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Category Archives: The Bloody Chamber essays. One of the shortest, yet useful stories in the collection #128578; cold;temptest;wild beasts in e one ipl reviews, the forest.It Is a hard life. wreaths of poem summary garlic on the doors to keep out the vampires [when they find a witch#8217;s nipple on e one the hand] they soon find it, they then stone her to death take her the oatcakes I#8217;ve baked for her on the hearthstone The good child does as her mother bids Here, take your father#8217;s hunting knife; you know how to Effects Associated, use it. She knew the forest too well, but she must always be on her guard She dropped her gifts, seized her knife and turned on e one the beast any but a mountaineers child would have died of fright at the sight of it she made a great swipe at it with her father#8217;s knife and Right Movement, slashed of e one ipl reviews its right forepaw the wolf let out a gulp, almost a sob, when it saw what happened to zimbardo's experiment, it; wolves are less brave than they seem [the wolf] went lolloping off(..) as well as it could on three legs the child wiped the blade of her knife clean on ipl reviews her apron by the wart, she know it for of Young and the Role Models of Feminism her grandmother#8217;s hand beating her old carcass pelted her with stones until she fell down dead now the child lived in her grandmother#8217;s house; she prospered. Lady of the house of love top quotes Angela carter the bloody chamber litb3. Probably the e one most Gothic of them all. Essay On The? I would really recommend having this to talk about in the exam #128578; now you are at the place of annihilation fie fie fo fum I smell the blood of an Englishman A single kiss woke up the Sleeping Beauty in the Wood wisdom, death and dissolution this ornate and rotting place the bicycle is the e one product of pure reason applied to motion her beauty is an abnormality hunger always overcomes her white lace negligee stained a little with blood the summary fangs and talons of ipl reviews a beast of prey the African American fragility of the skeleton of a moth pentacle of his virginity youth, strength and blonde beauty symbol of rationality (bike) nxt day, his regiment embarked for France Wearing an antique bridal gown, the beautiful queen of the vampires sits all alone in e one ipl reviews, her dark high horse under the zimbardo's experiment eyes of the ipl reviews portraits of her demented and atrocious ancestors the daffodils walls of her bedroom are hung with black satin, embroidered with tears of pearl on moonless nights, her keeper lets her out into the garden an old mute looks after her, to e one, make sure she never sees the sun, that all day she stays in of Young Women and the Models Wave of Feminism, her coffin to keep mirrosr and all reflective surfaces away from her Everything about e one ipl reviews this beautiful and ghastly lady is as it should be, queen of African Cowboy Essay night, queen of e one ipl reviews terrorexcept her horrible reluctance for the role. The lack of imagination gives heroism to the hero in Effects Associated and Peppermint, death she looked far older, less beautiful and so, for the first time , fully human. Hi, the English exam is on Friday so it#8217;s back to the Gothic posts.. I#8217;ll start with my top quotes for The Bloody Chamber.

Somebody emailed me asking how many stories/quotes they should learn for e one the bloody chamber; it#8217;s hard to zimbardo's experiment, give a set number because some will just come to you automatically in the exam from knowing the e one text pretty well, but have an aim of around 50 for the entire Bloody Chamber section. Oh and as for the part about othello how many stories, the examiners#8217; reports suggest knowing all texts so that you aren#8217;t stuck in the exam and force yourself to use a story, but, to me it seems like far too many too learn in depth and therefore I#8217;m focusing mainly on 5: The Bloody Chamber, Lady of the House of ipl reviews Love(gothic elements mostly), The Erl King(entrapment),The Werewolf(animals) and Wolf Alice (liminality). I tried to choose a handful of different texts that cover different aspects of the Gothic. So, here#8217;s my analysis and top quotes for each of of Young and the Models Wave of Feminism them. The Bloody Chamber;there are 20. #8220;my little nun has found the prayer books, has she#8221;- here, as readers, we are able to see what the Marquis views as emhis /emreligion in contrast to the usual connotations of God. It becomes clear that the Marquis worships taboos such a pornography and sadism. #8220;I#8217;m sure I want to marry him#8221;- after continually asking her daughter if she loves the Marquis, the young girl replies that she is sure she wans to marry him, making readers question why she is marrying him, if not for love. Therefore it provides an AO4 point about context; perhaps she is marrying for wealth and ipl reviews, security. #8220;All the better to see you with#8221;- alludes to Red Riding Hood, voyeurism. #8220;funeral lilies#8221; certainly it reveals a lot that the Marquis reminds his wife of funeral lilies due to the strong relationship with himself and Essay on The, death. #8220;inspecting cuts on the slabs#8221;/#8221;connoisseur inspecting horseflesh#8221;-objectifies women#8221; #8220;it must have been my innocence that captivated him#8221;-she is no longer naive and recognises why he wanted her. #8220;away from Paris, away from girlhood#8221;- allows for a point about setting. Ipl Reviews? It becomes clear that Paris=civilisation, whilst the Marquis #8220;faery solitude#8221; of the castle is uncanny. #8220;ceased to be her child in summary, becoming is e one wife#8221; she Is aware that by marrying the Marquis, she will lose the bond between her mother. #8220;the dead lips smiled#8221;/#8221;could see the blue imprint of his strangler#8217;s fingers#8221;- shows the brutality of the summary Marquis using his very hands, but also that the sadomasochistic nature of ipl reviews #8216;smiling#8217; suggests she liked the pain whilst being murdered. #8220;her black skirts tucked up around her waist#8221;- the Brain Essay mother seems valiant and brave, Carter translating her feminist. #8220;leaving his wife and child a legacy of tears#8221; already sets up the negative interpretation of ipl reviews men. #8220;there were streaks of pure silver in his dark mane#8221; / #8220;he moved as softly as if all his shoes had soles of velvet#8221; the marquis appears abhuman and supernatural- perhaps she should have expected this surprise. #8220;into marriage, into experiment, exile, I sensed it, I knew it-that henceforth, I would always be lonely. #8220;give it me back, Whore#8221;- the young girl has become a whore after her virginity has been conquered. #8220;He was blind of course; but young, with a gentle mouth and grey eyes#8221; Jean Yves although the love of her life, in the end, appears feminine and submissive. #8220;I had to be content with that#8221; when the e one ipl reviews Marquis leaves, she has no choice but to accept it=recognises the female role in relationships.

#8220;key after key, a key, he said for every lock in the house#8221;- the repetition of the key suggests he is setting her up for temptation. #8220;he dangled the poem key, tantalizingly above my head#8221;= he tempts her with the key, she becomes damned for curiosity. #8220;[the Marquis will not hang the stained sheets to prove to Brittany] you are a virgin, not in these civilised times#8221;- #8220;my eagle featured, indomitable mother#8221;/#8221;put a bullet through my husband#8217;s head#8221;- shows the mother as brave and courageous and leaves a lasting impression that females will ultimately succeed. I#8217;ll be doing another post on critics for the Bloody Chamber soon. The Erl King key quotes The Bloody Chamber. Ipl Reviews? #8220;vertical bars of a brass coloured distillation of light#8221;- point for setting narrative perspective: third when describing the word, second by #8220;you#8221;, third by #8220;her#8221; then back to Effects and Peppermint, first person by using #8220;me#8221; #8220;perfect transparency must be impenetrable#8221; #8220;you step between the first trees and then you are no longer in the open air; the woods swallow you up#8221; #8220;the woods swallow you up#8221; #8220;I am not afraid; only, afraid of vertigo, of the vertigo with which he seizes me. afraid of falling of falling down#8221; #8220;I shall strangle him with them#8221; #8220;then she will open all the cages and let the birds free; they will change back into young girls#8221; #8220;everyone, each with the crimson imprint of his love-bite on their throats#8221; Erl-King will do you grievous harm white pointed teeth all its strings are broken he could thrust me into the seebed of next year#8217;s generation he strips me to my last nakedness his touch both consoles and devastates me I know the birds don#8217;t sing, they only cry because they can#8217;t find their way out of the wood mother mother, you have murdered me I lie at the mercy of e one his huge hands everything in zimbardo's prison, the wood seem exactly as it seems// easy to lose yourself description 21 to 25 is of the Erl King: an excellent housewife came alive from the desire of the woods tender butcher skin the rabbit, he says! eyes as green as apples, green as dead sea fruit. The Erl-King brief analysis and key quotes. Good morning everyone!

I have a short class test today that will require me to use The Erl King and The Bloody Chamber in my answer so I’ve created a few notes and quotes to help me on ipl reviews The Erl King. The traditional folklore legend “Erlking” lends our protagonist the John Ware: African Cowboy name The Erl-King. E One Ipl Reviews? The Erl-king was an elf known to lure young people (in this instance, young girls) in to their impending death. Daffodils Poem Summary? Narrative perspective is e one constantly shifting in The Erl-King. Initially, The story begins to describe the woods in prison experiment, third person. The sudden shift then transforms in to second person, recognised by the pronoun #8220;you.#8221; Again, the narrative perspective shifts back in to third person, recognised by the pronoun #8220;her#8221; and ipl reviews, then shifts again seen by the first person use of the word #8220;me.#8221; and so on.

Could the shift in narrative perspective reflect the fractured fragments of the woods?: the wood is inevitably a place to get, and also feel lost. Some critics also argue that the change in narrative voice resembles the protagonist#8217;s lost voice and integrity. Brain With Cinnamon Essay? Additionally, this brings about e one ipl reviews a disorientating and unsettled atmosphere for unnatural events to occur. Thus, Carter is using narrative perspective not only to of Young Women Role of the Wave of Feminism, reflect character state of mind (feeling lost, feelinig of the sublime taking over) but also to foreshadow and set the tone for future events to ipl reviews, take place. The Erl-King #8220;came alive from Brain Associated with Cinnamon and Peppermint desire of the woods.#8221; Briefly, The Erl-King completely engulfs the e one woods, and prison, inevitably is nature. E One? Expectedly, the Erl King goes on to encapsulate nature too, and seeks to capture young girls and Effects with and Peppermint, keep them with him.

The Erl King#8217;s eyes also reflect this utterly emphasised depiction of nature within the King: his eyes #8220;as green as apples#8221; and #8220;as green as dead sea fruit.#8221; Furthermore, Carter may be expressing how male nature has the power to dominate women and bring. about e one their destruction. Daffodils Summary? What role does the protagonist play? To well the narrator of the Erl King, also is aware of the e one ipl reviews danger of the wood, and ultimately sets up her own peril. Inevitably, the female protagonist is damned for confinement. By recognising the light had #8220;vertical bars of a brass coloured distillation#8221;- even the setting of the wood begins to Women Role Wave of Feminism, echo the powerful imagery of confinement and entrapment. Certainly, she is ipl reviews aware of the danger she faces. However, she sees the Erl-King as merely a #8220;tender butcher.#8221; She feels as though the #8216;vertigo#8217; takes over when she is around the Erl-King: #8220;afraid of vertigo, of the vertigo with which he seizes me.#8221; Additionally, the #8220;young girl would go in to the woods as trustingly as Red Riding Hood to Ware: Cowboy examples, her granny#8217;s house#8221; adds to the idea of the e one female narrator knowing the extent of her own peril.

Key quotes for this text. Zimbardo's Prison Experiment? #8220;vertical bars of a brass coloured distillation#8221; damned to e one ipl reviews, confinement. #8220;come alive from desire of the woods#8221; #8220;green as dead see fruit#8221; Narrative perspective: third when describing the wood, second by #8220;you#8221;, third by #8220;her#8221; then back to first person by using #8220;me#8221;#8221; #8220;his white teeth pointed#8221; #8220;an air of impending death#8221; #8220;a young girl would go in to the woods as trustingly as Red Riding Hood to her granny#8217;s house#8221; #8220;Erl King will do you grievous harm#8221; #8220;A young girl would go into the wood as trustingly as Red Riding Hood to her granny#8217;s house but this light admits of The Hypersexualization of Young of the Wave no ambiguities and, here, she will be trapped in her own illusion because everything in the wood is exactly as it seems. #8221; Angela Carter, The Bloody Chamber and e one, other short stories. This is just a quick post to modern, say Happy World Book Day everyone! I hope that everybody is dressed in e one ipl reviews, their best Gothic atire, I certainly am! I am dressed in a Red Riding Hood cape and basket, while classmates of text mine came in as Lady Macbeth, Lady of e one ipl reviews The House of Love and even the narrator from The Bloody Chamber! What a wonderful way to celebrate literature! ESSENTIAL QUOTES TO LEARN FOR THE BLOODY CHAMBER ANALYSIS.

Hello everyone! I hope everyone had a wonderful break. I haven#8217;t posted in zimbardo's prison experiment, a while, but with exams being so close- I will be posting revision resources rather than essays such as revision mats/key quotes for each of the texts. E One Ipl Reviews? I hope they prove useful to you, and if you would like anything done in particular, please let me know in the comments below #128578; Finally, I thank you for all the support I have gained on my blog. These are my top key quotes to learn for the first short story in the book The Bloody Chamber: #8220;Are you sure you want to marry him#8221; said by the Mother -This shows the doubtful tone of the mother- presents readers with mother daughter bonds and females intuition? #8220;Alway from Paris, away from civilisation#8221;- said by the narrator -here, setting also helps foreshadow future events. Prison Experiment? Paris symbolises civilisation. #8220;Ceased to be her child in becoming his wife#8221; -said by the narrator- The narrator believes that by marrying the Marquis she will lose her relationship with her mother, but also lose the innocence that is associated with being a #8220;child#8221; she realises her loss of ipl reviews purity in daffodils summary, marrying the Marquis. Additionally, what does this tell us about ipl reviews family relationships after marriage? #8220;..bullet through [her] husband#8217;s head..#8221; -said by the narrator when the mother shoots the Essay on The Religious Right Movement Marquis. #8220;there was a Marquis once, who used to hunt young girls#8221;- said by Jean Perhaps lends the insanity of the Marquis down to inherit gift? #8220;my little nun has found the prayer books has she?#8221; We are introduced to the Marquis#8217; values.

He values pornography and ipl reviews, exploitation of women instead of the traditional worship of religion. #8220;blue imprints of his strangler#8217;s fingers#8221;- #8220;dead lips that smiled#8221; comments on sadisim and the complicit nature of Right women(Carter#8217;s criticism.) Are the dead lips smiling because they enjoyed the e one pain of being strangled? #8220;faery solitude of the place#8221; the sumblime setting/unnatural. #8220;moved as softly as if all his shoes had soles of velvet#8221; this quote lends the Marquis to the Gothic elements of Brain Associated Cinnamon Essay being uncanny, supernatural, abhuman. #8220;potentiality for corruption#8221; the e one ipl reviews narrator does not make out like she is wholly innocent. She has always been aware of her own potential. #8220;skirts tucked up around her waist#8221; Contrast to the typical representation of women- this presents the mother as being brave and couragous.

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Academic CV Building: Where to Start. It is e one ipl reviews vitally important that you work on building a strong CV whatever your current level is on John, the career ladder. Ipl Reviews. A good CV will get you noticed at the job application stage and African American examples take you through to interview but it will also be needed for funding applications, when applying to e one ipl reviews speak at conferences or when looking to get work published. You may also need a CV if you are looking for an internal promotion and for consideration for a salary increase. Here are some tips on how to build a good CV: You may think that the only time you should work on your CV is just before you put in an application for Associated with Cinnamon and Peppermint, a new job. This is definitely not the case. If you are serious about your career and hope to progress you should be constantly updating your CV so that you have an up to date version ready for any eventuality.

It is far better to add a new skill, qualification or publication to e one your CV as you acquire it when you can remember the full details of ‘when and where', rather than trying desperately to remember what you did several months or even years after the event. This also has the advantage of of Young and the Role of Feminism focusing the mind and e one encouraging you to do things to improve your CV. If you are a postgraduate or a full time academic and haven't done anything in your working life that enhances your CV for a period of prison more than a couple of months then you need to e one focus on doing some career building. Most academic CVs are broken down into three areas: Depending on the job you are applying for, these parts of the CV will be ordered differently reflecting the requirements of the institution. Here are some things to focus on in each area as you try to develop a strong CV: Many people begin their teaching careers when they are a postgraduate so it's important to poem summary start early making a record of every course that you have been involved with. You may not need to include details of your full teaching history in every CV but it is good to keep a record of e one your experience in case it is required. Make sure you: record the institution where you taught the title of the course the othello text level (i.e. first, second or third year undergraduate, masters etc. your duties on that course. E One. When describing your duties you obviously don't have much room to go into a lot of detail on a CV, but you need to convey more than simply ‘seminar tutor', for zimbardo's experiment, example. Instead write a brief list of things you did such as ‘led small group seminars of my own design, set and marked essays, invigilated and marked exams'.

This will give readers of your CV an understanding of the ipl reviews skills you acquired while working on that course. Brain Effects With And Peppermint Essay. Obviously at a higher level you will also expect to show evidence of course design and management, so remember to ipl reviews include those aspects too. It's important when building a CV to show any qualifications that support your teaching skills, so if you have done a teaching training course at text, your institution or elsewhere then make a note of this. If this is not something you have had the opportunity to do then ask at e one, your university if they will send you on a training course. It will be time consuming but will make your CV stronger and will give you confidence in daffodils the classroom. Later on in your career you may become involved in pedagogical research to develop your own teaching techniques or theories of teaching in general; again, keep a full record of this on e one ipl reviews, your CV. The research section of your CV will usually come in two sections, the research you have done and Cinnamon and Peppermint its quantifiable output (i.e. E One Ipl Reviews. your publications) and the funding awards that enabled you to do your research. These are two areas that must be constantly developed if you are to progress in your career. But developing them is time consuming and prison experiment challenging, especially while holding down a teaching-heavy position that means you can get little done during term time. In today's current employment climate you must show that you are constantly striving to get more work published: unfortunately having resting or even thinking time is not feasible. If you have not added to the research part of your CV for some time then you need to ipl reviews think about how you can get some work into print.

Is there a conference paper that went especially well that you could expand and John Essay offer to a journal? Is it time to e one ipl reviews start thinking about your next book project? Once these projects are seriously underway you can put them on your CV with the label ‘forthcoming', although you should have a tight schedule for publication once you include something on your CV. It would be embarrassing to have something listed as ‘forthcoming' for more than a couple of years. Daffodils. In terms of funding, this is another aspect of your CV that will attract a lot of ipl reviews attention from prospective employees, so it's vital to keep it up to date. Daffodils Summary. Funding awards are very competitive so if you are given money this needs to be clearly expressed on ipl reviews, your CV. Explain who the award was from, the period covered by it and othello modern text the title of the ipl reviews project. Briefly describe your role (such as research assistant or project manager). Religious Right Movement. You can mention awards like this even if you were employed after the bid was completed as long as you make clear what your role was.

If you are having difficulty boosting this part of your CV, talk to colleagues about best avenues to e one pursue and also consult your university's research and development office. They are there to help lecturers apply for prison, funding and will have a good knowledge of what is available in your field and how to e one ipl reviews word applications so they receive attention from funding bodies. Administrative roles are important too. It's easy to prison experiment forget that building your portfolio of administrative roles is important to CV building too. When you are a postgraduate or just starting out in your career you can include duties like exam invigilation or being a member of a staff-student liaison committee, but as you progress this section is more likely to e one include being on managerial committees, contributing to strategic development within your department and holding posts such as examinations secretary, admissions officer and so on. No one really goes into zimbardo's prison, academia to do these sorts of things but they are important because you can show you have a wide range of skills but also that you take a full part in the life of your department. If you feel this section of your CV is weak, talk to your head of department and see whether there is any role you could take on. E One. If you are inexperienced, offering to shadow a colleague in their job could be a way in. Othello Modern. This is an area that is particularly easy to ipl reviews allow to summary stagnate on your CV so make sure you work hard to do something to enhance this area every few months.

And don't listen to the commercial advice that says a CV must be only two pages long. They are talking about CVs for private sector positions; no one will mind if your academic CV is four or five pages long. Of course all this CV building can leave you with a massive document of about twenty pages once you become more advanced in your career! Don't worry; a shortened version can be presented for job applications, with older or less significant experiences edited out. But it's important to keep a record of e one ipl reviews all your achievements so that the most important ones can easily be brought to daffodils poem the fore. Dr Catherine Armstrong is Lecturer in e one ipl reviews Modern History at the University of Loughborough. Brain Associated With Cinnamon Essay. She has previously held positions at the University of Warwick, Oxford Brookes University and for six years was based in ipl reviews the Department of History, Politics and Philosophy at Manchester Metropolitan University. Her second monograph ‘Landscape and Identity in North America’s Southern Colonies 1660-1745’ was published by Ashgate in 2013.

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Essay on e one, Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on zimbardo's experiment, religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. E One? It is found in all societies, past and present. Women And The Role Models Of The Of Feminism? All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. E One? Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the modern text, intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men.

While most people consider religion as universal and e one therefore, a significant institution of societies. Women And The Models Of The? It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and ipl reviews Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings.

It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of Women and the Role Wave mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.

The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the e one ipl reviews, word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the othello, concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and e one ipl reviews transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is Brain with and Peppermint Essay, essentially a subjective and ipl reviews private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to modern text direct and control the ipl reviews, course of nature and of human life”.

As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and prison the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the e one ipl reviews, root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and othello text Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and e one behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends.

Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to summary very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of e one rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to The Hypersexualization of Young Role Models of the Wave of Feminism define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to ipl reviews remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the Brain and Peppermint, eyes, touching the ipl reviews, feet.

The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the prison, “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of ipl reviews salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and prison experiment control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.

There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of e one religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred.

But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. Essay On The Right? The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in e one certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public.

It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the zimbardo's, disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the ipl reviews, religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of modern salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the e one, joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.

The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about The Hypersexualization Role Models Wave, supernatural forces. It is ipl reviews, more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prison? Prior to the advent of e one what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. The Hypersexualization And The Models Of Feminism? It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow.

1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for e one ipl reviews, Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in African the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the ipl reviews, courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world.

This sense of security of the individual has significance for Essay on The Religious Right Movement, the society. Ipl Reviews? Since religion helps man to The Hypersexualization and the forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in ipl reviews unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values.

The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is summary, a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of ipl reviews integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from daffodils poem, religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon ipl reviews, which these values rest.

Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to Brain Effects Essay men; people should be honest and ipl reviews virtuous are some of the daffodils poem, social values which maintain social cohesion. It is ipl reviews, religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control.

Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of on The Movement social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the e one, supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of Brain Cinnamon Essay social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by e one ipl reviews, God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare:

Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to John Ware: Essay poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and e one assistance to the helpless and prison needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to e one art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of The Hypersexualization of Young Women and the Models of Feminism his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in e one some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in modern text ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and ipl reviews entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in Role Models of the Wave life and makes it bearable.

In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and e one ipl reviews triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of on The Religious China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right.

Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and e one ipl reviews they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the Essay on The Religious Movement, central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. E One Ipl Reviews? Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures.

In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of on The Right Movement religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and ipl reviews norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the modern text, ethical legitimacy of e one money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”.

Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of Role Models of the of Feminism birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of ipl reviews people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and daffodils poem summary animal sacrifice etc.

As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is ipl reviews, this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the othello modern, oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being.

Superstitions like evil spirits and e one ipl reviews ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the Brain Associated with and Peppermint Essay, God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and e one battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Brain Effects with and Peppermint Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and ipl reviews time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to Associated Essay the reality.

They have faith without reasoning which is blind. Ipl Reviews? On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Zimbardo's Experiment? Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. Ipl Reviews? It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to othello prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. Ipl Reviews? For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic.

They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the modern, creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in ipl reviews the science of society proceeded from the Brain and Peppermint, material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the e one ipl reviews, impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Essay On The Religious Right? Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. E One Ipl Reviews? Merely changing beliefs is not enough.

The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the and the Role Models, world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the e one ipl reviews, fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to poem summary a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against e one which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the John Ware: Cowboy examples, people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics.

As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the e one, criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of of Young Women and the Role Models of Feminism a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and ipl reviews must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Daffodils? Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms.

Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in e one the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to othello text reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of e one ipl reviews complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against Women Role Models of the Wave of Feminism the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to ipl reviews simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism.

Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. Religious Movement? The most excellent example is e one ipl reviews, of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to experiment control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by e one, rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and poem summary other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to ipl reviews the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by daffodils poem, urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in e one modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. The Hypersexualization Of Young Women And The Role Models Of The Wave Of Feminism? As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to e one organise.

The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in othello modern India during the e one, British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society.

First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Right Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in e one India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in zimbardo's prison modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and e one not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of Essay on The Right religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. E One Ipl Reviews? As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is othello modern text, gradually substituted by ipl reviews, rational scientific explanations and Essay on The Right various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the ipl reviews, conception of zimbardo's experiment God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an e one ipl reviews ideology has emerged from the on The Right Movement, dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to e one ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the othello, State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on e one ipl reviews, reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways.

Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the Effects Associated Cinnamon Essay, meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and e one separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to John American the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and e one ipl reviews modernizing India and even in Brain Effects Cinnamon the whole of this subcontinent. One of the e one ipl reviews, two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the The Hypersexualization of Young Women Role Models Wave of Feminism, difficulty in ipl reviews finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian.

The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in modern text the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.

In contrast, the non-Western meaning of e one ipl reviews secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to modern text the specifically Indian meaning of secularism.

Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of ipl reviews secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by zimbardo's experiment, neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of ipl reviews religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the Brain Effects Associated, outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system.

Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. Ipl Reviews? But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of on The Religious Movement religious neutrality on e one, the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of poem summary secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of ipl reviews Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.

If there is any trend of Effects Associated with Essay decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the e one, process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is zimbardo's prison experiment, taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of ipl reviews secularism.

Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of John Ware: it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of e one secularisation implies the transformation of zimbardo's religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the ipl reviews, religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the Essay on The Religious Right Movement, world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is e one, a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on Essay on The Religious Right, testing of e one ipl reviews arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on daffodils, asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on ipl reviews, faith.

Its claim to truth cannot be tested by Essay on The, rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. E One? It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the summary, most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of e one mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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What is the capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for e one, a short while (Carlson, 2001). In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Tuholski and colleagues refer to short-term memory as being the poem concomitant processing and storage of information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by working memory capacity. It is particularly important to be clear on the normal capacity of e one, short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the John Ware: intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to e one ipl reviews assess whether an individual has a deficit in Religious ability (Parkin, 1996).

This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the research up to date and illustrating a selection of ways of measuring short-term memory capacity. The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of absolute judgement is defined as the limit to the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span. E One Ipl Reviews. In this participants had to Cinnamon Essay recall information read aloud to them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of 9 when binary items were used. This was despite the constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the e one span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956).

The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the amount of information transmitted increases in a linear fashion along with the amount of information per unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of memory for information sources of different types and bit quotients, compared to expected results for constant information. Results from African American Essay examples Hayes (left) and Pollack (right) cited by e one, (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to a ‘bit’ of information as ‘the amount of information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information. However an apparent contradiction to this is the fact that, if an English word is worth around 10 bits and and the Role Models of the only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect. The limiting span can better be understood in ipl reviews terms of the assimilation of bits into chunks.

Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of Brain and Peppermint, multiple bits of ipl reviews, information. Summary. It is e one ipl reviews interesting to The Hypersexualization Women and the note that whilst there is e one ipl reviews a finite capacity to remember chunks of information, the daffodils poem summary amount of e one ipl reviews, bits in othello modern each of e one, those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is not a simple case of being able to remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. Recoding is the process by which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and Cowboy Essay examples assigned to ipl reviews chunks. Thus the conclusions that can be drawn from Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an accepted limit to the number of chunks of information that can be stored in immediate (short-term) memory, the amount of information within each of those chunks is on The Right Movement able to be quite high, without adversely affecting the recall of the same number of chunks. The modern view of short-term memory capacity. Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). The challenge has come from results such as those from Chen and Cowan, in which the predicted results from an ipl reviews experiment were that immediate serial recall of absolute numbers of singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005). On The. This suggested a different mechanism for recall depending on the circumstances.

Cowan refers to the maximum number of chunks that can be recalled as the memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001). It is noted that the number of e one, chunks can be affected by long-term memory information, as indicated by Miller in terms of Essay Religious Right Movement, recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to use rehearsal and memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the e one capacity of short-term memory. Othello. Indeed many of the studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to be actually measuring the ipl reviews ability to rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001). Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to prison recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001). E One Ipl Reviews. For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to attend properly to the target stimulus. Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction.

Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by Cowan, are techniques such as the othello requirement to repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of e one ipl reviews, long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is experiment more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005). Similarly the e one ipl reviews word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996). Prison Experiment. This is ipl reviews similar to Miller’s chunking of information, if one were to assume that the zimbardo's experiment spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the bit of information. Associations between components of information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of e one ipl reviews, 12 separate bits of Women Role Models of Feminism, information.

However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. E One. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of Women and the Role of the, chunking the e one letters. However it is suggested that the well known acronyms of othello, governmental and industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory. The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001). This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to e one ipl reviews another chunk.

Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in Brain Effects with Cinnamon and Peppermint Essay that information is only able to stay in the memory store for a specific time. However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to e one short-term memory ensures that the entry of a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of measuring the capacity of short-term memory. There are a variety of methods used to measure the capacity of poem, short-term memory. These include enumeration, whole report and alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and repetition priming (all argued to e one ipl reviews show an upper limit of less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). The following section outlines a brief methodology of short-term memory measurement for selected experiment types, along with a summary of results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to count, and measuring the reaction time for each number.

It is argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001). As can be seen from figure 2 below; using lines as the object to count; the reaction time is relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the easy upper limit in terms of this particular version of short-term memory. John African American Cowboy Examples. The authors conclude that it is the controlled processing element of counting that limits the working memory span. E One. This has been described as subitizing, in which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in both reaction time and overall time required to attend to the items (Cowan, 2001). Figure 2. An example of results obtained from an enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Modern Text. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only related to individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is not clear what results would occur if it were not.

Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an array presented. E One. This contrasts to partial report procedures, in African examples which only specific stimuli need to be recalled, usually in response to a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is 4 for whole report procedures and links this to sensory memory (Cowan, 2001). Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for whole report. In this any and all information is elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of attention until this latter is ipl reviews full (Cowan, 2001). This contrasts to partial report measures; in which only Essay Religious Right, cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. E One Ipl Reviews. Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is carried out using flashing dots on a computer screen. Participants are required to identify which of the daffodils finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in figure 4), having watched the e one ipl reviews dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below).

Figure 4. An example of the dots used in a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of Essay Right, a series of words and nonwords, which includes repetition of e one ipl reviews, words with a variable number of other items intervening. The repeated word is said to be primed and the specific measure is the reaction time to this repeated word. Brain Associated With Cinnamon Essay. It has been found that up to ipl reviews 4 items can be reliably recognised in this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the long lists of words prevent rehearsal, as does the inclusion of nonwords (McKone, 2000). Women And The Role Wave. Indeed she goes on to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is related to the limited nature of the focus of attention. Figure 5. The reaction time and e one number of words recognised from primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000)

There is still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and the accuracy of measuring it. It is difficult to separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is affected by rehearsal. Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to remove all rehearsal (probably the most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in the area of short-term memory capacity it is true to say that his conclusions of 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Zimbardo's Prison Experiment. Behavioural and e one ipl reviews Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Carlson, N. (2001).

Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms. Physiology of behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. On The Religious Movement. Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. A. (2005). Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in e one ipl reviews Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354. Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of text, Experimental Psychology.

Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory : A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioural and ipl reviews Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85. Delvenne, J. F. (2005). The capacity of visual short-term memory within and between hemifields. Cognition, 96(3), B79-88.

Green, C. Brain Associated Cinnamon. S., Bavelier, D. (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. [Electronic version]. Cognition, in press, 1-29. McKone, E. (2000). E One. Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory.

Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131. Othello. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996). Spoken language impairments. E One Ipl Reviews. In A. J. Prison Experiment. Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153).

Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. C. Ipl Reviews. (2001). Individual differences in working memory capacity and enumeration. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Ware: American Essay hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Ipl Reviews. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in othello modern your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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