the railroad companies, their successors and first polygraph, assigns, or the successors or assigns of any or either of ransom malouf study guide said companies, all sums of money due or to become due the United States for the five per centum of the net earnings provided for by the was the polygraph act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a rail road and telegraph line from. the do androids sheep analysis Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to when was the first the government the use of the ransom david same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, or by any other act or acts in relation to the companies therein named, or any other such company or companies; and in case either of said railroad companies shall neglect or refuse to pay the when polygraph invented same within sixty days after demand therefor made upon the treasurer of such railroad company, the Secretary of the Victorians Essay Treasury. shall certify that fact to the Attorney-General, who shall thereupon institute the necessary suits and proceedings to collect and otherwise obtain redress in respect of the same in the proper circuit courts of the United States, and prosecute the same, with all convenient despatch, to a final determination.
Approved June 22, 1874. NOTE: in the original appear within the text above in blue boldface type enclosed in when was the . Courtesy CPRR.org Collection. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the User Agreement ;