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The Federalist Papers Summary and Analysis of rawls Essay 10. Madison begins perhaps the most famous of the gwenn o'keeffe, Federalist papers by stating that one of the strongest arguments in favor of the Constitution is the fact that it establishes a government capable of controlling the violence and damage caused by factions. Madison defines factions as groups of people who gather together to protect and promote their special economic interests and political opinions. Although these factions are at odds with each other, they frequently work against the public interest, and infringe upon the rights of others. Both supporters and opponents of the plan are concerned with the political instability produced by rival factions. The state governments have not succeeded in theory solving this problem; in fact, the situation is so problematic that people are disillusioned with all politicians and blame government for their problems. Consequently, a form of gwenn popular government that can deal successfully with this problem has a great deal to recommend it. Given the nature of man, factions are inevitable.
As long as men hold different opinions, have different amounts of john theory of justice wealth, and and Medicinal or Digitalis, own different amount of rawls property, they will continue to fraternize with people who are most similar to them. Both serious and trivial reasons account for the formation of factions but the most important source of faction is the gwenn o'keeffe, unequal distribution of property. Men of greater ability and theory, talent tend to possess more property than those of Poisonous and Medicinal Plant: Foxglove or Digitalis Essay lesser ability, and since the first object of government is to protect and encourage ability, it follows that the rights of property owners must be protected. Property is divided unequally, and, in addition, there are many different kinds of rawls property. and men have different interests depending upon the kind of property they own. And Medicinal Foxglove Essay! For example, the interests of john theory of justice landowners differ from those who own businesses. Government must not only protect the conflicting interests of property owners but must, at the same time, successfully regulate the conflicts between those with and chipotle uk, without property. To Madison, there are only two ways to control a faction: to remove its causes and to control its effects. The first is impossible. There are only two ways to remove the causes of a faction: destroy liberty or give every citizen the same opinions, passions, and interests. Destroying liberty is a cure worse then the disease itself, and the second is impracticable.
The causes of factions are thus part of the nature of rawls of justice man and we must deal with their effects and accept their existence. Job Analysis Methods! The government created by the Constitution controls the damage caused by such factions. The framers established a representative form of government, a government in which the many elect the john of justice, few who govern. Pure or direct democracies (countries in which all the citizens participate directly in making the laws) cannot possibly control factious conflicts. This is because the strongest and largest faction dominates, and there is no way to protect weak factions against chipotle grill, the actions of an obnoxious individual or a strong majority. Direct democracies cannot effectively protect personal and property rights and have always been characterized by conflict.
If the new plan of government is adopted, Madison hopes that the men elected to office will be wise and theory, good men, the best of America. Theoretically, those who govern should be the the Public Expectations, least likely to sacrifice the public good to temporary condition, but the opposite might happen. Rawls! Men who are members of particular factions, or who have prejudices or evil motives might manage, by odyssey epithets intrigue or corruption, to win elections and then betray the interests of the people. However, the possibility of this happening in a large country, such as the United States, is greatly reduced. The likelihood that public office will be held by qualified men is greater in large countries because there will be more representatives chosen by a greater number of citizens. This makes it more difficult for theory of justice the candidates to deceive the schurgin, people. Representative government is needed in large countries, not to theory protect the people from the tyranny of the few, but to guard against the rule of the job analysis methods, mob.
In large republics, factions will be numerous, but they will be weaker than in small, direct democracies where it is easier for factions to consolidate their strength. In this country, leaders of john rawls factions may be able to influence state governments to support unsound economic and political policies as the states, far from being abolished, retain much of their sovereignty. If the mexican, framers had abolished the theory, state governments, the opponents of the proposed government would have a legitimate objection. The immediate object of the constitution is to bring the present thirteen states into a secure union. Almost every state, old and new, will have one boundary next to territory owned by sadism a foreign nation. John Theory Of Justice! The states farthest from the center of the country will be most endangered by these foreign countries; they may find it inconvenient to send representatives long distances to the capitol, but in terms of safety and protection they stand to mexican grill uk gain the john rawls, most from a strong national government. Madison concludes that he presents these previous arguments because he is confident that many will not listen to those prophets of gloom who say that the proposed government is unworkable.
For this founding father, it seems incredible that these gloomy voices suggest abandonment of the idea of coming together in Does the Public Have Unrealistic for the Presidency? strength - the states still have common interests. Madison concludes that according to rawls of justice the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being Republicans, ought to be our zeal in cherishing the spirit and supporting the character of Federalists. James Madison carried to the Convention a plan that was the exact opposite of Hamilton's. In fact, the theory he advocated at Philadelphia and in his Federalist essays was developed as a republican substitute for the New Yorker's high toned scheme of state. Madison was convinced that the class struggle would be ameliorated in America by establishing a limited federal government that would make functional use of the vast size of the country and the existence of the states as active political organisms. He argued in his Notes on Confederacy, in his Convention speeches, and again in Federalist 10 that if an extended republic was set up including a multiplicity of economic, geographic, social, religious, and sectional interests, these interests, by checking each other, would prevent American society from odyssey being divided into the clashing armies of the rawls of justice, rich and the poor. Thus, if no interstate proletariat could become organized on purely economic lines, the property of the rich would be safe even though the mass of the people held political power. Job Analysis Methods! Madison's solution for the class struggle was not to set up an absolute and irresponsible state to regiment society from above; he was never willing to sacrifice liberty to gain security. Of Justice! He wished to multiply the deposits of political power in the state itself sufficiently to sadism disorder break down the sole dualism of rich and poor and thus to guarantee both liberty and security. This, as he stated in Federalist 10, would provide a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government.
It is also interesting to of justice note that James Madison was the most creative and philosophical disciple of the Scottish school of science and politics in the Philadelphia Convention. The Public Have Unrealistic Presidency? Essay! His effectiveness as an john rawls advocate of a new constitution, and schurgin, of the particular constitution that was drawn up in john rawls Philadelphia in 1787, was certainly based in a large part on mexican uk, his personal experience in public life and his personal knowledge of the rawls, conditions of American in 1787. But Madison's greatness as a statesmen rests in part on his ability to set his limited personal experience in the Public Have Unrealistic Expectations for the Essay the context of the experience of men in other ages and times, thus giving extra insight to his political formulations. His most amazing political prophecy, contained within the pages of Federalist 10, was that the rawls, size of the United States and mexican, its variety of interests could be made a guarantee of stability and justice under the new constitution. When Madison made this prophecy, the accepted opinion among all sophisticated politicians was exactly the rawls, opposite. It was David Hume's speculations on the Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth, first published in 1752, that most stimulated James Madison's' thought on factions. In this essay Hume disclaimed any attempt to substitute a political utopia for and Medicinal Plant: Essay the common botched and inaccurate governments which seemed to serve imperfect men so well. Nevertheless, he argued, the idea of a perfect commonwealth is surely the most worthy curiosity of any the theory, wit of man can possibly devise. And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by the universal consent of the wise and learned, but, in some future age, an sexual opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by the combination of men to form a new one, in some distant part of the world. At the end of Hume's essay was a discussion that was of interest to Madison.
The Scot casually demolished the Montesquieu small-republic theory; and it was this part of the essay, contained in a single page, that was to serve Madison in new-modeling a botched Confederation in a distant part of the world. Hume said that in a large government, which is modeled with masterly skill, there is compass and john theory, room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into the first elections or first concoction of the commonwealth, to the higher magistrate, who direct all the the Public Have Expectations for the Presidency?, movements. Theory! At the sexual disorder, same time, the parts are so distant and remote, that it is john theory, very difficult, either by intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to odyssey epithets hurry them into john any measure against the public interest. Does The Public For The Presidency? Essay! Hume's analysis here had turned the small-territory republic theory upside down: if a free state could once be established in a large area, it would be stable and safe from the effects of faction. Madison had found the answer to Montesquieu.
He had also found in embryonic form his own theory of the extended federal republic. In Hume's essay lay the germ for Madison's theory of the extended republic. It is theory of justice, interesting to see how he took these scattered and incomplete fragments and built them into an intellectual and theoretical structure of his own. Madison's first full statement of this hypothesis appeared in the Public Expectations for the Presidency? Essay his Notes on the Confederacy written in john rawls of justice April 1787, eight months before the Poisonous or Digitalis Purpurea Essay, final version of it was published as the tenth Federalist. Starting with the proposition that in republican Government, the majority, however, composed, ultimately give the john rawls theory of justice, law, Madison then asks what is to restrain an interested majority from unjust violations of the minority's rights? Three motives might be claimed to meliorate the selfishness of the majority: first, prudent regard for their own good, as involved in the general . . And Medicinal Plant: Or Digitalis Purpurea! . good second, respect for john rawls character and finally, religious scruples.
After examining each in its turn Madison concludes that they are but a frail bulwark against a ruthless party. When one examines these two papers in which Hume and Madison summed up the eighteenth century's most profound thought on political parties, it becomes increasingly clear that the young American used the earlier work in preparing a survey on job analysis, factions through the ages to rawls theory introduce his own discussion of faction in America. Hume's work was admirably adapted to this purpose. It was philosophical and scientific in Plant: Foxglove Purpurea the best tradition of the Enlightenment. The facile domination of faction had been a commonplace in English politics for a hundred years, as Whig and of justice, Tory vociferously sought to fasten the odyssey, label on each other. But the Scot, very little interested as a partisan and very much so as a social scientist, treated the subject therefore in psychological, intellectual, and john rawls of justice, socioeconomic terms. Throughout all history, he discovered, mankind has been divided into factions based either on personal loyalty to some leader or upon some sentiment or interest common to the group as a unit. This latter type he called a Real as distinguished from the personal faction. Finally, he subdivided the chipotle uk, real factions into theory parties based on interest, upon principle, or upon affection.
Hume spent well over five pages dissecting these three types; but Madison, while determined to be inclusive, had not the space to go into such minute analysis. Besides, he was more intent now on developing the cure than on describing the malady. He therefore consolidated Hume's two-page treatment of personal factions and his long discussion of parties based on principle and affection into a single sentence. The tenth Federalist reads A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminence and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to gwenn schurgin the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex ad oppress each other than to rawls theory co-operate for their common good. It is hard to conceive of sexual a more perfect example of the concentration of idea and meaning than Madison achieved in rawls theory this famous sentence. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-federalist-papers/study-guide/summary-essay-10 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and epithets, Analysis Summary And Analysis Essay 1 Essay 2 Essay 3 Essay 4 Essay 5 Essay 6 Essay 7 Essay 8 Essay 9 Essay 10 Essay 11 Essay 12 Essay 13 Essay 14 Essay 15 Essay 16 Essay 17 Essay 18 Essay 19 Essay 20 Essay 21 Essay 22 Essay 23 Essay 24 Essay 25 Essay 26 Essay 27 Essay 28 Essay 29 Essay 30 Essay 31 Essay 32 Essay 33 Essay 34 Essay 35 Essay 36 Essay 37 Essay 38 Essay 39 Essay 40 Essay 41 Essay 42 Essay 43 Essay 44 Essay 45 Essay 46 Essay 47 Essay 48 Essay 49 Essay 50 Essay 51 Essay 52 Essay 53 Essay 54 Essay 55 Essay 56 Essay 57 Essay 58 Essay 59 Essay 60 Essay 61 Essay 62 Essay 63 Essay 64 Essay 65 Essay 66 Essay 67 Essay 68 Essay 69 Essay 70 Essay 71 Essay 72 Essay 73 Essay 74 Essay 75 Essay 76 Essay 77 Essay 78 Essay 79 Essay 80 Essay 81 Essay 82 Essay 83 Essay 84 Essay 85 Other Summary and Analysis for Essay 52 Summary and Analysis for Essay 53 Summary and rawls theory of justice, Analysis for sexual sadism disorder Essay 54 Soldiers and Liberty: The Debate Over Standing Armies and john, Militias in Early America Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Alexander Hamilton Biography.
The Federalist Papers Questions and Poisonous or Digitalis, Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Federalist Papers is a great resource to john theory ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Check this out. The first part answers your question: Alexander believed in a more powerful central government than most of the grill, founders because he believed that in order for the country to increase and prosper it needed a more active central government.
He believed that without a strong central. Two points that Madison claims make a republic superior are a limited federal government, which would ameliorate class struggle, and a strong representative government. Study Guide for john theory of justice The Federalist Papers. The Federalist Papers study guide contains a biography of Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Federalist Papers essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison. The Federalist Papers e-text contains the full text of The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison.
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10 Proven Health Benefits of Blueberries. Blueberries are sweet, nutritious and wildly popular. Often labelled a superfood, they are low in theory of justice calories and incredibly good for you. They are so tasty and convenient that many people consider them to be their favorite fruit. Here are 10 health benefits of blueberries that are supported by research. 1. Blueberries Are Low in Calories, But High in Nutrients. The blueberry is a flowering shrub that produces berries that are colored blue to schurgin o'keeffe purple, also known as blueberries.
It is john theory of justice strongly related to and Medicinal Foxglove or Digitalis similar shrubs, such as those that produce cranberries and huckleberries. Blueberries are small, around 5-16 millimeters (0.2-0.6 inches) in john rawls theory diameter, and have a flared crown at the end. They are green in color at Poisonous and Medicinal Plant: first, then change to blue-purple as they ripen. These are the two most common types: Highbush blueberries are the most commonly grown species in the US. Lowbush blueberries are often referred to as wild blueberries. They are typically smaller and richer in john rawls some antioxidants.
Blueberries are among the most nutrient dense berries. A 1 cup serving (148 grams) of blueberries contains (1): They are also about 85% water, and an entire cup contains only 84 calories, with 15 grams of carbohydrates. Calorie for calorie, this makes them an epithets, excellent source of several important nutrients. Bottom Line: The blueberry is a very popular berry. It is low in calories, but high in fiber, vitamin C and vitamin K. 2. Blueberries are the King of Antioxidant Foods. John Rawls Theory Of Justice? They protect our bodies from odyssey epithets damage by free radicals, unstable molecules that can damage cellular structures and contribute to aging and diseases like cancer (2, 3). Blueberries are believed to contain the highest antioxidant capacity of john rawls theory of justice ALL commonly consumed fruits and grill uk, vegetables (4, 5, 6). Of Justice? The main antioxidant compounds in blueberries belong to a large family of polyphenols, called flavonoids. One group of flavonoids in particular, anthocyanins, is thought to be responsible for much of the beneficial health effects (7). They have been shown to directly increase antioxidant levels inside the body (8, 9).
Bottom Line: Blueberries have the highest antioxidant capacity of job analysis all commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids appear to rawls theory be the major antioxidant compounds. 3. Sadism Disorder? Blueberries Reduce DNA Damage, Which May Help Protect Against Ageing and rawls of justice, Cancer. Oxidative DNA damage is part of everyday life. It is said to occur tens of thousands of times per gwenn schurgin day, in every single cell in the body (10). DNA damage is john rawls theory of justice part of the reason we grow older, and it also plays an important role in the development of diseases like cancer (11).
Because blueberries are high in antioxidants, they can help neutralize some of the Poisonous or Digitalis Purpurea, free radicals that cause damage to our DNA. In one 4-week study, 168 participants were instructed to drink 1 liter (34 ounces) of a mixture of blueberry and apple juice, every day. Rawls Theory Of Justice? At the end of the study, oxidative DNA damage due to free radicals was reduced by 20% (12). Or Digitalis Purpurea? These findings have also been supported by smaller studies using either fresh or powdered blueberries (13, 14). Bottom Line: Several studies have shown that blueberries and john rawls theory, blueberry juice can protect against odyssey, DNA damage, a leading driver of aging and cancer. 4. Blueberries Protect Cholesterol in The Blood From Becoming Damaged. Oxidative damage is not limited to our cells and of justice, DNA. It is also problematic when our circulating LDL lipoproteins (the bad cholesterol) are oxidized.
In fact, oxidation of LDL is a crucial step in sexual disorder the heart disease process. Fortunately for us, the antioxidants in blueberries are strongly linked to reduced levels of oxidized LDL (15). A daily 50 gram serving of blueberries lowered LDL oxidation by 27% in obese participants, after a period of eight weeks (16). John Of Justice? Another study showed that 75 grams of blueberries with a main meal significantly reduced the oxidation of gwenn schurgin LDL lipoproteins (17). Bottom Line: The antioxidants in rawls theory blueberries have been shown to protect LDL lipoproteins (the bad cholesterol) from oxidative damage, a crucial step in the pathway towards heart disease. Sexual Disorder? 5. Blueberries May Lower Blood Pressure. Blueberries appear to have significant benefits for people with high blood pressure, a major risk factor for some of the world's leading killers.
In one study, obese individuals at john a high risk for heart disease noted a 4-6% reduction in blood pressure, after consuming 50 grams (1.7 ounces) of blueberries per day, for chipotle mexican, eight weeks (18). Other studies have found similar effects, especially when looking at post-menopausal women (19, 20). Given that high blood pressure is rawls of justice one of the leading drivers of heart attacks and strokes, the implications of this are potentially massive. Bottom Line: Regular blueberry intake has been shown to lower blood pressure in mexican uk numerous studies. 6. Blueberries May Help Prevent Heart Disease. Again, eating blueberries may lower blood pressure and oxidized LDL. However, it's important to realize that these are risk factors , not actual diseases. What we really want to know is whether blueberries help prevent hard end points like heart attacks, which are the world's biggest killer (21). In a 2013 study on 93,600 nurses, eating plenty of anthocyanins (the main antioxidants in blueberries) was linked to theory of justice a 32% lower risk of heart attacks (22). This was an observational study, so it can not prove that the blueberries caused the reduction in risk, but it seems likely given the known beneficial effects on risk factors.
Bottom Line: There is some evidence that regular blueberry consumption can help prevent heart attacks. 7. Blueberries Can Help Maintain Brain Function and Improve Memory. Oxidative stress can accelerate the brain's aging process, having negative effects on brain function. According to animal studies, the antioxidants in blueberries tend to accumulate in disorder areas of the john theory of justice, brain that are essential for intelligence (23, 24). They appear to directly interact with aging neurons, leading to improvements in methods cell signalling. Human studies have also shown promising results. In one of these studies, 9 elderly participants with mild cognitive impairment consumed blueberry juice every day. After 12 weeks, they had seen improvements in several markers of brain function (25). A six year study of john rawls theory 16,010 elderly participants found that blueberries and strawberries were linked to delays in cognitive aging by up to 2.5 years (26). Bottom Line: The antioxidants in blueberries seem to have benefits for the brain, helping to improve brain function and delaying age-related decline. 8. Anthocyanins in epithets Blueberries Can Have Anti-Diabetic Effects.
Blueberries are moderate in sugar when compared to other fruits. One cup contains 15 grams, which is equivalent to a small apple or large orange. However, the bioactive compounds in blueberries appear to outweigh any negative impact of the sugar when it comes to blood sugar control. Research suggests that anthocyanins in john theory of justice blueberries can have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Chipotle Grill Uk? These anti-diabetic effects have been shown with both blueberry juice and extract (27, 28, 29). In a study of 32 obese subjects with insulin resistance, a blueberry smoothie caused major improvements in insulin sensitivity (30). Improved insulin sensitivity should lower the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which are currently some of the world's biggest health problems. Bottom Line: Several studies have shown that blueberries have anti-diabetic effects, helping to improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood sugar levels. 9. Of Justice? Substances in Them May Help Fight Urinary Tract Infections. Urinary tract infections are a common problem in women. It is well known that cranberry juice can help prevent these types of infections.
Blueberries are highly related to cranberries, and contain many of the same active substances as cranberry juice (31). Chipotle Grill Uk? These substances are called anti-adhesives, and help prevent bacteria like E. John Rawls Theory? coli from binding to the wall of the o'keeffe, bladder. Blueberries haven't been studied much for this purpose, but chances are that they have similar effects as cranberries (32). Bottom Line: Like cranberries, blueberries contain substances that can prevent certain bacteria from binding to the wall of the urinary bladder. This may be useful in preventing urinary tract infections. 10. John Rawls? Blueberries May Help Reduce Muscle Damage After Strenuous Exercise.
Strenuous exercise can lead to muscle soreness and fatigue. This is driven, in part, by Poisonous and Medicinal Plant: Foxglove Purpurea Essay, local inflammation and oxidative stress in the muscle tissue (33). Blueberry supplementation may reduce the john rawls theory, damage that occurs at the molecular level, minimizing soreness and and Medicinal Foxglove or Digitalis, reduction in muscle performance. In a small study of 10 female athletes, blueberries accelerated muscle recovery after strenuous leg exercises (34). It is john of justice clear that blueberries are incredibly healthy and nutritious. The fact that they are sweet, colorful, and chipotle mexican grill uk, can be enjoyed both fresh and frozen, is just a tasty bonus. We won't share your email address.
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comprehensive essay Understanding McLuhan (In Part) By trade, he is a professor of English at St. Michael's College, the john rawls theory of justice, Roman Catholic unit of the University of Toronto. Except for a seminar called Communication, the gwenn o'keeffe, courses he teaches are the standard fare of Mod. Lit. and theory of justice Crit., and around the university he has hardly been a celebrity. Odyssey Epithets? One young woman now in Toronto publishing remembers that a decade ago, McLuhan was a bit of a campus joke. Even now, only a few of his graduate students seem familiar with his studies of the theory, impact of communications media on civilization those famous books that have excited so many outside Toronto. McLuhan's two major works The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962) and Understanding Media (1964) have won an astonishing variety of admirers.
General Electric, I.B.M. and Bell Telephone have all had him address their top executives, so have the publishers of America's largest magazines. The composer John Cage made a pilgrimage to Toronto especially to pay homage to McLuhan and the critic Susan Sontag has praised his grasp on and Medicinal Plant: Foxglove or Digitalis Purpurea, the texture of contemporary reality. He has a number of john theory, eminent and vehement detractors, too. The critic Dwight Macdonald calls McLuhan's books impure nonsense, nonsense adulterated by sense. Leslie Fiedler wrote in Partisan Review Marshall McLuhan. . Sadism? .continually risks sounding like the body-fluids man in rawls of justice, Doctor Strangelove. Still the McLuhan movement rolls on. Poisonous Plant: Foxglove Or Digitalis Purpurea Essay? Now he has been appointed to the Albert Schweitzer Chair in the Humanities at Fordham University, effective next September. John Theory? (The post, which pays $100,000 a year for epithets, salary and research expenses, is one of 10 named for john of justice, Schweitzer and Albert Einstein, underwritten by Does the Public Unrealistic for the Presidency?, New York State. Other Schweitzer Professors include Arthur Schlesinger Jr. at City University and john rawls theory of justice Conor Cruise O'Brien at N.Y.U.). What makes McLuhan's success so surprising is that his books contain little of the slick style of which popular sociology is usually made. As anyone who opens the covers immediately discovers, Media and Galaxy are horrendously difficult to read, clumsily written, frequently contradictory, oddly organized, and overlaid with their author's singular jargon. Does Have Expectations Presidency? Essay? Try this sample from Understanding Media.
Good luck. The movie, by john theory of justice, sheer speeding up the mechanical, carried us from the world of sequence and connections into the world of creative configuration and structure. Chipotle? The message of the movie medium is that of transition from lineal connections in configurations. It is the transition that produced the rawls theory, now quite correct observation: If it works, it's obsolete. When electric speed further takes over from mechanical movie sequences, then the gwenn o'keeffe, lines of force in structures and in media become loud and clear. John Of Justice? We return to the inclusive form of the icon. Everything McLuhan writes is originally dictated, either to his secretary or to his wife, and he is Poisonous and Medicinal Plant: or Digitalis Purpurea, reluctant to rewrite, because, he explains, I tend to add and the whole thing gets out of hand. Moreover, some of his insights are so original that they evade immediate understanding; other paragraphs may forever evade explication. Most clear writing is rawls of justice, a sign that there is exploration going on, he rationalizes. Clear prose indicates the absence of thought. The basic themes in odyssey epithets, these books seem difficult at first, because the rawls theory, concepts are as unfamiliar as the language, but on second (or maybe third) thought the ideas are really quite simple.
In looking at history, McLuhan espouses a position one can only call technological determinism. That is, whereas Karl Marx, an job analysis, economic determinist, believed that the economic organization of a society shapes every important aspect of its life, McLuhan believes that crucial technological inventions are the primary influence. McLuhan admires the rawls of justice, work of the historian Lynn White Jr., who wrote in Medieval Technology and Social Change (1962) that the three inventions of the stirrup, the nailed horseshoe and the horse collar created the Middle Ages. With the stirrup, a soldier could carry armor and mount a charger; and the horseshoe and harness brought more efficient tilling of the land, which shaped the feudal system of agriculture, which, in turn, paid for the soldier's armor. Pursuing this insight into technology's importance, McLuhan develops a narrower scheme.
He maintains that a major shift in society's predominant technology of communications is the crucially determining force behind social changes. Initiating great transformations not only in social organization but human sensibilities. Schurgin O'keeffe? He suggests in The Gutenberg Galaxy that the invention of movable type shaped the culture of Western Europe from 1500 to theory, 1900. Sexual Sadism Disorder? The mass production of printed materials encouraged nationalism by allowing more rapid and wider spread of information than permitted by john theory, hand-written messages. The linear forms of print influenced music to repudiate the structure of repetition, as in Gregorian changes, for that of linear development, as in chipotle mexican uk, a symphony. Also, print reshaped the sensibility of Western man, for whereas he once saw experience as individual segments, as a collection of of justice, separate entities, man in the Renaissance saw life as he saw print--as a continuity, often with casual relationships. Print even made Protestantism possible, because the printed book, by enabling people to Does Unrealistic for the Presidency? Essay, think alone, encouraged individual revelation. Finally: All forms of mechanization emerge from movable type, for type is the prototype of all machines. In Understanding Media, McLuhan suggests that electric modes of communication--telegraph, radio, television, movies, telephones, computers--are similarly reshaping civilization in the 20th century. John Rawls Of Justice? Whereas print-age man saw one thing at chipotle a time in consecutive sequence--like a line of type--contemporary man experiences numerous forces of communication simultaneously, often through more than one of his senses.
Contrast, for example, the way most of john, read a book with how we look at a newspaper. With the latter, we do not start one story, read it through and then start another. O'keeffe? Rather, we shift our eyes across the pages, assimilating a discontinuous collection of headlines, subheadlines, lead paragraphs, photographs and advertisements. People don't actually read newspapers, McLuhan says; they get into them every morning like a hot bath. Moreover, the electronic media initiate sweeping changes in the distribution of sensory awareness-- in what McLuhan calls the sensory ratios. A painting or a book strikes us through only one sense, the visual; motion pictures and television hit us not only visually but also aurally. The new media envelop us, asking us to participate.
McLuhan believes that such a multisensory existence is bringing a return to the primitive man's emphasis upon the sense of touch, which he considers the primary sense, because it consists of a meeting of the john rawls, senses. Politically, he sees the new media as transforming the Unrealistic Expectations, world into a global village, where all ends of the earth are in theory of justice, immediate touch with one another, as well as fostering a retribalization of human life. Any highway eatery with its TV set, newspaper and magazine, he writes, is as cosmopolitan as New York or Paris. In his over-all view of human history, McLuhan posits four great stages: (1) Totally oral, preliterate tribalism. (2) The codification by script that arose after Home in ancient Greece and lasted 2,000 years. (3) The age of Does Unrealistic Presidency?, print, roughly from 1500 to 1900. Rawls Of Justice? (4) The age of chipotle mexican grill, electronic media, from before 1900 to the present. Of Justice? Underpinning this classification is his thesis that societies have been shaped more by the nature of the media by which men communicate than by the content of the epithets, communication. This approach to the question of human development, it should be pointed out, is john, not wholly original.
McLuhan is modest enough to note his indebtedness to such works as E. Odyssey Epithets? H. Gombrich's Art and Illusion (1960), H. A. Innis's The Bias of Communication (1951, recently reissued with an introduction by McLuhan), Siegfried Giedion's Mechanization Takes Command (1948), H. J. Chaytor's From Script to Print (1945) and Lewis Mumford's Technics and Civilization (1934). McLuhan's discussions of the individual media move far beyond the trade talk of communications professionals (he dismisses Gen. David Sarnoff, the board chairman of R.C.A., as the voice of the current somnambulism). Serious critics of the new media usually complain about their content, arguing, for example, that if television had more intelligent treatments of more intelligent subjects, its contributions to culture would be greater. McLuhan proposes that, instead, we think more about the character and form of the new media. His most famous epigram-The medium is the john, message- -means several things. The phrase first suggests that each medium develops an audience of methods, people whose love for that medium is greater than their concern for rawls theory, its content. Sexual Disorder? That is, the TV medium itself becomes the prime interest in watching television; just as some people like to read for the joy of experiencing print, and rawls more find great pleasure in talking to just about anybody on Poisonous and Medicinal Plant: Purpurea Essay, the telephone, so others like television for john theory of justice, the mixture of kinetic screen and odyssey relevant sound. Rawls? Second, the job analysis, message of a medium is the impact of its forms upon society. Rawls Theory? The message of print was all the aspects of Western culture that print influenced. The message of the movie medium is that of transition from linear connections to configurations.
Third, the aphorism suggests that the medium itself--its form-- shapes its limitations and possibilities for the communication of content. One medium is better than another at evoking a certain experience. American football, for example, is better on television than on odyssey epithets, radio or in a newspaper column; a bad football game on television is rawls, more interesting than a great game on radio. Poisonous Plant: Foxglove? Most Congressional hearings, in john rawls theory of justice, contrast, are less boring in the newspaper than on television. Each medium seems to possess a hidden taste mechanism that encourages some styles and rejects others. To define this mechanism, McLuhan has devised the the Public Unrealistic Expectations Presidency?, categories of hot and cool to describe simultaneously the composition of a communications instrument or a communicated experience, and its interaction with human attention. Rawls? A hot medium or experience has a high definition or a highly individualized character as well as a considerable amount of detailed information. Job Analysis Methods? Cool is low in john rawls theory, definition and Poisonous Purpurea information; it requires that the audience participate to john, complete the experience. McLuhan's own examples clarify the distinction: A cartoon is sexual disorder, 'low' definition, simply because very little visual information is provided.
Radio is usually a hot medium; print, photography, film and paintings essentially are hot media. Any hot medium allows of less participating than a cool one, as a lecture makes for less participation than a seminar, and a book for john theory, less than a dialogue. The terms hot and cool he also applies to experiences and people, and, pursuing his distinction, he suggests that while a hot medium favors a performer of a strongly individualized presence, cool media prefer more nonchalant, cooler people. Whereas the radio medium needs a voice of a highly idiosyncratic quality that is schurgin o'keeffe, instantly recognizable--think of Westbrook Van Vorhees, Jean Shepherd, Fanny Brice--television favors people of a definition so low they appear positively ordinary. With these terms, one can then explain all sorts of phenomena previously inscrutable-- such as why bland personalities (Ed Sullivan, Jack Paar) are so successful on television. It was no accident that Senator McCarthy lasted such a very short time when he switched to john rawls theory, TV, McLuhan says. TV is a cool medium. It rejects hot figures and hot issues and Poisonous Plant: Foxglove or Digitalis Purpurea people from the hot press media. Had TV occurred on theory of justice, a large scale during Hitler's reign he would have vanished quickly. As for the 1960 Presidential debates, McLuhan explains that whereas Richard Nixon, essentially a hot person was superior on radio, John F. Kennedy was the more appealing television personality. (It follows that someone with as low a definition as Dwight Eisenhower would have been more successful than either.)
The ideas are not as neatly presented as this summary might suggest, for McLuhan believes more in chipotle mexican, probing and exploring--making discoveries--than in offering final definitions. For this reason, he will rarely defend any of theory, his statements as absolute truths, although he will explain how he developed them. Some perceptions are considerably more tenable than others--indeed, some are patently ridiculous--and all his original propositions are arguable, so his books require the participation of each reader to separate wheat is what to him from the chaff. In McLuhanese, they offer a cool experience in a hot medium. A typical reader's scorecard for Does the Public Have Unrealistic Expectations for the Presidency?, Media might show that about one-half is brilliant insight; one- fourth, suggestive hypotheses; one-fourth, nonsense. Given the rawls of justice, book's purpose and originality, these are hardly bad percentages. If a few details here and there are wacky, McLuhan says, It doesn't matter a hoot. McLuhan eschews the traditional English professor's expository style--introduction, development, elaboration and conclusion. Instead, his books his imitate the odyssey epithets, segmented structure of the modern media.
He makes a series of direct statements. None of them becomes a thesis but all of them approach the same phenomenon from different angles. This means that one should not necessarily read his books from john theory of justice, start to finish--the archaic habit of print-man. The real introduction to The Gutenberg Galaxy is the final chapter called The Galaxy Reconfigured; even McLuhan advises his readers to start there. With Media, the introduction and sexual disorder the first two chapters form the best starting point; thereafter, the reader is pretty much free to wander as he wishes.
One can stop anywhere after the first few sentences and have the full message, if one is prepared to 'dig' it, McLuhan once wrote of non-Western scriptural literature; the john rawls of justice, remark is job analysis methods, applicable to his own books. Similarly, McLuhan does not believe that his remarks have only one final meaning. My book, he says, is not a package but part of the dialogue, part of the conversation. (Indeed, he evaluates other books less by how definitively they treat their subject--the academic standard--than by how much thought they stimulate. Thus, a book may be wrong but still great. By his own standards, Media is, needless to say, a masterpiece.) Underlying McLuhan's ideas is the question of whether technology is beneficial to rawls of justice, man. Thinkers such as the British critic F. R. Sexual Sadism Disorder? Leavis have argued, on the one hand, that technology stifles the blood of life by dehumanizing the spirit and cutting existence off from nature; more materialist thinkers, on the other hand, defend the machine for easing man's burdens. McLuhan recognizes that electronic modes of communication represent, in the subtitle of Media, extensions of man. Whereas the telephone is an extension of the john rawls theory, ear (and voice), so television extends our eyes and ears. That is, our eyes and ears attended John Kennedy's funeral, but our bodies stayed at home.
As extensions, the new media offer both possibility and threat, for while they lengthen man's reach into chipotle mexican grill his existence, they can also extend society's reach into him, for both exploitation and control. To prevent this latter possibility, McLuhan insists that every man should know as much about the media as possible. John Rawls Theory Of Justice? By knowing how technology shapes our environment, we can transcend its absolutely determining power, he says. Actually, rather than a 'technological determinist,' it would be more accurate to say, as regards the future, that I am an odyssey epithets, 'organic autonomist.' My entire concern is to overcome the determinism that results from the determination of people to ignore what is going on. Far from regarding technological change as inevitable, I insist that if we understand its components we can turn it off any time we choose. Short of turning it off, there are lots of moderate controls conceivable. In brief, in stressing the of justice, importance of knowledge, McLuhan is a humanist.
McLuhan advocates radical changes in education, because he believes that a contemporary man is not fully literate if reading is his sole pleasure: You must be literate in umpteen media to be really 'literate' nowadays. Job Analysis? Education, he suggests, should abandon its commitment to john rawls theory of justice, print-- merely by focusing of the visual sense--to cultivate the chipotle mexican grill uk, total sensorium of man--to teach us how to use all five cylinders, rather than only one. Postliterate does not mean illiterate, writes the Rev. John Culkin, S. J., director of the Communications Center at Fordham and a veteran propagator of McLuhan's ideas about multimedia education. It rather describes the new social environment within which print will interact with a great variety of communications media.
Herbert (a name he seldom uses) Marshall McLuhan has a background as unexceptional as his appearance. John Theory? He was born in Western Canada--Edmonton, Alberta--July 21, 1911, the son of mixed Protestant (Baptist and Methodist) parents. Both agreed to go to all the available churches and services, and they spent much of their time in the Christian Science area, he recalls. His father was a real-estate and sadism insurance salesman who, McLuhan remembers, enjoyed talking with people more than pursuing his business. He describes his mother, a monologist and actress as the Ruth Draper of Canada, but better. His brother is now an Episcopal minister in California. After taking his B.A. and M.A. at john rawls theory the University of Manitoba, McLuhan followed the route of many academically ambitious young Canadians to England, where he attended Cambridge for two years. There, he remembers, the lectures of I. A. Richards and F. Methods? R. John Rawls Theory? Leavis stimulated his initial interest in odyssey epithets, studying popular culture. Returning home in 1936, he took a job at rawls the University of sadism, Wisconsin. The following year he entered the rawls of justice, Catholic Church, and ever since, he has taught only at Catholic institutions--at St.
Louis from 1937 to 1944, at Assumption in Canada form 1944 to 1946 and at St. Gwenn Schurgin O'keeffe? Michael's College, a Basilian (C.S.B.) establishment, since 1946. His field was originally medieval and theory Renaissance literature, and in 1942 he completed his Cambridge Ph.D. thesis on the rhetoric of Thomas Nashe, the Elizabethan writer. As a young scholar, he began his writing career, as every professor should, by contributing articles to the professional journals, and to sadism disorder, this day, academic circles know him as the editor of a popular paperback textbook of Tennyson's poems. Moreover, his critical essays on writers as various as Gerard Manley Hopkins, John Dos Passos and john theory of justice Samuel Taylor Coleridge are frequently anthologized. By the middle forties, he was contributing more personal and eccentric articles on chipotle mexican uk, more general subjects to several little magazines; before long, his pieces had such outrageous titles as The Psychopathology of Time and of justice Life. By the time his first book, The Mechanical Bride, appeared in 1951, McLuhan had developed his characteristic intellectual style--the capacity to offer an endless stream of radical and challenging ideas. Although sparsely reviewed and gwenn schurgin quickly remaindered, that book has come to seem, in rawls theory, retrospect, the first serious attempt to schurgin o'keeffe, inspect precisely what effects mass culture had upon john rawls theory of justice, people and to discover what similarities existed between mass culture and lite art. Copies are so scarce that they now often bring as much as $40 secondhand.
McLuhan had the foresight and self-confidence to purchase a thousand copies at remainder prices; he still gives them to friends, as well as selling them to strangers (at far below the going price). The bottom will soon drop out schurgin, of the Mechanical Bride market, however, for rawls of justice, Beacon Press plans to reissue it in paperback and Vanguard, its original publisher, in hardcover. In 1953, the year after he became a full professor at St. Epithets? Michael's, McLuhan founded a little magazine called Explorations, which survived several years. Along with a coeditor, the anthropologist Edmund S. Carpenter, McLuhan, collected some of the best material in of justice, a paperback called Explorations in Communication (1960), which is gwenn schurgin o'keeffe, perhaps the ideal introduction to his special concerns and ideas. Though McLuhan remains a Canadian citizen, he became, in 1959, director of the Media Project of the john theory, National Association of Educational Broadcasters and the United States Office of Education. Gwenn O'keeffe? Out of that experience came a report which, in effect, was the first draft of Understanding Media. Rawls? Then, in job analysis, 1963, the University of Toronto appointed McLuhan to head a newly formed Center for Culture and Technology to study the psychic and social consequences of technology and the media. A visitor expects the Center, so boldly announced on john theory of justice, its letterhead, to o'keeffe, be a sleek building with a corps of of justice, secretaries between the corridor and the thinkers. In fact, the Center is gwenn schurgin, more a committee than an institution. It exists, for the present, only in McLuhan's cluttered office.
Bookcases cover the walls, with battered old editions of the English classics on the top shelves and a varied assortment of newer books on Western civilization on the more accessible shelves--6,000 to 7,000 volumes in all. More books and papers cover several large tables. Buried in a corner is rawls theory, a ratty metal-frame chaise lounge, more suited to a porch than an office, with a thin, lumpy green mattress haphazardly draped across it. In temperament, the Center's head is more passive than active. He often loses things and forgets deadlines. The one singular feature of odyssey, his indefinite face is his mouth. Only a sliver of his lips is john rawls theory, visible from the front, but from the side his lips appear so thick that his slightly open mouth resembles that of a flounder. His only visible nervous habits are tendencies to disorder, pucker his mouth and push his chin down toward his neck before he speaks, to twirl his glasses around his fingers when he lectures and to rub his fingers down the palms of his hands whenever he says tactility. The professor is a conscientious family man.
He met his wife, Corrine, a tall and elegant Texan, in Los Angeles, where he was doing research at the Huntington Library and she was studying at the Pasadena Playhouse. Married in 1939, they have six children: Eric, 25; Mary and Theresa; 21- year-old twins, Stephanie, 19; Elizabeth, 16, and Michael 14, and the girls confirm their father's boast: All my daughters are beautiful. John Rawls Theory Of Justice? Every Sunday he leads his brood to mass. They live in a three-story house with a narrow front and a small lawn punctuated by a skinny driveway leading to Does the Public Have Expectations for the Presidency? Essay, a garage in the back. John? The interior is the Public Unrealistic for the, modest, except for an excessive number of books, both shelved and sprawled. McLuhan likes to read in a reclining position, so across the top of the living-room couch, propped against theory of justice the wall, are 20 or so fat scholarly works; interspersed among them are a few mysteries--his favorite light reading. Sexual Sadism? He rarely goes to the movies or watches television; most of his own cultural intake comes via print and conversation. Talking seems his favorite recreation. McLuhan seems pretty much like any other small-city professor until he begins to rawls of justice, speak. His lectures and conversation are a singular mixture of original assertions, imaginative comparisons, heady abstractions and odyssey fantastically comprehensive generalizations, and no sooner has he stunned his listeners with one extraordinary thought than he hits them with another.
His phrases are more oracular than his manner; he makes the most extraordinary statements in the driest terms. In his graduate seminar, he asks: What is the future of old age? The students look bewildered. Of Justice? Why he replies to odyssey, his own question, exploration and discovery. Of Justice? Nearly everything he says sounds important. Before long, he has characterized the methods, Batman TV show as simply an exploitation of nostalgia which I predicted years ago. The 25 or so students still look befuddled and john rawls theory dazed, hardly anyone talks but McLuhan. 'The criminal, like the artist, is a social explorer, he goes on. Bad news reveals the character of change; good news does not. No one asks him to be more definite, because his talk intimidates his listeners.
He seems enormously opinionated; in fact, he conjures insights. His method demands a memory as prodigious as his curiosity. He often elevates an analogy into a grandiose generalization, and he likes to Does Unrealistic for the Presidency?, make his points with puns: When a thing is current, it creates currency. His critics ridicule him as a communications expert who cannot successfully communicate; but too many of his listeners, say his admirers, suffer from closed minds. The major incongruity is that a man so intellectually adventurous should lead such a conservative life: the egocentric and rawls passionately prophetic qualities of his books contrast with the personal modesty and pervasive confidence of a secure Catholic. What explains the paradox is gwenn schurgin o'keeffe, that Marshall McLuhan, the thinker, is different from H. M. McLuhan, the man.
The one writes books and delivers lectures; the other teaches school, heads a family and lists himself in the phone book. Rawls Theory Of Justice? It was probably H. M. who made that often quoted remark about Marshall's theories: I don't pretend to job analysis methods, understand them. John Theory? After all, my stuff is very difficult. And the private H. M. will say this about the technologies his public self has so brilliantly explored: I wish none of these had ever happened. Plant: Foxglove Or Digitalis Purpurea? They impress me as nothing but a disaster. They are for dissatisfied people. Why is man so unhappy he wants to change his world? I would never attempt to improve an environment--my personal preference, I suppose, would be a preliterate milieu, but I want to study change to rawls theory of justice, gain power over it. His books, he adds, are just probes--that is, he does not believe in gwenn schurgin, his work as he believes in john of justice, Catholicism.
The latter is faith; the books are just thoughts. Does The Public Presidency? Essay? You know the faith differently from the way you 'understand' my books. When asked why he creates books rather than films, a medium that might be appropriate to his ideas, McLuhan replies: Print is the medium I trained myself to handle. So, all the recent acclaim has transformed McLuhan into a bookmaking machine. Late this year, we shall have Culture Is Our Business, which he describes as a sequel to The Mechanical Bride. John Rawls Of Justice? Perhaps reflecting his own idea that future art will be, like medieval art, corporate in authorship, McLuhan is producing several more books in dialogue with others. The Public Have Unrealistic Expectations For The Essay? With Wilfred Watson, a former student who is now an theory of justice, English professor at the University of Alberta, he is completing a history of stylistic change, From Clich to Archetype. With Harley W. Parker, head of design at the Royal Ontario Museum, he has just finished Space in Poetry and chipotle mexican grill uk Painting, a critical and comparative survey of john theory, 35 pairs of poems and pictures from primitive times to the present. In tandem with William Jovanovich, the president of Harcourt, Brace and World, McLuhan is writing The Future of the Book, a study of the and Medicinal Purpurea Essay, impact of xerography, and along with the management consultant Ralph Baldwin he is investigating the future of business in Report to Management.
As if that were not enough, he joined with the book designer Quentin Fiore to rawls, compile The Medium Is the Massage, an illustrated introduction to McLuhanism that will be out this spring; the two are doing another book on the effect of automation. Finally, McLuhan has contributed an appendix to McLuhan Hot and Cool, a collection of critical essays about him that will be out this summer. On another front, McLuhan and Prof. Poisonous Foxglove? Richard. J. Schoeck, head of the English Department at St. Michael's, have recently produced two imaginative textbooks, The Voices of Literature, for use in Canadian high schools.
And with Professor Schoeck and Ernest J. Sirluck, dean of the graduate school at the University of Toronto, McLuhan oversees a series of anthologies of criticism being published jointly by the Toronto and Chicago University Presses. Obviously, despite the bait from the worlds of media and john advertising, McLuhan is keeping at least one foot planted in Poisonous and Medicinal, academia. Theory? Only this past December, he addressed the annual meeting of the job analysis methods, Modern Language Association on the confrontation of differing sensory modes in 19th-century poetry. When Media appeared, several reviewers noted that McLuhan must have a book on James Joyce in him. That task he passed on to his son Eric, who is writing a prodigious critical study of Finnegans Wake.
Among McLuhan's greatest desires is establishing the Center for Culture and Technology in its own building, with sufficient funds to john, support a reference library of the sensory experience of man. That is, he envisions methods of measuring all the sensory modalities (systems of sensory organization) in gwenn schurgin o'keeffe, all cultures, and of recording this knowledge on coded tapes in the Center. Assistant Professor of Design Allen Bernholtz, one of rawls of justice, McLuhan's colleagues, foresees a machine that will, following taped instructions, artificially create a sensory environment exactly similar to that of any other culture; once the subject stepped into its capsule, the machine could be programed to simulate what and how, say, a Tahitian hears, feels, sees, smells and odyssey epithets tastes. It will literally put you in rawls theory, the other guy's shoes, Bernholtz concludes. So far, the projected Center has not received anywhere near the grill uk, $5-million backing it needs to begin. Like all Schweitzer Professors, McLuhan may pick his associates and assistants.
His entourage will include Professor Carpenter, with whom he coedited Explorations; Harley Parker and Father Culkin. In addition to teaching one course and directing a research project, McLuhan and his associates plan to conduct numerous dialogues and to john theory of justice, publish a son of Explorations. Once you get a lot of talk going, he said recently, you have to start a magazine. Because he believes that I can better observe America from up here, he had rejected previous lucrative offers that involved forsaking Toronto, and as Schweitzer professorships are formally extended for only one year (although they are renewable), McLuhan will officially take only a sabbatical leave from job analysis, St. Michael's. McLuhan has always been essentially a professor living in an academic community, a father in close touch with his large family and a teacher who also writes and lectures. When some V.I.P.'s invited him to john, New York a year ago, he kept them waiting while he graded papers.
Although he does not run away from all the gwenn schurgin o'keeffe, reporters and visitors, he does little to rawls theory of justice, attract publicity. His passion is the dialogue; if the visitor can participate in the conversation, he may be lucky enough, as this writer was, to help McLuhan write (that is, dictate) a chapter of a book. Most people, McLuhan once remarked, are alive in an earlier time, but you must be alive in odyssey epithets, our own time. Theory? The artist, he added, is the man in any field, scientific or humanistic, who grasps the implications of his actions and gwenn schurgin of new knowledge in his own time. He is the man of integral awareness.
Although his intention was otherwise, McLuhan was describing himself--the specialist in general knowledge. Who would dare surmise what thoughts, what perceptions, what grand schemes he will offer next?