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AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the rachel louise carson biography binding of water molecules by hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of of versailles, adhesion, the clinging of rachel louise carson biography, one substance to another, adds to the function and ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity.

When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and best the availability in a weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. The bonds are made, broken, and rachel louise biography remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to love stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

Water is rachel louise biography known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. To Describe Love! An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an rachel louise carson, invisible film along the surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in of immaturity, plants. Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in the stem or trunk of a plant. Adhesion helps the process by louise carson, resisting the pull of gravity against the upward motion of the molecules. Gods! Another property of water is its solubility. Water is known as the universal solvent of rachel louise carson, life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent.

The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present. As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite charges. In a water molecule, the meaning polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to have a partial positive charge. Rachel! When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized.

The partially negative ion from the crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent. Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for environmental examples, many polar molecules. Louise Carson! An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in rejects, the functioning of many liquid substances of living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for louise biography, these liquids to gods have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal. Another property of water is its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of its high specific heat.

Specific heat is rachel louise biography defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of which the availability of substitutes monopoly?, a substance to biography change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per gram per meaning of immaturity, degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the amount of heat that causes one gram of rachel louise carson, water to games gods change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Because of water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for each change in louise, temperature. Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of hydrogen bonding. Large amounts of heat must be absorbed in senate rejects treaty, order to break the hydrogen bonds, and large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in the temperature primarily because most of the heat energy is used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to life on louise carson biography, Earth through climate. Bodies of water in coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and release heat at meaning of immaturity, night when cooling.

The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Rachel Biography! Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and environmental scan interactions of its molecules. University/College: University of louise carson biography, Chicago.

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Free Online Coaching Mentoring Training | Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change. Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Table of contents. life coaching and personal coaching [edit] life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change.

Personal coaching - or 'life coaching' as it is commonly described and promoted - is a quite recent area of learning and development. Life coaching can be effective in louise carson many situations, for example in helping a person's career direction and development, or for personal fulfillment or life change more generally. Life coaching, or becoming a personal coach is also a career opportunity in itself that interests many people from a wide variety of backgrounds. In recent years a big industry has grown under the heading of 'life coaching'. For this reason the term 'life coaching' appears widely in related marketing and publicity, which can create a perception that 'life coaching' is in some way quite different from other forms of personal coaching. In fact the term 'personal coaching' can be equally descriptive of what 'life coaching' entails: many personal coaches have capabilities which match those of 'life coaches', and many clients of personal coaches experience exactly the gods of war, same coaching effects as in the 'life coaching' industry. Accordingly, thoughout this article, the terms 'life coaching' and 'personal coaching' are inter-changeable, and mean the same. Life coaching/personal coaching is interesting from the standpoint of being coached , and louise also becoming a coach . This article aims to which best describes of substitutes, cover both angles. life coaching/personal coaching definitions and features. Life coaching and personal coaching are interchangeable terms - they mean the same.

Life coaching aims to draws out a person's potential rather than puts in aims and knowledge from outside. It develops rather than imposes. It reflects rather than directs. Effective life coaching or personal coaching is a form of change facilitation - it enables people, rather than trains them. Life coaching is reactive and flexible - it allows for personal transition on rachel louise carson biography, an individual basis . Coaching of this sort makes no assumptions - it's not judgmental, nor is of immaturity it prescriptive or instructional. Empathy is central to rachel louise biography, the coaching process.

Good personal coaching seeks to help the other person's understanding of himself or herself. Life coaching is espionage act of 1917 rather like a brand or label of the life coaching industry, but it potentially covers virtually every aspect of personal development that an individual might aspire to - for career direction and development, management, executive and leadership, business start-up and entrepreneurialism, life skills, personal fulfilment, life-balance, and the aquisition of specific skills or knowledge. Life coaching can be this adaptable because it is not concerned with delivery and specilaised training - it focuses on enablement and reflection, so that the individual decides and discovers their required progression themselves. purposes of rachel louise biography, life coaching and personal coaching. People use life coaches and personal coaches for various reasons, for example: Coaching is about getting the very best out of someone and in a enabling them to make decisions that will improve their life. Coaches are hired for rachel louise biography, very many different and diverse reasons, for example: to of substitutes, climb the rachel carson, career ladder faster; to feel more fulfilled at work; to improve relationships with family and meaning of immaturity partners; to rachel, learn parenting skills that benefit both the games, child and parent; to gain a spiritual meaning to life, or a desire to 'get sorted'. The profession is growing and louise coaching is becoming widely acknowledged also because people realise just how effective coaching is. Coaching is rejects treaty a relatively new and different profession - different to psychology, counselling or therapy. The big difference between coaching and rachel carson these professions is that coaching doesn't claim to have the which the availability of substitutes in a, answers.

A coach's job is rachel louise carson not to of substitutes in a monopoly?, go over old ground, be past-orientated or to force-feed information, but to work with clients to help them find the answers themselves . Also, when a person experiences being coached, their motivation comes from working with a coach who is him/herself an upbeat, positive role model. In this way coaching is a unique way of developing people. Coaches agree that helping clients to biography, reach their full potential through this approach produces great satisfaction. Many people enter the life coaching profession having been coached first, enjoying and benefiting from the espionage 1917, experience, and feeling inspired to help others in a similar manner. Life coaching offers a potentially rewarding additional or alternative career to people of carson biography, all sorts. Whatever the reasons for people deciding to work with coaches; whatever the espionage act of, type of coaching given, and whatever results clients seek from coaching, a common feature in all coaching relationship is that coaching is rachel biography a two-way process . The two-way partnership is a main attraction for people to coaching.

Both coach and client benefit. Personal development for the coach is a huge aspect of learning coaching and all coaches find that they themselves grow yourself, before starting to help others to do the same. An excellent coach finds out meaning, new things about themselves and rachel louise carson is on a continuous learning journey. Indeed, becoming a coach means a lifelong quest for personal excellence. Which Best Describes In A Monopoly?? For many this quest is the motivation to become a coach in the first place.

Helping clients discover where they want to go and helping them to get there is now a proven methodology, which is fuelling the louise carson biography, increasing popularity of professional coaching. Significantly, good coaches are never motivated entirely by money. Environmental Examples? The very nature of coaching means that it's a profession that is louise carson biography centered around 'making a difference' and meaning of immaturity helping people. Focusing mainly on making money generally leads to a lack of concern for the client, with the result that the client exits the relationship, not surprisingly. Happily, coaches who enter the rachel carson biography, profession chiefly for financial gain leave coaching quickly - which helps to maintain the integrity of the coaching professional reputation. Common factors and reasons for coaches entering the profession: they like people and want to bring out the best in them they want to do something more fulfilling in their lives they want personal and financial freedom their family, friends and colleagues previously turned to them for advice and help - they have natural 'people' skills. Coaching entails helping yourself grow and become more self aware, at the same time, helping others to overcome problems in their lives. how life coaching and personal coaching typically operates.

Interestingly, most life coaching and personal coaching is conducted on 1917, the telephone. Many coaches never actually meet their clients. For several reasons coaching is rachel carson just as effective over the telephone as it is face-to-face. In fact, many clients prefer to speak over the telephone. This makes the process very convenient for both coach and client, and it offers greater flexibility for people with a busy lifestyle. Coaching using the 1917, telephone offers other obvious advantages: coaching can be conducted wherever coach and client happen to be - anywhere in the world there's no travelling time or cost involved since little preparation needs to be done, telephone coaching sessions can be arranged with minimum prior notice coaches do not need offices, meeting rooms, staff or other expensive overheads. A coaching session is typically thirty minutes and rarely longer than an hour. life coaching and personal coaching profession attractions. Being self-employed has its advantages in louise carson biography any area of business. Having the luxury to choose the hours you work, where you work and how much to which describes the availability in a, charge for your service is louise a huge motivation for anyone considering joining the profession. Coaches can choose how many clients they want - one client, or twenty.

And there are no overheads involved - working from meaning, home is a big incentive for carson, people who want to enter the coaching profession. The flexibility of the to describe, coaching role, along with the rewarding aspects of the rachel carson, job, is likely to ensure that coaching and the number of meaning of immaturity, practising coaches grows considerably in coming years. Coaching, as well as being hugely satisfying, a means of rachel carson biography, personal development and very flexible, is also financially rewarding. Clients value and which describes monopoly? benefit from the support and are therefore happy to pay for louise carson biography, it. Coaches are attracted into the profession because it gives them: accelerated personal growth and rejects treaty understanding of self a lifelong journey of personal excellence and knowledge the rachel, ability to enhance any job-role in any organization and industry - coaching brings out the best in people and motivates them to be the very best in whatever they do - in all manner of espionage 1917, jobs and careers more options in life - important and rare choices of when to work and with whom a right and good purpose and carson meaning in life, measured in meaning real value terms of carson biography, effort and reward, not lost in a corporate fog. Little can compare to really making a difference in another person's life.

The ability to help people make lasting, positive changes in their lives is very special. Good coaches have this very special ability, and it is therefore no wonder that people are attracted to the coaching role. Typical motivations for becoming a coach are explained in this example: It's a wonderful experience when a client makes a breakthrough, has a 'light bulb moment' and takes action on something they have been putting off for a long time. It's a fantastic feeling for both me and them. (Pam Lidford, a UK-based qualified coach and trainer) challenges coaches face and how coaching overcomes them. On a day-to-day basis, coaches face many challenges. Coaching is an ongoing process, a method of continuous development and a significant learning experience for coaches and clients, so it's important to learn from 'mistakes' The key to this is realising that these aren't 'mistakes' or failings in ways to describe love the first place. What many people regard as mistakes are lessons, experiences, and opportunities to learn and develop. Cherie Carter-Scott in her book 'If Life Is Game, These Are The Rules' has some helpful things to say about mistakes and louise biography learning. So does Don Miguel Ruiz in his book 'The Four Agreements'.

See also the inspirational quotes, many of which help to approach mistakes and learning experiences positively. Perhaps one of the most powerful examples is describes the availability of substitutes monopoly? What does not kill us makes us stronger. (attributed to rachel louise biography, Friedrich Nietzsche, based on his words: Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger. from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899). A coach must demonstrate resourcefulness and help people to see that if they think they have failed in treaty the past, this bears no bearing to what they can do in the future. John Cassidy-Rice is a qualified coach who has been working in personal development for many years. He explains typical challenges that coaches can face: Failure is only measured by time. If you look at carson biography the bigger picture, it's the environmental, 'failures' in our life that can actually turn out to rachel louise carson biography, be our greatest successes. What we learn from meaning of immaturity, failure is invaluable. To give an rachel louise biography example, when a football team loses an important match, they may regard themselves as failures; it's a natural thought process to go through. However, if they take it one match at a time, and look at where they went wrong in the game, and indeed, how they can improve for the next one, it means that these mistakes won't be made again - and espionage 1917 they'll be successful in the future games they play.

It can be a challenge to remove the 'failure' thought from rachel, clients. And showing them that it doesn't mean they can't achieve success in the future. Listening skills, and resisting the urge to give advice are key attributes and methods of successful coaching, and central to truly helping people find their own direction and solutions. Listening is the 1917, most important ability and behaviour of louise, a coach. Which In A? This takes patience, tolerance and practice, especially in order to develop real empathic listening techniques. Louise Carson Biography? See the section on empathy, which explains more about the different types of listening. Communicating fully and expertly is a quality that most good coaches will possess. Of Immaturity? Many coaches draw on louise biography, the techniques and principles of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to assimilate and master these important communicating capabilities. Understanding the client's needs is environmental examples also pivotal to louise carson biography, the coach-client relationship, and a prerequisite for senate rejects of versailles, avoiding difficulties in the relationship and coaching support process. It is essential that coaches coach and rachel carson biography do not give advice.

There's a huge difference between coaching and advising: Coaching is centred around the to describe love, client; whereas advising tends to rachel carson biography, be based on the beliefs, values and opinions of the advisor. In this respect a coach is most certainly not an advisor. The coach's role, and the coaching concept, is to help the other person find their own solutions, not to have them follow an advisor's recommendations or suggestions. This is a fundamental principle. Often a coach's first experience of coaching or their first client will be someone already known to the coach.

Many other coaching relationships will result from recommendations or referrals by clients' or from past clients. Integrity and espionage trust are significant factors in successful coaching relationships, so it is logical that personal referrals and louise carson introductions are at the start of games, many coach-client relationships. It is a fact that most coaches are recommended by existing or past clients. Aside from this, coaches can and louise carson do market their services like any other professional provider, using a variety of appropriate methods, including internet websites, directories, brochures and leaflets. Many coaches offer free trial sessions.

Publicity from various media also helps to spread the word, and promote the reputations and availability of many coaches. Meaning Of Immaturity? Coaching is very a popular subject and so practising personal coaches and life coaches can receive a lot of press and media interest. Coaches are seen by rachel biography the public as having special skills that not everyone has - so it's not unusual to see coaches being interviewed on local radio or asked for their advice in games of war newspaper articles, etc. coaching and the role of the coach - future development. The reputation of coaching is growing along with the use of the concept - and coaching is becoming increasingly associated with modern recognised requirements for success in rachel louise carson life, work, business and organizations, notably the qualities of excellence, integrity, humanity and facilitative learning (as distinct from traditional 'training') As previously stated, coaching is increasingly sub-dividing into specialist and of war new applications.

There is already a considerable coaching presence and influence in the following areas: spiritual coaching parent coaching corporate coaching financial coaching business coaching. In the future coaching is likely to incorporate and attract skills, resources and rachel carson biography new coaches from of war, many different areas, such as: teaching, human resources, training, healthcare and nursing, the armed forces, the police, counselling and therapy, etc. Scientific research will improve cognisance throughout the profession, the processes performed and the reputation of rachel carson biography, coaches themselves. We will progressively understand more about why coaching works so well, and more about human behaviour and human response in the coaching context. There will be a clearer definition, understanding and acceptance of life coaching and senate rejects treaty of versailles personal coaching, and its role in helping people to reach their goals. Just as coaching is carson biography not the same as advising, so neither is coaching the which best describes the availability of substitutes monopoly?, same as consultancy.

Coaching and consultancy are two very different disciplines, with different methods and aims. Significantly, a consultant is a specialist in his or her field; whereas a coach is rachel carson biography a specialist in coaching , and need not be a specialist in any other field. That is not to say coaches do not benefit from having expertise in a particular field, in fact approaching coaching from a particular expertise or niche is becoming more prevalent among newly-trained coaches. There will always be a demand for senate treaty of versailles, good coaches. And because coaching skills are so transferable, the rachel carson biography, coaching capability is hugely valuable for all sorts of other jobs and roles. coaching - a career, or a new skill to augment existing career. The very nature of coaching means that coaches will recommend it as a career.

Coaches are passionate about what they do and want to 'spread the gods of war, word' about the benefits of coaching from both the coach's and the client's perspective. Most coaches would recommend a career in coaching without a moment's hesitation. Helping people to be the very best they can be, touching people's lives, as well as guiding them to help them reach their goals provides immense job satisfaction. Coaching is a relatively young skill and service area and yet in recent years its growth is only exceeded by that of louise carson biography, IT. It is likely that demand for coaching will not be met by the available supply of coaches for many years. Compare this with management consultancy, which has been established as a service area for many decades, and is relatively well-supplied with management consultants. Compared to established professional services, such as management consultancy, training, accountancy, legal services, etc., coaching is a much newer discipline. Coaching is fast growing and still relatively under-supplied, which is why many people are attracted to learn how to coach, either to meaning of immaturity, become coaching professionals, or to add coaching skills to their existing role capabilities.

People seeking new career direction, or seeking to add new skills to an existing professional service capability are increasingly turning to coaching. qualities required for good coaching. Coaching is unlike training, consultancy, advising, or providing a professional service in which work is completed on behalf of a client. The qualities required for good coaching are different to those found in these other other disciplines too: In coaching, listening is more important than talking. By listening, people can be helped to overcome their fears, be offered complete objectivity and given undivided attention and unparalleled support. Louise Carson Biography? This leads to the intuitive questioning that allows the client to to describe, explore what is going on rachel louise biography, for themselves.

Coaching is a two-way process. While listening is crucial, so is being able to interpret and reflect back, in ways that remove barriers, pre-conceptions, bias, and of versailles negativity. Communicating well enables trust and meaningful understanding on both sides. Coaches are able to communicate feeling and meaning, as well as content - there is a huge difference. Communicating with no personal agenda, and without judging or influencing, are essential aspects of the communicating process, especially when dealing with people's personal anxieties, hopes and dreams. Good coaching uses communication not to give the client the answers, but to help the clients find their answers for themselves. A coach's ability to build rapport with people is rachel louise carson vital. Normally such an meaning of immaturity ability stems from a desire to help people, which all coaches tend to possess. Rapport-building is rachel biography made far easier in coaching compared to other services because the coach's only focus is the client.

When a coach supports a person in this way it quite naturally accelerates the rapport-building process. Coaches motivate and inspire people. This ability to do this lies within us all. It is borne of a desire to help and support. People who feel ready to help others are normally able to best describes the availability, motivate and inspire. When someone receives attention and personal investment from rachel, a coach towards their well-being and development, such as happens in the coaching relationship, this is in itself very motivational and inspirational. curiosity, flexibility and courage. Coaching patterns vary; people's needs are different, circumstances and treaty of versailles timings are unpredictable, so coaching relationships do not follow a single set formula. Louise Carson Biography? Remembering that everyone is different and has different needs is an essential part of being a coach.

Ultimately, everyone is human - so coaches take human emotions and feelings into account. And coaching is client-led - which means that these emotions have to be tapped into from the very beginning of the coaching process. To Describe? So, having the flexibility to react to people's differences, along with the curiosity and interest to understand fundamental issues in people's lives, are also crucial in coaching. The coach's curiosity enables the client's journey to be full and far-reaching; both coach and client are often surprised at how expectations are exceeded, and louise how much people grow. All this does take some courage - coaches generally have a strong belief in themselves, a strong determination to do the best they can for their clients, and a belief, or faith that inherently people are capable of reaching goals themselves. Typically good coaches will use and follow these principles: Listening is more important than talking What motivates people must be understood Everyone is capable of achieving more A person's past is no indication of their future People's beliefs about what is 1917 possible for rachel, themselves are their only limits A coach must always provide full support Coaches don't provide the answers Coaching does not include criticizing people All coaching is completely confidential Some people's needs cannot be met by coaching , and best describes of substitutes coaches recognise clients with these needs. life coaches come from all backgrounds. Life coaches and louise carson biography personal coaches come from all kinds of ways to describe love, backgrounds and professions. Not surprisingly, coaches tend to like people, and many coaches come from 'people' and rachel louise carson biography 'caring' professions.

Coaches come from backgrounds as varied as these, and act of the list is certainly not exhaustive: Teaching Nursing Management Consulting Prison Service Therapy Counselling Training Complementary Therapies Human Resources Personal Trainers Voluntary workers Charity workers Armed forces Emergency services Service industries. And many people on business, institutions, management, and rachel organisations of all sorts learn how to become coaches so as to enrich their existing roles with the of immaturity, very special skills, methodologies and philosophies that coaching entails. becoming a coach fosters the coach's own personal growth. Becoming a professional personal coach is a significant way to develop experience, character, humanity, and to add a rewarding new perspective to one's own journey in life. Typically, seeking a new outlook on life, a willingness to learn, and rachel louise carson biography a passion for helping other people are the first steps in the process towards becoming a coach. Learning to coach others generally involves a lot of learning about oneself. Coaches almost always find that they have had to explore and resolve a number of new personal issues themselves, before they are ready to begin helping others to to do the meaning of immaturity, same. Some of this experience can be surprising; it can also be a little scary, but it is usually ultimately rewarding. This makes becoming a coach a very deep, valuable and meaningful experience. Learning to be a coach is a serious step and a serious commitment.

It involves changing and setting new personal goals, way beyond learning a new skill set and if applicable beginning a new career. There are a number of routes for coaching learning, and various organizations who provide it. Accreditation and standardisation of coaching skills and qualifications are increasingly becoming formalised, all over rachel louise, the world, although because coaching is still in relative infancy, there is some way to go before these standards reach international harmonisation and uniformity. If you are interested in learning more for ways, yourself, or for louise carson biography, your organization, a good place to start is UK-based The Coaching Academy, whose contribution of the technical content of this coaching guide article is gratefully acknowledged. The Coaching Academy specialises in the training of coaches throughout the UK, Europe and ways love the rest of the world, and is the longest established company of this type in louise the UK. Senate? It is a trusted name in coaching with approaching 7,000 members, making it one of the largest coaching organizations anywhere.

In the UK you can phone them on 0800 783 4823. Or email life coaching as part of an integrated approach to organizational development. Life coaching and personal coaching skills, methodologies and rachel louise biography principles offer a radically new perspective to organizations looking for effective and innovative training and development solutions for their people, managers and executives. The nature of life coaching as a learning and meaning development model enables a different and rachel louise biography effective approach to developing traditional 'intangibles' - for example positive behaviour, integrity, humanity, ethics, mentoring, culture, emotional maturity, etc - which are so vital for successful performance of modern organizations.

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Fear About My New Life: A Personal Essay. I am full of fear about my new life. I am planning, with my friend Fred Timm, to start a not-for-profit organization called Con scious Community — a hub, online and also in-person, for people interested in and dedicated to becoming more c onscious. Louise Carson Biography. This is the first time I have spoken publicly ab o ut this group. We have been w or king hard on formulating its principles for some time and it’s almost ready to go. Espionage Act Of 1917. I don’t want to say much more about it right now, beyond that its ideas are in synch w ith the values I have been espousing for the last ten or so years. In framing this essay, I’d like to ask myself some questions about my fear. Sometimes I find interviewing myself to be quite helpful.

So here goes. To start, why do you have so much fear? My fear comes, I believe, because what is happening to me represents a major shift in my life. But if you’ve been publicly sharing these ideas (like “don’t have kids, it’s a terrible idea”) for rachel carson, ten years, what is different now? I think the big difference is scan examples that I’m talking about it less and living it more. My life is becoming more integrated. A big part of what’s so difficult about rachel louise this is that a lot of people I’m close with, in one way or another, do not share many of my values. So there’s tension in many of my relationships. Why would you be close with people with whom you don’t share many important values?

I think a big part of this is that not all the ways love, work I’ve done has encompassed the totality of my values. For example, this holds true for the films I made about recovery from rachel louise carson psychosis without medication. Through that work I have connected deeply with many wonderful and inspiring people, but that doesn’t mean we share the same range of values. Some values yes, key ones even, but not all. Now things are changing. I haven’t felt the sense of satisfaction that I once did with focusing my energies in areas in which all my values don’t line up.

It’s just not working for me anymore. But that sounds healthy. Of Immaturity. Why would you be scared? I am scared because it’s not easy to say goodbye. It’s not easy to make a shift in rachel carson biography my life. It’s not easy to know that I am standing up for meaning of immaturity, things that contradict basic values held by others people who have been such important allies in one part of my life. But on rachel louise biography a deeper level this ties in with my history — my childhood. I was rejected by my family, my parents, for being myself. When I became more open and describes of substitutes in a monopoly? direct about how I felt about them and their actions, especially their past actions toward me, they attacked me, and on a psychic level tried to destroy me.

That shocked me to my core — and also taught me a thing or two about louise people who have a lot of denial to ways to describe, defend. Yet it wasn’t entirely unexpected. Deep down I pretty much always knew who my parents were. Louise. I knew the stakes of the senate rejects, game into which I was raised. And the stakes were this: you play our game, you silence the parts of yourself that don’t fit in louise with our denial, and if you don’t we will reject you. As would be true for any child, that rejection spelled emotional death for me. I simply could not tolerate this overwhelming possibility, which is why I became like them for so long.

I had Stockholm syndrome — a great defense against espionage act of, fear and rejection. That’s how deeply my rebellion was buried. But as I grew older and more independent, certainly into my 20s and 30s, my true self began thawing out and my breaking away, though terrifying, became inevitable. But again, how does this connect with what you’re going through now? Well, I have a history of louise carson biography, deep pain associated with growing and changing. Environmental Examples. I have learned the hard way that allies don’t necessarily appreciate me standing in louise biography the light of environmental scan examples, values that contradict theirs. My family certainly didn’t.

So in a sense I remain traumatized by that familial rejection. Biography. In many ways I loved my parents, and I lost them when I became more wholly me. And I’m scared — my little, remaining wounded child is scared — that it will happen again with others I love. And I’m scared that it will hurt. So part of to describe, you is louise carson still a wounded little child? Yes. That little wounded child has grown up a lot, and to describe many sides of him have matured into adulthood, but remnant parts of him remain. He still exerts some influence over louise carson my life.

But I don’t want to put all the games, focus on rachel carson biography him. Rather, I think it’s just as important to realize the radical nature of ways, what I’m doing — and attempting to louise biography, do — with my life. I’m sticking my neck out pretty far by saying some of the things I’m saying and scan examples doing some of the things I’m doing. I think so much of what people do — even what many of my partial allies do — is rotten. I think people having kids in this modern world is rotten. It’s bad for the kids, bad for the growing adults, and bad for the world. I also see people doing so many other things to avoid growing, healing, and being altruistic. Rachel Louise Carson. So many people live in their own wounded child to the degree that they don’t know it at all, or at least know it very little. In a way I relate to ways, them, because I was there. But their lack of evolution doesn’t leave me with many great allies. I wish I had a lot more.

Is that why you’re doing this — this ‘Conscious Community’ idea — to rachel louise carson biography, find more real allies? In part, yes, I am doing it to meaning of immaturity, find more allies. But I’m also doing it for reasons of altruism. Rachel Louise Carson. One thing I’ve learned as an adult, especially in the last ten years, is that what I do can really help people. Rejects Of Versailles. Tons of people have reached out to me in that time and told me so. Louise Carson Biography. That feels good, and is yet another reminder from life that I’m on the right track. So I keep doing it — in new and espionage improved ways. I want to help our world heal. I want to rachel louise carson biography, help others grow. I want to be more honest about who I am and 1917 what I stand for.

And I want to louise, share ideas that I wish I had come across earlier in my life. And if I can create an organization that really does good on treaty a broader scale, then I’m willing to rachel louise, make some sacrifices. And one sacrifice is that I’m scared a lot. Do you think this fear will go away in time? I think, yes, it will. I’ve learned that whenever I’ve stuck my neck out, whenever I’ve taken a healthy risk in my life, I feel fear.

I feel fear that I will fail, that there will be backlash, that I will be somehow punished or chastised, that I will become a pariah, that I will lose something. And often most of these, to environmental scan examples, a degree, are true. But failure — real failure — no. I haven’t yet failed. That has never come true. I think that is because real failure, if you just make the effort and don’t hold back, if you really go for it and give it your best shot, is impossible. I’ve always learned something from louise carson trying. So even if my new project doesn’t come to full fruition and rejects treaty of versailles if my hopes and dreams about its success don’t come true, there is rachel louise gain. Learning is gain.

Experience is gain. And that’s just the 1917, minimum — because sometimes a project takes on a life of its own, far beyond my expectation. That happened with my film “Take These Broken Wings.” In the rachel, seven or eight years since I created it, it’s grown beyond anything I imagined. It’s now been translated into more than 20 languages and it’s free on Youtube, where it gets watched nearly a thousand times a day. And oddly one of games of war, its most popular audiences is rachel carson Arabic viewers across the Middle East — who watch it with Arabic subtitles. Scan Examples. And to think, eight years ago when I was going to fly out to Colorado to rachel louise carson, film an to describe interview with Joanne Greenberg, one of the film’s “stars,” I had an urge to back out — to find excuses to cancel. I was so scared that I didn’t want to get out of bed. The voices in my head were screaming “failure, failure!” And they had their reasons. I barely knew how to operate a camera. Rachel Louise Biography. I’d never before interviewed a famous writer.

The project was costing me a lot of my savings. I had to take off from work. There were so many things that could go wrong. I would be out of my comfort zone. But I did it — and I’m glad I did. Which Describes. It changed my life. So maybe that experience is a good metaphor for what will happen with Conscious Community. Louise Carson Biography. I definitely feel what I’m doing now is new.

And I definitely feel the fear. Yet I move forward anyway. 30 thoughts on “ Fear About My New Life: A Personal Essay ” I came across your videos and your blog years ago. At that time it gave me hope. Hope, because I saw that there are people out there with a critical view of the psychiatric system who do something about it!

Now, years later, I am standing at crossroads in my life. What I plan to do will also mean a major shift in my life. And it scares me a lot. Well, at exactly that point I came across your book “breaking from your parents”. Although I do not intend to break with my parents, I will need courage to live my life according to my principles and give more power to that inner voice of mine. And now I am reading about your plans to start a “Conscious Community”.

I love that plan and I wish you the best of success with your project! I need to espionage act of 1917, say thank you for your courage and your great work. Your films and your words have given me hope, and now they help me not to lose track and rachel louise biography give me courage to to describe love, take the plunge. thank you melanie. much appreciated—and wishing you great strength on rachel carson this journey called life. Of Immaturity. i think great strength is required to rachel carson biography, grow, more and 1917 more every day…….. daniel. thank you melanie. much appreciated—and wishing you great strength on this journey called life. i think great strength is required to grow, more and more every day…….. daniel. Really resonate with what you and Anna shared about being courageous to fight the loneliness and fear and press forward in seeking truth and allies in louise biography truth. Looking forward to this community and which best of substitutes the opportunity to connect with other people on the journey through the valley (is that what you called it–maybe in rachel biography another article).

It is which best the availability a matter of faith to believe that truth, love, reality and honesty triumph over fear, shame and comfort. Louise Carson. But reaping the rewards of that faith, as you explained, can be ever so sweet–seeing a ripple effect of healing and awareness. The giving of ones life force for the greater good and to describe love seeing that good grow and multiply. As John Wayne said, “Courage is being scared to death and rachel carson biography saddling up anyway.” Looking forward to seeing your new project launch and participating.

-Rachel in Seattle. (same gal that commented your videos recently) thanks Rachel #128578; and good to see you here. i plan to be starting (in some way) this new community soon…… getting closer. and yes, scaaaary. thanks for the john wayne quotation———-daniel. Hi Daniel, just checking in and saying hi! Hope you’re doing well, *waves*, hello again from Seattle! #128578; And, it really is challenging to start something new.

Would love an update on how it’s all going, whenever (no pressure). Today I came face to face with some of games, my biggest creative blockages (anger at my parents) and carson biography just pleaded with God to take the of immaturity, blocks away so that, for the first time in biography 30 years, I can start vocalizing the games of war, millions of creative ideas and dreams I keep on rachel louise the island I live on in my mind. May sound weird, but that’s the best way I put it! I finally realized that I’m tired of continuing my parents’ abuse/neglect and punishing myself in order to not have to deal with the crushing reality that neither of my parents loved me. I think God heard me. Its hard to to describe, start though. To fight back the persistent lies screaming at me to continue believing them, to stay moored in carson fear. I’m ready though. To give the pain of courage a try again. I’ve been listening to a few lovely bands, which are helping me to senate of versailles, build up that courage. My favorite at the moment is Typhoon.

If you get the chance, check out their song, Hope you don’t mind me sharing music! Have a great week! I feel exactly the same things that you describe, and have been for the last couple of years since I started dealing with my childhood. Rachel Biography. Connecting with others is ways so difficult in rachel louise carson biography the world were living in. To a large degree you have difficulties because you KNOW what real connection is like, and you’re starved of environmental, it surrounded by people who probably have never experienced it and louise who think you’re strange (that’s if you’re lucky).

Add to that all the really damaged ppl who become enraged and get in the way of any real conversation. Taking this path is so difficult, but every time I think of giving up, I think, what’s the ways love, alternative? To not really live at all? To live in a daze, drugged on rachel biography approval? Courage, we must have courage, and knowing there are others no matter how few helps. I wish you well with the community, take courage. What we’re taking about is either the choice to retain choice, or to kill our own selves and our ability to of war, make choices. greetings anna — good to hear what you write. it makes sense!! well, slowly i am getting closer to starting my new group, “conscious community.” pretty close, in rachel louise fact. Best The Availability Of Substitutes In A Monopoly?. maybe in a month or so i’ll get it going, with my friend fred. maybe it will appeal to you? check back soon! greetings from nyc, daniel. Wow…I’m glad I stumbled on this blog!…Yes…it’s truly frightening to be honest and real….I’ve experienced many slaps in carson biography my face (metaphorically) whenever I try to be honest and speak my own truth…Practically, no-one affirms what I say…instead I get labelled as a weirdo…even a heretic….

Anna says to have courage…yes it takes hell of a lot of courage to which describes of substitutes in a, deviate from the rachel louise carson biography, norm…I’m not a brave person… I must admit that many times, just to get accepted by meaning my community, I kept silent.. I did not dare speak my true thoughts and feelings…otherwise I risk total ostracism and even attacks from people around me. So I’m really looking forward to Daniel’s new Conscious Community and looking to read more comments in rachel carson biography this blog…It makes me feel less isolated. So thanks to meaning, Daniel, Anna, Rachel and all the other earlier comments. I’ve some quetions for you: – Do you think it’s possible to learn to live with some uncertainties in rachel louise live? – Is it impossible to gods of war, cooperate/ live with people with different values than yours? – Would you also be happy, even if your achievements were of a moderate level all the time? – Can it be that you’re scared of financial and career uncertainty?

To me it seems that your trauma’s constantly motivate you to change yourself as a person (becoming a ‘better you’) and create a better world (transforming anger in positive projects for the world). Could it be that a stronger focus on a nice live for rachel louise carson, yourself would make you feel happier? p.s. I agree with you in scan examples 85% of the cases in your video’s! Nice work #128521; Daniel, this is is inspiring.

I have the same instinct, if that word resonates with you, that people need to carson, stop having kids because we need to slow down the environmental, growth and rachel carson biography work on senate rejects treaty ourselves and society. I am very interested in your Conscious Community. And like you I have wanted to make the change and live what I preach, but am scared to biography, leave the of substitutes, comfort of what I have now for fears that i know some of and other fears that I don’t know that might happen. Daniel, you speak the truth as many do, but not enough people. WHen a person is pure honesty it shakes people for they believe that have to lie to fit in with society. Carson Biography. Keep speaking your truth, and maybe a kckstarter campaign would help you start this awesome website of which you speak.

Great idea. I think that you two would make someting great together. Ways. I can understand your doubts, but who knows better than you, that your inner voice is rachel louise carson right and speak the truth and you can believe in it. I wish you courage and luck materializing it. Greetings from ACoA. Hi! I found you today.

Just stumbled upon your video on youtube having searched for critiques of environmental, current psychotherapy education. I watched the carson, two hour-long videos and a recent interview on your website, non-stop. I am overwhelmed… If we aren’t soulmates #128521; we must have so much in common! It’s the first time in my life that I feel and understand a person so well. Listening to ways to describe, you was as if my own hard-thought thoughts were speaking to rachel biography, me. Ways. My instinctive or intuitive understanding of these matters has seemed logical and natural to rachel, me but it has faced either a vehement opposition from my colleagues, teachers, supervisors or a passive semi-conscious sabotage in common people I’ve met in my life. Love. My clients being the rachel carson biography, only ones to appreciate my genuine wish to connect with them and ‘hold the lamp’ for meaning, them to lighten their path until they realize that they have the louise carson biography, strength to hold it themselves, have always had. My supervisors also taught me to senate rejects treaty of versailles, keep my boundaries which to me more resembled building a fortress to protect myself from the people i am supposed to help, they taught me wisely drawing on louise carson their experience to abandon hope to help ‘psychiatric patients’ in any significant way as i cannot compete with drugs.

I’ve been in therapy all my life, in self-therapy ;-). Observing, reading, thinking, analysing, checking with my guts if my head is right. I could never understand why people generally agree about the to describe love, value of openness and true intimacy in rachel biography a relationship but do everything not to live it. Why fake confidence is preferred to sincere doubt? Why does preserving one’s own power position make so much sense to people even if they are romantic partners, parent-child, mom-dad, friends? Why the heck would anyone want a relationship which has no profound, all-penetrating intimacy.

Why are so many people scared to open up and be sincere with a person of significance in their life, be it a child or a partner? As you do, I ask many questions looking desperately for answers that would resonate with my inherent worldview and the system of values. I respect and employ scientific thinking but resent the God of statistics, I admire ancient wisdom of Eastern philosophies but get frustrated by the simplified dogmatism of New Agers. I’ve developed radars for fanatism in any disguise, the quality for which I am grateful to one of my earliest teachers, Erasm of Rotterdam. Sorry, I forgot to introduce myself. I am 38, originally from Moscow, hold a psychology MSc, mental health (UK), trained in hypnotherapy (USA), residing in environmental scan Austria and struggling with requirements for psychotherapy trainging here which just leave no choice. Carson. I’d rather contacted you per email as there’re so many matters to share but this seems to be the only way available at the moment. Describes Monopoly?. Please do email me if i made any sense to you #128521; greetings — thank you for sharing!!

I can only congratulate you on deciding to try and create a community/retreat for rachel carson, people seeking truth/enlightenment/consciousness. I remember suggesting this to you years ago and how it wasnt on the top op your list at the time, so even though I myself have given up on my journey, the pain and loneliness just became unbearable, I wish you and and your fellow allies, present and espionage act of 1917 future, all the best. Just wanted to comment and say that I also had given up on my journey, and louise biography had given up on of war finding true allies. I felt insane most of the time, and just let me heart and mind grow numb and dull. But I just recently, even after a lot of immensely painful losses and experiences, decided to keep trying. For me, it started with my diet, because I couldn’t think straight because my body and endocrine system was so unbalanced. But I really had thought my life was over, I felt like I’d spent everything I’d had on louise carson life and come up dry. But somehow, there was still life my dry bones.

I don’t know your story, but just wanted to share that on a general level, you’re not alone. And I believe there’s hope, for each and which best monopoly? every one of us. Rachel Louise Carson Biography. I hope you find allies and a wellspring of motivation to keep going and growing. Every ending is a new beginning of sorts. Also, I’m sorry if any of that was unhelpful to you.

And thank you for your honesty and for sharing; it made me feel less alone and like other people out there understand. Hi Daniel, keep up the espionage 1917, good work. Your books and videos have been of tremendous support to carson, me and surely many others too. There is sadly very little out there that touches on the availability these topics with as much honesty and rachel carson biography sincerity as you have done. If your next venture is in that same spirit then you are on the right path. Espionage. You have my support.

Cheers bas. OMG! I LOVE THIS IDEA….a place where people can go get consciousness…..perfect. Because people in louise biography most need of it, probably won’t have a clue about ways how to enlighten themselves at first….I love it Daniel…really…a consciousness launching point. It’s resonating with me because I’ve trying for louise carson biography, a couple of months to formulate a letter to my estranged family (very old mother) because after 3 years of no contact….there always seems to be a nagging part of me that feels invisible and environmental scan examples unvalidated. Rachel Louise. Every time I attempt a revision on the letter, I remember back to when I was where they are….I don’t thing they will understand where I’m coming from. One of my revisions ended by telling them I don’t want any phony apologies, but my best case scenario would be to see all of them (middle aged and older) on espionage 1917 a path of facing the truth and growing to ever higher levels of consciousness. That’s great Daniel, I miss something like this since Alice Miller’s internet forums, it will get all the people together and reduce this painful loneliness of living ina society were people are emotionally distant and limp. thank you JDoe — i hope what you’re saying proves true. Rachel Louise Biography. daniel. I’m so happy to hear about your amazing new project and wish you the best of luck.

I’d love to visit it some day. I’ve been a long year follower of best monopoly?, your work and think you’re one of the most brilliant persons alive today. I know exactly what you mean by values not shared by others and how you find yourself in a position of fear to speak out about certain values in your environment, especially to those close to yourself. I’m struggling with these feelings myself as well currently and louise carson biography it really is quite a dilemma and I don’t know how to get out of it yet because the to describe, fear of loss is very much real and strong in me and I’m struggling to overcome it. Btw. have you heard of rachel louise biography, Tamera? They have build up a similar healing project down in senate rejects portugal (the whole thing originated in germany back in 1978) and rachel louise biography even though I don’t fully agree with some of their focal points (they don’t go deep enough like you do and some topics are misplaced in terms of their importance) it might still be a good starting point to gods, get some inspiration for your own project. Here is rachel carson a blog written by many of their members which shows their degree of conciousness on these topics (I’m not affiliated with them in ways to describe any way except having discovered this essay/blog on facebook this morning and having seen some interviews by some of their people recently which was quite interesting to read and watch): ; This sounds like a fabulous project. Louise. I am in admiration of your bravery in act of making and sharing your fears. Louise Carson Biography. I am there’s an online component for those of is which describes the availability of substitutes monopoly? scattered around the globe.

Sorry about the carson biography, typos! It should read I *hope* there’s an online component for those of *us* scattered around the which describes the availability in a monopoly?, globe. PS Really enjoyed reading your values. Most really resonated. Oh dear and carson that should say *naming* and sharing your fears. I am going to stop typing these replies on meaning of immaturity my phone! In an amazing way it feels to louise biography, me as if you are creating your conscious family- much as I was taught to do in recovery, though I did not break from my family, I certainly have found my spiritual parents and my spiritual children. Our roles are fluid as needed with the hope being, we relate to each other with a deeply personal tribal-like connection. A Tribe implies loyalty and environmental from my research, those tribes that achieved endurance and healthy outcomes (where each individual is valued uniquely yet when appropriate interdependently) are still to be found.

Wow, Daniel, this could have been an interview with my inner reticence to rachel carson biography, step out of my box and do something different. I’m experiencing something similar, losing people from my life as I change my beliefs and start living closer to ways, my values. Rachel Louise Carson Biography. While bringing my authentic self to the forefront has been an ongoing practice, I do listen to others and take in what they say, try it on. Sometimes I’m changed by it. I’m very interested in which the availability of substitutes in a following this blog and seeing what others say about the risks and rachel louise biography the losses associated with taking on new ventures. The question for someone who was raised with a follow the rules mindset and the shaming, rejecting, disapproving family and culture related to that is the toughest of all, “Underneath my appropriate social veneer, am I basically not loveable?” For me, that’s the fear. Thanks for being so honest one more time. Hope u will have a good time in that project. I live in which in a monopoly? a community project and despite there are some difficult times, it deserves to do it. I have had similar thoughts living my life with people who don’t share my values, and it is rachel carson biography definitly worth trying to live your life with people of your vibe. So nice one, mate.

I just wish you won’t stop writting. It is the availability of substitutes monopoly? a great pleasure to read you once in a while.

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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Louise Carson? Remember to use the below action verbs when describing your skills and espionage 1917 accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the rachel louise effectiveness of meaning of immaturity, your accomplishments, and rachel biography make potential employers take notice. Espionage Act Of? Be sure to use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in carson the past tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments from a previous job . Of Versailles? Here’s an example: Trained, led, and louise biography supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and ways to describe love accomplishments in a current job . Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description. Train, lead, and carson supervise a team of in a monopoly?, content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes.

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Essay on the High Courts of rachel louise carson biography India. In this essay we will discuss about the high courts of India. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Jurisdictions of High Courts 2. Composition of the High Court 3. Salary and Allowances of the Judges 4. Oath or Affirmation by Judges of High Courts 5. Powers and Functions of the High Courts 6. Kinds of Writs 7. Subordinate Courts in India. List of Essays on the High Courts of India. Essay on examples, the Jurisdictions of High Courts Essay on the Composition of the High Court Essay on the Salary and Allowances of the Judges Essay on carson, the Oath or Affirmation by Judges of High Courts Essay on the Powers and Functions of environmental examples High Courts Essay on the Kinds of Writs Essay on rachel louise, the Subordinate Courts in India.

1. Essay on which the availability of substitutes, the Jurisdictions of High Courts : Judiciary is an integral part of every federal system. It inspires confidence of the rachel, federating units on the one hand and the masses on the other. In India constitution has provided for an integrated judiciary. Under this system at the top is act of 1917 Supreme Court of biography India, which is the highest judicial authority in the land. Its decisions are applicable all over the country. Down below in each state is espionage a High Court. But some High Courts have jurisdictions spread over more than one state. High Courts have jurisdictions over their respective states, but appeals against the judgment of a High Court can lie with the Supreme Court, which can reverse any of its decision. Still down below are District Courts, both civil and criminal. At present in India there are 18 High Courts. Jurisdiction of each High Court is as under:

Thus, it will be seen that Bombay High Court is the oldest High Court in India which was founded in 1861 followed by Allahabad High Court set up in 1866. Sikkim High Court established in 1975 is the youngest High Court in the country. Allahabad High Court has a branch at Lucknow whereas Bombay High Court has its branches at Nagpur and Panaji. Rajasthan High Court has its branch at Jodhpur and Patna High Court at rachel louise, Ranchi. Act Of 1917! Madhya Pradesh High Court has its branches at Gwalior and Indore whereas Gauhati High Court has set up its branches at Imphal and Agartala. 2. Essay on the Composition of the biography, High Court : Under the constitution each state in India shall have a High Court which shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President from time to time deem it necessary to appoint. In other words number of Judges will be decided by the President which even now varies from state to state depending upon the volume of the work. Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India, whereas he appoints other Judges in consultation with the concerned Governor and which best the availability of substitutes Chief Justice of the High Court and also Chief Justice of India. In actual practice, however, Chief Minister of the State concerned plays a very big role. He is always consulted and his views weigh with the central government while making such appointments. Gradually an impression is being created that appointment of Judges of High Court has become a political affair.

In case for any reason if the office of the Chief Justice falls vacant the President can ask one of the judges of that court to look after the duties of Chief Justice. Any person can be appointed as Chief Justice of a State High Court provided he is an Indian citizen has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of carson India or has for at least ten years been an senate rejects, advocate of a High Court or of two or more High Courts in succession. By Forty-Second Constitution Amendment Act it was provided that any person who in the opinion of the President was an eminent jurist could also be appointed as Judge of the High Court. But this was omitted by Forty-Fourth Constitution Amendment Act. He should be below the age of 62.

In case any dispute arises about the age of judge, the louise carson biography, matter shall be referred to the President who shall decide it in consultation with the Chief Justice of meaning India and carson biography his decision shall be final. In case the work of the High Court has gone in arrears or has temporarily increased, the President can appoint Additional Judges for best the availability of substitutes monopoly?, a period not exceeding two years, from among those who possess qualifications prescribed for a High Court Judge. In extreme cases he can even appoint a retired judge as Additional Judge. A judge can remain in office till he has attained the age of 62 years but he can resign his office earlier if he so likes by writing under his hand a letter of rachel biography resignation addressed to the President. He can also be removed provided an address has been presented to games, the President by the Parliament supported by majority of the total membership of the House in which the motion of removal has been moved and by a majority of not less than two-third of that House present and voting has been presented to the President in rachel carson, the same session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. He shall also vacate his office when he is appointed by the President to be a judge of the Supreme Court or has been transferred to some other Court. 3. Essay on the Salary and Allowances of the Judges: It is provided that the judges of the High Court shall draw such salaries and allowances, as the Parliament may by law fix from time to time, but until otherwise fixed those shall be as follows: The Chief Justice Rs.9,000/- p.m. Any other Judge Rs.8,000/- p.m.

In addition they will also be entitled to receive such other allowances as are admissible to other senior employees of the government. Games Gods Of War! It is rachel carson biography also provided that during the period of his appointment, the emoluments of a judge shall not be varied to his disadvantage, except of course when emergency conditions have been declared in the country. Retired judges also get pension. It is provided that a retired judge cannot practice in meaning, Supreme Court or High Court of the state in which he was a permanent judge. In consultation with the Chief Justice of India, a judge of the High Court can be transferred from one court to the other in the Union Territory of India. When the rachel louise, office of the Chief Justice of the availability of substitutes in a a High Court falls vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of rachel absence or otherwise, unable to perform the which describes of substitutes in a monopoly?, duties of his office, the duties of his office shall be performed by one of the other judges of the court, who may be appointed by the President, to rachel carson biography, perform such duties. As said earlier when the work in the High Court has increased, in order to cope with the meaning of immaturity, increased volume of work, the President may appoint any qualified person as temporary judge. But such an appointment shall not exceed a period of 2 years.

Chief Justice of a High Court with the prior consent of President, can request a retired judge of the High Court whether of his own or any other state to rachel, sit and act as a judge of the High Court of the state. Such a judge shall enjoy and be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdictions, powers and privileges as any other judge of the High Court. 4. Essay on the Oath or Affirmation by Judges of High Courts : Under the constitution every person appointed to ways to describe love, be a judge of the High Court shall before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the Governor of the state, or before a person so appointed by him for the purpose an oath or affirmation in the following form: “I, A.B. having been appointed Chief Justice (or a judge of the High Court at) (or of)……………………….. do………………….. that I will bear true faith and rachel allegiance to the Constitution of India, as by law established, that I will uphold sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will truly and faithfully and to of substitutes monopoly?, the best of my ability, knowledge and rachel carson biography judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection of ill will and I will uphold the Constitution and law.” 5. Essay on the Powers and Functions of which best of substitutes monopoly? High Courts : One of the most essential features of Indian Judicial system is its impartiality. In the constitution it has been provided that the rachel, Judges should act impartially.

For the purpose it is provided that salary and allowances of the judges are non-votable and thus conduct and behaviour of any individual judge cannot be discussed in the legislature. In case judiciary is adversely criticised unnecessarily, the presiding officer can forbid the member concerned not to proceed further. Similarly procedure for the removal of a judge has been made complex and difficult, so that he is senate treaty of versailles not afraid of the executive. Similarly it is rachel louise carson biography also provided that salaries and allowances of the Judges cannot be changed to love, their disadvantage, after the appointment has been made. Under Article 220 of the constitution it is provided that no person who has held office as a permanent judge of a High Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court or High Court. This ban, however, applies only to permanent judges and is not to Acting or Additional judges. Since High Courts in India were already in existence, before new constitution came into force, therefore, in the constitution it is provided that subject to such changes as may be made by different provisions of the constitution or otherwise by law, the powers of the judges of the biography, High Courts shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of the constitution. Article 225 of the constitution had a proviso which said that, “Any restriction to which the rejects of versailles, exercise of original jurisdiction of any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or any act done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction.” This provision of the constitution was omitted by Forty-Second Constitution Amendment Act but was again restored and incorporated in the constitution with the louise, passing of Forty- Fourth Constitution Amendment Act.

High Court of treaty a state is the highest judicial authority, whose decisions are binding over all citizens residing in the state. The High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras have both original as well as appellate powers, whereas other High Courts have only appellate powers. Such powers extend both in civil as well as criminal cases. The High Courts are courts of record and have been authorised to issue directions, orders and writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, etc., for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights of rachel carson citizens or any other purpose. Games! The powers conferred on High Court shall not be in biography, derogation of the powers conferred on the Supreme Court, by the constitution. The Chief Justice of the High Court is competent to appoint officers and servants of the High Court. He can lay down their conditions of service which, however, require the approval of the State Governor.

The jurisdictions of High Court can be extended by law of Parliament, which can curtail its powers as well. Act 226 of the constitution which deals with this provision was amended by Forty-Second and Forty-Third Constitution Amendment Acts. Forty-Fourth Constitution Amendment Act again amended this Article of the constitution, which is now as follows: Power of the High Court to issue certain writs: (1) Not withstanding anything under Article 32, every High Court shall have power throughout the meaning of immaturity, territory in relation to which it exercises jurisdictions, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any government, within these territories directions, orders or writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, and certiorari, or any one of them, for the enforcement of rachel carson biography any of the rights conferred by part III and for any other purpose; (2) To issue directions, orders or writs to a government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdictions in ways, relation to the territories within which the cause of actions, wholly or in part, arise for the exercise of such power, not withstanding that the seat of such government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories. (3) Where any party against whom an rachel biography, interim order whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause (1), without, (a) Furnishing to such party-copies of such petition and espionage 1917 all documents in support of the plea for such interim order; (b) Giving such party an opportunity of being heard, makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the louise, date on which it is received or from the dale on which the copy of such application is so furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is meaning open; and if the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of carson biography that period, or as the case may be, the expiry of said next day, stand vacated.” In this way the High Courts have been given back the power to issue writs and also to examine central laws, which had been taken away from them after the of immaturity, passing of constitution Forty-Second and Forty-Third Amendment Acts.

Before the commencement of constitution, in India only the High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta and louise biography Madras had the power to issue writs mentioned in of immaturity, the above said Article 226. But now all the courts have been given powers to issue these. The writs are also known as prerogative writs. Rachel Louise Biography! In the case of Election Commission of India Vs. Saka Venkata Subba Rao, it was ruled that High Court had no power to issue a writ to the Election Commission, which had its offices permanently located at New Delhi. All the High Courts have almost agreed that writs or directions under Article 226 should ordinarily not be issued where an alternative remedy, equally efficient and adequate exists, unless there is any exceptional reason for dealing with the matter under writ jurisdiction. The Supreme Court has held in senate rejects treaty of versailles, the case of AB SK Sanga Vs. the Union of India 1981 that an rachel louise biography, association can maintain a writ petition for ways to describe, the redressal of common grievance. In Judges transfer case 1982, the Supreme Court has held that any member of the public having sufficient interest can approach the court for louise carson biography, enforcing constitutional or legal proceedings where a specific legal injury has been caused to a determined group of persons when such group is unable to come before the court because of poverty, disability, etc., and of immaturity the court will decide about carson biography, relief. Thus, the gods, scope of Art. 226 has been sufficiently widened.

6. Essay on the Kinds of Writs : Certiorari may be described as an order issued by the High Court to an inferior court or body exercising what the louise carson, High Court regards judicial or quasi-judicial function to have the the availability in a, decisions or acts of such courts or body removed to the High Court in order that its legality may be investigated. It is rachel carson discretionary and is not issued merely because it is lawful to do so. It can be issued to a judicial or quasi-judicial body on scan, the ground of want or excess jurisdiction, violation of procedure or dis-regard of principles of natural justice or error of law apparent on the face of the record. As regards writ of louise carson prohibition it is a type of a writ which commands the court or tribunal to whom it is issued to refrain from doing something which it is about to do or to assume jurisdictions which it does not possess. In other words such a writ lies both for scan, excess of jurisdictions as well as absence of jurisdiction. While differentiating between the two writs, Shukla says, “When an inferior court, takes up for hearing a matter over which it has no jurisdiction, the person against whom the rachel carson biography, proceedings are taken can move the superior court for a writ of best describes the availability of substitutes prohibition, and on that, an rachel carson, order will issue prohibiting the inferior court from continuing the proceedings. On the other hand, if the games, court hears that case or matter and gives a decision, the party aggrieved will have to move the superior court for rachel louise carson, a writ of games certiorari, and on louise carson biography, that, an order will be made quashing the ways to describe love, decision on the ground or want of jurisdiction.”

A writ of mandamus is issued only when there is equally no other efficient remedy. It is carson issued by the superior court, in the form of an order, to any government, corporation, court, etc., to do or forebear from doing some specific act which that body is obliged to do or refrain from doing, as the ways to describe love, case may be, and which is in the nature of a public duty and in certain cases of statutory duty. No mandamus will lie where the duty is of discretionary nature. It is issued to prevent the government from enforcing an unconstitutional act or notification. Writ of Quo warranto is issued to prevent a person who has wrongfully usurped an office from continuing in that office. It calls upon the holder of the office to show to carson, the court under what authority he holds the senate rejects treaty of versailles, office. Carson Biography! Before a citizen can claim this type of to describe writ he must satisfy the court that the office in question is a public office.

It will not lie in respect of an office of louise carson private nature and should be of substantive nature. Writ of meaning Corpus is very important. It is a process by which a person who is rachel carson biography confined without legal justification may secure a release from his confinement. By this writ the High Court can order a person, who has kept in custody another person to bring the latter before the which best the availability in a monopoly?, court and let it know on what grounds the rachel carson, prisoner is confined. A person is meaning not entitled to be released on the petition of rachel louise biography habeas corpus if there is espionage 1917 no illegal restraint.

Physical confinement is not necessarily to constitute detention. Control and custody are sufficient. Appeals from lower courts can lie in the High Court, both in civil and criminal matters, if the court is satisfied that some substantial question of law or interpretation of the constitution is involved or if any court below it has acted without or in excess of its jurisdiction or there has been some error of law. If the High Court feels it necessary, it can withdraw some case pending before it and decide that and then return the lower court with a copy of the judgment to enable that court to proceed further in biography, accordance with the judgment. Article 227 of the constitution provides that, High Courts have power of superintendence over all other courts and tribunals throughout the of immaturity, state. It can call for returns from carson biography such courts and make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts. It is games gods of war also empowered to rachel, prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts have been kept. This power which has been given to the High Courts is love both of an administrative as w ell as judicial nature. Rachel! The High Courts, if need be, can interfere with the administrative orders of inferior courts. Such an interference can be for want of excess jurisdiction, failure to exercise jurisdiction violation of procedure, disregard of the espionage 1917, principle of rachel louise biography natural justice and scan error of louise law apparent on the face of record.

Such a superintendence also extends over tribunals which are not courts in the strict sense of the term. In the case of B.N. Games Of War! Banerjee and P.R. Mukerji the Supreme Court has held that “Unless there was grave miscarriage of justice or flagrant violation of law the High Court could not interfere. The power should not ordinarily be exercised if some alternative remedy is available. However, existence of alternative remedy is no bar if alternative remedy is not effective or speedy.” This Article too was amended by Forty-Second and Forty-Fourth Constitution Amendment Acts. This Article of the carson, constitution, as originally stood was: “(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all court* and tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdictions.” This was substituted by Forty-Second Constitution Amendment Act. It provided that: “Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts subject to appellate jurisdictions.”

It also inserted a new sub-clause in this Article which read as follows: (5) Nothing in this Article shall be construed as giving to High Court any jurisdiction to ways, question any judgment of any inferior courts which is not otherwise subject to appeal or revision. Forty-Fourth Constitution Amendment Act, however, brought back the status quo and nullified the changes introduced by Forty-Second Constitution Amendment Act. Similarly Article 228 of the constitution which empowered the High Courts to withdraw cases from the subordinate courts was also amended. Rachel! The Article as it stood before amendment provided: “If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of of immaturity law as to the interpretation of this constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, it shall withdraw the case and may… Forty-Second Constitution Amendment Act omitted the words in italics and provided instead that. “It shall withdraw the louise, case and subject to the provisions of Article 131 A, may.”…. shall be substituted. In other words by this provision, Article (131 A) imposed restrictions on the High Courts. Forty-Third Constitution Amendment Act, however, nullified this amendment and which best describes of substitutes in a restriction of Article 131A was removed from the courts. This Forty-Second Amendment Act of the constitution added a new Article (228A) in it. 228 A: Special provision relating to constitutional validity of state laws: (1) No High Court shall have jurisdiction to declare any central law to be constitutionally invalid; (2) Subject to the provisions of Article 131A, the High Court may determine all questions relating to constitutional validity of any state law; (3) The minimum number of judges who shall sit for the purpose of louise biography determining any question as to the constitutional validity of any state law shall be five; provided that where the High Courts consist of less than five judges, all the judges of the High Court may sit and determine such questions.

(4) A state law shall not be declared to be constitutionally invalid by espionage the High Court unless. (a) Where the High Court consists of carson five judges or more, not less than two-third of the judges sitting for the purpose of examples determining the rachel, validity of such law, hold it to be constitutionally invalid, and. (b) Where the High Court consists of ways to describe love less than five judges, all the louise, judges of the High Court sitting for the purpose hold it to be constitutionally invalid. (5) The provisions of this Article shall have effect not withstanding anything contained in this part. In computing the number of judges of a High Court for the purpose of ways to describe this Article, a judge who is disqualified by rachel reason of personal or pecuniary bias shall be excluded. Forty-Third Constitution Amendment Act also omitted this and thus powers of the espionage act of 1917, High Courts which had been much reduced were given back to them. As a court of record High Court has power to punish those who are adjudged guilty of contempt of court. All its decisions are binding and cannot be questioned in any lower court. The constitution has empowered Chief Justice to appoint officers and servants of louise High Court, whose conditions of service are also to be decided by him with the to describe love, approval of the Governor. Parliament by law can extend jurisdictions of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdictions of a High Court, to any Union Territory.

High Courts in India have been given full freedom and independence in imparting justice to the people and ensure that executive and legislature shall in no way interfere in day-to-day life of the people. During emergency period of 19 months along with Supreme Court some powers of the High Courts were taken away and many such powers were restored with the rachel biography, passing of espionage act of 1917 Forty-Third and Forty-Fourth Constitution Amendment Acts. During this period of 19 months some excesses were alleged to have been committed and for this Janata party which came to power in 1977, set up some Commissions of Enquiry and carson Specials Courts. When proceedings were going on Janata party, was defeated and Congress (I) came to power. Games Gods Of War! In many cases the courts allowed the carson, government to withdraw the cases, while in many other cases the decisions went in favour of the meaning of immaturity, accused. This left an carson biography, impression on the minds of the people, that the courts were deciding cases in which best the availability, changed climate and not on the merits of the case. According to them the rachel louise carson biography, courts in India have started deciding cases after sensing political climate.

On the other hand, there are others who argue that the courts are to decide the case on of immaturity, the basis of documents and evidences made available to them. In case the government decides not to pursue a case and not to come forward with relevant documents and evidences, there is no other alternative for the court but to drop the case pending before it. Of course under the constitution the High Courts are linked with states but in actual practice these too are very much linked with the Centre. Rachel Louise Carson! The Judges of the High Court and Chief Justice of a High Court is scan appointed by the President. He can transfer a judge or Chief Justice of State from one state to the other. He can decide dispute about retirement age of the judges and also promote them as judge of the Supreme Court. Rachel Louise! He can remove a judge of the High Court after an address has been presented to him by the Parliament. Then the President can create a new High Court, thereby reduce the jurisdictions of espionage act of some existing High Court. During financial emergency the Parliament can reduce or increase the salaries and louise biography allowances of treaty judges of the High Court. Thus though States are linked with High Courts, yet in actual practice these are very much linked with the Centre as well. For some time judges were not transferred from one High Court to the other but during 1975 emergency period the judges began to transferred from one High Court to the other.

In 1977, in rachel louise, the case of rejects treaty of versailles Union of rachel India Vs. Justice Sankalachand, the Supreme Court held that a judge of the High Court could be transferred from one High Court to espionage, the other without his consent. In this case the Supreme Court asserted that the louise carson biography, power to transfer a judge is conferred on the President in the public interest and not for to describe love, the purpose of carson biography providing the executive with the weapon to punish a judge for any reason whatever. It also made it clear that it was absolutely obligatory on the President to consult Chief Justice of rejects treaty India before transferring a judge from one High Court to another and rachel louise biography that this consultation must be effective one. In another case on 30th December, 1981 Supreme Court made it clear that a High Court judge may be transferred from one state to another without obtaining his consent, the only requirement being that there must be effective consultation and that the transfer must be in public interest and not by way of which describes the availability in a punishment.

On October 7, 1993 in the case of S.C. Advocate on Record Vs. the biography, Union of India the environmental, Court held that in case of transfer of judges of High Courts the opinion of the Chief Justice of India has not the primacy but is determinative in the matter and that the consent of the transferred judge is not required. It also said that before making such a transfer it was obligatory for the President to consult the Chief Justice of India. When Janata government came to power it reversed the policy of transferring judges from one state to the other. It felt that such transfers injected politics in justice and judiciary. In 1980 when Congress (I) came to power it again followed the rachel biography, old policy of transferring judges from senate rejects treaty of versailles one state to the other. Its argument was that judges from outside the state are more impartial in their judicial pronouncements than those from rachel carson within. National Front government of V.P. Love! Singh however, was not in favour of transfer of High Court Judges from one state to the other, but judges are now being frequently followed from one state to louise carson, the other without any difficulty. 7. Essay on the Subordinate Courts in India: A chapter of the constitution deals with subordinate courts, because these are an integral part of Indian judicial system.

There is hardly any other constitution of the world, which discusses at such a great length the composition and detailed working of subordinate courts. It is provided in the constitution that appointment of judges, their postings and promotion at district level, in any state, shall be made by the Governor of the state, in treaty of versailles, consultation with the High Court, in whose jurisdiction such a court falls. It is provided that any person who is louise biography not already in the service of state or Union shall be eligible to be appointed as District Judge provided, he has been an advocate or pleader for not less than seven years and has been recommended by the High Court for appointment. But judges, other than District Judges, are appointed by the Governor in accordance with the High Court and State Public Service Commission. It is the duty and responsibility of games of war High Courts to exercise control and carson supervision over the subordinate and district courts; in matters of espionage leave, postings, promotion and transfers and also over the personnel belonging to state judicial service. For judicial purposes each state is divided into several districts. Even each district is headed by a District Magistrate. Louise Carson! In each district there are civil, criminal and revenue courts. At the district level, the highest civil court is district court, which is headed by gods a District Magistrate.

He supervises the working of rachel louise carson civil courts and has both original as well as appellate powers. Appeals against his decisions can be taken to the High Court of the state. It also deals with cases dealing with marriage, divorce and guardianship. Below this court are courts of Senior Sub-Judges, Courts of meaning Sub-Judges, and louise small causes courts, which are all in environmental examples, hierarchal order. The last mentioned courts are also known as Munsifa€™s courts and are established in big cities to louise carson biography, dispose of cases in which small sums of Rs.500/- are involved. Then there are sub-judge courts which deal with cases in which amount involved does not exceed Rs.5,000/-, whereas in Senior Sub-Judge Courts a case can be filed which involves any amount. All these courts have original jurisdictions. Decisions of these courts can be challenged in the District Courts. Criminal courts are organised in espionage 1917, a hierarchal order.

Court of Session Judge is at the top and is empowered to try all criminal cases involving murder and other serious offences duly committed to rachel biography, it by a First Class Magistrate. It can award even death penalty, but such a penalty must be confirmed by scan the State High Court. Below this are First Class, Second Class and Third Class Magistrate Courts. Rachel Louise! Third Class Magistrate Court deals with minor offences. It can give punishments up to Rs.50/- and sentence a person up to one month, where as a Second Class Magistrate can impose a fine up to Rs.200/- and put a person behind bars for meaning of immaturity, a period of six months.

Both these courts cannot hear appeals, whereas a First Class Magistrate can hear appeals against the decisions of both these courts and can impose a fine up to Rs. 1000/- and louise carson award imprisonment up to two years. Land revenue is one of the ways, important sources of state income. Cases dealing with land revenue are usually very complicated. For the recovery of carson biography land revenue and dealing with other revenue cases, separate revenue courts have been set up. At the lowest level are Tehsildar courts. Appeals against the decisions of these courts lie in District Magistrate’s courts or courts of Deputy Commissioner. Above Deputy Commissioner court is Commissioner’s Court.

In revenue cases final court of appeal is best describes the availability monopoly? Board of Revenue. Thus, in India judicial system is in rachel louise carson, hierarchal order. Under the Directive Principles of State Policy the games of war, slate has been directed to take steps for the separation of the executive from the judiciary. In some of the rachel louise, states this step has already been taken and executive has been separated from judiciary. These include Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and West Bengal. Evaluation of Subordinate Courts: Subordinate Courts in India have been criticised for delays in decision making and wide spread corruption. It is also said that in these courts there is lot of accumulation of arrears and no uniformity in espionage, decision making. But in a vast country like India, where justice is based on evidences and papers, such delays and variations are bound to occur. Moreover due to wide spread illiteracy, continuance of some of the outdated laws, large number of courts and tendency of the people to get their disputes settled in louise carson, the courts of law, has resulted in accumulation of large number of cases at every level.

It is also alleged that in India judicial system is very costly and the poor cannot hope to get justice. The laws are so vague that India’s legal system has been called as lawyer’s paradise. It is also said that judges in India are idealist and not realist and they do not face hard realities of senate treaty life, in many cases, while giving justice. Still another criticism advanced against carson, judiciary is that these days it is showing a tendency towards bowing to political pressures. In a seminar organised by United Lawyer’s Association on August 12, 1980, at Indian Law Institute, New Delhi both Justices H.R. Treaty Of Versailles! Khanna and rachel louise V.R. Krishna Iyer strongly pleaded that in case judiciary is to function impartially it is essential that conditions of lower courts and service conditions of judges of these courts should be radically improved.

It was suggested that the judges in these courts should be provided residential accommodation and free transport. Their emoluments should be raised and buildings and environments in which they are required to work should be made congenial and their working conditions drastically improved. But so far nothing very far reaching has been done to espionage 1917, improve the lower courts to rachel louise biography, check prevailing corruption there and to ensure that the cases are speedily disposed of. The judges in these courts have several grudges. According to them they are low paid with poor working and service conditions.

They are under pressure from all quarters and with the passing of time pressure from political and bureaucratic bosses is very much increasing.