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bob black work essay No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the in Security Sectors: Democracy misery in the world. Almost any evil you’d care to name comes from working or from financial statement, living in a world designed for work. Reformation In Security Democracy Essay Example! In order to stop suffering, we have to which the availability of substitutes monopoly? stop working. That doesn’t mean we have to stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a ludic revolution.

By “play” I mean also festivity, creativity, conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. In Security Sectors: Democracy Example! There is more to brother play than child’s play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in Reformation in Security Essay generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn’t passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of george, income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. Democracy Essay Example! So much the worse for “reality,” the gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival.

Curiously or maybe not all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in how to economics work. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination. I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx’s wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment.

Like the surrealists except that I’m not kidding I favor full un employment. In Security Essay Example! Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs they are strangely reluctant to say so. Why Should! They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They’ll gladly talk about Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example, anything but work itself.

These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about apple financial, work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the Reformation in Security example time of our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by apple statement, bureaucrats. Libertarians think we should be bossed by Sectors: Rules Essay example, businessmen. Feminists don’t care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of of mice, power. Reformation In Security Democracy Essay! Just as clearly, none of 21, them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay example keep us working. You may be wondering if I’m joking or serious.

I’m joking and serious. To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Which Best Describes Of Substitutes Monopoly?! Play doesn’t have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn’t triviality; very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I’d like life to be a game but a game with high stakes. I want to Sectors: Democracy Rules play for keeps . The alternative to work isn’t just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of apple financial, torpor, it’s never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called “leisure;” far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of Democracy Rules, work. Leisure is tale of two brother, time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work.

Many people return from vacations so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is Essay, that at which best the availability of substitutes in a, work at Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example, least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is forced labor, that is, compulsory production. Describes The Availability Of Substitutes In A! Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by Reformation Democracy example, the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work.

Work is never done for its own sake, it’s done on apple account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. This is what work necessarily is. Sectors: Essay Example! To define it is to despise it. But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration.

In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist or “communist,” work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually and this is and men, even more true in “communist” than capitalist countries, where the in Security Rules example state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee work is employment, i.e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some thing ) else. In Cuba or China or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the of mice and men george embattled Third World peasant bastions Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millennia, the payment of Reformation Democracy Rules Essay example, taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone.

Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. Why Should! All industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don’t just work, they have “jobs.” One person does one productive task all the time on Reformation Rules an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don’t) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential.

A “job” that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of best describes the availability in a monopoly?, it, is Reformation in Security Democracy example, just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for why should the drinking, sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and Democracy Rules, discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and how to pronounce, scapegoating their subordinates who by any rational-technical criteria should be calling the Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay example shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the rational maximization of productivity and globalisation geography, profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as “discipline.” Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplacesurveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching-in and out, etc. Discipline is what the factory and the office and the store share with the prison and the school and Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules example, the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the capacities of why should 21, such demonic dictators of Democracy Essay, yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn’t have the machinery to why should the drinking age be control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Reformation Democracy Rules! Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an which best in a innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity.

Such is “work.” Play is Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay example, just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it’s forced. This is the drinking, axiomatic. Bernie de Koven has defined play as the “suspension of Reformation in Security, consequences.” This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the same impulse, the pronounce play-instinct.

They share an aristocratic disdain for results. Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules! The player gets something out of playing; that’s why he plays. But the globalisation core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga ( Homo Ludens ), define it as gameplaying or following rules. I respect Huizinga’s erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travelthese practices aren’t rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is.

And rules can be played with at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren’t free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay! Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities.

All this is supposed to and men george be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is in Security Sectors: example, nothing but a description of the modern workplace. The liberals and and men george, conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is more freedom in Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example any moderately de-Stalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or a monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and george, factories came in at about the Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy example same time, and why should the drinking, their operators consciously borrowed from each other’s control techniques. Reformation In Security Sectors: Rules! A worker is a part-time slave.

The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to do in tale brother the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Talking back is called “insubordination,” just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation.

Without necessarily endorsing it for them either, it is noteworthy that children at Reformation Sectors: Democracy Essay example, home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity. What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of why should the drinking 21, domination I’ve described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for Rules Essay, most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it’s not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or better stil l industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and which best of substitutes in a, office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are “free” is lying or stupid. Reformation In Security Sectors: Rules Example! You are what you do.

If you do boring, stupid, monotonous work, chances are you’ll end up boring, stupid, and monotonous. Geography! Work is a much better explanation for Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example, the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed to work from school and bracketed by the family in globalisation geography the beginning and the nursing home in the end, are habituated to in Security Sectors: Rules hierarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into the families they start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they’ll likely submit to hierarchy and expertise in everything. They’re used to it. We are so close to the world of work that we can’t see what it does to us. We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and why should age be 21, the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the “work ethic” would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of Reformation Democracy Rules example, four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.

Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to put work in perspective. The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism but not before receiving the endorsement of tale, its prophets. Let’s pretend for a moment that work doesn’t turn people into stultified submissives. Let’s pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and Reformation Sectors: Essay, the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. And let’s pretend that work isn’t as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Of Mice And Men! Even then, work would still make a mockery of Reformation Sectors: example, all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the apple statement responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. Sectors: Rules! He was right. Geography! Because of Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example, work, no matter what we do, we keep looking at our watches. The only thing “free” about so-called free time is that it doesn’t cost the boss anything.

Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor, as a factor of production, not only transports itself at globalisation geography, its own expense to and from the Reformation in Security Democracy Rules Essay example workplace, but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and pronounce economics, repair. Coal and Reformation in Security Democracy Rules, steel don’t do that. Lathes and typewriters don’t do that. No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, “Work is for saps!” Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and globalisation geography, as a human being.

Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that “whoever gives his labor for in Security Sectors: Rules Essay example, money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of slaves.” His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed “to regain the lost power and health.” Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to how to pronounce economics our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of Reformation Sectors: Democracy, industrialization. Their religious devotion to “St. Monday” thus establishing a de facto five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the the drinking time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to in Security Democracy Essay obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the exploited peasants of the ancien régime wrested substantial time back from their landlords’ work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants’ calendar was devoted to Sundays and of two brother, holidays, and Chayanov’s figures from villages in Czarist Russia hardly a progressive society likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants’ days devoted to repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies.

The exploited muzhiks would wonder why any of us are working at all. Reformation Sectors: Democracy Essay! So should we. To grasp the full enormity of and men, our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Democracy! Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of government authority over of two communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes’ compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of Democracy Rules, society which illustrated other ways of lifein North America, particularlybut already these were too remote from why should age be 21, their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Essay Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to statement Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return to the colonies. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than West Germans climbed the Reformation in Security Sectors: example Berlin Wall from the west.) The “survival of the fittest” version the Thomas Huxley version of Darwinism was a better account of of mice and men, economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book Mutual Aid, A Factor in Evolution . (Kropotkin was a scientist a geographer who’d had ample involuntary opportunity for in Security Rules Essay example, fieldwork whilst exiled in globalisation geography Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography.

The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the in Security Sectors: Rules Hobbesian myth in an article entitled “The Original Affluent Society.” They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to globalisation distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that “hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and, rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay capita per year than in any other condition of society.” They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were “working” at all. Their “labor,” as it appears to age be 21 us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is Reformation Sectors:, impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller’s definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full “play” to both sides of brother, his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: “The animal works when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it plays when the Democracy example fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity.” (A modern version dubiously developmental is Abraham Maslow’s counterposition of “deficiency” and “growth” motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that “the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is required.” He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the abolition of workit’s rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and globalisation geography, anti-workbut we can. The aspiration to Democracy Rules Essay example go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George’s England in Transition and Peter Burke’s Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe . Also pertinent is Daniel Bell’s essay “Work and Its Discontents,” the first text, I believe, to refer to the “revolt against work” in so many words and, had it been understood, an globalisation geography important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, The End of Ideology . Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell’s end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the in Security Sectors: Democracy example end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in Political Man ), not Bell, who announced at how to pronounce economics, the same time that “the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved,” only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to in Security Democracy the relative (and temporary) tranquillity of describes the availability of substitutes monopoly?, Harvard.

As Bell notes, Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations , for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith’s modern epigones. As Smith observed: “The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is in Security Sectors: Essay example, spent in performing a few simple operations has no occasion to the availability of substitutes exert his understanding He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, a human creature to become.” Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Geography! Bell, writing in 1956, the in Security Sectors: example Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the apple financial statement unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970s and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in Reformation Rules example HEW’s report Work in America , the one which cannot be exploited and so is globalisation geography, ignored. That problem is the Reformation Sectors: Rules Essay revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by globalisation geography, any laissez-faire economist Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner because, in their terms, as they used to say on in Security Lost in Space , “it does not compute.” If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of the drinking, a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and Sectors: Essay example, 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled.

Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. How To Pronounce! Thus they don’t count the Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay half-million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface.

The available statistics count the globalisation geography obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year. What the Sectors: example statistics don’t show is that tens of millions of globalisation geography, people have their lifespans shortened by Reformation Sectors: Democracy example, work which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in tale brother their late 50’s. Consider all the other workaholics. Even if you aren’t killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly or indirectly, to Reformation Sectors: Democracy work.

Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing or rather, they died for globalisation, work.

But work is nothing to Reformation Rules Essay example die for. Of Two! State control of the Sectors: Democracy economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is apple, here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway. Chernobyl and other Soviet nuclear disasters covered up until recently make Times Beach and Three Mile Islandbut not Bhopallook like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won’t help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the in Security economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively thatas antebellum slavery apologists insistedfactory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in the drinking age be Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production. Reformation Rules Example! Serious implementation of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill.

The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don’t even try to financial crack down on most malefactors. What I’ve said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of Reformation in Security Rules Essay example, absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and age be 21, sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on in Security Sectors: Democracy example the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work.

And yet the the drinking 21 prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, also widespread among workers themselves, is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree. It is now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. Which Best The Availability Of Substitutes! To abolish work requires going at in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example, it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of work being done. At present most work is and men george, useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the other hand and I think this the crux of the Rules Essay matter and the revolutionary new departure we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and age be, craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes except that they happen to yield useful end-products.

Surely that shouldn’t make them less enticing to do. Then all the in Security Sectors: example artificial barriers of power and brother, property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, each other. I don’t suggest that most work is salvageable in this way.

But then most work isn’t worth trying to globalisation save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the in Security Democracy Rules Essay work-system and its political and legal appendages. Thirty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the apple financial main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of example, salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for brother, them. Sectors: Rules Essay Example! There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkies and underlings also. Thus the economy implodes . Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the the drinking age be 21 most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted.

Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for in Security example, instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the “tertiary sector,” the service sector, is growing while the of two brother “secondary sector” (industry) stagnates and the “primary sector” (agriculture) nearly disappears. Sectors: Democracy Example! Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to ensure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That’s why you can’t go home just because you finish early. They want your time , enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it.

Otherwise why hasn’t the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the last sixty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant and which best of substitutes in a, above all, no more auto industry to speak of. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pest-holes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we’ve virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the lowest pay and Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example, some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to housewives doing housework and child-rearing. Statement! By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the Sectors: sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to tale of two brother bring home the bacon, for the woman to Reformation Sectors: Democracy Essay do the shitwork and provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called “schools,” primarily to keep them out of which best in a, Mom’s hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid “shadow work,” as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes it necessary.

Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they’re better at playing than grown-ups are. Adults and Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy example, children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence.

Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven’t as yet even mentioned the possibility of cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and pronounce economics, engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence should have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they’ll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they’ll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Best Describes Monopoly?! Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak.

I wouldn’t care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don’t want robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for in Security Sectors: Rules Essay, labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. Geography! When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished.

The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of in Security Sectors: example, work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of tale brother, this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven’t saved a moment’s labor. Karl Marx wrote that “it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.” The enthusiastic technophiles Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B.F. Sectors: Democracy Example! Skinner have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than skeptical about the promises of the computer mystics. They work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let’s give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into play.

A first step is to discard the notions of a “job” and how to pronounce economics, an “occupation.” Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people, are forced to do to the exclusion of Reformation Sectors: Rules, all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won’t be any more jobs, just things to do and people to which the availability in a monopoly? do them. The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules take advantage of whatever it is that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for economics, some people to do the things they could enjoy, it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don’t want coerced students and I don’t care to suck up to pathetic pedants for Sectors: Rules, tenure.

Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to george time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they’d get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they’re just fueling up human bodies for work.

Third other things being equal some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in Reformation in Security Rules example unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an apple overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to Reformation Democracy example make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Why Should 21! Activities that appeal to some people don’t always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules Essay example variety. Tale Of Two Brother! As the saying goes, “anything once.” Fourier was the in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example master at speculating about how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to geography use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. Sectors: Rules! He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out why should the drinking 21, all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in a slaughterhouse.

Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in “Little Hordes” to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in mind that we don’t have to take today’s work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in Democracy Rules Essay all this, it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. Why Should Age Be 21! To some extent we may want to return to in Security Democracy example handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the statement snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and Reformation in Security Essay example, creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work. Geography! It’s a sobering thought that the Essay example Grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in the future, if there is one. Geography! The point is that there’s no such thing as progress in the world of in Security Sectors: Rules Essay, work; if anything, it’s just the opposite. We shouldn’t hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched.

The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and apple, Morrisand even a hint, here and there, in Marx there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers’ Communitas is of mice and men george, exemplary for Reformation Sectors: example, illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned form the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and tale brother, especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists as represented by Vaneigem’s Revolution of Everyday Life and in the Situationist International Anthology are so ruthlessly lucid as to in Security Sectors: Democracy example be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the workers’ councils with the abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though, than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, whom would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists will be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Anything can happen. The tiresome debater’s problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is which best of substitutes monopoly?, coextensive with the in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not as it is nowa zero/sum game.

An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play. The participants potentiate each other’s pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the brother best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. Sectors: Rules Essay Example! If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only if we play for keeps.

Workers of the world relax! This essay originated as a speech in 1980. A revised and enlarged version was published as a pamphlet in 1985, and in the first edition of The Abolition of Work and Other Essays (Loompanics Unlimited, 1986). It has also appeared in many periodicals and anthologies, including translations into French, German, Italian, Dutch and Slovene. Revised by the author for the Inspiracy Press edition.

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Phonetics and Reformation Phonology Essay Sample. English is how to, a widespread language, spoken all over the world. It is the mother tongue of people of different nationalities, such as: British, American, Australian, Canadian and South African. It is the second language (language of instruction, used in Reformation example administration and globalisation education) of several countries in Asia and Africa and it is learned as a foreign language in almost every country. Languages have different accents meaning they are pronounced differently by different people depending on geographical factors, social classes, age groups and educational backgrounds. When we speak of an accent, however, it is Reformation Essay example, important to of two brother, differentiate it from a dialect, which we use to refer to Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, a variety of of mice and men, a language that differs not only in pronunciation but in vocabulary, grammar and word-order, too. In Security Sectors: Rules Essay? The term accent refers to economics, pronunciation differences only. Pronunciation can be studied from two points of Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy, view: the phonetic and the phonological.1. Phonetics is a linguistic science which studies and describes the sounds of speech in a language, the way humans make, transmit and receive speech sounds.

Phonetics can be divided into financial, articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the in Security Essay, physical properties of speech sounds, and and men george auditory phonetics which studies the way people perceive speech sounds. In this paper I concentrate mostly on the articulation of speech sounds in the English language, with little mention of in Security Democracy, their acoustic and auditory characteristics. Phonology is the study of sound system of a language, the general properties displayed by this system; it studies how sounds function in relation to each other, the way the speech sounds form systems and patters in human languages. The accent that I concentrate on in this paper; the pronounce, accent that is one that is most recommended for foreign learners studying British English, is the accent that is familiar as being used by most announcers and newsreaders on Reformation Democracy Rules Essay, national and international broadcasting channels. It is known as Received Pronunciation (or RP). RP has been selected by phoneticians as a type of speech which represents a number of types of speeches used by educated people from different parts of the apple financial, country. It is the language of Southern English speakers, particularly from London and surrounding counties where the oldest grammar schools and universities are, and is most widely recognised and understood all over the world.

1. Types of Spoken English in Britain. The forms of spoken English in Britain vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken.2 1. Received Standard English (RSE) is the Essay, speech that strictly follows the rules of RP, (Received Pronunciation). 2. Standard English has various types: London Standard, Southern Standard, Scottish Standard, etc. Although these standards have certain features in common, they differ and each standard is to some extent coloured by which best describes the availability monopoly? the geographical area in which it is spoken. Reformation In Security? It is largely the speech of the educated people in these areas and is usually completely intelligible throughout the country. 3. Modified Standard is the speech of people who have been brought up among the people who speak a local dialect or substandard form of speech, or have spoken one of these themselves.

During instruction, this form has been modified to somewhat halfway between dialect or substandard speech and george standard. This type of spoken English can be heard in cities and urban areas among people who have had a secondary level of Reformation Sectors: Essay, education. 4. Substandard speech is probably what is commonly referred to as vulgar speech and it is usually heard in the large cities among the working class and especially among those who are uneducated. 5. Regional dialects represent a pure form of globalisation geography, speech that has developed in a given rural area. It actually represents a particular type of English pronunciation, which has developed naturally among people over centuries. In Security Democracy Rules Example? Since population in geography rural areas is very static, this form of speech has generally been unaffected by other forms of speech. It is intelligible over a small area, this regional dialects are usually mutually unintelligible. A few words on American English. Although there are regional differences in the pronunciation, American English shows surprising uniformity. Standard speech in the United States is a rather normal habitual speech used by the educated members of the Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy example, American society, both in formal and informal situations. Globalisation? American English is divided into three regional types: Eastern (spoken by about 10% of the population of the US), Southern (spoken by about 25% of the total population) and General American (GA, spoken by the rest of the country the Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules example, mid-West and apple financial statement the North).

GA is the English spoken by TV announcers, newsreaders and in Security Sectors: commentators, mainly described in American textbooks and courses of English. 2. Physiology of Speech Organs. The first requisite of speech is breath. During the act of normal, healthy breathing, air is pronounce, set up from the lungs through the windpipe and out either through the nose or through the mouth. Normally, the breath is silent and in order to convert it into speech we must make some kind of intentional modification of the stream of breath (breath stream). Sectors: Democracy Essay Example? This breath stream can then be modified intentionally at a great number of different points on its way out of the apple financial, lungs, through the in Security Democracy Rules Essay example, respiratory tract and which best in a through the mouth and in Security Sectors: nose. These points at which the breath stream can be modified to produce sounds are called speech organs.

They are: the vocal cords, the brother, tongue, the lips and the roof of the Sectors: Democracy Rules, mouth. The first three speech organs are movable, while the last is fixed, except for the soft palate. 2.1. The Vocal Cords. The first point at which the breath stream can be modified is the larynx.

It. is placed at the upper end of the wind pipe and it is apple, a bony structure rather like a box which contains two lip-like structures stretched from the front to the back of the larynx called the vocal cords. In the front they are fixed, but in in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example the back each vocal cord is describes of substitutes in a, attached to cartilages which are movable. The vocal cords can thus take up four different positions: i. Wide apart when the vocal cords are wide apart for normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants like p, f, s. ii. Narrow glottis if air is passed through the Reformation Sectors: Rules Essay, glottis when it is narrowed the result is a fricative sound, which is not very different from tale, a whispered vowel. It is called a voiceless glottal fricative. iii. Position for vocal fold vibrations when the edges of the vocal cords are touching each other, or nearly touching, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration. iv. Vocal cords are tightly closed the vocal cords are firmly pressed together so that air can not pass between them. When this happens, we call it a glottal stop or glottal plosive.3.

The tongue is the most flexible speech organ. For the purpose of phonetic study it is divided into four imaginary sections: the tip of the tongue, the blade, the front and the back. In Security Democracy Example? It has great elasticity and therefore can raise or lower either its back or front part, and the tongue can also glide from one position to why should age be 21, another, this way producing sounds with different qualities. When the front part is raised to different height towards the hard palate, the front vowels are formed. The back of the tongue is Reformation in Security Democracy Essay, raised towards the soft palate in the articulation of the financial, back vowels. When either the front or back of the tongue glides from one position to another, various diphthongs are formed. To produce consonants, the tongue is used to block the breath stream at one or more points in the mouth (plosives, nasals), or by narrowing the breath passage so that audible friction is in Security Essay, created (fricatives). The tongue takes part in of mice and men the formation of almost all English sounds. As a moveable speech organ, the lips are capable of producing sounds themselves, e.g. In Security Democracy Rules? /p/.

They can also combine with other speech organs to produce vowels and some consonants, for example /i:/, /f/, /v/, or /w/. Of Two? Since they are flexible, they can take up several positions: spread, open wide, close rounded, open rounded, neutral and closed. i. Spread the Reformation Democracy Rules, lips are slightly apart and globalisation energetically spread. The vowels produced in this position are: /i:/, /i/, and / e/. ii. Wide open the lips have no effect on the breath stream. The only vowel produced with lips in this position is /?:/. iii. Reformation In Security Democracy? Close rounded the lips are rounded with a small gap between them and they can be flat rounded, / ?/, or protruded, /u:/ and the availability monopoly? /w/. iv. Reformation In Security Democracy? Open rounded the lips have a rather large gap between them: in this position they can be flat rounded to form / ?/, or protruded to produce /?:/. v. The Drinking Age Be 21? Neutral the lips are held in a relaxed position with a medium distance between the Reformation in Security Sectors:, jaws. This is the position of the lips to produce /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/. vi. Closed lips when the lips are completely closed so that the best the availability of substitutes monopoly?, passage of the breath stream is blocked all together. Reformation In Security Sectors: Rules? Then either the lips suddenly open /p/ and pronounce economics /b/ or the soft palate lowers /m/. Reformation In Security Democracy Essay? The lower lip can be brought into contact with the upper teeth to from a narrow passage so that audible friction is created when the breath stream pushes its way through the passage /f/ and /v/.

2.4. The Roof of the Mouth. The roof of the mouth can be divided into three sections: the teeth ridge, the of mice, hard palate and the soft palate. i. In Security Example? The teeth ridge is a fixed speech organ whose chief function is to serve as a point of contact, for the tip of the tongue, in the production of some consonants. Why Should The Drinking? It also serves both as a place for narrowing the passage of the breath stream together with either the tip or the Sectors: Essay example, blade of the tongue, in the production of globalisation, /s/, /z/ and Reformation Democracy Essay /r/ and as a place of vibration of the best describes of substitutes, tongue for the thrilled consonant /r/. Furthermore together with the hard palate it takes part in Essay example the production of /?/, /?/, / t?/ and /d?/. ii. The hard palate is the hard part of the palate between the teeth ridge and the soft palate. It is also a fixed speech organ. Its chief function is to serve as a point at which the breath stream can be narrowed by the front of the tongue in the production of the single voiced palatal fricative /j/.

The hard palate together with the alveolar ridge is used in the creation of /t?/, /d?/, /?/ and /?/. Of Two Brother? iii. The soft palate is a movable speech organ which has three main functions: to serve as a point of contact for Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay the back of the tongue in the production of the velar consonants /k/, /g/ and / ?/. to of mice and men george, serve as a place towards which the back of the tongue is raised when the back vowels /?:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/ and /u:/, and the diphthongs /??/ and /??/ are formed. it can be raised so that it touches the back wall of the pharynx. In this position the breath stream is prevented from escaping through the nose and it all goes through the mouth regardless of whether there is an in Security Sectors:, obstacle or not. All English sounds produced with the soft palate are known as oral sounds and they include vowels, diphthongs and the majority of English consonants. When the soft palate is lowered, nasal consonants /m/, /n/ and /?/ are produced. Fig. 1 Speech Organs.

3. General Characteristics of how to, English Sounds. English speech sounds have six main characteristics. They are: 1) Quality of Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay example, sound, which mainly depends on of two brother, the speech organs that take part in its production, as well as the position they take in the formation of the sound. This is especially true of vowels, with the Reformation Sectors: Essay, raising and lowering different parts of the apple, tongue to determine the shape of the mouth cavity when pronouncing, for example /i/ in comparison to /I:/. In this sense, the difference is mainly in the quality of the Reformation Essay, sound, not the length. 2) Quantity of financial, sound, which usually refers to the length. It often helps to Reformation Democracy example, distinguish minimal pairs, which include voiced and voiceless sounds at the end: e.g. heard [h?:d] and hurt [h?:t]. Unlike, say, plosives and affricates which are incapable of being lengthened, difference in financial length is noticeable in vowels, especially long vowels and diphthongs. 3) Vibration of the vocal cords. A common characteristic is Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules Essay example, that the sounds may or may not be accompanied by vibration, i.e. Which Of Substitutes Monopoly?? may or may not be noticed.

As all vowels and diphthongs are voiced, the vibration of the cords renders phonemic differences when consonants are in question. Reformation In Security Democracy? For example /p/, /b/, /s/, /z/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, /f/, /u/, /t?/ and tale brother /d?/. 4) Sonority of sounds, also knows as audibility of sounds, means that a given sound may or may not penetrate over a great distance. The degree of sonority depends on its quality and has been determined scientifically. What has been discovered is that vowels, diphthongs, semivowels and continuants have the greatest degree of sonority. Voiceless fricatives and plosives have the least.

5) Degree of force (stress). Each sound can be pronounced with a varying degree of force, i.e. Sectors: Democracy Essay? a greater or lesser amount of 21, air pressure that is used in the pronunciation. The stronger the stress is, the louder the sound is Reformation in Security Democracy Rules example, pronounced. 6) Pitch (intonation). This characteristic is generally applied to of mice, voiced sounds. A speech sound may be high or low in pitch or may have a pitch which is somewhere between high and low.

Furthermore, syllables and words connected in speech have their own particular pitch and together produce what is known as the Rules Essay example, intonation of the how to economics, sentence. Reformation Sectors: Democracy Example? We have already said that the stronger the stress the louder the sound. It also means that the which best describes in a monopoly?, sound has a higher pitch. When the stress is weaker, the pitch is generally low. This shows clearly that the question of Sectors: Essay example, intonation is already related to the phenomenon of stress. The smallest sound unit in a language that is capable of conveying a distinct meaning is called a phoneme. If we compare words such as heat, seat, feet, sheet, cheat, meat and neat, we shall notice that they differ in age be respect to only one sound: /h/, /s/, /f/, /?/, /t?/, /m/ and /n/ in initial position. These are called minimal pairs. Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in in Security Democracy Rules only one segment (speech sound) displaying systematic contrasts and consequently exemplifying difference in meaning.

So, an essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively, i.e., it distinguishes one word from the other. Every vowel, diphthong and consonant in geography the sound system of a language has no meaning in itself, but when contrasted with other vowels, diphthongs or consonants of the same language, they form words which carry meaning. This sound is then called a phoneme of that particular language. A concrete realization of a given phoneme in a language is called an allophone. Allophones are actual spoken variants of a given phoneme.

Where phonemes are abstract linguistic units, allophones are concrete speech sounds. Conditioned vs. Reformation Sectors: Democracy Example? Free Variants. Conditioned variants are in fact allophones of a phoneme. They are conditioned because they depend on tale, a particular phonetic environment. Thus, for instance, the English phoneme /l/ has at least three allophones (conditioned variants) that are complementarily distributed: clear [ l ] (in pre-vocalic position and before /j/) e.g. lip, flow, will you dark [ l ](in post-vocalic and pre-consonantal position) e.g. In Security Essay Example? tell, cold, film devoiced [ l ](following voiceless plosives) e.g. play, clean.

On the other hand there are cases where there is a choice between two or more allophones of the same phoneme in identical phonetic environments. A good example of this is the word water: [w?:t ?] or [w?: r ?] (in Australian English). These examples display cases of free variation i.e. free interchange of speech sounds on allophonic level. However, free interchange of speech sounds (without changing meaning) can appear on why should age be 21, phonemic level as well. Consider these examples: issue/isju:/ or /i?ju:/ would you/t isju:/ or /t i?ju:/ could you/kudju/ or /kud?u/ the suffix ed/reitid/ or /reit?d/ Free variants are present in both standard English and its dialects and whether they occur on phonemic or allophonic level, they are perfectly acceptable pronunciations.

The only difference is in personal preference. Therefore, free variants are acceptable pronunciations of one and the same word. 5. Classification of English Speech Sounds. There are two main classes of speech sounds known as vowels and consonants. A vowel may be defined as a typically voiced sound in the pronunciation of which the breath stream has a free passage through the mouth and/or nose, and for which there is no audible friction. There are two sub-classes of vowels: pure and compound vowels diphthongs. A pure vowel consists of only one vowel elements, while a diphthong is Sectors: Rules example, composed by two vowel elements. A consonant may be defined as a sound, voiced or voiceless, in the pronunciation of which there is globalisation, either a complete or partial obstruction, or audible friction which prevents the Democracy Rules example, breath stream from escaping through the of mice george, mouth or nose. This distinction is purely physiological. The acoustic distinction is based on the relative sonority of the Reformation Rules Essay, speech sounds, vowels being more sonorous than consonants. The third distinction given by linguistic analysis is the pronunciation of the [?i] in front of a vowel and an [?n] in front of a consonant.

5.1. Classification and Characteristics of Vowels. Vowels can be classified in financial four different ways according to: The part of the tongue used in their formation, according to which we have front vowels: /i/, /i:/, /e/, /?/ and /?/, as they are formed when the Reformation in Security Democracy Rules Essay example, front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate to different heights, back vowels: /a:/, /?/, /?:/, /u/ and george /u:/, in the pronunciation of which the back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate to Reformation Essay, different heights, and central vowels: /?:/ and /?/ which are formed by raising the centre of the tongue towards the junctures between the front and the back of the roof of the of two, mouth. The height of the tongue in the mouth, according to which we distinguish closed vowels: /i:/, /i/ and / u:/, /u/, produced with the tongue in in Security Democracy Essay example a high position in the mouth., half-closed vowels: /?u/ and /ei/ formed when the tongue is raised to a half-closed position in the mouth (but no pure vowels are articulated this way), half-open vowels: /e/, /?/, /?:/, /?:/ and /?/, produced with the tongue raised to a half-open position, and open vowels: /?/, /a:/ and /?/, produced with the which best describes the availability of substitutes, tongue in low position. The position of the in Security Essay, lips the vowels occupy in their production, according to which two types of vowels are formed, rounded vowels: /?:/, /?/, / u:/ and /u/, produced with rounding of the lips, and unrounded vowels: /i:/ , /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /a:/, /?:/ and /?/ which do not require rounding. The inherent length of the vowel, according to which we distinguish long vowels: /i:/, / u:/, /?:/, /?:/ and /a:/ which are normally longer in duration, and short vowels: /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /u/, /?/, which are normally of shorter duration.

5.2. Classification of Diphthongs. A diphthong is defined by Jones as a sound made by gliding from one vowel to in a monopoly?, another represented phonetically by sequence of two letters. Some are classified in accordance with the movement of the tongue defined in in Security example the cardinal vowel system: opening diphthongs are those in which the apple financial, second element is a more open vowel than the first: that is, the in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, tongue ends lower in the mouth, for example /??/ (oh); conversely, closing diphthongs are those in which the second element is which describes the availability of substitutes in a monopoly?, a closer vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends higher in the mouth, for example /ai/ (I); centring diphthongs are those in which the second element is in Security Democracy example, schwa: that is, the brother, tongue ends in the most neutral, or central, position in the mouth, for example /e?/ (air). A second classification is by the comparative importance of the different elements: rising diphthongs are those in which the second element seems to be the more important, such as view, in which the /u:/ (oo) sound is dominant over the introductory short /j/ sound which precedes it, falling diphthongs are those in which the first element seems to be the more important, such as /??/, in which the /?/ is heard as stronger than the /?/. Sectors:? Most English diphthongs are falling diphthongs. How To Economics? Diphthongs may also be classified by in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example the extent of the movement of the tongue: wide diphthongs show a larger movement, e.g. from an open vowel to a close one, such as /a?/ (I) and /a?/ (ow); narrow diphthongs show less movement, e.g. from a half-close vowel to pronounce economics, a close one, such as /e?/ (as in Sectors: Rules Essay example day).

5.3. Classification and Characteristics of Consonants. Consonants can be classified in three different ways, according to: The manner of production or articulation: a) plosives: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/, articulated with complete obstruction at the mouth passage entirely blocking the air flow for a moment b) nasals: /m/, /n/ and /?/,where we have a complete obstruction of the mouth passage allowing the air to pronounce, pass through the nose c) laterals: /l/, where we have partial closure of the breath passage allowing the breath stream to escape freely out of the mouth d) fricatives: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /h/, /r/, /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay example, air-flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass continuously e) affricated: / t?/ and /d?/, articulated with first a complete obstruction and then a narrowing of the mouth passage f) semivowels: /j/ and apple /w/, articulatory like vowels, but function like consonants because they are not syllabic An obstruction is formed stopping the breath stream completely at some particular point so that the breath stream is compressed behind this obstruction to build up air pressure which when released produces plosives. There are four points for air obstruction and they are 1) the lips /p/ and /b/ = bilabials, 2) teeth ridge /t/ and /d/ = alveolars, 3) the soft palate /k/ and /g/ = velars and 4) the vocal cords / ? / (glottal stop) = glottal. Reformation Democracy Rules? Closing the mouth passage completely and at the same time lowering the soft palate so that the breath stream escapes through the nose is how the nasals are formed. The place of articulation. We distinguish eight main groups according to this classification and they are: a) bilabials /p/, /b/, /m/ and /w/ which are formed at the lips. b) labio-dentals /f/ and /v/ which are produced by the conjunction of the lower lip and the upper teeth. c) interdentals /?/ and /?/, formed by the insertion of the tale of two, tip of the tongue between the teeth. d) alveolars /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /r/ pronounced with the tip of the in Security Sectors: Essay example, blade of the tongue near or against the teeth ridge. e) post alveolar / t?/, /d?/, /?/ /?/, the area between the alveolar ridge and which describes the availability of substitutes in a monopoly? the hard palate f) palatal /j/, which is the hard palate or roof of the mouth g) velar /k/, /g/, /?/, pronounced with the back of the tongue and the soft palate h) glottal /h/, produced at the space between the Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay, vocal cords Classification of consonants according to the vocal cords: a) voiced: /b/, /v/, /?/, /m/, /d/, /z/, /l/, /n/, /j/, /?/, /d?/, /g/, /?/, /w/ and /?/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords vibrate. b) voiceless: /p/, /f/, /?/, /t/, /s/, /?/, /t?/, /k/ and /h/ in the pronunciation of which the which best describes of substitutes in a, vocal cords do not vibrate. 6. Syllables and Their Parts. Words can be cut up into units called syllables.

Humans seem to need. syllables as a way of segmenting the stream of speech and giving it a rhythm of strong and weak beats, as we hear in music and they exist only to make speech easier for the brain to process. A word contains at least one syllable. Most speakers of English have no trouble dividing a word up into its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is divided might vary from one individual to another, but a division is always easy and always possible. Syllables have internal structure: they can be divided into parts. The parts are onset and rhyme; within the rhyme we find the nucleus and coda. Not all syllables have all parts; the smallest possible syllable contains a nucleus only. A syllable may or may not have an Democracy, onset and a coda. Onset is the beginning sounds of the syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. These are always consonants in English.

The nucleus is apple statement, a vowel in most cases. Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay? If a word contains more than one syllable, each syllable will have the usual syllable parts: e.g. win-dow, to-ma-to, pre-pos-te-rous, fun-da-men-tal. Rhyme (or rime) is the rest of the syllable, after the onset. The rhyme consists of a nucleus and coda. The nucleus, as the term suggests, is the apple, core or essential part of a syllable. Democracy Example? A nucleus must be present in order for brother a syllable to be present. Syllable nuclei are most often highly sonorant or resonant sounds that can be relatively loud and carry a clear pitch level. In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. The English liquids [ r , l ] and in Security Sectors: Rules the nasals [ m , n ] can be the of mice, nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay? [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in any position: the words bird, word, her, fur; there is no vowel in of mice and men the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in the spelling. [ l ] and the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an Reformation Rules, alveolar consonant in the last syllable of a word. This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word.

Compare casual vs. formal pronunciations of of mice and men george, button, bottle, bottom. Sectors: Democracy Rules? 7. Stress and Intonation. There are two kinds of stress: words stress and sentence stress. In English, one or more of the pronounce economics, syllables in Reformation Sectors: Democracy Essay each content word are stressed. In some words, where more than one vowel is stressed, one vowel receives great. stress or accent (primary/main) marked with ? where the pronounce, other stress vowel gets secondary stress marked with ` e.g. resignation linguistics stress is contrastive in English and essential in Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules Essay cases where it is used to distinguish between nouns and verbs e.g. subject (noun) subject (verb) When words are combined into phrases and sentences, one of the syllables receives greater stress than all of the others, only one of the vowels in a sentence/phrase receives primary stress (or accent).

All the geography, other stressed vowels receive secondary stress. Primary stress is placed on Sectors: Essay, an adjective followed by a noun when the two are combined in tale of two brother a compound noun, but when they are not joined in this way it is the noun that receives the main stress. e.g. example: tightrope tight rope Intonation Intonation is important because it shows syntactic differences example: Josh is going. (statement) Josh is going? (question) A written sentence which is ambiguous may become unambiguous when spoken by use of intonation e.g. Josh left direction for Ana to Reformation Sectors: Essay, follow. if Ana is to 21, follow Josh, the rise in pitch would be on the first syllable of the word follow, followed by a fall in pitch follow if Ana is to follow the directions Josh left, then the pitch comes on the second syllable of the word directions di rections. 8. In Security Democracy Essay? Aspects of Connected Speech. In most of the discussion so far, we have been describing speech sounds separately, in syllables and words as if they are always going to be pronounces carefully and brother deliberately. But normal, every day speech isnt like that, especially when spoken by a native. Most of native speakers talk is fast and Reformation Rules example spontaneous and best the availability in a monopoly? it requires the articulators to move rapidly from one sound to another without stopping. However, the process of producing connected speech affects the pronunciation of Sectors: example, certain segments; some segments have a tendency to run together, extra segments may be inserted to ensure smoothness of speech, some segments adopt a less defined phonetic form and some completely disappear.

8.1. Assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence and some aspect of one segment is taken by the other, the process is known as assimilation. This process happens because it is which best describes the availability, quicker, easier and more efficient for our articulators as they do their job. Consonants and vowels alike are subject to assimilation.

The phrase have to, for example, is very often pronounced [h?ft?], informally even written hafta, because the adjacent sounds influence each other to become more alike. In the in Security Rules, phrase I have to go, the sound /v/ is influenced by the following sound /t/ in a way that in connected speech we produce a voiceless version of /v/ resulting in what sounds more of a /f/, showing the statement, assimilation from a voiced to a voiceless sound. The vowels /i/ and Reformation in Security Democracy Rules Essay example /?/ in why should the drinking 21 isolation are pronounced without any nasal quality. However, when we say the Reformation Democracy Rules Essay, word pin or pan in everyday speech, the anticipation of forming a final nasal consonant will make it easier to tale of two, go into the nasalized articulation in advance and Reformation in Security Sectors: Essay as a result the vowel sounds in these words will be nasalized. Elision is the process of eliminating sounds in normal, rapid pronunciation. Elision mostly occurs where clusters of consonants exist. Take the word government, for example, /g?v?m?nt/, mashed potatoes /m?? p?teit?uz/, next day /neks dei. etc. Who syllables may be elided, in words such as library /laibri:/, and some words are simply prone to elision, such as of before consonants in cup o tea, lots o people, and others such as gonna and wanna, from the drinking, going to and want to, respectively.

A sound may be introduced between words or syllables to help them run together more smoothly. A primary example of this is the pronunciation of word-final /r/ in RP. RP speakers pronounce /r/ is Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example, such words as clear and mother when they are followed by a vowel, e.g. clear answer /kli?r/, but /kli?/ in clear question. The intrusive r is also very present with native speakers of RP, who regularly link adjacent vowels with an r even when there is apple financial statement, no r in the spelling ( example a) as well as with open back vowels (example b). e.g. Reformation In Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay? a) media interest /mi:di?(r)intr?st/ b) law and geography order /l?:(r)?nd ?:d?/ There are two sub-disciplines in linguistics which deal with sound and they are phonetics and phonology and in order to understand the sound system of the English language, its various accents and how these sounds combine and pattern together, we need aspects of both. Phonetics provides objective ways of describing and analyzing the range of sounds humans use in their languages. Reformation In Security Sectors: Democracy? More specifically, articulatory phonetics identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the different sounds of the language. Those sounds are then transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on the physics of how to, speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves, and in Security Rules example the effect those waves have on a hearers ears and brain. While phonetics deals with the production, properties and perception of the speech sounds, phonology, deals with the sound patterns of the particular language, and in what speakers and hearers need to know to be speakers of apple financial, that language. Phonologists investigate which function a sound has in a language and which sounds can be combined; which sounds can follow each other, and which can not.

Unlike most European languages, English is not a phonetic language: words can have identical vowel letters and be pronounced in different ways, e.g. great, treat, and threat; vice-versa, words with phonologically identical vowels may have different spellings, as in Reformation in Security Sectors: Essay sea, seize, and precede, hence, the importance of teaching both pronunciation and spelling. Nowadays, everyone is expected to speak a bit of English, but trying to find someone in Italy who can speak it clearly intelligibly -, without mangling it, is no easy task at all. That is where phonetics and phonology comes in, and it is a fascinating subject and essential for any student wanting to learn (and understand!) a foreign language especially English! Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Phonetics and Phonology.

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Essay on Microbiology: Top 6 Essays. Read this essay to learn about Microbiology. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Microbiology 2. In Security Rules Essay Example? Eras of Microbiology 3. Some 20th Century Highlights in Microbiology 4. Branches of Microbiology 5. Statement? Scope and Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay Future of Microbiology and 6. Modern Microbiology. Essay on Introduction to Microbiology Essay on which describes of substitutes monopoly? the Eras of Microbiology Essay on in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example Some 20th Century Highlights in Microbiology Essay on Branches of Microbiology Essay on the Scope and Future of Microbiology Essay on the Modern Microbiology. Microbiology is a branch of biology that deals with microorganisms (often upto a diameter of 1000 ) and their effects on other living organisms. It derives its name from the union of three greek words: mikros (= small), bios (= life bearing); and logos (= study). It ia a multi-disciplinary science of microorganisms and the prefix micro generally refers to an object small enough so that microscopic examination is required for detailed visualization.

Thus it is the scientific study of microorganisms, including a diverse group of simple life forms like protozoa, algae, molds, bacteria and viruses. Microbiology is concerned with the structure, function, classification and ways of controlling and using their activities. The earlier works done by Antony Van Leauwenhoek (1632 1723), and later in tale of two brother, 19th century by Louis Pasteur (1822- 1893) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) etc. laid the foundations of this subject. 1. Era of Speculation (5000 BC to 1675): Prior to Hippocrates (412 B.C.) some Biblical and Reformation Democracy Essay other historical records often talked of the death tolls that some disease had taken.

And Hippocrates seems to pronounce economics have been the first observer to document an Influenza epidemic in the year 412 B.C. Epidemics of plague have been recorded in China since 224 B.C. Major Plague epidemics occurred in 540 AD in Egypt, reached Constantinopole in Reformation in Security Democracy example, 542, and spread to Europe and Asia in the following decade; and was called the describes the availability of substitutes in a, Plague of Lustinion named after the emperor of Brezantine Empire from 527 to 565 A.D. One of the most notorious of the Reformation Essay example, plague epidemics consumed 14 th century Europe. It began in the Volga River Basin in 1345, travelled north through Europe and reached England in 1348, and finally Russia in 1351.

It was called as The Great Dying, Magna Mortalis or The Black Death, claimed around one-third to one half the population of Europe and an estimated 40 million deaths worldwide. It was probably the concept of quarantine (from the Italian quarentina, meaning forty, supposed to be based on how to the number of days Christ spent in the wilderness) was instituted then. Though the infected individuals were kept isolated from others, the reservoir of the disease causing microbes (Rats) and the rat fleas (the vector) were allowed to roam freely. The proposed remedies were also interesting and in Security Sectors: Essay included burning incense sticks, dipping handkerchiefs in pronounce, aromatic oils, ringing church bells, firing canons, wearing magical figures and bathing in human urine etc. The other major pandemic of plague was recorded during 1655-1896, mostly in China and India, where more than 12 million died.

It was in 1894 that Yersin and Kitasato described the causative agent, now known as Yersinia pestis. And, it wasnt until 1897 that the mode of transmission was conclusively identified. During early 1940s Syphilis spread throughout Europe. It was on this ailment Paul Ehrlich, in Reformation Democracy, the first decade of the 20 th century focused his search for the magic bullet. There have been seven major pandemic occurrings from 1817 through 1970.

Smallpox alone is estimated to have killed more than 100 million people worldwide. In the geography, late 18th century the Democracy Essay, work of Edward Jenner, who developed a vaccine from the similar virus of cowpox, paved the way for the control of globalisation geography this deadly disease. Reformation In Security Democracy Essay Example? Infact, the term Vaccine was born from the Latin word for cow, vacca, based on Jenners work. In 1918-1919, the Spanish influanza pandemic, killed some 40-50 million people, about 2-3% of worlds population. It attacked the very young and geography very old, taking advantage of their frail immune systems. It also spread across five continents. Though considerable work was being done in the field of bacteriology, the advances in the field of virology had to wait for Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example, the development of the electron microscope by Belgian Physicist Marton (1934). In the late 17th century a slow yet methodical pursuit began as a new chapter in humanitys understanding of the hitherto unseen and unknown world. As per WHO report, in which best describes the availability of substitutes monopoly?, 2003 alone, more than 11 million people died of in Security Sectors: Democracy infectious diseases including AIDS, tuberculosis and Malaria and of them half of them in economics, Africa. 2. Reformation In Security Sectors: Democracy? Era of globalisation Observation (1675 to Mid 19 th Century): The unknown, transmissible substance, Virus (Latin for Reformation Rules Essay example, poison) had always puzzled humanity.

Earlier workers studying such small creatures were said to be as Microbe Hunters by Paul De Kruif (1954). Scientific and methodological understanding of bacteria had already started in this era and the advanced versions of Light and advent of electron microscope started new horizons for the classical microbiology. It is at times seen from 1675 to mid19 th century. 3. Era of apple financial statement Cultivation (Mid 19 th Century to Early 20 th Century): Although a period of over 150 years of observations and discoveries by many early microbiologists had contributed a lot to the understanding of this discipline, still the cause of infectious diseases was completely unknown till mid 19 th century. Reformation In Security Democracy Essay? In 1857, Pasteur, the chemist with a microscope turned beet sugar into alcohol. Thus eventually he succeeded in preparing a culture medium, (Pasteur called it yeast soup). Infact the lack of suitable means to obtain pure cultures was a major impediment to of mice and men the development of the Germ Theory of Disease.

Pasteur thus entered into the field of fermentation and was perhaps the first to in Security Sectors: Essay associate the growth of globalisation specific microbes with the production of specific fermentation products. It was in the year 1865 that the Germ Theory of Disease was inaugurated. After fermentation Pasteur was called to look the cause of silkworm disease in South France, and after observing the diseased eggs and other details he wrote: If I can be permitted this antithesis, the role of infinitely small being appeared to me infinitely large, either as a cause of various diseases, especially contagious diseases, or as contributors to the decomposition and to the return to the atmosphere of everything which has lived . Reformation In Security Sectors: Essay? (Lechevalier and Solotorovsky, 1965). Although the the drinking age be, prevailing spontaneous generation influenced Pasteurs work, but he believed that microbes did not arise spontaneously, as the Reformation example, air exposure had failed many of the earlier efforts to demonstrate such things. Later Tyndall, the physicist, and which describes Pasteur postulated that specks of Reformation Sectors: Rules example dust carried microbes. This was an experiment which did it all, and is now known as famous swan-neck flask experiment. In 1877, Fedinand Cohn described the spores of Bacillus subtilis and geography their heat-resisting properties.

Thus the joint efforts of Pasteur, Tyndall and Cohn finally eroded the concept of spontaneous generation. Robert Koch is believed to have used a solid surface (a potato slice) to grow microorganism. Loeffler and Graffky working in Kochs lab, devised the streak method whereby they would use a fine wire or needle to streak potato with an organism. Koch, being an Rules Essay, amateur photographer, also produced photomicrographs while working on Anthrax and used gelatin for age be, this purpose. But gelatin proved to be a wrong choice as it melted at temperatures above 15C and thus could not be incubated at the optimal temperatures for the growth of many organisms, they were trying to study. It was in 1882, when Frau Angelina Hesse, the wife of a graduate student in Kochs lab, suggested agar-agar, came as a final solution.

At 1-1.5%, its properties were well-studied and suited for use in microbiology having a melting point of Essay 100C and a setting point of less than 45C. This enabled the incubation of globalisation geography cultures to anything below 100C. This technique revolutionized cultural bacteriology and enabled the in Security Rules Essay example, great advancement of the subject during the last two decades of the 19 th century. Later the germ theory of disease was advanced by Koch and also demonstrated the of mice, association between specific microbes and specific diseases, and showed that there was an external source of the germs and to Reformation Democracy Essay example get the disease, the germs must gain entrance into the victim. Koch was also invited to address the endemic Cholera problem. He had concluded that the same slightly curved rod in every victim (and not present in Healthier individuals) present in polluted water around huts was the cause of the disease. In 1887, Julius Petri, not only used lids, but glass was also substituted with clear plastic. Also the grid was added to counting chambers. Chantemesse and george Widal, 1887, prepared the first differential medium using glucose and lactose peptone water to differentiate E.coli from Salmonella typhii. After that a Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato developed a test for indole production to further aid in the differentiation of Sectors: Rules example these species. Why Should 21? In 1892, Wurtz of Paris introduced the use of indicators in the medium to detect acid production.

Pasteur later developed the preparations from the causative agents of chicken cholera showing the alteration of the Rules example, virulence and the development of a vaccine produced by laboratory manipulation. This is how Pasteur, Father of Microbiology had opened the field of preventive medicine. Pasteur and his colleagues, Emile Roux, and Chamber-land, had further successes using attenuated anthrax bacilli. Essay # 3. Some 20th Century Highlights in Microbiology : The 1900s witnessed tremendous advances on several fronts: microbial metabolism, microbial genetics and tale molecular biology, antimicrobial therapies, and development of selective and differential culture media and virology, just to name a few. Also the art of microbial toxonomy moved from a purely morphological basis to one based on metabolic characteistics. Reformation Sectors: Democracy Essay? The reclassification of species (with molecular methods in use) allowed grouping of organisms according to their genetic make up. The genetic materialss role became useful in studies aimed at understanding bacterial variation and antibiotic resistance. The processes of of mice and men george bacterial transformation and mutation were the basis for determining that all genetic information of cells is coded for by DNA.

The year 1928 saw the discovery of Penicillin by Alexander Flemming. Howard Florey associated (driven by the intense need of Second World War), purified it in 1940 and it became commercially available. It also promoted the Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules example, work and tale of two search for other such antimicrobial weapons produced by soil microorganisms. Later, Streptomycin was discovered and other broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by the development of semisynthetic antibiotics. The 1920-40s witnessed the development of Reformation in Security Democracy Rules Essay example .many of the selective media used today, as well as techniques for the isolation of anaerobic organisms.

In 1953 Watson and Crick, published the double helix model for DNA. Pronounce Economics? In 1983, DNA became a useful tool when Karry Mullis invented the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) London County Council Laboratory Services in 1950, led to the commercial development of dehydrated media. The virology progressed due to several reasons made possible by: (a) The use of fertile eggs as a method for the cultivation of a virus. (b) The UV-microscopy (developed by Barnard) gave the first view of the Sectors: Essay example, elementary bodies of a number of viruses. (c) The development of tissue culture techniques in the 1920s and 30s and. (d) The development of the electron microscope by Marton in 1934. In 1954, the development of the monolayer technique and that of using cytopathic effect for viral detection led to the availability of of two brother live virus vaccines. Since then the development of antiviral chemotherapies has been a thrust area of Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay researches in microbiology. In 1995 the entire genome sequencing was completed for Haemophilus influezae.

Essay # 4. Branches of Microbiology: Microbiology is a mutidisciplinary subject as the microbes are not only playing useful role in nature through their links in bio-geochemical cycles, symbiotic relationship, in maintaining soil fertility, in bio-remediation, also as plant pathogens, microbes in biotechnology and as amodel organisms for biochemical molecular and describes the availability of substitutes in a genetic processes but are also providing homogenous experimental material relatively quickly. Reformation In Security Sectors: Example? As a result of their link to several branches of science many branches of microbiology can be identified (and are still growing). Some of the established branches are as follows: It encompasses the uses of a variety of microbes in why should age be, industrial processes. Initially they were being used for industrial fermentation and waste water treatment. As today industry is linked to in Security Essay example biotechnology, several new industrial applications have been found for a variety of microbes. It is sometimes also studied as microbial biotechnology and is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of apple financial statement materials by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses) or plant and animal cells to create useful products or services.

Areas of industrial microbiology include quality assurance for in Security Sectors: example, the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. This branch of microbiology deals with the scientific study of pathogenic microbes, the diseases they cause, their mode of survival in environment and tale brother their hosts (including life-cycle); their diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In fact, as early as Varo and Columella in the first century BC had postulated that the diseases were caused by invisible beings (animalia minuta). Von Plenciz (1762) had put forth the idea that each disease was caused by Reformation in Security Sectors: Essay, a separate agent. It covers a variety of topics where microbes are responsible for causing diseases of skin and eye infections, pneumonia (by bacteria), several sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), minor arthropod diseases, gastrointestinal infections including infections from of mice george, drinking cow milk harbouing certain pathogenic bacteria and their remedies etc. This branch deals with microbes having an Reformation Sectors: Rules Essay example, impact on agriculture and why should food chains. Both, the harmful (microbes causing plant diseases) as well as useful microbes (e.g., N 2 fixing microbes, use of microbes in bio-fertilizers etc.) are studied under this branch.

Certain raminants also carry a mixture of complex bacteria that enable the animal to extract sufficient nutrient from a diet of grasses. Democracy Example? Future research in microbial ecology will help to determine in preserving a balance in mirobial communities that favour agriculture. In the late 1800s, and early 19th century Sergei Winogradsky, a Russian Mineralogist, pioneered the field of microbial autotrophs, and initiated the field of Environmental Microbiology. This branch includes the study of composition and physiology of microbial communities of the environment. It also deals with the activities of economics microbial entities, their interactions among themselves and with maroorganisms. Adhesion, biofilm formation, global element cycles, biogeochemical processes and microbial life in extremes of in Security Democracy environment or unexplored environs all fall in its preview.

As the microorganisms are ubiquitous (present almost everywhere) food and milk are no exceptions. Hence the microbes are studied from the how to pronounce, viewpoint that they (e.g., Bacteria, Yeasts, molds etc.) can either act as spoilage microorganisms or pathogenic microorganisms. And thus how they can cause spoilage, prevent spoilage through fermentation or can be the Reformation Rules, cause of human illness, all comes under the realm of this branch of microbiology. It is a thrust area of microbiology these days, as more and more food items are being packaged (including milk and its products) for describes of substitutes, later use. The UN convention on Biological Diversity defined Biotechnology as: any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof to Sectors: Democracy Essay make or modify products or processes for specific use. Best Describes In A? Bio-engineering, including recombinant genetic technology of the 21 st century is the science upon which all biotechnological applications are based. It combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, food sciences, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, microbiology, cell biology and all are interrelated to electronics, information technology and in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example robotics. The current science of bacteriology includes the study of both domains of prokaryotic cells (the Bacteria, and Eucarya). But recently due to out-break of molecular techniques applied to phylogeny of how to life, another group of prokaryotes was defined and informally named , archaebacteria (it has now been renamed as Archaea) and Reformation Rules Essay example included in the study of bacteriology.

It is the study of viruses, complexes of and men nucleic acids and proteins that have the capacity for replication in animal, plant or bacterial cells. To replicate, the viruses use their genomes (DNA or RNA) or of the Essay, host cells and cause changes in cells, particularly its antigenicity and may cause several diseases in plants and animals is all covered under this branch. This branch deals with the biota that inhabits the soil and the processes they mediate. Pronounce? As the soil is Reformation Sectors: Essay a complex environment, colonized by an immense variety of microorganisms, the soil microbiology focuses on soil viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and protozoa, but traditionally it has also included investigations of soil animals such as nematodes, mites and other arthropods. Modem soil microbiology represents an globalisation geography, integration of microbiology with the Sectors: Rules Essay, concepts of soil science, chemistry and ecology to understand the functions of microorganism in the soil environment. This branch deals with the study of microbial flora of various types of sewage. The sewage may, depending upon describes the availability monopoly? source, can contain harmless (E. coli and other coli forms) to potential pathogens including enterococci, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, etc. This branch studies their qualitative as well as quantitative details and Sectors: Rules Essay ways to combat them following various treatment processes. It deals with the study of various fungi. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and around 300 species are shown to be pathogenic for man.

It studies their morphology, taxonomy, biosystematics, distribution, propagation, and of mice george several mycotic diseases they cause including hypersensitivity, mycotoxicoses, mycetismus and other infections and their remedies. It is a sub-discipline of botany, and deals with the scientific study of algae. As many species are single celled and Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example microscopic (e.g. Phytoplankton and micro algae); yet others are multicellular (some growing) very large as seaweeds such as Kelp and Sargassum they are also studied in tale brother, microbiology. It also covers aspects like cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy example other microscopic forms occurring as symbionts in lichens. Earlier much in use, this branch is the geography, study of protozoa (motile and heterotrophic) protists. In Security Sectors: Example? Protozoa-despite their small size and how to unicellularness offer complex and unique biological features. In Security? They also serve as experimental models in a variety of cellular, molecular, biochemical and ecological researches. One of the applied sub-branches of this old branch is medical protozoology (covering protozoa infecting humans).

It covers life-cycles, morphological features, host-parasite interactions, geographical distributions, reservoir hosts, method of transmission and control, pathology, immunological aspects, diagnosis and remedies are all included in it. It covers the study of how to microorganisms and their activities in natural water. As the natural waters include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries and in Security Democracy oceans, it initially started covering all of them. But due to the growth of the subject several other branches have also been recognized and are as follows: (a) Marine microbiology. (b) Estuarine microbiology. (c) Groundwater microbiology, and.

(d) Deep-sub-surface microbiology. The aquatic microbiology deals with the variability of globalisation aquatic habitat and rapid changes in Reformation in Security Rules Essay example, characteristics and brother associated microbial component. The microbial activity and Reformation Democracy biomass measurement studies are performed to follow microbial functions in water ecosystems. Also the balance between N, P, O and why should 21 H is studied in lakes, eutrophic systems, and streams etc. As marine environment is the largest part of the biosphere, being about 97-98% of all the water on earth, efforts are being made to study seas, especially deep seas (and their microbial functioning), as 75% of the ocean is Reformation Rules Essay below 1000 m depth (and is constantly cold at about 3C on an average). The oceanic explorations like Challenger expedition and tale of two brother Galathea expedition were among the initial efforts to critically explore microbial aspects of the deep seas and the nature of Democracy Rules example psychrophilic bacteria. Barotolerant bacteria are among the of mice and men george, unique fauna of deep oceans.

As the most of the earlier work on seas and oceans remains confined to the near-shore and estuarine marine environments, the Sectors: Democracy example, interest is growing in the off-shore and pelagic ocean microbiology. It deals with the rapid variations in the physicochemical properties in estuaries leading to the establishment of unique microbial communities. This branch also undertakes the study of epiphytic microbial communities of estuarine plants, its biomass, temperature, salinity etc. And as great fluctuations are observed in estuarine environments, so are the varieties of microbial groups including sulphur bacteria, iron bacteria and geography heterotrophs etc. Earlier the groundwater was assumed to be sterile, as very early studies indicated a decrease in microbes with increasing depths. But the Reformation in Security Rules Essay, microbiology of groundwater has become an important branch due to increased pressure on groundwater, ever increasing contamination and presence of microbes in deep waters. This is a recent branch of microbiology and addresses deep aquifers (hundreds of meters below surface). Of Two? It attempts to study the role of microorganisms in influencing the Reformation Democracy Rules, petroleum, sulphur and other drilling companies and economics vice-versa.

It is the study of those invisible microorganisms (less than 1 mm in size) which are present in air. It also covers monitoring, distribution and diversity of airborne microorganisms in indoor and outdoor environments and especially the ones causing breathing trouble and diseases. It covers the role of a variety of Sectors: Rules microbes in hydrocarbon processing in formation of coal, gases and minerals. It also tells us to employ microbes for recovery of minerals from george, low grade ores. The microbial degradation of chemicals in Reformation Democracy example, the environment is an important route for removal of these compounds. This branch deals with the details of the degradation of hydrocarbons, lignins, cellulose, hemicellulose, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides including organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, dithioates and how to pronounce carbonates.

It deals with the in Security Sectors: Democracy example, microbes in the outer space (or the extraterrestrial space) but all these microbes were originated on earth. In other words, the space microbiology is called exomicrobiology. It .is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading microorganisms and our responses to tale of two them. These invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites. How our first line of defense (e.g., skin) and second line of defense: specific or adaptive immune system works are all studied here. Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts and the relationship between them. In Security Sectors:? This being a multi-disciplinary branch uses inputs of various techniques from fields such as cell biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution and ecology. It is the study of the factors affecting health and illness of populations and use of preventive medicines in order to cure such diseases. It is derived from the why should 21, term epi = upon, among; demos = people, district, and logos = study meaning what is upon the people.

This indicates that it applies to human only. Hippocrates, the in Security Sectors: Democracy example, famous Greek Physician is sometimes said to have coined the term epidemic (for diseases that are seen at some times but not others); and endemic (for diseases usually found in of two, some places but not in others.) Microbiology and Veterinary science are complimentary fields in the medical maintenance and treatment of birds. Sometimes this branch has also been called as aviculture microbiology or avian medical microbiology. As the birds can cross continents, or get supplied as food across continents their disease causing microbes and associated biota have also become significant. Veterinary microbiology is Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules concerned with microbial (bacteria, fungal and how to viral,) diseases of domesticated animals (e.g., livestock, companion animals, fur producing animals, game animals, poultry and fish) that supply food or other useful products or companionship. Reformation Essay Example? It also covers microbial diseases of wild animals living in captivity and zoonoses related diseases. Sometimes seen as a part of industrial microbiology, this branch is responsible for tale, screening several drugs (parental and oral drugs) following strict measures for measuring microbiological testing in order to validate certain compounds to standard protocols. It is a modern branch of microbiology where all the Reformation, microbes associated with major dental diseases (e.g., caries and periodontal diseases) are studied. It also covers all the resident oral bacteria and host details.

This branch deals with all phases of the systematics of prokaryotes, yeasts and tale yeast like organisms, including taxonomy, nomenclature, identification, phylogeny, evolution, biodiversity, characterization and culture preservation etc. It also covers all aspects related to the evolution of all micro-organisms, including the protists (as protozoa and algae). It is an interesting branch of microbiology concerned with the structure, function and relationships of microorganisms, with particular emphasis on how microbes respond in response to changes in environment. Microbial genetics is a subject area within biotechnology and genetic engineering. It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms. It also encompasses the study of the genotype of microbial species and in Security Sectors: Democracy example also the expression system in the form of phenotypes.

33. Probiotic and Prebiotic Microbiology: Probiotics and prebiotics have long been appreciated for their positive influences on gut health. The prebiotics include the non-digestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms in peoples colon. And the probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases bacteria) that are similar to the microorganisms found in the human gut. They are also termed as friendly or good bacteria. The probiotics are available to consumers mainly in the form of and men george dietary supplements and food. Due to growing consciousness about health, they are nowadays also being used as complementary and alternate medicine (CAM). One widely used definition of Reformation in Security Sectors: Rules example probiotics, is the describes the availability in a, one given by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations; is that, Probiotics are live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.

Essay # 5. Scope and Future of Reformation in Security Democracy Essay example Microbiology: The microbes not only need to be understood as causative agents of diseases but are also useful to us as contributors in food production, antibiotic manufacture, vaccine development and environmental management. Recently the subject had also allowed us to explore and pronounce control the following diseases; Foot and mouth disease, Asian Bird Flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), West Nile Virus, and Monkey-pox. We are now also exploring more Prions related diseases causing a type of amyloid diseases (characterized by Reformation Sectors: Democracy Rules, normal brain protein being altered and of two brother changing into fibres); at times called as: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TCS). Some famous examples include: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans (CJD), Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) also known as mad-cow disease, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk Kuri in human Feline spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE), and Transmissible mink Encephalopathy (TME).

The interest is Reformation Sectors: Essay example growing in various zoonotic diseases (of animals that can pass to humans) due to pronounce economics their close proximity of Reformation Democracy rearing or habitation. Due to undergoing environmental changes, global warming and globalisation related climate changes, various mathematical models are trying to understand the impact of these factors on disease causing microbes of their respective hosts. Immunoparasitology has helped us in the past to understand various pathogens. But due to Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules a use of wide variety of invasions and immune evasion mechanisms used by various parasites, the nature keeps posing greater challenges for epidemiologists. As a result several genome mapping programmes are underway for disease causing protozoa and helminths (e.g., L. major, P. falciparum, and the drinking T. gondii etc.). The microbial biota on earth is thought to exceed in weight even if all other living things are combined. This is the Sectors: Rules, same as eloquently argued by palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1996), that the 21st century will be the era of the microbes. As the bacteria alone account for 50% of the biomass of carbon and over 90% of the best the availability, biomass of Nitrogen and phosphorus combined on our planet, such claims seem to be true. In Security Rules Essay? The future microbiology is already an integrative microbiology incorporating inputs from which best of substitutes monopoly?, microbial physiology, microbial genetics, microbial ecology and microbial pathogenesis using tools and dialects of various sub disciplines. The use of microbes in nanotechnology has brought microbiology to engineering and physics.

And recent discoveries indicate that microbes also play roles in determining animal behaviour, bringing microbiology to the realm of psychology. Hence the 21st century microbiology is already an integrative science with lots of challenges and benefits to reap. Modern microbiology reaches into many fields of humans including the development of Reformation in Security Sectors: Essay example pharmaceutical products, the use of quality-control and dairy product production, the control of disease-causing microorganisms in water, and the industrial applications of microorganisms. Microorganisms are used to produce vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, and growth supplements. They manufacture many foods including fermented dairy products (sour cream, yogurt, and buttermilk), as well as other fermented foods such as pickles, sauerkraut, breads, and alcoholic beverages.

One of the economics, major areas of applied microbiology is biotechnology. In this discipline microorganisms are used as living factories to Sectors: Rules produce pharmaceuticals that otherwise could not be manufactured. These substances include the human hormone insulin, the which, antiviral substance interferon, numerous blood-clotting factors and clot dissolving enzymes, and a number of bacteria can be engineered to increase plant resistance to insects and frost and Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay example biotechnology will represent a major application of microorganisms in the next century. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology.

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How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Reformation Rules Essay Example. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. How To Economics. Instead, they explore the problem and the different viewpoints about the answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an objective point of view with a neutral tone.

Rather than trying to solve the problem, this essay looks at all the different perspectives on the issues and Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules, seeks to why should the drinking explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in Democracy Rules Essay this issue and explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground. Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. This type of paper seeks to look beyond the obvious answers to find creative solutions. Why Should. For example, on in Security Sectors: example the illegal immigration topic, an exploratory paper could consider not only the liberal and conservative political views but also look at the argument from the point of view of immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the the drinking age be 21, Outline format below.

Re-read your articles and your Summary-Analysis-Response paper. Fill in how each article can be used to support your points in your outline. Reformation Democracy Example. Be sure to include the how to economics, source of that point in MLA form, which is author last name and page in parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31). Reformation In Security. Talk out your paper with a friend. Work with a friend or a small group. Tale Of Two. Explain your paper using your outline. Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay. Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on how to make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the questions on Peer Edit Outline below. Globalisation. Optional: you may want to gather some visuals to include in your essay.

Write a draft. Be sure to include transitions such as some people believe, another perspective is, one way to look at the issue is, a final perspective might be. Dont forget to use author tags if you are talking about a particular article. Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and in Security example, quotes from geography your research into your draft. In an exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in Reformation Democracy Essay example your own words the positions you describe. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the point in pronounce a way you cant by paraphrasing.

Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions. Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the peer editing session to revise your paper. 1. Define and describe the issue and in Security Sectors: Democracy example, present the arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one). 3. Identify and summarize at least three major positions on this issue (body part two). 4. Best Describes Of Substitutes. Indicate your personal interest in this issue and the position you favor (conclusion).

5. Optional: You might want to gather one or more visuals to add to your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an arguable question, which means it is a question that is: Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the answer to. Something people have different views about (try to find at Reformation in Security Sectors: Essay, least three). Interesting to people right now. Apple Financial Statement. Linked to an enduring issue. There are three things you need to do in the introduction: Grab the reader's interest in the arguable issue. Use one of the introductory techniques in the table to explain the situation and Reformation in Security Democracy Rules Essay example, argument. Make sure the reader understands the issue and why it is important (some issues need lots of explanation and why should age be 21, description, but others are so well known you don't need to explain).

Tell the arguable question (usually at the end of the introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the Reformation in Security Rules example, issue Talk about of mice george what makes this argument important now Use an intriguing statement or quote Give history of this idea or argument Make a list of in Security Democracy Essay, problems Give several examples of this problem Ask a series of questions Use a frame (use part of the drinking, story to open, then finish story in conclusion) Use interview questions and answers. The body of this type of essay has two parts. The first part is Reformation Rules Essay example generally one paragraph and explains the problem or issue. The second part is generally three or more paragraphs and explains the different positions on the topic. Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of writing is being done on this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups? Politicians?

Is there an academic study being done? Reader: Who are the audiences interested in this question? What are the different positions they hold? Why are the which best describes of substitutes monopoly?, readers interested in this question? Author : Who are the people writing on this question? What is Sectors: common ground between the authors and readers (audiences)? Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the and men george, way we can talk about this subject?

Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in this question now? What is the history of this issue and question? How has interest in this question changed over time? What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to? Part Two: Three or More Positions on the Issue. For each of the three or more positions, you need to write a separate paragraph. In each paragraph: Explain the position. Tell why people believe that position. Give the best arguments for that position.

Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the positions. That makes an especially effective transition. For example: In contrast to the idea that homelessness is caused by in Security Rules example a lack of homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at which describes the availability of substitutes, the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of housing or poor relationships which are the root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for Body Part Two. Start each of the paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the different position. Here are examples of how to begin each paragraph: Position 1: Many people believe What is this point of view?

Which articles can you use for Reformation Democracy Essay, this point of pronounce, view? What part of the article is Reformation in Security Democracy Rules helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend What is this point of pronounce economics, view? Which articles can you use for Reformation Sectors: Rules, this point of globalisation, view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 3: Another way to look at this question is. What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful?

The conclusion of your essay is where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue. You can also explain why you are interested in this particular topic. Reformation Sectors: Essay Example. Your position may be one of the ones you describe in apple statement the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself. In the Reformation Rules Essay, conclusion, you can use some of the same techniques that you use in economics your introduction. Here are some other ideas: Finish the frame story.

Add the Reformation Sectors: example, final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the reader your own conclusions and point of view. Which Best Describes. If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the most important points to Reformation in Security Democracy consider. Challenge the reader to decide. Outline the main things we need to think about statement when we make a decision about Reformation in Security Democracy this questionwhat is why should the drinking age be important and what is not. After you have written your outline, get some help by in Security Sectors: example practicing talking about your paper idea in a small group, or in age be front of the whole class.

Take turns in your group having each person share about Sectors: Essay example their paper using their outline. Then the group can respond to questions, comments, and suggestions. It helps if you write down your comments so the person can remember. In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question? Do the question and the three positions match up? Is there a contrast in the positions? Are there other positions you think need to be considered?

Is the context/constraints of the question clear? Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the author respond to the ideas and connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to be explained or expanded? Having someone else read your essay and globalisation geography, give you some feedback is a great way to improve your writing. In my class, students work in groups to peer edit and in Security Democracy example, I usually try to have at least two people read every essay. If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on your own by having a friend or even your parents look over why should the drinking age be 21, your essay. Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in my class.

I start by having each writer look at their own paper, and then have at least two peer editors answer the questions. Underline: your question, the in Security Sectors: example, three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and citations. II. Describes The Availability. Write (at top of draft or on a separate sheet of paper): What is best about your paper. Reformation In Security Sectors:. Questions you have for the peer editor. What you want them to how to pronounce economics help you with. I. Read the paper and make marks on the draft about: grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II. On a separate sheet of paper write:

Intro : was the issue both defined and Reformation, described? Anything that needs to be added? Was the opening interesting? How could it be improved? Body : How well does the paper examine the apple financial, rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is interested in this issue], and constraints [situations and attitudes which affect the debate]) Is there any part missing?

How can it be improved? Does the paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are? Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the paper give enough evidence for each position? Conclusion: Does the author respond to in Security Sectors: Essay the issue and give an apple, interesting perspective? Does the author need to add anything? Most of the time, students are asked to write argument papers that present a particular point of view and attempt to persuade the audience. Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing.

Here is the difference between this assignment and an argument paper: Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to a conclusion and convince the audience which side of the issue is Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Rules example correct. Financial Statement. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the author wants to prove is best or right, so while the paper may talk about other views, most of the paper is in Security Sectors: spent proving one point of view. Exploratory essays look at several points of view in a neutral way. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the globalisation, different perspectives of the problem and seeks to understand the cultural and social context of the issue. It is the Reformation in Security Sectors: Democracy Essay, sort of paper you would write before writing a solution paper. The Drinking. An exploratory paper is common in businesses when they are attempting to Reformation in Security Rules Essay find a solution to a problem and need to get all of the possible perspectives and information available. Exploratory papers help you look at different audiences to which of substitutes help find common ground.

This paper also explores the different audiences or groups of people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on the cause, effects, and solutions proposed. In order to do this paper, you may want to narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an issue which are most often expressed and which polarize a debate. In an exploratory paper, you are asked to look beyond the obvious answers in order to find other points of view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. In Security. For example, in why should the drinking 21 looking at the issue of illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the illegal immigrants themselves, the Sectors: Democracy Rules Essay example, viewpoint of the government that the why should the drinking age be 21, illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the people who live on both sides of the Sectors: Democracy Rules example, border where illegal immigrants cross. Brother. You might also consider the Democracy, viewpoint of the border patrol employees. The conclusion of an exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at geography, least three sides of the Democracy Rules Essay, issue, giving fair treatment to each side. However, in the conclusion of the paper, you will indicate your own position and why you are persuaded in that direction. Whether it is labeled an exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of paper in many business and financial statement, college research papers. The basic point of this paper is to let you examine all the different viewpoints on an issue.

Here are some examples of exploratory questions: What caused the Reformation Sectors: Democracy Essay example, Civil War in the U.S.? What will happen in how to economics the Middle East in the next 10 years after the Arab Spring? How should the U.S. handle illegal immigration? What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to write an exploratory report about: How do people perceive our product based on different types of advertising? How do people use our product most often? What are the top competing products and what advantages does each have over Reformation Democracy Essay, our product? What are the different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to us and apple statement, what are the advantages/disadvantages of each one? By looking at three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the different audiences for an issue and better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed.

Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to you? How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 26. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37.

by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to in Security Sectors: Rules example the classroom. I'm so glad this has helped you. Financial. I have over 50 articles on writing here on HubPages that I've written for my own students. These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments.

Hope you do very well this semester! This is Reformation in Security Democracy Rules extremely helpful for me as a student. How To Economics. I've been out of school for quite some time. Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for sharing your knowledge with us. This is so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from Georgia. This would be useful for my teenagers to use during their essay at school.

Thank you. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Aubria--thanks for Reformation Essay, your comment. Apple. I do understand that sometimes we need students to Reformation example be tested for their own ability to write without help. I do that too. However, I know that not all of my students have actually had good instruction on best describes in a the different aspects of Reformation Sectors: Rules, various types of essays. Often the instructions in textbooks aren't as clear as they could be. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from which best describes the availability United States.

Thanks so much kerlynb! I've been frustated with many of the books I teach out of because they don't explain how to organize these papers. In Security Sectors: Rules Example. I certainly was never taught anything about how to how to pronounce put the paper together. So after a few years of in Security Democracy Essay example, college teaching, I started analyzing the essays in tale of two brother my textbooks and also the best student essays and came up with my series of How to in Security Rules example write papers. I've been amazed how many views they get each day. I'm so glad if I can help students! kerlynb 5 years ago from Philippines, Southeast Asia, Earth ^_^

Just where were you when I was in HS? This is so useful! I mean, many of us writers would need to come up with an exploratory piece every now and then. Have to vote this one up and useful :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and globalisation, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Reformation Democracy Essay, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and which best describes, respective owners.