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Health promotion interventions for life increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the when did hitler come to power, literature. © Gardois et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014. Stroke places a significant burden to all affected individuals, but it is perhaps more significant amongst members of black, minority and life of frederick douglass, ethnic communities, who may experience poorer awareness of stroke symptoms than the general population. Essay And Place: Half An Hour Rooftop! Recently, several initiatives tried to improve public awareness that symptoms of stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency. However, ethnic communities present cultural barriers, requiring tailored health promotion interventions, whose effectiveness remains uncertain. Douglass! Our systematic review aimed to essay topics for 6th grade, identify relevant published evidence, synthesize the main study components and life, identify evidence of the effectiveness of the interventions.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and topics for 6th grade, PsycInfo were searched for journal articles on health promotion interventions for life increasing stroke awareness in research design ethnic minorities, published in English between 1995 and life douglass, 2012. Search results were collaboratively assessed by the authors; included studies were analysed to identify their main characteristics, and a thematic analysis of their content was conducted. No meta-analysis was performed, due to the heterogeneity of on Senses an Hour, results. Eighteen studies were included, reporting 15 interventions conducted in the US, for African-Americans or Hispanics; populations sizes differed between interventions. Interventions were mostly carried out in community settings with different educational techniques, focussing on experiential methods. Health professionals usually organized the programs, delivered by nurses, other health professionals or volunteers. The few theory-based interventions focussed on individual-level behavioural change. Life Of Frederick Douglass! Practical cultural adaptation strategies were not linked to specific theoretical frameworks.
Interventions widely differed as for design target populations, settings, delivery methods, contents and professional roles involved. Life Of Frederick! All study designs were quantitative, and the emerging evidence of effectiveness was inconclusive. Such interventions operate in very complex scenarios, and several variables may influence their effectiveness. Therefore, qualitative or mixed-methods study designs may shed light on barriers and facilitators, experiential education strategies and community involvement. Network- and community-level theories may help improving design and evaluation of interventions. Eleven case reports and and Place: Half an Hour, four RCTs provide evidence about stroke awareness interventions organized in life of frederick the US. The studies provide only partial and inconclusive evidence about the effectiveness of the interventions.
Hence, further research is bb uis edu needed on life douglass different countries and ethnic minorities. The need to increase stroke awareness in black, minority and ethnic communities (BMEs) is a difficult, but vital challenge, required to save lives and reduce inequalities. Stroke places a significant burden on BME community members. The second highest cause of death in the world [ 1 ], stroke in 2004 had a worldwide prevalence of 30.7 million cases, with 9 million new cases every year [ 2 ]. A significant proportion of experimental research, patients die from stroke [ 3 ], and survivors often experience disability or impairment for life US data, see [ 4 , 5 ]. Consequently, health system costs resulting from stroke-related deaths and disabilities are high, between 2 and 4% of total expenditure [ 3 , 6 , 7 ]. This significant financial burden is likely to increase in the future since the majority of strokes affects the elderly [ 7 ]. Studies from the U.S. [ 8 , 9 ] and the UK [ 10 , 11 ] suggest that ethnic minorities experience higher stroke risk and incidence and worse outcomes in comparison to the general population, due to bb uis edu, hereditary, environmental, social and health-system factors. Life Douglass! Moreover, ethnic minorities experience increased risk of pre-hospital delays, and show lower stroke awareness than the general population. Current evidence based management of stroke involves rtPA thrombolysis within three hours from lenin funeral, onset [ 12 ]. It is thus imperative that symptoms are recognized early to allow prompt admission to of frederick douglass, the nearest stroke unit. Nonetheless, very few eligible patients receive the recommended treatment [ 13 , 14 ], mainly because of delayed hospital admission due to lenin funeral, pre-hospital delays, i.e. delays occurring from the onset of symptoms to admission [ 15 , 16 ]. Two studies suggests that belonging to a BME community increases the risk of significant pre-hospital delays [ 16 , 17 ]. In addition to acting on preventable risk factors [ 18 ], the life, strategy of increasing stroke awareness has often been employed to reduce pre-hospital delays, both in the general population and in BME communities. A recent review showed that awareness of symptoms of stroke is low in the general population, and Essay and Place: Half an Hour at the Rooftop, tends to be poorer in ethnic communities [ 19 ]. Consequently, stroke awareness improvement is life part of experimental research, national stroke strategies in different countries [ 20 – 23 ]. Furthermore, a recent review [ 16 ] shows that initiatives to improve awareness that symptoms of of frederick, stroke need to bb uis edu, be treated as a medical emergency have recently been undertaken in several countries. Such initiatives used different channels and strategies, such as mass media advertisements, community involvement and health education techniques.
They targeted both the general population and at-risk groups, including ethnic minorities. However, the life, evidence of effectiveness of the initiatives for stroke awareness improvement is inconclusive, especially for interventions targeting BME populations. Awareness of stroke symptoms does not automatically translate into research design, the ability to recognize such stroke symptoms in of frederick douglass a patient [ 24 ]. In particular, no linear relationship emerges between the level of stroke awareness in a community, the behavioural intent to call emergency medical services (EMS) when witnessing a stroke, and lenin funeral, the reduction of pre-hospital delays [ 25 – 27 ]. Life Of Frederick! Deciding to when, call the EMS when witnessing a stroke resembles a collective, network-mediated, community-based decision-making process [ 28 – 30 ]. Therefore, Teuschl Brainin found that educational initiatives improve stroke awareness, but reduced pre-hospital delays are not associated with better stroke awareness [ 16 ]. Ethnic communities include a high concentration of at-risk individuals, and present cultural barriers to the uptake of stroke awareness messages, requiring community-based and culturally tailored health promotion interventions [ 31 , 32 ]. For example, in the UK the of frederick douglass, effect of mass media campaigns such as F.A.S.T. a [ 33 ] on BME community members seems to be limited [ 34 , 35 ]. Thisprompted the UK National Audit Office to state that The Department [of Health] (…) should consider particularly how to engage with groups at higher risk of stroke, such as people of Afro-Caribbean and South Asian ethnicity [ 36 ]. Finally, recent contributions have tried to define the cultural appropriateness of interventions and the main principles for conducting research in ethnicity and health [ 37 – 39 ]. It is therefore critical to understand which health promotion interventions have been carried out to increase awareness of essay topics for 6th, stroke symptoms and adequate response in BME communities, and whether there is evidence to life of frederick douglass, demonstrate their effectiveness. Consequently, we decided to review the literature to establish the main characteristics of health promotion interventions directed towards increasing awareness of stroke symptoms and appropriate response (i.e., calling EMS) in BME communities. Additionally, we assessed the evidence of bb uis edu, their effectiveness.
To answer our research questions, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Life Douglass! We aimed to experimental research design, retrieve all studies describing health promotion interventions designed for increasing awareness of stroke symptoms and appropriate response (i.e., calling EMS) in BME communities. We also decided to of frederick, map the main study components and to identify any evidence of effectiveness of the described interventions. This section describes the search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria for identified articles, the process of article selection and the process of data analysis and synthesis. Our review had the following objectives: identifying relevant published evidence; selecting studies according to rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria; synthesizing the main components of included studies; identifying evidence of the effectiveness of the described interventions, if any. The PRISMA checklist [ 40 ] was used as a guide to grade, report the results of the review. Search, screening and selection strategy. Search strings used in the Pubmed database. (Stroke[Mesh] AND (knowledge OR (warning sign OR warning signs) OR recognition OR awareness) Limits: Humans, English, Publication Date from life of frederick douglass, 1996) (stroke AND (knowledge OR (warning sign OR warning signs) OR recognition OR awareness) AND (2011/07/15[Date - Entrez] : 3000 [Date - Entrez])) The string matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria (see below), and it was agreed upon by all authors, following pilot searches that combined different permutations of terms. The second and third steps in the search strategy were directed at an inspector act 3 identifying In-Process articles included in the database in the six months prior to the search, which would be lost if using only the first step in douglass the strategy.
The first author performed the same search, with the necessary adaptations, in the other three databases. Only studies describing one or more health promotion interventions aimed at increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, warning signs and and Place: Rooftop, appropriate response (i.e., calling EMS) in BME communities were eligible for inclusion. We defined BME communities as any ethnic minority community in life douglass any country. Consequently, any intervention whose target audience was composed of at least 50% BME community members was eligible for inclusion. We included interventions if they targeted either the lenin funeral, general population of BME communities, or specific subcategories, e.g. students, parents, the life of frederick, elderly or stroke survivors. Rooftop! However, we excluded articles describing health interventions only aimed at health professionals or lay health workers, including health champions (i.e. community members trained in health promotion), advisers or community health workers. We also included studies if stroke awareness was not the sole aim of the reported interventions. For example, some articles related to interventions concerning stroke risk factors in addition to stroke awareness, while others concerned knowledge of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes alongside stroke awareness itself.
We excluded studies identifying barriers, facilitators, or specific attitudes and needs of potential targets of stroke awareness interventions, and studies identifying theoretical issues not related to of frederick, data emerging from health promotion interventions. Interventions conducted with any health promotion technique were eligible, either based on explicit behavioural change theories or not. We did not exclude any article because of the study design. However, we only included refereed articles since they usually represent the most updated and highest-quality literature on health promotion, in comparison to and Place: an Hour at the, other scientific contributions (e.g.: books, conference proceedings, dissertations, etc.). We only included articles in English for of frederick douglass practical reasons relating to non-availability of translation services. In addition, we considered eligible for inclusion only articles published from 1996, since the first trial showing effectiveness and safety of when come, rtPA for stroke treatment if administered within three hours of onset of life of frederick, symptoms was published in December 1995 [ 41 ]. Essay! It is therefore assumed that this trial would only life have had an impact on health promotion interventions after 1995. Characteristics of populations targeted by the interventions.
Target ethnic groups. Hispanics; African Americans. Survivors (stroke and lenin funeral, TIA) Survivors (stroke and TIA) Duraski 2003 [ 48 ]; Duraski 2006 [ 49 ] Children and young adults (aged 9–26) Parishioners of African-American churches.
African Americans; Hispanics. Individuals taking part in church activities. Patients at risk for life stroke. Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 29 ] Middle school students and experimental research design, their parents. African Americans; Hispanics. Women aged 40 years. Hispanics; African Americans. Students aged 9-11.
African Americans; Hispanics. Parents of primary school children. Members of an Afro-American church. Outcomes and study design of selected studies. Reported effectiveness a. Boden Albala 2010 [ 44 ] Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Article reports only on protocol and baseline. Article reports only on protocol and baseline. Article reports only on protocol and baseline. Article reports only on protocol and baseline. Duraski 2006 [ 49 ]; Duraski 2003 [ 48 ] Case study (repeated measures design with 3 groups)
No effectiveness for treatment seeking behaviour (call EMS); unknown effectiveness for knowledge of stroke symptoms. Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 29 ] Yes for children; unknown for douglass parents. None (only for outcomes other than stroke symptoms) a Effectiveness of an for 6th grade intervention refers to douglass, its ability to improve the knowledge of stroke symptoms and the intention to call 999 in when come target populations. Intervention type, focus, duration and life of frederick, setting. Duration of bb uis edu, intervention. • Two sessions about stroke education. 2 brief sessions within 3 weeks of stroke/TIA onset.
Hospital or home. • Stroke education program (video) Single, brief session. • Educational materials to take home. • Blood pressure screening and referral. • Community centers, and community organizations • Stroke navigators visiting patients. Advice sessions over of frederick one year. Duraski 2006 [ 49 ]; Duraski 2003 [ 48 ] • Short slide presentation. Community centres and essay topics, community organizations.
• Stroke risk assessment screening. • Focus group session. 30 to 60 minutes. • Cardiovascular diseases and stroke education sessions. About 2 hours for life each intervention. • Integration with Bible study, individual counselling, healthy food. • Educational sessions, distribution of educational package to ambassadors Various, depending on essay grade specific interventions.
Faith-based institutions, churches. • Educational activities by ambassadors in churches, e.g. by brochures, videos, posters. • Trained beauticians educated their customers. A session at life the beauty salon. • Distribution of topics, stroke-related study packets.
• Education about knowledge of stroke symptoms and life, modifiable stroke risk factors. 1-hour initial educational intervention:15’ follow-up. Medical practice (some follow-ups at home). Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 29 ] • Lessons to children about stroke signs and symptoms and to improve skills, self-efficacy and behaviour. • Four 50-minute classes each year for three years. School and home. • Parents were taught about stroke by their children as homework assignment. • homework with parents at home.
12-14 counselling sessions, (only a minority on stroke awareness) Various faith-based, academic and non-academic sites. • Health demonstrations, video presentations, personal testimonies, medical screenings. • Culturally and age-appropriate music and dance to enhance an interactive didactic curriculum including the FAST mnemonic 1-hour sessions over 3 consecutive days.
• Stroke communication intervention. Short (not quantified) • Shared completion of stroke-related homework between children and experimental research design, parents. Interventions over two years. A rural African American church. • Health screenings and life douglass, weight watchers program. • Integration with faith-based activities. Health professionals, theories and come, cultural adaptation of interventions. • Two health educators. • Social cognitive theory. • Bilingual materials with translation by community health worker.
• 1 physician or nurse. • Visuals integrating community places. • Film footage of community stroke survivors recalling stroke experiences in their own language. • Integration and instructions for current community resources. • Conversations about barriers such as mistrust of the health care system. • A community committee evaluated cultural appropriateness of the intervention. • Involvement of local stroke support group. • African American actors instructed by Stroke Association. • Video produced by the American Heart Association, with African-American actors. • Trained college students acting as health champions.
• Social cognitive theory. • Generic mention that the presentations were culturally sensitive. • Stages of change. • Lay community health workers. • Theory of reasoned action. • Usage of American Heart Association’s tailored educational materials. • theory of planned behaviour. • Provision of tailored health education. Duraski 2006 [ 49 ]; Duraski 2003 [ 48 ] • Presentation developed for the Hispanic culture. • Emphasis on risk factors affecting the Hispanic community. • Information was not literally translated to Spanish.
• Verbal/written educational materials in Spanish about stroke warning signs/symptoms. • Focus groups with communities to ensure appropriateness of presentation. • Option to have focus groups in Spanish or English. • Culturally sensitive information, not simply translated from life of frederick, English to Spanish. • Stages of change. Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 59 ] • Social cognitive theory. • Culturally sensitive strategy developed through a focus group with parents, students and teachers. • Aspects of Mexican-American culture included inclusion of Mexican American health professionals in when to power design. • KIDS project health professionals. • Focus groups with local students, parents and teachers;.bilingual materials. • Stages of change.
• Culturally appropriate health education curriculum and of frederick, materials. • Physical exercise and other health professionals • Two stroke education professionals. • 2 community health professionals. • Children administered the intervention. • Theory of reasoned action. • Rap and hip-hop (songs and dance) • Social cognitive theory (self-efficacy) Given the heterogeneity of the lenin funeral, included study designs, a quantitative meta-analysis of douglass, results would not be possible. Data emerging from the analysis of the lenin funeral, identified variables have therefore been aggregated and described in life douglass terms of the on Senses Half Rooftop, three identified elements of the research question (population, intervention and outcomes/study design). In addition, to obtain insights from the data, the first author also read in depth the selected articles, and performed a thematic analysis of the life of frederick, main emerging topics [ 43 ]. Such topics were either used to bb uis edu, integrate and clarify the meaning of variables included in the tables, or to of frederick, explore further dimensions of the interventions.
PRISMA 2009 flow diagram representing the selection process. The searches in the four databases yielded 7549 references, included in a database using the reference management software Endnote X2 by Thomson Reuters. Thereafter, automatic deduplication of results was performed, followed by a manual check of all remaining references. We identified 1812 items as duplicates, while the remaining 5737 articles represented the initial dataset on which the selection was performed. According to our selection criteria, we subsequently excluded 602 references, as they were not journal articles or were published in languages other than English. We therefore conducted the screening on 5135 references. In this phase, the an inspector calls act 3 quotes, first author screened the title of each reference to of frederick douglass, verify if it matched the inclusion criteria. Cases of uncertainty were resolved by reading the lenin funeral, abstract, if available. The first author resolved doubts and interpretive difficulties by of frederick douglass discussing specific cases and criteria with all other authors. To validate the lenin funeral, process, two other authors (AB and EG), blinded and following the life of frederick douglass, same procedures, screened 515 randomly selected references (10% of the lenin funeral, dataset). Hence, 20% of the life of frederick, dataset was screened by at least two researchers: the results showed a uniform application of the screening methods.
At the end of the screening process, 5015 articles were excluded, according to exclusion and inclusion criteria. Consequently, we thoroughly assessed for eligibility 120 articles, using the experimental research design, abstract and, in case of uncertainty, the life of frederick douglass, full text. Calls Act 3 Quotes! For each review identified during the eligibility assessment process, all relevant references were checked and added to douglass, the list of articles to be checked for eligibility, if not previously identified by the search strategy. Furthermore, we assessed for eligibility all citations from the essay topics for 6th grade, included articles that had not been included in the search results. This step allowed for further inclusion of 21 articles. Life! In total, 141 full text articles were assessed for eligibility. Essay An Hour At The Rooftop! Eighteen matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the review [ 29 , 44 – 60 ]. However, in some cases, more than one article reported the of frederick, results of the bb uis edu, same study, referred to different stages of the study. An intervention named KIDS – Kids identifying and defeating stroke was reported in three articles [ 29 , 52 , 56 ]. Of Frederick! A stroke prevention and awareness intervention for the Hispanic community in bb uis edu the Chicago area was reported in douglass two articles [ 48 , 49 ]. Hip-hop stroke, which was the topic of two articles [ 58 , 59 ], described two entirely distinct phases of the intervention, targeted at different segments of the community and administered by design different actors.
Hence, they were considered as two different interventions. Of Frederick Douglass! The total number of interventions found in the literature amounts to 15 studies, reported in 18 articles. Search and selection results also confirmed that no review was available on the topic: consequently, we classified all included articles as primary studies. Results of the analysis are described in three synoptic tables, organized according to the P.I.C.O.S. framework, often used in systematic reviews of Essay on Senses Half at the Rooftop, medical literature [ 40 , 61 , 62 ]. The acronym outlines the five main dimensions of a research question for a systematic review – population, intervention, comparison, outcome and life douglass, study design. Half An Hour Rooftop! Here, we did not consider comparison, since a number of interventions did not use specific comparators: accordingly, the three tables contain a synoptic description of life, items referring to population, intervention and outcomes. Bb Uis Edu! In the life, tables, studies are identified by the name of the first author followed by the publication year. For 6th Grade! The complete reference is available in the final reference list. Two rows contain more than one study, since the results of more than one article were aggregated when they reported on the same intervention. Specific ethnic minorities, age of subjects and life douglass, population sizes. Table 2 displays the bb uis edu, main characteristics of the douglass, populations targeted by the interventions. Since all interventions took place in the US, African Americans were the most represented ethnic group, targeted by 80% of bb uis edu, interventions, followed by of frederick Hispanics (or Mexican Americans), targeted by 53% of interventions.
No other ethnic group was represented. Most interventions were designed for groups, while 33% were delivered to individuals. Research Design! However, such a distinction is life sometimes difficult to establish, since in some interventions designed for groups individuals received considerable attention (e.g. by screening, individual counselling after the session, etc.) [e.g. [ 49 , 51 ]. No intervention targeted communities as a whole. As for the specific population within the target ethnic groups, only experimental 20% of life, interventions were targeted at lenin funeral either stroke or TIA patients or patients at risk for stroke. Another 20% of the life of frederick, interventions were delivered to the general population of a specific geographical area or community, while 60% were targeted at specific subgroups, such as church members, women, students and experimental, parents. Most interventions were targeted at adults (over 18 years of douglass, age), with only a few exceptions [ 50 , 56 , 58 ]. Further, population size proved difficult to calculate. To obtain a rough estimate, we classified the to power, intervention as small if it involved less than 100 participants, medium if 101–500 participants were involved, and large in life douglass cases of more than 500 participants. According to this criterion, seven interventions were medium, three small and act 3, five large.
However, evaluation may have concerned a smaller number of participants for each intervention, since not all enrolled individuals have taken part in the evaluation. Table 3 describes the outcomes and study design of life of frederick douglass, included studies. All interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and behavioural intention, while no intervention was specifically designed to target and an inspector quotes, measure real behavioural change directed to life, call EMS when witnessing a stroke. Sixty-seven per cent of Essay on Senses at the, studies had an experimental design and life, provided some form of evaluation, while 33% of topics for 6th grade, studies did not provide any evaluation [ 46 , 50 , 53 , 57 , 60 ]. However, only of frederick a minority of studies (27%) employed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design [ 29 , 45 , 47 ], all the others being case studies. For the lenin funeral, evaluation, eight studies used pre- and post-intervention tests [ 29 , 45 , 49 , 51 , 54 , 55 , 58 , 59 ], and two were only preliminary reports, lacking evaluation data [ 44 , 47 ]. Of the eight studies providing evaluation results, six were case studies [ 49 , 51 , 54 , 55 , 58 , 59 ] and two RCTs [ 29 , 45 ]. Both case studies and life, RCTs referred to very different populations, interventions and outcomes. Due to this heterogeneity (as evidenced by quotes the synoptic tables), no quantitative synthesis of life of frederick, results was possible. Two studies reported that the intervention was not effective [ 51 , 55 ]. The six studies reporting that the intervention was effective [ 45 , 49 , 53 , 56 , 58 , 59 ] raise some methodological concerns. Morgenstern et al. [ 56 ] found the intervention effective only for a subgroup of the to power, target population (school children), while insufficient data were available to establish the of frederick douglass, effectiveness of the intervention for the other subgroup (parents).
Additionally, the come, pre- and post-intervention test was not validated. In two cases, reported in three articles [ 45 , 48 , 49 ], the difference between pre- and life of frederick, post-intervention test results was minimal, although statistically significant. Experimental Research! Finally, Duraski’s study [ 49 ] had no control group. Life Of Frederick Douglass! The lack of a control group also characterizes the other three studies claiming effectiveness for the described interventions [ 54 , 58 , 59 ]. Evidence of effectiveness exists in all six studies for specific outcomes in specific populations (e.g. a moderate increase in the knowledge of stroke symptoms maintained over a short time). Bb Uis Edu! However, no generalizable evidence of effectiveness exists for health promotion interventions aimed at improving knowledge of douglass, stroke symptoms and related actions in BME communities.
All included studies used only quantitative methodology to lenin funeral, evaluate the effectiveness of douglass, interventions, thus excluding both qualitative and mixed methods designs. Interventions: country, focus and delivery techniques. Tables 4 and when did hitler come, 5 summarize the most important dimensions of the of frederick douglass, health promotion interventions described in the selected articles. Firstly, all interventions were carried out in the United States. Lenin Funeral! Consequently, all data concern a specific context, and no data on other relevant areas such as Europe, the douglass, Far East or Australia is available. All interventions included at Essay on Senses least a component relating to awareness of stroke symptoms and related actions.
Forty percent were mostly focussed on awareness, 33% had a shared focus between awareness and prevention or risk factors, while 27% were focussed on prevention or risk factors, with only of frederick few activities on awareness of bb uis edu, symptoms. Life Of Frederick Douglass! The interventions were delivered using very different techniques; also, sessions had different active components, ranging from educational videos [ 44 , 45 , 53 , 57 ] to very informal, one-to-one advice sessions [ 47 , 49 , 54 ]. Educational sessions prevail, either in the form of lessons [ 44 , 51 , 57 , 60 ], slide presentations [ 46 , 49 , 50 ] or classroom lectures [ 56 , 58 ]. Essay On Senses And Place: Half At The! Often, such sessions were interactive, allowing for life douglass the exchange of on Senses and Place: Half an Hour Rooftop, questions and answers between health promoters and life douglass, the audience, and occasional role playing [ 44 , 49 , 50 , 54 , 58 ]. Calls! Five interventions also included distribution of informative materials about stroke, and in some interventions these materials were meant to life of frederick, be shared with families and experimental design, friends [ 46 , 53 , 54 , 56 , 59 ]. For further details, see Table 3 , column intervention type. Duration of interventions, settings and actors involved. Interventions administered in a single session of information and advice were generally brief, lasting between 30 minutes and life of frederick, two hours. In some interventions, sessions were repeated over weeks, months or even years, frequently covering different stroke-related topics for the same audience [ 44 , 47 , 55 – 58 , 60 ]. Interventions were delivered in lenin funeral a range of different settings.
Interventions aimed at patients were held either at their homes, or in hospitals or medical practices [ 44 , 45 , 47 , 55 ]. Interventions designed for the general population or specific subgroups were generally organized where the target populations used to meet or convene. Hence, churches were used for church members [ 46 , 51 , 53 , 57 , 60 ], schools for of frederick douglass students [ 56 , 58 ], community centres and organizations [ 46 , 49 ], hospitals and medical practices [ 53 ] and when did hitler come to power, one intervention was held in of frederick abeauty salon [ 54 ]. Actors designing and delivering the interventions varied widely. Forty-seven percent of interventions were delivered by multiprofessional groups, while 53% were delivered by a single profession. Health professionals, in most cases with an academic affiliation, organized and designed the programs. Interventions were delivered by nurses, research nurses and nursing students [ 44 , 49 – 51 , 55 , 57 , 60 ], trained health champions or ambassadors (students, church members, beauticians) [ 46 , 47 , 53 , 54 , 59 ], health educators and other community health workers [ 44 , 47 , 58 ], physicians [ 56 , 57 ].
Theories underpinning interventions and techniques for cultural adaptation. We explored the extent to which the interventions were theory-based, and whether they provided clear definitions of cultural adaptation. Fifty-three percent of studies [ 45 , 49 – 51 , 53 , 54 , 58 , 60 ] did not mention the utilization of any theory to design and evaluate the intervention. As for the remaining studies it is difficult to define them as theory-based, since theories were only briefly mentioned, and design, no clear link with the factual content of the health promotion program was established. Four studies [ 44 , 46 , 56 , 58 ] mentioned social cognitive theory [ 63 ], three [ 44 , 47 , 55 ] motivational interviewing [ 64 ], three more [ 46 , 55 , 57 ] stages of of frederick, change [ 65 ], two [ 47 , 58 ] theory of reasoned action see also [ 66 , 67 ], one [ 47 ] theory of planned behaviour [ 68 ]. All are individual-level, theoretical frameworks, mostly informed by psychology. Further, in most cases theories were used as a reference for stroke risk and prevention, and only in three instances [ 44 , 56 , 59 ] for the component of the intervention addressing stroke symptoms and research design, related actions. As for cultural adaptation of of frederick douglass, interventions, as many as 33% of the studies did not mention any specific strategy; two further studies [ 46 , 47 ] simply referred generically to cultural tailoring or cultural sensitivity of the Essay and Place: at the Rooftop, interventions. The remaining studies reported in some detail their cultural adaptation strategy.
These included different tactics and practical actions. Four programs [ 44 , 49 , 50 , 56 ] adopted of languages spoken by life douglass ethnic minorities for materials and events (especially for Hispanic communities), or used a language corresponding to the level of at the Rooftop, health literacy of community members. Three interventions [ 44 , 49 , 56 ] incorporated the point of view and specific issues of communities through focus groups or committees of community actors or workers in planning and implementation, early feedback, or community involvement. In two of these studies [ 44 , 56 ], community members were included in the intervention team. A related strategy was to include community-based role models as actors, artists or testimonials, and to use visuals integrating community places or surroundings [ 44 , 45 , 56 , 58 , 59 ]. Moreover, two studies [ 44 , 49 ] reported addressing community-specific barriers to behaviour change, and specific health beliefs and risk factors.
Some consideration was also given to of frederick, the social structure of communities, with related roles and cultural characteristics. Familism, family structures and intergenerational contact were taken into account [ 56 ] and dance and hip-hop were used to bb uis edu, convey the health promotion message [ 58 , 59 ]. None of these studies referred to life of frederick, general frameworks or models of cultural adaptation, theories of ethnicity, and the like, the approach being mostly practical. Essay On Senses Half! Consequently, no common definition of life of frederick douglass, cultural competence or adaptation emerged from the included studies. Moreover, no study included a specific justification of the reason why some specific cultural traits had been selected as typical of that particular community.
Barriers and facilitators for the success of interventions. No study aimed at systematically identifying barriers and facilitators for the success of the interventions, hence comments on lenin funeral such a topic were occasional. Life Of Frederick! Only the importance of when did hitler come, funding and of frederick douglass, continuity of the experimental research, program over time was identified as a facilitator in 27% of the studies [ 46 , 51 , 57 , 60 ]. Other facilitators included the involvement of gatekeepers of the venues where the interventions took place [ 51 , 54 , 60 ], providing transportation [ 44 , 47 , 48 ] and financial incentives or gifts [ 29 ] and life, using reminders to when did hitler come, increase participation [ 52 ]. Moreover, using small groups in interventions [ 51 ], combining a captive audience and of frederick douglass, a trusted educator [ 54 ] and grade, giving participants individual attention [ 51 ] seemed to facilitate participation in some of the of frederick douglass, interventions. Conversely, barriers included time demands on gatekeepers, health professionals and coordinators [ 57 ] and the young age of some prospective participants, not perceiving stroke prevention as a priority [ 29 ]. Community involvement: strategies and problems. All studies except two [ 50 , 55 ] outlined strategies to involve communities and ensure their buy-in of the intervention.
Such strategies were generally time-consuming and required considerable resources. Examples included the use of committees of advocates, gatekeepers and community members, to obtain advice on community involvement, program content and delivery techniques and channels and on the final evaluation. Focus groups were adopted for this purpose, alongside brief pilot interventions involving community members [ 44 , 49 , 52 , 59 ]. An Inspector Act 3 Quotes! Particular care was taken in of frederick identifying community gatekeepers to help or take the lenin funeral, lead in organizing sessions [ 48 , 51 , 54 , 57 , 60 ], while some interventions explicitly adopted a train-the trainer approach [ 46 , 47 , 53 , 54 , 57 , 60 ]. In this case, health professionals and campaigners provided stroke education to specific members of the community, such as school children, pastors, beauticians, who, in turn, played a relevant part in educating parents, customers or church attendants. Of Frederick Douglass! In the case of for 6th, a particularly sizeable and structured program, the whole organization of sessions in a community site (association, church, etc.) was devolved to previously instructed local leaders [ 57 ]. Other involvement strategies included fostering flexibility and community creativity [ 52 , 57 ], using community-based health professionals [ 29 , 57 ], and adopting multi-channel involvement strategies (word of life of frederick, mouth, gatekeepers, web site, advertising, community association meetings) [ 29 , 57 ]. No intervention was aimed at on Senses Half Rooftop specific social networks within communities. When sizeable groups were targeted, the main objective was still to increase the douglass, knowledge of individuals within the groups, without consideration for did hitler come community or social network dynamics.
Six of the included articles made passing mention of social networks or social support [ 45 , 52 , 56 , 57 , 59 , 60 ]. Some studies mentioned the of frederick douglass, importance of using schoolchildren as trainers for their parents, regarding stroke knowledge, and underlined the related difficulties [ 56 , 59 ]. Others generically mentioned the importance of improving stroke knowledge of relatives and lenin funeral, other members of the support networks for of frederick douglass stroke patients [ 45 , 52 ]. The most complex intervention stressed both the importance and the difficulty of coordinating networks of different organizations involved [ 57 ]. In the same study social ties and grade, networks were used to recruit participants for the intervention, and to plan, test and implement it. Of Frederick Douglass! Collaboration between networked actors with different roles was highlighted as important for the success of a further intervention [ 60 ]. However, none of the interventions put in bb uis edu place a systematic strategy for tapping social networks and social support resources. Educational strategies adopted in the interventions. Ten studies emphasized the value of active, interactive and experiential education strategies, but only life of frederick some of these provided details of the educational methods. Small groups [ 29 , 57 ], role-plays and enactment of scenarios by participants [ 29 , 44 , 59 ], encouraging flexible discussion of lenin funeral, stroke awareness [ 29 , 44 , 56 – 58 ], enabling self-efficacy [ 29 , 52 , 56 ] and of frederick, interactive multimedia resources [ 29 , 52 , 56 , 58 ] were the most frequently cited methods. Exercises and assignments were used to promote involvement of an inspector calls act 3 quotes, participants in producing health promotion materials and spreading the life of frederick douglass, message to an inspector calls quotes, their families [ 29 , 52 , 56 , 57 , 59 ]. Arts and music were also employed to involve community members in the educational activities, together with promoting the creativity of participants [ 29 , 52 , 56 , 58 , 59 ]. In long interventions [ 29 , 52 , 56 – 60 ], different methods were linked to each other and produced positive feedback. For example, in one circumstance, students interviewed their parents on of frederick stroke awareness and come to power, then produced information materials accordingly [ 29 , 56 ]. Community-based health promotion (CBHP) interventions are usually considered complex and difficult to plan, perform, and evaluate. This is due to the high number of douglass, variables involved, including complex behavioural factors, the influence of culture and norms on health behaviours and the simultaneous presence of Essay Half an Hour at the, several health promotion interventions [ 69 , 70 ]. This difficulty is clearly revealed by life of frederick douglass the studies included in our review.
Firstly, even in a relatively homogeneous context of community-based health promotion interventions aimed at African Americans or Hispanics living in the US, planning and evaluation methods differed significantly. There is growing recognition that the did hitler come, design and life douglass, evaluation of health promotion interventions need to be informed by theory [ 71 – 73 ]. However, theory-based health promotion interventions were in calls the minority in the sample used for of frederick our review. Consequently, clearly specifying the an inspector, theoretical foundations of the design and evaluation methods of an intervention may considerably improve its implementation. Moreover, theories used in of frederick douglass the included studies focussed on bb uis edu the individual level, while six studies have recently showed that community- and network-level theories may prove effective in designing and evaluating community-based health promotion interventions [ 74 – 79 ]. Hence, using community- or network-oriented theories may help health promoters to systematically take into of frederick douglass, account dimensions of an intervention that could have a significant impact on its effectiveness. Furthermore, no evidence was available for European countries, where minorities show cultural and social characteristics directly influencing health-related attitudes differing from US minorities.
For example, Scheppers et al. [ 80 ] show that ethnic minorities experience a number of barriers to Essay an Hour at the, accessing health services, frequently linked with particular cultural, religious or social practices. Such practices are different between ethnic minorities: for example, UK Pakistanis and US African-Americans are likely to douglass, have very different health beliefs and ill health-attribution. Calls! Scheppers et al. also maintain [ 80 ], that the organization of douglass, health services in different countries plays an important contextual role in shaping health-related attitudes of when did hitler come, ethnic minorities. Also, studies concerning the definition of cultural competence often emphasize the importance of specific, contextual aspects, rather than abstract definitions of ethnicity, in order to successfully conduct health promotion and health care initiatives [ 38 , 81 ]. Of Frederick! Therefore, specific key factors (perception of when, health and illness, language, available community resources, specific barriers and life of frederick, facilitators) may greatly differ between different ethnic minorities living in different countries. For all these reasons, it seems difficult to generalize any results from the an inspector calls act 3 quotes, included studies to the UK or European situation. It would, however, be important to douglass, note that further research related to stroke awareness improvement is aimed at lenin funeral addressing non-US based ethnic minorities. Although in most studies cultural adaptation was considered as important, cultural adaptation was almost always linked to practical or pragmatic strategies. Consequently, no intervention took into account the life douglass, recent contributions that tried to experimental design, define cultural appropriateness of interventions and the main principles for of frederick douglass conducting research on ethnicity and health [ 37 – 39 ]. Consequently, using theory and data from this specific literature may help in designing interventions that are more congruent with specific characteristics of ethnic minorities. Furthermore, the calls act 3 quotes, evidence of effectiveness emerging from the included studies is inconclusive. Life Of Frederick! Fifty-three percent of the studies provided evaluation results, and on Senses and Place: Half at the, only 25% of these included a control group.
As a result, current available evidence of the life of frederick, effectiveness of bb uis edu, such interventions seems inconclusive. Life Of Frederick! In addition, no qualitative study satisfied our inclusion criteria. Quotes! While acknowledging the importance of quantitative evidence, it seems that integrating a qualitative approach would be appropriate for complex health promotion interventions. In fact, such interventions involve different variables such as ethnicity, knowledge and behaviour change, and life douglass, - most importantly – their success seems to heavily depend on complex contextual factors. Essay And Place: Half An Hour At The Rooftop! Qualitative research is often advocated as an appropriate method in douglass evaluating health promotion interventions [ 82 , 83 ] especially because it can provide an holistic perspective [ 84 , 85 ]. Qualitative research may therefore explore this under-researched topic and identify dimensions influencing the effectiveness of stroke awareness interventions for ethnic minorities. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first systematic review to date on health promotion interventions for stroke awareness in ethnic minorities.
The results outline the main characteristics of stroke awareness interventions for ethnic minorities in the US, alongside strength and limitations of both the interventions and the evaluation procedures. Review findings may therefore provide a useful starting point for academics and for 6th, practitioners wishing to further analyse or plan similar health promotion initiatives in other parts of the world. Limitations include the fact that searches were restricted to peer-reviewed journal literature written in the English language. Although we searched the most relevant databases, broadening the search to supplementary sources and including more languages may increase the number of retrieved studies. The same results might be obtained by the inclusion of of frederick, conference proceedings, dissertations, books and book chapters and bb uis edu, grey literature results.
Implications for further research. Since cultural adaptation seems important in this context, there is a critical need for studies on health promotion interventions for stroke awareness in ethnic minorities other than African Americans and Hispanics. Furthermore, such interventions operate in very complex scenarios, and life of frederick, several variables may have an impact on their effectiveness. Qualitative or mixed-methods study designs may help to Essay on Senses at the Rooftop, understand contextual factors influencing community-based health promotion, including barriers and facilitators, experiential education strategies and methods for involving communities. Finally, network- and community-level health promotion theories may contribute useful insights both in designing and evaluating health promotion interventions on life stroke awareness for ethnic minorities. In this review we set out to find evidence about the effectiveness of interventions to increase stroke awareness in ethnic minorities. Essay! Our results show that this is life a particularly understudied area, and an inspector calls act 3, that all included studies refer to life of frederick, the US. Evidence of effectiveness from on Senses and Place: Half at the Rooftop, 11 case reports and douglass, four RCTs focussed on short- to medium-term knowledge improvement for individuals seems particularly weak and research, inconclusive. Therefore, we suggest that further research is conducted on different countries and ethnic minorities. a The acronym of the campaign stands for Face, Arms, Speech, Time to call EMS (the first three being distinctive stroke symptoms).
Paolo Gardois, Andrew Booth, Elizabeth Goyder and Tony Ryan contributed equally to life of frederick douglass, this work. The author’s PhD was funded through a CLAHRC studentship as part of the Stroke Theme programme of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) CLAHRC for and Place: Half South Yorkshire. All views and opinions expressed are those of the life of frederick douglass, author, and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Further details of the an inspector calls act 3, CLAHRC for douglass South Yorkshire and the Stroke Theme can be found at design http://www.clahrc-sy.nihr.ac.uk . Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All authors contributed equally in designing the study and critically discussing the results. PG carried out the bibliographic searches, selected the studies, analysed the data, contributed to the discussion and drafted the manuscript. Life Of Frederick Douglass! EG and TR contributed to bb uis edu, the study design, selection of studies and interpreting the results. AB contributed to life of frederick douglass, design the search strategies, the selection process and the interpretation of results. EG, TR and AB critically revised the manuscript.
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parent homework pass How Does Your School Handle the Homework Dilemma? How do your teachers handle homework? Do you have a school-wide policy? Do students earn a homework grade? What about late homework?
Or the of frederick douglass, effects of homework zeros on student grades? Included: Education World's Principal Files team shares their thoughts on bb uis edu, those questions and others. Does your school have a homework policy? How much homework is the life of frederick, right amount for each grade level? Do you have systems in place to essay topics for 6th, help students and parents keep track of life of frederick homework assignments? Is homework graded?
What about homework that is submitted late? And how about zeroes? Zeroes on homework can quickly affect a students' grade. Education World wanted to learn more about how schools and school districts handle the homework dilemma, so we posed those questions to our Principal Files team. Their responses might offer some guidance to others who are grappling with defining and policing homework. WHAT IS HOMEWORK?
For many schools and school districts, defining homework and on Senses Half at the Rooftop, its purpose is a first step in creating a homework policy. Is homework a dilemma for douglass teachers, students, and parents at design, your school? Are you frustrated because you get more excuses than completed assignments? Education World has published many articles and resources about the issue of homework. Be sure to scroll through our Homework Archive for of frederick douglass these articles and more Homework Club Memberships Grow Homework Study Hall: Mandatory Make Up for Missed Work Put an End to bb uis edu, Homework Horror! Classroom Rewards Reap Dividends for Teachers and of frederick douglass, Students And don't miss our newest series of homework tips -- 30 volumes of teacher-tested ideas -- Help for lenin funeral Homework Hassles. In Arlington, Virginia, district policy defines the purpose of homework as preparing for, building on, or reinforcing classroom learning. Of Frederick Douglass? The policy goes on to add that homework encourages responsibility and accountability and strengthens home-school communication about bb uis edu, student learning, said Lolli Haws, principal at Arlington's Oakridge Elementary School. According to the policy, homework must also acknowledge students' individual differences through differentiation, added Haws. It must be designed to be achievable by all students independent of school staff, access to life, technology, or materials only available at school; in other words, a child must be able to complete homework using resources available in the home. The policy also emphasizes that homework is an inspector calls quotes, primarily a teacher-student interaction, added Haws.
That means that. parents shouldn't have to spend a lot of their time on homework with their child, and teachers should provide timely, consistent, and understandable feedback to students about their homework. Just like it is in Arlington, homework is student -- not parent -- responsibility at St. Martin's Episcopal School in Atlanta. Homework is an important part of our school's developmental study-skills curriculum, said principal Sue Astley. Parents should consider homework as a contract between the school and life, the student. It is the student's responsibility to complete homework. Parents can best assist the process of learning by providing a consistent time and research, a quiet place for students to life of frederick douglass, complete their homework and by showing a positive interest in it.
At the Edenrose Public School in Mississauga, Ontario (Canada), representatives of each grade, and the school's ESL and special education staffs, drafted a school-wide policy that was shared with all staff and experimental research, the school council. The policy was recently reviewed and minor revisions were made, said principal Deepi Kang-Weisz. Each year, the life of frederick, policy is sent home to all families in our back-to-school information package. In addition, each teacher reviews the policy with students. The policy defines what homework is and research design, provides examples of what homework might look like at each grade level. At Doctors Inlet Elementary School in of frederick douglass Middleburg, Florida, homework is defined as assignments that support specific concepts taught during the school day, said principal Larry Davis. Incomplete class work that must be completed at home is not considered homework; rather it is lenin funeral, considered a continuation of the student's daily classroom responsibilities. HOW MUCH HOMEWORK? We were surprised to find quite a bit of consistency across schools and districts when it comes to answering the question How much homework should students have? The norm seems to be 10 to 15 minutes of life of frederick homework per night by grade level. In other words, grade one students might have 10 minutes of homework each night; grade two students would have 20 minutes of essay topics for 6th grade homework; grade three students would have 30 minutes of homework, and so on.
Other schools might spell out douglass specific amounts of homework. For example, at when, Transfiguration School in life West Hazelton, Pennsylvania, principal Sherry Ambrose says the following homework guidelines are in effect: Pre-K, Kindergarten -- as assigned Grade 1 -- 20 minutes Grade 2 -- 30 minutes Grade 3 -- 30-45 minutes Grade 4 -- 45 minutes to lenin funeral, 1 hour Grades 5 to 8 -- 1 to douglass, 1-1/2 hours. At Doctors Inlet Elementary, homework should never exceed 60 minutes per night, said principal Larry Davis, adding, If homework is lenin funeral, given, it must be graded for completeness and accuracy. Some schools spell out that homework time does not include time students are expected to spend each night reading to an adult or on their own. Many schools specify that students spend 15-30 minutes reading each day, more on days when they have no other assigned homework. KEEPING TRACK OF ASSIGNMENTS. Among the often-stated purposes of homework is that it helps students develop study skills, time management skills, and of frederick, responsibility. Topics For 6th Grade? In an life douglass effort to help students develop those skills, many schools support student learning by using homework assignment books, sometimes called agendas, and by providing resources that help students when they slip up by not carefully recording their assignments. A school-wide policy at St. Vincent DePaul Academy recognizes homework as an integral part of its effort to develop student responsibility.
According to principal Heather Hamtil, the school's AAA card offers positive recognition to students who make consistent efforts in three areas: A cademics, A ttendance, and A ttitude. Each week, students are awarded an AAA card if they have not missed an assignment in the 5-day period (Academics); been present at least 4 days out of the 5 (Attendance); and not had any marks against behavior or uniform (Attitude). At the end of on Senses at the Rooftop each quarter, students may trade their collected cards for special rewards. Our students must use the school-designed homework notebook in life of frederick douglass which teachers initial each assignment given (as a means of checking that students have properly recorded the assignment) and that parents initial to indicate that they have looked at the completed assignments, said principal Heather Hamtil of Essay at the Rooftop St. Vincent DePaul Academy in douglass Kansas City, Missouri. For each assignment, the date given and the date due are recorded.
Doing that helps students get organized, but it also aids teachers; they can see if students are getting 'loaded up with homework.' If parents complain about bb uis edu, that, a teacher can often explain that some assignments were given several days before and that part of the education of the student is life douglass, learning to prioritize assignments based on his or her evening activities and availability. We even have a section of the notebook where we can help students prioritize those longer-term assignments. The homework notebook is a tool that aids us in regular, usually daily, communication with parents, noted Hamtil. Students must write their assignments in ink, she added. That prevents them from changing an assignment before going home. At Oakridge Elementary, agenda planners are used by students in grades 3 to 5. Parents sign the agendas each night to verify completion of homework assignments. To cover students who might not get their assignments written down correctly, most teachers in bb uis edu grades 2-up have ongoing email communication with parents who wish to life douglass, receive daily homework updates. Homework is assigned in weekly chunks at Transfiguration School. Homework for bb uis edu the upcoming week is posted on our school Web site each Sunday night, said Sherry Ambrose. For those who do not have Internet access at home, hard copies of weekly homework assignments are available in classrooms, or students can print them out in the computer lab.
In addition, all students have homework assignment tablets, added Ambrose. Life Douglass? Homework tablets are signed by teachers and parents of students up to when did hitler come, grade 3. DOES HOMEWORK GET GRADED? Should homework be graded? If so, how much should it count? Ah, those are the questions that often plague school staffs as they debate the life, homework issue. Experimental Research? Most schools have determined the douglass, grading of homework to be a teacher-level decision while some districts or principals offer guidelines. In Edenrose, Ontario (Canada), for example, we have a school-wide homework policy that was developed following the school board's policy and quotes, guidelines, said Deepi Kang-Weisz. Homework completion is considered an essential learning skill and is included on school report cards.
Set criteria are used to determine whether a child's homework-completion skills/responsibilities will earn a grade of needs improvement, satisfactory, good, or excellent. Of Frederick? Among the criteria used to determine the grade are. Does the student complete homework on time and with care? Does the student put forth consistent effort? Does the student follow directions and complete all homework tasks? Does the student show attention to detail? Does the student demonstrate interest and enthusiasm in homework assignments? At Gonic Elementary School in design Rochester, New Hampshire, principal Martha Wingate offers helpful guidelines to teachers as they wrestle the homework beast.
Some of her guidelines are ones she used when she was in the classroom. Those guidelines include a check system and several other rubrics. The check-system rubric is pretty straight forward, said Wingate. Students earn a. if work is life, complete, neatly done, and Essay on Senses, directions are followed; + if work includes any amount of of frederick douglass extra credit; ++ if work includes above-and-beyond extra credit; - if work is incomplete, messy, or directions are not followed; or 0 if work is design, not passed in.
It is douglass, important that the check-system rubric is carefully explained to students and lenin funeral, that what qualifies as extra-credit work is explained in advance, Wingate explained. I include an extra-credit assignment almost every night. Of Frederick? For example, in math, extra credit might require doing four more problems than assigned, or, in spelling, it might require sentences that are 10 words or longer. In addition, all homework is bb uis edu, checked first thing in life of frederick the morning as students work on independent or bell-ringer activities. At that point, I am not checking for bb uis edu correctness; I am only checking for completed work, said Wingate. Life Douglass? Another grade might be given later for essay for 6th accuracy of the work. When I used this system I included a reward component too. Life Douglass? Students who averaged a grade of Essay on Senses and Place: Half Rooftop or higher for the week earned a 'No Homework Pass' that they could use on the last day of each month.
Students might earn up to three passes in any month and 'cash them in' working backward from the last day of the month. I adopted that system because it enabled me to plan the homework assignments that students might miss. I should add that I am pretty generous with the s. Of Frederick Douglass? I want as many students as possible to feel success. The extra-credit assignments I offer make it easier for a student who might have slipped and earned a grade of - on an assignment to still earn a for the week. Wingate's check system is an easy one for teachers to adapt. The system can work to improve students' homework skills and for 6th, attention because. the teacher gives each student daily attention about their homework; students see how important homework is to the teacher; students can see the opportunities to make up for work they didn't complete; and the teacher has the data required to give a pure homework grade for homework completion. Wingate also offers her staff other rubrics for homework grading. (See the sidebar for sample homework rubrics.) One of the biggest dilemmas surrounding homework is how to handle the student who earns a zero for assignments not turned in. Of Frederick? Zeros can ruin a child's grade, said principal Lolli Haws, adding, This is an topics for 6th grade issue our staff is debating right now in our Teacher Advisory Council. Teachers have varied feelings about douglass, this.
Students who don't turn in act 3 quotes homework typically stay in from recess to complete it, but that does not seem to be effective in bringing about a change in life douglass behavior, so we're looking for other approaches. WHAT ABOUT LATE WORK? ABSENCES? ZEROES? Most teachers accept late homework, though many deduct a grade for it. For example, a teacher's policy might deduct 10 percent for each day an assignment is late or it might state that the highest grade a late assignment can earn is experimental, a 70. And when it comes to absences, many schools set a policy about life, making up work; for Essay on Senses and Place: an Hour at the example, students might be given three calendar days to make up missed work.
But what about zeros? That question comes up often in life of frederick teachers' rooms and staff meetings. If a student doesn't do the assignment, he earns a zero. He gets what he deserves, right? But what about the student who passes all tests but earns a zero for an inspector calls quotes homework? A teacher who averages a zero homework grade into a C-student's final grade, might end up failing that student. But does that grade really reflect what the students knows? (Shouldn't a grade reflect what a student knows?) More and more schools are revisiting those questions. Of Frederick Douglass? Many principals have taken the view that educators fail students by failing students. A few homework zeros are bound to frustrate a student, even to the point of forcing him to give up. To prevent that from an inspector calls act 3 happening, some schools have set a grading scale of 50 to of frederick douglass, 100 percent.
Missing assignments are given a grade of 50. In that way, it is when come, still possible for a student who misses homework but passes all tests to life, earn a passing grade. Did Hitler? In the case of life douglass quizzes and tests, many schools' policies require re-teaching and re-testing until a student earns a passing grade. In that way, teachers are certain that students have learned the important concepts that are documented in an inspector calls act 3 their state's standards and that students have the building blocks necessary, especially in life douglass the maths, to move on to the next skill. Alas, the grading debate is a sticky and complex one -- especially when it comes to the effects of did hitler come zeros on students' grades. The important thing is to life of frederick douglass, have a policy, principal Sue Astley told Education World. When Did Hitler To Power? I encourage each of my school's grade-level teams to establish a written policy. That policy might include a statement of life of frederick whose responsibility it is to handle missed homework; for young students, parents might request missed assignments, but older students might handle that responsibility on bb uis edu, their own.
Also, the life of frederick douglass, policy might include a statement of how much advance notice is essay topics grade, required for teachers to gather homework for a student who will be out of school for a period of time. That way, parents can't notify us the life of frederick douglass, night before about when, a student who will be gone and expect us to have work ready that day. Does your school have a homework policy? Is that policy in writing? If not, it might be time to make the commitment to review the life douglass, homework issue, to essay, come to a consensus about it and then commit your staff's agreement or consensus to life douglass, writing. Education World's Great Meetings series offers some tools for coming to bb uis edu, consensus. You might take a look at some of those tools in of frederick douglass the practical Great Meetings entries listed here. Having a homework policy in writing can help teachers avoid having to Essay and Place: an Hour at the, deal with complaints from life of frederick parents, added Astley. Principal Deepi Kang-Weisz agreed. Our policy is Half an Hour at the, often referred to life, when responding to parents' concerns or questions. Having a written policy can be a big help throughout the school year.
Education World has published many articles and Essay Half at the Rooftop, resources about the issue of homework. Be sure to scroll through our Homework Archive for a wide range of articles. Principal Contributors to This Article. The following members of Education World's Principal Files Team contributed to of frederick douglass, this article. Click here to view an archive of lenin funeral practical Principal Files articles from recent months. Sherry Ambrose, principal, Transfiguration School, West Hazleton, Pennsylvania Sue W. Life? Astley, assistant headmaster and elementary principal, St. Martin's Episcopal School, Atlanta, Georgia Larry Davis, principal, Doctors Inlet Elementary School, Middleburg, Florida Heather Nicole Hamtil, assistant principal, St. Vincent de Paul Academy, Kansas City, Missouri Dr. Lolli Haws, principal, Oakridge Elementary School, Arlington Virginia Deepi Kang-Weisz, principal, Edenrose Public School, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Martha Wingate, principal, Gonic Elementary School, Rochester, New Hampshire.
Article by Gary Hopkins. Copyright © Education World. Last updated 06/11/2012. Submit your own lesson plan for when did hitler to power a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips. Sign up for our free weekly newsletter and douglass, receive. top education news, lesson ideas, teaching tips and more!
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50 ways to improve your resume to land a financial services job. This could be the most comprehensive list of tips for writing a resume yet! Ensuring that your resume is very well crafted and answers the needs of the douglass, recruiter will. This could be the most comprehensive list of research design, tips for writing a resume yet! Ensuring that your resume is very well crafted and answers the needs of the recruiter will increase your chances of getting a job interview. A good resume is the first step to landing that job you want. Our tips: 1. Don’t write “Curriculum Vitae” or “Resume” at the top. This simply isn’t the done thing anymore; it should be pretty obvious what it is.
2. Life Of Frederick! Your name should come at the top. This is the current standard. It makes it easier for recruiters to sort out their pile of applications. So, SexySuzy@hotmail.com or email@example.com felt like a cool email to have when you were 16. It unfortunately does not make you look professional or serious. Create a neutral email for your resume – nothing funny, saucy or rude is ideal. 4. Don’t include a title with your name.
Your sex is bb uis edu, not relevant. If you have a name like Sam or Alex, there is no need to write your title so that the employer knows whether you are male or female. In fact, having a gender neutral name might be an advantage. On average, the recruiter will assume you are male and as the job market currently tends to favor men over women, keeping it vague is life, probably a good thing. 5. The only necessary personal information: email, phone number, mailing address. Everything else does not matter and should therefore not be included. 6. Did Hitler Come! Don’t include marital status or sexual orientation. Whether you are single, married or divorced, gay or straight is completely irrelevant to life of frederick the job; don’t include any of these personal details. Importantly, giving too much personal information opens you up for discrimination. It doesn’t add to your value as a potential hire.
8. Don’t include your political affiliation. It doesn’t add to your value as a potential hire. Lenin Funeral! 9. Don’t include any salary information. That said, using the of frederick, correct words and appearing mature will signal the sort of pay packet you are after. On inspection, most recruiters will know if they are dealing with a seasoned pro or an amateur.
It used to research be common to life include your date of birth on your resume but by law that is lenin funeral, no longer necessary in many developed countries. Your age doesn’t impact your ability to do most jobs so don’t include it. Arial is clean cut and looks very professional. If you really want to get it all on one page and Arial is taking up too much space, use Arial Narrow. Most people have a very short attention span so the shorter it is, the life douglass, more likely that the topics grade, recruiter will get through the whole resume. Of Frederick Douglass! Two pages is okay but even then, get the most critical job-grabbing information on page one. 13. How far back should you go? No more than 15 years, generally. As you gain work and for 6th, life experience, you’ll need to start deleting some experiences because they simply don’t matter anymore.
For instance, my resume when I finished high school had some positions of responsibility: Head of douglass, House, Captain of This, Captain of That and I have deleted all of that now. It’s not relevant and experimental research, has been superseded by my university and more recent experiences. Life Of Frederick Douglass! Bullet points give structure to a resume/CV, they make it more punchy and much easier for the recruiter to read. Don’t use full sentences or write like you are telling a story. On Senses And Place: An Hour At The! You can do that on douglass your cover letter.
16. An Inspector Quotes! Don’t use personal pronouns – I, he, she, it, we, they, you. Get straight to of frederick the point. “I closed the largest sale of the design, year” is too long, just say “Closed largest sale in 2012” Generally, a professional resume/CV does not have a border. If President Obama had to life write a resume do you see him having borders on it? For some reason, I cannot. Even from the very outset, you want your resume to have the essay topics for 6th grade, air of a Statesman – clean, confident, professional, to the point.
18. Don’t try to be too different, no fancy stuff. Of Frederick Douglass! Take it from an inspector calls quotes someone that’s had to recruit before. Above and beyond looking clear and douglass, smart, there is nothing more annoying than someone who tries to stand out by a) adding graphics to their resume or b) presenting the information in topics for 6th grade a totally different way to the standard. If you have a pile of 50+ resumes to of frederick get through (and a lot of recruiters nowadays have many more), it is a lot easier to get the work done when people follow the usual order of things. Lenin Funeral! Education first, work experience second, then everything else after that. When I want to hire, I just want someone that can do the job and of frederick, having a cool resume isn’t going to differentiate you. If anything, some might assume you are trying to compensate for a lack of when did hitler to power, something. Of Frederick! Some resumes look downright shoddy. A recruiter who has a large pile of resumes to get through will not waste their time on someone that couldn’t bother to neaten their resume up.
There are free resume templates to get you started. Place dates either on the left or the right so it’s easy to follow your education and work experience path. Merging it all together with your bullet points is a) messy and topics for 6th, b) can suggest you are trying to hide career gaps. 21. Date formats should be consistent. Generally, if I just have a year, I write the full year. If I have months and the year, I shorten the year because the resume starts looking clogged up. Good format for year: 2012. Bad format for year: ‘12. Good format for month and year: Sep-12.
Bad format for month and year: September 2012 (it takes up too much space) Unless the employer asks for it, you don’t need to douglass have a photograph of yourself on on Senses an Hour at the your resume/CV. If you’re applying for douglass a modelling job then your portfolio of pictures might be necessary as it is obviously a very necessary feature of the job. 23. General rule: most recent information goes first. Put the experimental research design, most recent education and the most recent work experience first.
So, under education, university comes first and then secondary or high school information. Under work experience, the most recent work experience is put first. 24. Relevance rule: most job-relevant information goes first. If the most recent work experience is not the life of frederick, most relevant, place the most relevant work experience first.
Applying for a job in the UK? Then use British English. Bb Uis Edu! Applying for a job in the USA? Then use American English. By the way, to the British it’s a CV; to Americans it’s a resume. It will definitely reduce your chances of getting a job. If I’m recruiting and I see a typo, I’m probably going to throw that resume/CV in the trash unless there are other redeeming features. 27. Don’t use text language, jargon, acronyms or slang. This is a big no-no. Text language is essentially a typo.
It should not feature anywhere on your resume. Jargon will make it difficult for douglass the recruiter to understand your background. Remember, resumes normally get filtered by Human Resources (HR) before they are passed on to the when, teams that need to hire. HR might not be familiar with some jargon. Same applies for acronyms; unless they are accepted acronyms like USA, UK etc. an acronym is essentially jargon. Life! You should spell out your acronym first (like HR in the previous sentence) if you intend to essay for 6th grade use it. Slang is simply not professional, do not use slang. Life! Especially if you are applying as an and Place: Rooftop, experienced hire, under education and work experience, make sure the job titles are very specific and that they sell you.
Specific titles allow the recruiter to very quickly decide if you have the necessary qualifications and of frederick douglass, experiences for the job. Bad title: Analyst at Bank X. Bb Uis Edu! Good title: Analyst on Energy Team in Investment Banking Division at Bank X. 29. Life Of Frederick Douglass! List all the positions you held in one firm separately. Essay Topics For 6th Grade! If you’ve been with one company for a long time, it’s likely that your title and/or job function has changed over the years. It is helpful to potential employers if you can break down that timeline.
Segmenting the information gives an employer useful insight into the nature of your experience. 30. Lacking in work experience? Focus on skills and qualities. When you are just starting out, you may well not have any work experience. However, if you have time, get some work experience. Even unpaid work e.g. volunteering at a charity shop or at an Olympics or other event is great to life douglass have on your resume/CV. It doesn’t matter if you say you’re a great team player or have fantastic communication or leadership skills unless you can back that up. If you have a “Team-working Skills” section have examples of when you have worked on a team e.g. in sport. Essay Topics For 6th Grade! If you have an “Organizational Skills” section have examples of when you organized an event.
Always validate skills and douglass, qualities with examples. 32. Include Positions of come, Responsibility. Life! Positions of bb uis edu, responsibility e.g. being Head Girl, Head of House or Captain reveal that you have experience in of frederick douglass being a leader and when did hitler come to power, managing people. Indeed, they might also reveal that your are popular and personable – more often than not, to be Head Girl, Head Boy or Head of House teachers or the whole student body have to vote for you. Life Douglass! If you’re still in an inspector calls act 3 quotes school or university and life of frederick, there’s time, try to attain a position of responsibility in some club or society.
Achievements reveal very different information to Positions of Responsibility, they show you are a goal-setter and an achiever in Essay an Hour Rooftop either sport, the life, arts or academics. This in turn reveals you’re a hard-worker, persevering and have initiative. Quotes! Getting an award for life douglass something is not usually easy, it requires some amount of grit and determination. Grade! 34. Be careful about including interests. Don’t include hobbies. Some interests open you up to being judged harshly. Unless they add to your value as a potential hire you don’t need to add hobbies. At times including a hobby may relay useful insight, for instance, if you’re applying for a role where a lot of reading will be required e.g. reading legal or other documents, then mentioning that you’re a prolific reader and that you can read a 300-paged book in one afternoon is of value. 35. Look decisive, don’t tarnish your loyalty card.
Employers want to hire someone that will stay for a while. If your resume shows that you chop and change jobs very regularly, this will act against you. It will show one or more of the following: You’re not loyal. Of Frederick Douglass! You’re a risky hire. Overall, the resume needs to be consistent. Numbers help to further credentialize you. If you’re applying for a sales position add examples of an inspector calls act 3, sales targets you have reached or exceeded. Life Douglass! Emerging Market FX Sales, Bank X. Increased sales revenue by when did hitler to power 20% in first year and a further 15% in second year. Was one of the top three sales people every single year for 5 years. You can also throw in statistics showing your ranking at school or in university. 37.
Don’t include reasons for life douglass why you left your old job. It’s not necessary on a resume as it doesn’t add value to why you might be a good candidate for the job. Of course, it is likely to come up in interviews so make sure you have a good response to the question. There is no space on a resume for complaints or criticisms of previous employers. If you didn’t like a certain job or activity that you took part in, don’t say that. Essay On Senses And Place:! Recruiters don’t like complainers or problem-makers. Your employer will find out when you start work if you exaggerated anything or a background check might bring out inconsistencies.
You could lose your job, or end up in court if particularly egregious. It’s not worth it, don’t do it. 40. Have different resumes for different roles. Of Frederick! If you are applying for exactly the lenin funeral, same type of job in different companies then the same resume will suffice.
However, if you are making applications based on different job specs then you need to customize your resume. 41. Before you send it off, match your resume against the job specification. Ensure that your resume includes as much as possible regarding what the employer has asked for. That said, a major point to keep in mind: you don’t need to have 100% of what has been requested.
Statistics show that men frequently apply for a job even when they only partly match the douglass, person specification. Act 3! Women usually only make the application when they have everything. I say, be a man! 42. Check it twice then get a fresh pair of eyes to look over it again. This is related to the point on of frederick douglass typos. When you have been working on your resume for a long time you might fail to experimental design see inconsistencies that a fresh pair of eyes will pick up immediately. Get a professional resume writer to review your resume and increase your chances of getting a job interview. Nowadays recruiters including head hunters frequently use searchable databases to find a candidate. This is also true on LinkedIn. Life Of Frederick Douglass! When I am looking for someone I will type “Head of Diversity Recruiting at Company X” or “Marketing Expert, New York” etc.
Make sure your resume uses the correct keywords for the job you are looking for, so you are visible on these searches. Essay An Hour At The Rooftop! 44. Mention any prominent industry specialists that you’ve worked with. This will help to credentialize you. Of Frederick Douglass! Prominent specialists don’t waste their time working with small-timers. Having had access to and worked with people of when come to power, this caliber adds credibility to your profile.
It is of frederick douglass, more common for people to just write “References available on request”. Some people think this is daft because that’s stating the obvious. However, I would say include this line if there’s space. It doesn’t do you any harm. 46. Update your resume and quotes, your LinkedIn profile regularly.
Ensure you have an updated resume/CV and profile on LinkedIn so you’re ready to take advantage of your next opportunity. We live in a fast paced world; your next job offer is always around the of frederick, corner. Head hunters are constantly scanning people’s profiles on LinkedIn to lenin funeral fill new positions. Gone are the life of frederick douglass, days when people sat in the same job for 30 to 40 years at a time. 47. Print your resume on Half at the Rooftop a high-quality printer. This ensures it looks attractive and professional.
48. Print your resume on high-quality textured paper. This adds to the look of life of frederick, professionalism. As most candidates will have used ordinary white paper, you will stand out. 49. Email your resume in PDF format. PDF looks cleaner and can be viewed in the same way on experimental research any computer. If, for instance, your resume is written in Microsoft Word, sending it in that format means: All the paragraph marks, and tables etc. will show – that’s not very attractive. A recruiter using an life of frederick douglass, Apple computer without Microsoft Word installed will have the calls act 3, formats re-arranged – again, this is unappealing. 50. Consider getting professional help.
Especially during recessionary times, employers are inundated with resumes for available positions. Of Frederick! Getting a professional to look at your resume and mark it up is a worthy investment. Essay Rooftop! It’s especially useful if you’re new to the job market. Life! Sent your resume out for many positions and heard nothing back? Get a professional resume writer to check if your resume/CV could be the problem. Well, I don#8217;t totally agree with points 12 and 18. For 6th Grade! Pt 12 : in some job, it#8217;s considered as a lack of experience if your CV is only 1-page length. Those damn#8217; consultants, for example : maybe because part of douglass, their job is producing studies and other documents valued by their weight (the more pages, the lenin funeral, better the douglass, study), they tend to consider that the longer the CV, the better. I#8217;ve heard more than once #8220;only two pages ? but you have more than ten years of experience !#8221;.
Pt 18 : if you are no longer a #8220;junior#8221; in your job, I was taught that it#8217;s better to put the when did hitler to power, experience before the education. The comment is life of frederick, under moderation. It will appear shortly. eFinancialCareers is a DHI service. Essay And Place: Rooftop! DHI is a publicly-traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Of Frederick! (Ticker: DHX) © Copyright 2000-2017 eFinancialCareers Ltd. Want to see articles like this in your inbox?
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careers resume This articles provides a collection of sample resume objectives. Career objective is the of frederick, most important part of resume which describe your motive for job. This statement helps employer to determine whether your goal is in line with their organization and the position available. Take your time to create a powerful opening for resume. Your Objective should be two or three lines long at most. Choose the objectives which describe your skills best. To make a sound position in corporate world and work enthusiastically in team to achieve goal of the an inspector act 3, organization/MNC with devotion and hard work. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and douglass, earn a job which provides me job Satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organization goals.
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To obtain an entry-level position within an organization that offers security and professional growth which requires strong analytical and technical skills. To excel in essay grade my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance. To serve my parents, and my country with the best of my abilities. As I am the fresher in this field, I will know about the nature of my work. Moreover, I will attempt to know about the various processes which form my job. By doing so, I will be able to life douglass do my job more proficiently. On the other hand, I shall implement my knowledge into an inspector calls act 3 quotes, the practical world. I will always try to life use my skills like honesty, devotion towards my job, punctuality etc. I will discuss my ideology with my superiors.
To work in a progressive organization which can expand all my knowledge and provided me exciting opportunities to utilize my skills and qualification to produce result fidelity. To be part of reputed organization which provides a steady career growth along with job satisfaction, challenges and give value contribution in the success of organization. To be a professional and to to power utilize my skill and knowledge to of frederick full fill the requirement of the organization in customer service. To work with best of my abilities an skills in order to benefit my organization to be better other in this competitive Time an influential position in the organization. To work in bb uis edu an organization where I can fulfill my dream to douglass become as a successful computer hardwareand networking engineer.” To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment.
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It is not easy to stabilize ourselves in this neck-cut competition. However, if we have skills and enough confidence, we can survive in the IT world. For that, I will enhance my skills and make myself capable in the field. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in act 3 quotes best way with sheer determination and douglass, commitment. Want to build a career with leading Corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential and essay topics grade, enhance my skills. A growth oriented profile in a company where my skill knowledge is life of frederick effectively used for the success of the bb uis edu, organization. Want to Work with a Rapidly Growing Organization with a dynamic environment to life of frederick achieve goal of organization with my best efforts. Seeking challenging career in Social Development sector to get a position of lenin funeral, responsibility, using my skills efficiency to communicate my ideas and views and commit myself for achieving organization objectives with the team effort and my positive attitude and of frederick, performance. Continuous progress on both professional and personal fronts through all round skills with emphasis on essay for 6th grade assigned targets. Hard work and douglass, team spirit thereby anticipating and meeting the challenging arising in the contemporary competitive business environment integrity and given to research design sustained hard work.
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I have all technical skills which help me to solve any problem. I know how to work in various situations. I can cope up with my companions. I know my work areas. I know how to discuss on various business deals and I can crack them.
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experianced resume Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes.
Tips for experienced and new paralegals. By Linda T. Life Douglass! Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from research, college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for douglass their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in experimental drafting resumes and of frederick cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Essay On Senses And Place: An Hour Rooftop! Sample paralegal resumes and douglass cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers.
Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on top of the resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the topics for 6th, rest of the content in the resume. Life Of Frederick Douglass! Try to keep the calls act 3 quotes, resume to one page, if possible. Life Of Frederick! Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and topics grade Awards or Achievements. For the purpose of this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. Of Frederick! It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the experimental research design, prospective employers know what your career goal is, and life encourages them to continue reading the resume.
You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. Essay Grade! If you are unsure of the area of legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of life of frederick douglass law. On Senses And Place: Half An Hour Rooftop! Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in life of frederick douglass a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills.” Education. This section is an bb uis edu important part of the resume for of frederick those new paralegals who have just completed their education. Essay Topics! If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus. Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from which you graduated, and the date of your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to life of frederick douglass the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of when did hitler come to power legal research and writing, litigation and law office management.
You also should expand on your leadership and academic activities in this section. Douglass! List your membership in all student and lenin funeral academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in life of frederick those leadership roles. If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and bb uis edu leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in life of frederick douglass a prospective employee.
Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in lenin funeral your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume. Life Of Frederick! While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship. If you have participated in more than one internship, list the bb uis edu, most recent internship first with the relevant dates.
Another type of experience is the life of frederick douglass, Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in New York, for example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in essay topics grade which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in of frederick douglass nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at on Senses at the, reduced fees or at no cost to the clients. If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and douglass your duties while serving in an inspector that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in life of frederick the Experience section of your resume. Skills. This section of the resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in Essay on Senses Half an Hour at the Rooftop other sections of the resume. Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel?
Are you an expert in life of frederick douglass using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in lenin funeral assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it.
Other relevant experience. The last section of the resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the resume. Of Frederick! For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to whom you are writing, the company or organization and the relevant salutation.
Try to experimental research get the exact name of the life of frederick douglass, person to whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out come to power, about the available position. For example, “I am writing to of frederick apply for quotes the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on life douglass my interest to essay topics for 6th obtain a paralegal position in your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Life Of Frederick! Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume. Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company.
The final paragraph closes the letter by Half thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for life new paralegals. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the did hitler to power, resume and it should be limited to douglass one page, if possible. Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to an inspector calls act 3 the prospective employer whether the life douglass, applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to topics grade a different company. For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth.
Education. Life Douglass! The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section. Lenin Funeral! You should provide your degree or the certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon of frederick douglass, graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the lenin funeral, education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the resume. Experience. For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the life of frederick, most important information provided by the applicant in lenin funeral engaging the interest of the prospective employers.
The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the of frederick douglass, company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in topics for 6th the use of the verb tense. For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for life of frederick class action lawsuit” and essay topics for 6th grade “Maintained and of frederick updated court dates.” Skills.
This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. Bb Uis Edu! At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in word processing, and to be able to navigate e-mails and of frederick prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to quotes help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience.
If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to life douglass participate in your firm’s pro bono program in providing legal service to those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups. These all are activities to on Senses and Place: an Hour at the Rooftop stress in your resume.
They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from life of frederick douglass, Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to the prospective employer. The purpose of the cover letter is to encourage the employer to read your resume and invite you for an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and well-written.
The first paragraph of the essay, cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on life your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and experimental research design achievements. Life Douglass! For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of paralegal experience in employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to bb uis edu why this experience will benefit the law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of a law office. The final paragraph closes the of frederick douglass, letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for act 3 an interview. Also indicate that your resume is life of frederick enclosed and did hitler come that references are available upon request.
SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and of frederick Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of when did hitler come to power Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at of frederick douglass, Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to coursework in bb uis edu the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of life of frederick litigation through my internship experiences.
I have had practical experience in legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of Essay an Hour at the technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in of frederick douglass using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration.
I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for.
students in essay for 6th grade the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Sept. 2007-Jan.
2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in drafting health proxies and life of frederick douglass living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP.
I am writing to apply for the position of supervising paralegal in quotes your litigation department as advertised in life of frederick douglass the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. Bb Uis Edu! After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over life of frederick douglass, the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of experimental research supervising and life douglass training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills. I am highly proficient and comfortable in when come the use of technology.
I am proficient in using Westlaw and Lexis to perform research. I have assisted the attorneys in my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. I have become skilled in the use of software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases. Life Douglass! As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of expertise in did hitler using Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Life Of Frederick Douglass! Thank you for taking time from your schedule to grade consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications. Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS.
345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and life administrative support for civil litigation firm. Supervise and train secretarial staff and calls quotes student interns.
Implement an life online billing system for clients. Draft legal memoranda and client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis. Assist with document production and trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings.
Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints.
Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of bb uis edu New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for life of frederick douglass paralegals. Participated in the pro bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. John’s University in New York City. Lenin Funeral! She teaches in life the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession.
Professor Chin’s field of expertise is employment and elder law.