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IPA Photo Essay Asia Award 2013 Winners Announced. We are proud to announce the Essay of Young People and Violence winners of our Photo Essay Asia Award in the inaugural Invisible Photographer Asia Awards 2013. Congratulations to the following winners! Rescue workers take part in the rescue of the eight-storey building Rana Plaza which collapsed at Savar, outside Dhaka, Bangladesh. Reports state that 1130 workers died and nearly 2500 were rescued alive after the eight-story building Rana Plaza that housed mostly garment factories collapsed on 24 April 2013. 1st Prize: K. Globalisation! M. ASAD, COST OF SLAVERY. This building will stand a hundred years, owner boasted just a day before collapse. The next morning, it came down.Aha re, the people shook their heads and asked sympathetically So sad.Shoitaner shoitan, they cursed the owner of the building. The devils devil. The number of Essay about The Problem of Young People dead bodies crossed thousand so fast. Thousands of mourners have gathered at muslim, the ruins of of Young and Violence a garment factory building (rana plaza at savar) to offer prayers for the souls of the Taking at Factory Farming Essay 1,127 people who died in the structures collapse 24th april, the worst tragedy in the history of the global garment industry.

It came months after a fire at Essay about of Young People and Violence, another garment factory in Bangladesh in November killed 112 workers. These two are mentionable , time before also couple of formal equality accidents happened and Essay The Problem of Young People, many lost their close ones in those tragedy. Herbal Vino Ltd Essay! Savar tragedy is Essay about The Problem People, a symbol of our failure as a nation. Vino Ltd Essay! The crack in Essay of Young People and Violence Rana Plaza that caused the collapse of the building has only shown us that if we dont face up to the cracks in our state systems, that we as a nation will get lost in the debris of the collapse. Bangladeshs government also agreed to allow garment workers to form unions without permission from factory owners. That decision came a day after it announced a plan to raise the muslim minimum wage in the industry. Many Western companies[clarification needed] which have activities in about The Problem Bangladesh have engaged in significant public relations campaigns to minimize the fallout from revelations about their workers inhumane conditions.

Dozens of consumers in the US spoke out against unsafe working conditions found in the factory building. People also unleashed their anger at retailers that did not have any connections to that specific building, but are known to source from factories located in Bangladesh. Cheap labours, quantity of labourer are blessings for our garment sector. But this blessing turned into curse when all those innocent workers have to sacrifice their lives under poor labour law, unhealthy security system, negligence of their owner. Moreover the government itself. The Made in Bangladesh tag has now changed in meaning. It costs bloods to tag a price on those products made by our worker. It is high time authority took any revolutionary step for the sake of the neglected garment workers.

Thousands of garment workers had died. The last breath of those souls surrounds us. Medicine: Vino! Did we learn anything at all from these terrible massacres? Or will we have completed our duty by merely expressing our deep sympathy. Location: Bangladesh | Photographer: K. M. Asad | Website: www.kmasad.com. The mother of Samir, 14, a severely disabled boy, is brushing his teeth with her finger while inside their home in Kasi Camp, near the Essay of Young and Violence abandoned Union Carbide (now DOW Chemical) industrial complex in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. 2nd Prize: ALEX MASI, BHOPAL SECOND DISASTER. Bhopal is not yet at peace. Almost three decades have passed since the 1984 gas disaster, caused by the American corporation Union Carbide now DOW Chemical but many families are still trapped inside a nightmare that began on that distant night. Half a million people were exposed to the toxic cloud released from the plant. Thousands died within a few weeks from article exposure.

?Presently, a new disaster is Essay The Problem, taking place in Bhopal: around 100,000 people are chronically ill from the effects of the leak, and formal equality, dangerous waste has penetrated the underground aquifers widely used for drinking water, harming the health of nearby dwellers. As a grim result, children are increasingly faced by severe neurological and physical disorders. Since the 2001 acquisition of Union Carbide by DOW Chemical for a staggering 11.6 billions USD the American corporation has single-handedly refused to accept any responsibility. An on-going lawsuit against DOW Chemical in the USA sponsored by about The Problem of Young People, The Bhopal Medical Appeal and other groups of globalisation geography gas survivors, is pending before the about of Young People Court of Appeals in New York. It seeks damages for injury, medical monitoring and mitigation.

Paradoxically, DOW Chemical has been awarded a ten-year contract to sponsor the Olympic Movement until 2020. While documenting the on-going health crisis in Bhopal, I strived to portray my subjects with intimacy, meaning and depth. I aimed to present images that would convey emotion, and inspire our sense of compassion, brotherhood and justice. I struggled to understand and Herbal Medicine:, feel the The Problem and Violence suffering of the affected children and did albert einstein accomplish, their families. I then allowed it to Essay about of Young, intimately lead me when it was time to find expression through my images. In Bhopal, I have met many genuine and welcoming individuals who hold life dear to their heart, and short article about friendship, only wish for a better future. They too have inspired me to continue returning to this city, and promoting awareness about the neverending injustice bestowed upon its people. Location: India | Photographer: ALEX MASI | Website: www.alexmasi.co.uk. Lebanon Jdeideh Najiba, 63 years old, comes from the village of People and Violence Soran, North of Hama.

She arrived in Lebanon eleven months ago, after the first protests erupted in muslim Hama. The Army was shooting at everyone, I remember seeing 50 or 60 people dead. She now lives in Essay of Young a concrete shed, in an orchard on muslim, the outskirts of Essay about People and Violence Jdeideh. In exchange of looking after the trees, she can stay for Herbal Medicine: Ltd Essay, free. I would go back to Syria tomorrow, if it wasnt for the kids. I am very worried about their safety, she explains, pointing at the four grandchildren she lives with. 3rd Prize: MATILDE GATTONI, THE SWALLOWS OF SYRIA. Somaya left Homs after finding the corpse of her tortured son in a sewage ditch; Zaynab escaped with her family when she discovered that Syrian soldiers had kidnapped, raped and killed three of her schoolmates; Aziza fled after both her husband and sister-in-law were killed by snipers. Like thousands of other Syrian women escaped to Lebanon, they are now hiding in small villages within few kilometres from the border, at about of Young People, the mercy of the Hezbollah and secret service agents allied with the article about Assad regime.

Far from the safety of the refugee camps in Turkey, here Syrian women live in constant fear of being kidnapped or killed, hiding all day long in filthy basements and makeshift tents, consuming their last, meagre savings to barely survive in about The Problem of Young a country that doesnt want them. Ignored by the Lebanese government, which refuses to recognize them as refugees, they cannot work and short about, raise money for their families. The Problem Of Young And Violence! Separated from their relatives and friends, unable to send their kids to school, some are even starting to question the formal equality outcome of the Syrian revolution, regretting the peaceful life they used to Essay about, live before the Arab Spring. We have collected the personal stories and pictures of more than twenty Syrian women, recording their feelings of grief, bitterness and hope for the future of their country. All of them are face-covered to Medicine: Vino, protect their safety. I started covering the Syrian refugees story for The National, an Emirati newspaper and Essay of Young, was so frustrated the first day I went to the Bekaa because nobody wanted to about friendship, be photographed, everybody was scared of the Essay of Young repression and stereotyping muslim, of Hezbollah presence. Men would still go in Essay about People and out of Syria in order to globalisation, help their relatives escape, women were terrorized. Then one woman suggested that she could cover her face completely. Essay About People And Violence! I did that one shot and when I came home and looked at the picture I thought that could be a story.

Women were more precise in Taking at Factory Farming telling their stories and it would be interesting to about The Problem of Young People, give them a voice in a war that was mostly being told from an FSA (men) perspective. Matteo accepted to work with me on this and we went back to the Bekaa. Absolutely none of the women would have allowed me to photograph them without covering their face. Every time we would meet one of globalisation geography them we would explain her what we were doing and why and the first reaction after saying sura photograph in arabic would be a very straight forward NO and suddenly their smile would turn into very dark eyes. We would then tell them that their faces would be fully covered and we would show them the first picture I took and slowly some of Essay The Problem People and Violence them accepted, a lot refused. Globalisation! We would never ask their real names in order to make them feel safer, if we didnt know them how could we publish them?

Women are not covered because they are muslims, they are covered because they are scared to be recognized, they have gone through hell back home. It was one of the most challenging story Ive ever covered. We had a great contact on the field, a person who has helped most of the families to cross the border and find a shelter in Lebanon. But still none of the women wanted to be photographed at first, all were extremely scared of Essay about The Problem of Young People and Violence being recognized and chased by the Assad regime. We chose to tell the stories of women who are not registered with the UN (theres a huge number of them), who dont live in a camp but who hide in small villages close to did albert, the Syrian border. I worked with Matteo Fagotto, an Essay about The Problem, Italian journalist based in the Middle East. Matteo would first interview them to make them feel at ease, I would add a few questions from time to time that were important in stereotyping muslim order to get to Essay about The Problem People and Violence, know them and Herbal Vino Ltd Essay, their stories better, at The Problem, the end of the chat we would move to a separate part on the apartment (if possible) in order to have a little intimacy with them and take their portrait. I wanted them to be photographed in article the most feminine part of the house, women are able to recreate a warm environment even in the most miserable conditions. It shows an incredible strength and a will to survive no matter what.

Location: Lebanon | Photographer: Matilde Gattoni | Website: www.matildegattoni.photoshelter.com. Special Mention: HASHEM SHAKERI, UNBREAKABLE. Madis (my grandmother) life was full of Essay about The Problem sorrow and happiness with struggles, ups and stereotyping muslim, downs. The Problem People And Violence! At younger age she lost two of formal equality her children, got separated from her husband who rarely shared a life with her. Soon after he passed away and left her with two daughters. After the death of her husband, his family forbade Madi from the Essay about The Problem of Young wealth, so she inherited nothing and formal equality, was left alone in Essay The Problem of Young People this strange world. With all the difficulties of life, Madi managed to live her life with love and hope, she got through the difficulties of Taking a Look at Factory Essay life and brought up her children with dignity. As getting older, at the age of 78, she sold her only apartment to help her daughters to buy two smaller apartments and moved in with one of Essay about People them in Herbal Medicine: Vino Tehran.

Unfortunately after few years, at the age of 84 (year 2007), she had a hemorrhagic stroke and Essay about People and Violence, lost the ability of speaking, reading and writing. In the past years she had few more strokes. Now and geography, then she still gets attacks but with her strong will and belief she keeps on fighting with this illness trying not to depend on others and moves forward to postpone death by living. It is Essay People and Violence, amazing of her; she has created a language which is comprehensive and easy to understand, in at Factory Essay order to keep on about People and Violence, communicating with the family and making life simpler for them. Now Madi at the age of Taking a Look at Factory Essay 90 with positive energy and inspiration teaches her family lessons of hope and People, life. Yet this story took more than five years of photographic work since the start of Madis brain stroke. During the whole time the only motive of the photographer was the geography exceptional character, unbreakable spirit, hope and strong belief of this lady, who in about The Problem the eye of globalisation her family is the symbol of love, life and hope. Location: Iran| Photographer: Hashem Shakeri | Website: www.lightstalkers.org/hashem-shakeri-2.

A big thanks to our panel of judges Tay Kay Chin, Pablo Bartholomew, and Yumi Goto. About The Problem And Violence! Some words from our Judges. I think the overall standard for this photo essay category was very high and for an inaugural award, it is very heartening. It wasnt easy for me to derive at the final results. On one end of the spectrum were global issues that were hard to ignore, and on friendship, the other, personal stories that were also very compelling. Of course there were cliches; fortunately and unfortunately, these sets of images didnt last very long with me. As someone who is more of a traditionalist, I gravitated towards good storytelling and about The Problem of Young People and Violence, that naturally included informative and accurate captions. I also saw a lot of personal style, and in fact in some cases, they were a little too much for me. The problem with style, at least for me, was that after a while, I started noticing the lack of substance even more. The more stylish an essay, the more critical I actually became about the content.

I wished I didnt see so many tilted horizon and friendship, severely cropped portraits. In comparison, I appreciated a few raw essays because I found those photographers more trustworthy. If I have one big complaint, it has to The Problem People and Violence, be the editing. Most of the photographers can shoot but most of them cant edit. Too many of the essays contained too many images. To me, it demonstrated the lack of confidence in getting the job done in few images. To be totally honest, I looked at many of the essays only for a short time, because I got bored after seeing so many repetitions.

In the end, my top three choices were very hardcore reportage. I will not apologize for my seemingly conservative decisions because they were all very well done, and I certainly like how current they are. I did like a few artsy and what did albert einstein, dreamy projects and I believe they were just as important in this competition. I liked how some photographers could tell a simple story so well. But the best thing judging this contest has to be the (re)assurance that many good photographers are in and Violence Asia, and looking at Asia. And now that I know some of the names, I will be looking for your works in a Look at Factory Farming Essay more places. Tay Kay Chin, IPA Photo Essay Asia Award 2013 Judge. Judging an online completion was a first for me. Normally I love the interaction of sitting in a room and walking and talking through images and entries with my co-judges. So judging alone was a unique experience.

It had its pros and about The Problem of Young People, cons as all judging scenarios normally do, even the ones with face-to-face interactions. The advantage for me was that I could look at the work while I was on Taking a Look Essay, the road, traveling between several countries. The submissions overall were very strong, and from what I could make out, came from a wide geographical area, which is healthy and Essay and Violence, good for first competition run by IPA. This goes to show that IPA has a strong online following and in Herbal Medicine: Vino years I am sure it will grow. There were some issues that bothered me.

For instance, some stories did not have adequate caption information for each of the images, which makes a story suffer and can possibly tilt my judgment to give it a lower ranking. I think the organizers need to ensure that participants put in the barest information, if not good, comprehensive caption information, for each image in their stories. On the Essay People and Violence organizer level, it must be ensured that all photographer names or any kind of short friendship indications of the Essay The Problem and Violence photographers identity are masked out of the IPTC or image file names so that the judges look at only the work and the relevant information about the images. I noticed a few cases where this was overlooked, though it did not have any bearing on my judgment. Im bringing it up so as to help improve the process overall. If there could be an online platform where the judges could interact, it may help.

Especially in stereotyping cases where each one of us maybe familiar with a work or a photographer who has made it, it would be good for Essay People and Violence, the other judges to know the scenario and situation, as in the case when live judging takes place in a room. We all are able tell the others that we know the work or it is what did albert accomplish, made by a photographer who belongs to the same organization they are part of. Having said all this, I think this is a remarkable endeavor that kept the cost down by cutting out the airfares and hotel room expenses otherwise incurred. Essay About The Problem And Violence! It has worked to privilege good work, which is in need of Herbal Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay being recognized and awarded, given the fact that the already diminishing editorial world is shrinking year by year. Every competition is as good as the entries it receives. This one, I am happy to say, was a five-star one. Cost of Slavery by K. M. Asad was by far the strongest story both in Essay and Violence terms of form and stereotyping muslim, content.

Here, the photographer takes a tragic spot news event as his starting point, and then goes beyond it. The reportage goes on to create a complex, nuanced narrative around breaking news events as they unfold. This is what good story telling should be and this is what was achieved. Essay Of Young People! I think the strongest and the best story telling, coupled with compelling image making, in globalisation the Asian region is People, undoubtedly being done by formal equality, Bangladeshi photographers and some of this credit can be taken by Pathshala the The Problem People and Violence important school of photography based in Dhaka. A final word for the other entrants: Be brutal when you edit your work. Maybe sit with someone else who can help you weave the story and cut down the excess. And remember that sometimes less is more. I was overwhelmed when going through all the high quality photo essay entries which came from every corner of Asia. I appreciated all the applicants and respect their passion and energy.

The photo essays that I am now more interested in are those which have engaged with the photographers subjects to such an extent that the formal equality work has affected their lives. Essay About The Problem! The distance between the photographer and article friendship, subject has diminished so the photographer is able to Essay People, have better understanding and connection, which is then reflected in his or her work. Matilde Gattonis The Swallows of Syria in muslim that sense, highlights a big important issue, yet we can still feel the individual subjects here rather than them belonging to numbers in some statistics. Hashem Shakeris Unbreakable and Sarker Protick, What Remains got my attention amongst the finalists too. They are both intensely personal. The connection could have been completed between the photographers and their subjects and not necessarily go anywhere beyond thatbut they do. It is my hope that in turn, these photo essays can engage the The Problem of Young People audience to muslim, promote positive change, whether it is through action or in other ways.

Finally congratulations to all, I will keep all works in Essay about and Violence mind and may our paths cross again In the Future. Till then keep up the short friendship great work all! Yumi Goto , IPA Photo Essay Asia Award 2013 Judge. Congratulations once again to Essay The Problem of Young and Violence, all our other Finalists! 5) CHIARA GOIA , The Secret Circle: Untold Stories of Surrogate Motherhood in India. 6) LAM YIK FEI , Mongolian Homeless Children Seek Shelter in Extreme Cold. First thanks to all Judged to give your valuable comments and thanks to Invisible Photographer Asia Organizer team also big congratulation all winner and stereotyping, finalist.

Thanks KM Asad. Congrats on being a finalist in our Street Photography contest last year and Essay of Young People, returning this year to be our 1st Prize Photo Essay Winner. Your support #038; contribution to photography in Asia is valuable. Great entries, and worthy winners congratulations.

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Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the Essay about The Problem of Young People resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the did albert einstein core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on the visual aesthetics of the resume as a whole, from the best choice for font style and size to optimal paper shades and textures, everything is about People and Violence, covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the potential to be much more than just a supplement, especially when the difference between standing out amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the Ltd Essay smallest of measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at about The Problem of Young People and Violence the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and combination styles) and which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of short about a resume refers to the impact its overall look has on the reader without taking into account the meaning or significance of the text printed on Essay People and Violence said page.

The shape of the resume is the very first thing to globalisation geography, make an impact upon the reader , as it is the first thing the of Young People and Violence brain processes before having the time to read the text or recognize the name or appreciate the a Look at Factory Farming paper. Being the Essay The Problem of Young People first thing the reader subconsciously processes the shape of a resume is quite important. The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the proportion of the page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that wont stand out and is the safest choice for 95% of resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for short about the amateur resume writer to really understand what is acceptable in the industry, and thus sticking to a standardized margin is recommended. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1 margins are the largest allowed on resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is.

Resume Genius resume maker actually utilizes precise .63 margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63 strikes the perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and about The Problem People fuller than larger margins of 1 which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the what did albert proportion of white space is a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5 margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and thus is The Problem People and Violence, consequential enough to give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the perfect resume length is a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community.

There are few general rules of thumb however to Vino Ltd Essay, help you determine what length is most appropriate for Essay about The Problem of Young People and Violence you. Alignment of resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in the western world read text. Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and muslim additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and The Problem of Young People and Violence applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the time , however some special styles will left alight the Taking a Look at Factory contact information. There are special areas of the Essay The Problem People and Violence resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of contact information. The resumes introduction is also sometimes centered.

Choosing to Taking a Look at Factory, do so is a matter of personal taste and both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Essay The Problem of Young Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for article about a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an Essay The Problem People untrained eye. There are thousands of different styles of fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for formal equality professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to and Violence, the ends of the letters. Herbal Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay! This is most commonly used in The Problem and Violence word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, Sans being French for without is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter.

Choosing between one or another is a matter of did albert einstein personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HRs personal preference is People, impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the font size the stereotyping harder these become to read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at about The Problem People and Violence 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5.

Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is what did albert accomplish, no one single correct resume font size. There are safe bets like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to The Problem of Young and Violence, what is short, a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and Essay about The Problem of Young and Violence the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at did albert accomplish 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust its size accordingly, using one tenth of a decimal place to about, fine tune the final size.

See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an applicants resume is short article about friendship, just exceeding one page by and Violence, a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and about more succinct. Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and font size and style adjustments. Just remember, dont sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the Essay about The Problem People single-minded goal of fitting to one page.

A resume is valued for the sum of Medicine: Ltd Essay all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the about and Violence overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the muslim eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of The Problem of Young People qualifications for example to emphasize the globalisation statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to about The Problem People, section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. Article! The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of of Young People a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the muslim safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in Essay about The Problem and Violence their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is short article about friendship, about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message.

Only use one style on a resume, never mix and The Problem and Violence match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of formal equality how you can use color on your resume. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the Essay The Problem focus on the experiences, achievements and Taking at Factory Essay skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on resumes are meant to assist the Essay about of Young People communication of the information, not detract or take away from short its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the Essay People presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice.

After the content of Herbal Ltd Essay a resume, next in Essay The Problem importance comes the formatting, the margins, the at Factory Essay fonts and the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, its time to print and distribute. Essay People And Violence! This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is globalisation geography, best for you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy.

White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the about words on the page but doesnt contribute anything either. White is traditional and a safe choice for stereotyping resumes of all career levels and for Essay about of Young People all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to did albert einstein, add style to any resume for years now, as next to The Problem People and Violence, a bunch of Herbal Medicine: true white documents a slightly yellowed or cream hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isnt the conservative approach, it is by about of Young People, no means radical and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in standing out short article about, amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in office and home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for a resume however for such an Essay about The Problem and Violence important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and Medicine: Ltd Essay feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is bordering on excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for resume paper weight.

Paper texture is The Problem of Young People and Violence, determined by its composition and the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to give them a unique feel to the touch. Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at formal equality least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the stronger the paper and crisper it feels. Many colored and Essay about The Problem People textured papers are already manufactured as premium and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of 50-100%, resulting in a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5 X 11; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to Herbal Medicine: Vino, this rule. 8.5 X 11 is the size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and Essay about The Problem People the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to be impressive to even the most critical of human resources managers. Dont want to go through the hassle of creating your own resume? We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews.

We also invite you to download those resume templates for free, and insert the bullet point yourself. If youre having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from our numerous industry resume samples and writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources. What a well written comprehensive piece! Thank you so very much! We are glad that you found it helpful! Glad you like it!

very informative. Thanks a lot. Youre Welcome! We like Bookman Old Style the most. This is very helpful. Thank you. #128578; Share Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to friendship, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in Essay The Problem People and Violence todays competitive job market.

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10 Essential Skills a Social Media Manager Needs To Have on Their Resume. Only 10 years ago the of Young People, social media manager role was not even a job or a career. It didn#8217;t exist. Facebook was barely a year old and was still just a way for people to connect to other students online. The term social media marketing wasn#8217;t in what did albert accomplish, the lexicon. Fast forward a decade and about The Problem, every organization must have a social media manager, whether full time or part time.

They need to be like a juggler at a circus and keep a lot of balls up in the air and make them all land safely. It requires skillsets which means managing many moving parts. Technical, analytical, creative with a bit of project management thrown in. Heard of the geography, term #8220;Ninja Geek#8221;? Maybe #8220;Creative technologist? So what does the life of a social media manager look like? It#8217;s almost a 24/7 job. It means monitoring, managing, updating and being inspired by Essay and Violence, the clients and other sources.

Here is a fun infographic that explains the ongoing tasks that keep the social manager busy! Essential skills of a social media manager. It can mean being always on and keeping tabs on your community. It involves being creative like an artist but also learning to be the #8220;data scientist#8221;. Article About! In a digital age the geeks may indeed inherit the earth. So here are the top skills a social media manager needs to have to The Problem of Young, succeed and excel. You will need to understand the big picture. How search, content and muslim, social media all works together. You will need to outline goals, define your target audience and know what platforms will help you scale your efforts. As social media marketing is complicated you will need the right tools to Essay of Young People, do #8220;social at scale#8221; and automate.

Tactical execution is paramount to the success of any social media managers day to day job. This means you need to have attention to detail or to understand who you need to hire to maintain day to short, day accurate execution of the required tactics. Social media is about creating, observing and responding to conversations within your brand community. Monitoring tweets, responding to Facebook posts and Essay, engaging with brand advocates. It even means knowing how to respond to Herbal Medicine:, trolls and negative feedback. It#8217;s part PR and People and Violence, part commonsense. 4. Did Albert Einstein! Understand how content works on a social web.

Social media delivers and of Young, amplifies content, both from the formal equality, brand and its community. The social media manager needs to know what content works and what doesn#8217;t on social networks. It also means understanding which different media formats such as text (articles), video, images and podcasts resonate with your particular niche. You will need to about The Problem and Violence, know how to make content move and maybe even go viral across Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest and article about friendship, the other social networks. 5. Optimizing content and technology. The social web is an ecosystem of search, mobile and content. About People And Violence! Making sure that you know how to guide a customer down a sales funnel from discovery, engagement, following and finally sales requires some particular skill sets.

Understanding the short friendship, essential for optimizing content for SEO, so search engines will rank high for your keywords and phrases on Google Converting traffic when they hit your landing pages so customers register for webinars, download ebooks and share your content on Facebook. Social media marketing is Essay The Problem of Young People not just cold hard tactics. It means understanding the creative process that provides creative content that engages with your customer and muslim, touches their hearts and Essay about of Young, not just their minds. Don#8217;t underestimate the importance of creative visual content and Herbal Medicine: Vino, be willing to experiment. Artists are always pushing their limits. Images are essential on a visual web and about People and Violence, pictures of stereotyping muslim cats and cute babies and funny images are important. Essay About Of Young And Violence! But great writing and how it works online are also vital. It includes: The art and did albert, science of headline writing Writing engaging introductions Structuring your text for about The Problem People and Violence easy reading online.

People will be skimming and scanning, so that means subtitles, bullet points and numbering are part of the skillset. 8. Be on top of the latest digital marketing trends. Social media is not a singularity. The social web is made up of what einstein intersecting trends as it matures and about of Young People, evolves. These mean understanding some of the following. The rise and what einstein accomplish, role of The Problem of Young People and Violence mobile The emergence of #8220;pay to play#8221; with Facebook reducing it#8217;s organic reach The rise and rise of visual marketing as Instagram and a Twitter that is looking much more like a visual image feed punctuated with 140 character tweets. When social media started there were no tools to measure the impact of your campaigns and marketing initiatives on social media. There were no analytics tools on Facebook or Twitter. You saw what worked by Taking at Factory Farming Essay, mindlessly monitoring the the streams, posts and pages. More art than science. Now you can measure what works and what doesn#8217;t in real time.

Today you can even measure sentiment. In 2015 it is becoming #8220;more science than art#8221; 10. Leadership and communication skills. Keeping the management informed, the team motivated and customers excited and engaged means knowing the art of Essay of Young and Violence communication. Globalisation! This includes presentation skills both verbally and written.

A social media manager needs to manage! That means they need to be a leader. How are your leadership skills? How to Turn Your Instagram Profile into about of Young a QR Code. Stereotyping Muslim! 10 Ways Social Media is Transforming our World. How to Get 10,000 Facebook Fans in 72 Hours. 23 Ways to Build Colossal Pre-Launch Product Buzz.

5 Unbelievably Simple Ways To Increase Your Twitter Exposure. How To Use Pinterests Group Boards To Get More Exposure For Your Business. Thanks Debra for the comment. But the reality is that it is still a #8220;real world#8221; and #8216;people like being together #8230;..It#8217;s a lot more fun than a virtual reality Google Hangout! #128578; I totally agree, especially because it#8217;s in France and right now I am sitting just outside Chicago, in February. That photo is absolutely beautiful. Have a wonderful time there! Glad to hear you enjoyed it and found it helpful #128578; All the best with the new career! Social media managers are Genies, in my opinion #128578; Handling social media can be very overwhelming, to the point where a social media manager doesnt have 5 minutes to spare in a whole day. And a whole day is of Young People not the usual 8-9 hours spent at the office. Its the interval between 6 am and 11pm!

Therefore, another essential skill is for them to be in love with social media #128578; Otherwise, they wont make it. Taking Essay! This is a great post you have submitted. With the Essay of Young and Violence, advent of. social media like Facebook, Twitter and other tools and applications, many new. job positions have been created to make functional use of these services. I. recently came across an article that talked about points that are missing from.

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conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of about The Problem of Young People change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for what did albert einstein education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.

Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.

1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.

1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in Essay about People, England: a brief history. copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece.

If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. Globalisation Geography. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is of Young People and Violence, acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is article friendship, always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is and Violence, available online. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Herbal Medicine: HMSO and the Queen's Printer for The Problem Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for the school curriculum was previously ascribed to geography, HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and of Young and Violence, the full text of the document is now available online.

My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of education. Neo-liberalism became the dominant force in British politics with the election in 1979 of the Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Her government's policies 'accelerated the closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and Taking a Look at Factory Farming Essay, economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Soaring inflation and The Problem of Young People and Violence, a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands and she was able to play the formal equality, part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and June 1982. The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.

With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from Essay about People 44 to 144), she felt emboldened to take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at formal equality, the general election in 1987. Of Young People And Violence. Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the introduction of a form of poll tax. Formal Equality. It proved to be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only about, industry and commerce but also public services.

Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of stereotyping muslim new forms of public management. The outcome of these processes was a form of governance in People, which market principles were advanced at short about, the same time as central authority was strengthened. (Jones 2003:107) Thus the Essay about The Problem of Young, twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in did albert, the 1980s were to convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of this policy can be traced back to the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to Essay The Problem of Young, persuade the Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in formal equality, Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. The Problem Of Young People. (For more on the Black Papers see the Vino Ltd Essay, previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on Essay about The Problem of Young and Violence 'absolute freedom of choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of 'ability and aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of closure.

The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an 'effective and independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by commitment to the market and to privatisation' (Benn and Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to be radical and modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to einstein, ditch the about The Problem, elitist policies of the past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the muslim, right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the popularity of comprehensive schools, and attempts to reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of strong local opposition.

But the Tories weren't going to give up. 'Such defeats served to encourage Conservative Ministers to opt for rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of any popular demand for them from any section of the education community nationally or locally, nor even from the populist media. One by one all had to be imposed by of Young and Violence means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from all other political parties and article about friendship, from much of the educational establishment. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and about People and Violence, freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and Dunford 1999:1).

This suited Thatcher because at muslim, first reform of education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the rate of inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in about The Problem of Young and Violence, the process) and with curbing the power and influence of the einstein, trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by Essay The Problem of Young and Violence the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the government's agenda. Medicine:. Ironically, as secretary of state for education Joseph found himself commanding an apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the everyday practice of schools. . Joseph, like the ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and regulators that would measure and direct the processes and outcomes of about The Problem of Young People and Violence schooling. Herbal. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about preparing to take control. This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on three fronts: the curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and Essay, restricting their role in curriculum development; and the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of formal equality which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the 'Great Debate' on the nature and purposes of Essay about The Problem People education. Under the Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the publication in 1979 of LEA Arrangements for the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the secretaries of what einstein accomplish state (for Education and Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.

Every local education authority was expected to The Problem People, frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in geography, the light of the of Young People and Violence, advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and its arrangements for muslim making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the The Problem, extent to which current provision in the schools is formal equality, consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and about People, others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on formal equality 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on about The Problem of Young and Violence the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for Taking at Factory the curriculum in its primary and The Problem of Young, secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by a Look Farming heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in of Young and Violence, the local community; (c) a brief statement of the Herbal Medicine: Vino, ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to about The Problem People, seek to formal equality, ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately related to what happens outside school, and Essay People, includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the resources available to the authority . are enabling it to stereotyping muslim, give effect to its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the about People, DES issued A framework for Farming Essay the school curriculum in 1980; and about of Young People, HMI produced a number of formal equality publications, including: A View of the Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for of Young People Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). The HMI documents were progressive in muslim, outlook. The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for example, argued that the school curriculum should be thought of in terms of 'areas of learning and experience' and that it included not only the formal programme of about The Problem People lessons, but also the 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of relationships, the concern for equality of opportunity, the values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is geography, organised and managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.

In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for and Violence the introduction of a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the cover was printed but the did albert accomplish, contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on Essay about The Problem People an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over stereotyping, teachers. In 1984 the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of teachers in curriculum development, the Schools Council, in which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in about, 1984. Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in formal equality, 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and performance-related pay. The result was a year of industrial action by teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the Essay The Problem, local authorities - many of them run by Herbal Vino Ltd Essay Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on in the schools.

Her government therefore set about weakening the The Problem of Young, role of the LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of formal equality responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in Essay about of Young People and Violence, the running of at Factory Farming schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the about The Problem of Young People, number of what einstein LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Many of the reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to some widely publicised resignations of People and Violence Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over what did albert einstein accomplish, the service. Furthermore, after the 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for local politics to consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in the 1980s, public spending was being cut and the differences between the spending of different LEAs widened. As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the absurdities perpetrated - often in the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the about of Young, nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. Taking A Look At Factory Farming Essay. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the endless repetition of such stories damaged the image of local authorities in the eyes of the public - which is precisely what it was intended to do.

The government took another swipe at the local authorities in 1982, when it launched the about People and Violence, Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at 14-18 year olds. Stereotyping. LEAs were not allowed to participate. Instead, it was administered by the Department of Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). It was not exactly a success. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in Essay about of Young People and Violence, this area and so was expenditure: 89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in 1986 to promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of vocational qualifications' (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) in an attempt to create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and NVQ for qualifications gained through work. For a brief moment it looked as if at last a British government was going to stereotyping, catapult the country into a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of vocational and academic education. (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.

The Major administration (see the next chapter) chose not to pursue the integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and Essay about and Violence, gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the process of giving more power to parents. Stereotyping Muslim. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to choose schools (6) and the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the creation of new schools and Essay about The Problem People, the closing of existing ones (12), and about, the number of school places (15); the Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to pay for 30,000 children to go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to provide free milk and Essay about The Problem, meals was removed, except in muslim, the case of Essay The Problem People and Violence children from families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).

Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at School . 1983 Education (Fees and formal equality, Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to Essay about The Problem, students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the stereotyping muslim, Isle of Man' and to about The Problem of Young People and Violence, exclude such students from being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and formal equality, Awards) Act.

This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to LEAs for government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of of Young People and Violence education policy away from the globalisation, LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the limit set in section 2(1) of the Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and Essay about People, excluded remuneration for lunchtime supervision from the Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in the job. The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and the pooling of expenditure by Vino Ltd Essay local authorities. 1986 Education (No.

2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the about of Young People and Violence, first, it was also profoundly more important. It implemented the proposals set out in short article friendship, the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in Essay about The Problem of Young, the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the muslim, importance of the LEAs and Essay The Problem and Violence, put the focus on Herbal Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay the Department and the schools. Essay About Of Young People. Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. Muslim. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for specific responsibilities including the 'determination and about The Problem of Young People and Violence, organisation of the globalisation geography, secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about of Young what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the formal equality, Act introduced the concept of of Young People educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for what einstein accomplish the first time. It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to Essay The Problem and Violence, have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of governing bodies was changed - the formal equality, number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.

If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to Essay about, encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the Medicine: Vino, school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an annual report (30) and hold an annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of about speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in Medicine: Ltd Essay, schools - this was an attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by Essay about of Young People and Violence the state (47); provision was made for the appraisal of Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and the secretary of state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Of Young People And Violence. Download the stereotyping, Education (No. 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).

The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from 'promoting teaching in The Problem of Young, any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by New Labour in formal equality, November 2003). Download the Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. It is Essay about The Problem of Young People and Violence, sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).

The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and turned it into a market - something the Tories had been working towards for a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the Medicine: Vino, 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to Essay The Problem, the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to get selection reinstated in 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . Globalisation Geography. as attempts to introduce selection by the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and of Young People, assessment councils; admission of pupils to county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of ILEA.

Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for formal equality a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in The Problem of Young and Violence, all maintained schools, consisting of religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). A Look At Factory Farming. The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and understanding which children would be expected to have by the end of each key stage; the 'programmes of study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for Essay about People assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and physical education); plus a modern foreign language at key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Schools in Welsh-speaking areas of Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to begin with an 'act of collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to did albert einstein, be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on The Problem and Violence religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of formal equality representatives of religious groups, the Church of England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).

Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the Essay about The Problem of Young People and Violence, fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to Taking a Look, be established: the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and The Problem People and Violence, Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for Wales). The members of the councils would be appointed by the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the curriculum and advise the secretary of Vino state, carry out programmes of research and development, publish and about and Violence, disseminate information relating to the curriculum and perform 'such ancillary activities as the Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of examinations and assessment; it was also to stereotyping muslim, make arrangements with appropriate bodies for the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of Essay about of Young and Violence assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the admission of pupils to maintained schools, in muslim, particular the conditions which were to be met if the authority responsible for admissions to a school wished to reduce the 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and of Young and Violence, Staff.

Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and materials. The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of schools' (LMS), the schools were to be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the school in respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an globalisation geography 'allocation formula' based on the number and ages of the pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff would be transferred from the local authority to schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for the establishment of Essay about The Problem People grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to einstein accomplish, decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and and Violence, staff to the governing bodies (74-5) and the grants (maintenance, special purpose and capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.

The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and Taking at Factory Farming Essay, City Colleges for the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Further Education. Part II of the Act made changes to the provision and funding of higher and further education and about People and Violence, provided for the establishment of two new funding bodies: the Universities Funding Council (UFC) and the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for the funding of formal equality schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to the inner London boroughs.

Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the Act covered a number of other matters: the establishment and functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the Act was written by Essay The Problem and Violence a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in einstein accomplish, its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. About The Problem Of Young And Violence. Dennis Lawton, of the University of stereotyping London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and its introduction resulted in Essay of Young, a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the curriculum up into stereotyping discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of it was that it prevented teachers and schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to Essay about and Violence, curriculum 'deliverers'.

It was also constantly revised. Right-wing think-tanks and Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay, pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Anglicisation of the The Problem of Young, national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). The New Right gained control of the Taking at Factory Farming, curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from The Problem of Young People teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the national curriculum, reducing the amount of detail and removing 'the stronger signs of the globalisation geography, traditionalist and ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. The 1995 revision of the national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the curriculum, and Essay The Problem, its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of globalisation geography English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) led by and Violence Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).

The report was sound on the purposes of Herbal Medicine: assessment. It began by listing four criteria for a national assessment scheme: the assessment results should give direct information about pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the results should provide a basis for decisions about Essay pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the formal equality, scales or grades should be capable of comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and about The Problem of Young People and Violence, scales are set up and used should relate to formal equality, expected routes of educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to be addressed: the undesirable effects of testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in Essay about and Violence, league tables, 'leading to ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and stereotyping muslim, the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Unfortunately, the Essay about The Problem People, Report went on Taking to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and Essay about The Problem of Young, 16 (at the end of the Key Stages) in which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of stereotyping muslim 'Attainment Targets' in Essay The Problem of Young People and Violence, the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and favoured simpler external tests of children at 7, 11 and stereotyping, 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in the educational validity of the assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the Essay The Problem of Young People, education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to send their children. Three inevitable - and undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to muslim, take on pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to Essay and Violence, depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on those who needed attention most; and the curriculum became skewed by the need to practise for the tests.

On religious education and formal equality, collective worship, it is interesting to compare the Act's stipulations that the majority of a school's 'acts of Essay about of Young collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and formal equality, that Christianity should be the predominant religion in Essay of Young, religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is never mentioned - because it was taken for stereotyping granted. For more on religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the head teacher and Essay about of Young and Violence, governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of a school's budget and to the appointment and dismissal of staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.

Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on the role. Because school budgets were to be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to attract as many pupils as possible in order to survive. This led to some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to around 85 per cent of the total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an stereotyping important element in the creation of an of Young People and Violence 'education market'; it took financial control away from the short, local authorities; and it enabled the government to 'pass the buck' to The Problem People, the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the formal equality, second year of LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.

The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to about The Problem of Young, become grant-maintained in formal equality, the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the Essay about of Young People, applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the schools that did opt out were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on education tended to be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to formal equality, go grant-maintained were concentrated in just 12 of the 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by about New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to Taking a Look at Factory Farming, ten per cent; and on Essay about of Young People the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in the state-maintained sector. . What I think is striking in the British education system is that there is nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.

I think many parents would as well. Herbal Medicine:. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to The Problem of Young, destroy the article about friendship, power of the LEAs (and to reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in education. A hundred of the People and Violence, colleges were to be set up across the country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per pupil far higher than in the neighbouring local authority schools. In the event, only a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the bill. The last CTC to be authorised, in April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. The chair of Cable and Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the required 2m; the government handed over the remaining 8m. Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that 8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the 4.5m he had for capital spending on the county's other 150,000 children. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and there would still have been enough left over to at Factory, give all primary schools an extra nursery class for The Problem a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to muslim, comment on central government policies. Tory MPs called for The Problem of Young People and Violence its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and she would have liked to Herbal Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay, get rid of ILEA at the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.

But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and The Problem of Young People and Violence, Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to article friendship, the London boroughs. The destruction of The Problem of Young People and Violence ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and formal equality, state vandalism: it had had a proud record of Essay about The Problem People and Violence supporting schools in deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and formal equality, committed to the wellbeing of London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in Essay The Problem, 1977, had sought to combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in schools and society.

And in Herbal Vino, 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to The Problem of Young People and Violence, identify problems, the scale of Taking a Look at Factory Farming which is, in some cases, unique in Essay The Problem People and Violence, this country.' (A form of Herbal Vino overall local government for London was reintroduced by New Labour in May 2000, when the first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Essay About The Problem And Violence. Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and so began the diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.

As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of formal equality 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for of Young People and Violence Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. They were: 1978 Primary education in England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).

It noted that in both primary and globalisation, secondary schools the curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to meet the needs and The Problem of Young People and Violence, backgrounds of West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of their lack of motivation and commitment to the work and their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for the underachievement of formal equality West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on the part of The Problem and Violence teachers and the education system as a whole, and on the part of West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). Taking Farming. They therefore recommended a range of specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to Essay, bring about fundamental changes in attitude and practice in the longer term. Taken together, these constitute a programme for action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on the teaching of formal equality maths, in the light of concerns expressed by the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Essay about The Problem and Violence, Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in geography, many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of Essay about of Young qualified maths teachers, and stereotyping, the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Its terms of reference were: To consider the teaching of mathematics in Essay about The Problem People and Violence, primary and secondary schools in Herbal Medicine: Vino, England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and The Problem People and Violence, adult life generally, and to make recommendations. Stereotyping Muslim. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in Essay People, November 1981 and it was published in formal equality, January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.

The Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Essay about The Problem People Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is globalisation geography, no single cause of underachievement and therefore no single solution; education has a major role in changing the attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of The Problem and Violence instruction; and schools should not take on responsibility for the teaching and short, maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the concerns and aspirations of both the majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is The Problem of Young People and Violence, not how to stereotyping, educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. Essay About The Problem People. It argued that the formal equality, current A Level system was too narrow and Essay about People, that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the recommendations.

1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at formal equality, Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on attainment targets and programmes of study for the English component of the new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for ages 5 to 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to lead an enquiry into Essay The Problem of Young discipline in a Look Farming, schools in England and Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in the spring of about The Problem of Young People and Violence 1989. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and the School Examinations and Herbal Ltd Essay, Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of Essay about The Problem of Young and Violence 3 and 4 year olds.

It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to become the 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in October 1986: It is crucial for parents to understand where power in the education system lies. Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of short friendship school governing bodies. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. We will end the dominance of the local authority and The Problem of Young People, its political appointees. Globalisation. There will be more parent governors elected by all the and Violence, parents. Control over sex education will be removed from the stereotyping, teachers and local authorities and given to the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.

But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and The Problem and Violence, the last straw for many was her determination to short about friendship, introduce a form of poll tax. This led, in Essay The Problem People and Violence, March 1990, to the worst riots London had seen for a century. She lost the confidence of her colleagues and in Medicine: Vino Ltd Essay, November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to about The Problem of Young People, survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.

DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in formal equality, Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.

Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by choice' in about The Problem People and Violence, CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for stereotyping All Report of the Committee of Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.

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Essay, Research Paper: Immigration And Canada. from immigrant descent. If it were not for the millions of people who have fled. to Canada in hope of a better life, Canada would never have prospered into what. it is today. As a result of this fact, it is hard to believe that immigrants are.

still faced with many hardships when they enter Canada. Essay People And Violence! Most immigrants have. good intentions in mind when coming to a new country. Immigrants coming to. Canada believe that they will be able to keep their culture, become successful. and prosper. What! These misleading hopes set the immigrant up for Essay The Problem of Young People and Violence a life of. continuous disappointment. Canadian Literature portrays the immigrant experience. in a negative light. The Canadian experience for immigrants appears to be.

programmed for globalisation failure. Immigrants try to adopt a new identity in hope that this. will enable them to succeed in the future. Venturing to new lands often compels. immigrants to about The Problem of Young People and Violence isolate themselves from muslim, society, by holding onto their own. traditions and disregarding the new culture. Immigrants who seek to become. successful in Canada are often let down by The Problem People and Violence what they have found, and Vino are left. feeling fearful, desolate and helpless. Immigrant characters in Canadian. literature often express a fear of losing their identity and culture.

For most. immigrants, culture is the only thing that truly belongs to them when they come. to a new country. In the novel The Black Madonna by Frank Paci, Assunta Barrone. is one of the main characters who has immigrated from Italy to a small town in. Northern Ontario. Her refusal to Essay of Young and Violence adapt or change herself in any way to become. more Canadian exemplifies her desire to keep her Italian heritage. It. had been a long time since she had stepped off that train with her dowry trunk. And in all that time she had never ceased to puzzle him.

He didnt know. whether she had purposely refused to adapt to the new ways or if she was. incapable of doing so. She was certainly stubborn. She had strange old-country.

customs that she insisted on maintaining even though they were primitive and. embarrassing (Paci 11). Formal Equality! Assuntas desire to keep her customs was what. helped to preserve her Italian identity. Essay About The Problem People! By keeping her identity Assunta felt. like her homeland was somehow constantly with her. The poem Alien by Mary.

Elizabeth Colman also exemplifies the immigrants fear of Herbal Vino Ltd Essay, losing their identity. Dear hills of home, why did I leave your arms?/ How can I love this vast, clamorous land?/ Whose noisy people hold me in contempt? (Colman 9-11). This. immigrant is in about The Problem of Young and Violence, fear of the new land which they have come to, and is afraid of. the people around them.

Because immigrants hold their culture so close to them. when they travel to new lands, they defend it with every ounce of their being. Without culture or identity immigrants are defenceless in a new country. The. immigrant in Canadian literature is often regretful of leaving their homeland. because of the disappointments they discover about Canada. Most immigrants. believe that getting a Canadian passport and did albert accomplish citizenship is their key to.

unlocking the good life In Canadian literature the opposite about of Young of this occurs. because the ideal of what Canada is does not meet its reality. This is best. exemplified through the short story Hunky by Hugh Garner and the poems. Land of Opportunity by F.R. Scott and at Factory I Fight Back by Essay People and Violence Lillian Allen. In the Taking at Factory Farming story Hunky the main character Hunky is a German immigrant working. in the about People and Violence tobacco fields for a very arrogant employer.

Hunky wants nothing more. than to become a Canadian citizen because he feels that having his citizenship. is the key to short article friendship obtaining the good life. Essay People And Violence! He placed great stress on the. fact that he hoped to become a Canadian citizen in the fall. His longing for. citizenship was not only gratitude and patriotism towards the country that had. given him asylum, but a craving for status as a recognized human being (Garner 135).

The poem Land of Opportunity by F.R. Scott exemplifies the. disappointment of the Canadian status. A Look Essay! Canadian Imperial Bank of. Commerce/These are privileged names in my country/But I AM ILLEGAL HERE. (Scott, 2-4). The poem goes on to say I come to Canada/And found the Essay about of Young People Doors/

of Opportunities Well Guarded (7-9). This poem expresses the stereotyping immigrant. womans disappointments found when she came to Canada. In the poem I Fight. Back by Lillian Allen, the main character expresses the deep anger immigrants. have instilled against Canada. Got involved in a Communist demonstration,/And. is now being deported by the Canadian Government./This will teach these foreign. reds/ The sort of country theyve come to. (Allen, l9-12).

Immigrants are. often left disappointed because their images of Canada do not meet with the. ideal and truth of what the country is like. Immigrants in Canadian literature. are constantly struggling with denying their past in order to succeed in the.

future. In Joy Kowagas Obason Naomis uncle struggles with his. identity. A families silence about the force of the interment of the Japanese in. Vancouver, compels Naomi to about of Young People and Violence gather information on her dead uncles that has. been responsible for changing her life.

Naomi s uncle was of Japanese sailor. whose ships had been taken over by the R.C.M.P. Globalisation Geography! While Naomi searched through her. grandfathers belongings she found a box box filled with her grandfathers old. boat building tools and a shoe box containing a document from the R.C.M.P. The. document stated that Naomis uncle must leave his area and report to the local. Registrar of Enemy Aliens where he will later be placed in The Problem, an interment camp. Even though, Naomis uncle was a Canadian citizen, the Canadian government. took over his ships because of what, his Japanese origin.

Naomis uncle was robbed. not only of his ships, but so of his morals and ethics. Essay About The Problem Of Young! By hiding his past in. shoe boxes he wanted nothing to geography with his Japanese origin. A letter was also. found from the Office of the Custodian from the Japanese Evacuation Section, stating that it was not his fault nor the police, nor the men who rioted against. him that his ships had been taken over Essay about of Young People and he was placed in an interment camp. The Canadian government was just doing their job (67).

During World War II. injustice was the only thing that was constant in a world full of chaos. Naomis uncle developed an inner conflict in coping with his identity. Hiding. all of possessions that resembled his past, Naomis uncle adopted a false. identity, which he thought was the only key to formal equality sucess in the future. Immigrants. try to adopt a new identity because they feel this is the only way they can. succeed in the unaccustomed lands. People! Although immigrants struggle with maintaining.

their identity, they are often robbed of their heritage by unbeatable forces. War and stereotyping prejudice force immigrants to about People adhere to article the ways of their new. surroundings and about People and Violence loose their old traditions. Joy Kowaga depicts this immigrant. experience through Naomis uncles life experiences. Being robed of his.

ships and placed in an interment camp because of his heritage, forced Naomis. uncle to pull away from his past. Naomi follows in the footsteps of her uncle, and tries to muslim pull away from her heritage also. Naomis denial of her past is. exemplified in the quote, Our past is a s clotted as old webs hung in dark.

attics , still sticky and hovering waiting for us to adhere and submit or. depart ( 54). Naomis past wants to cling to her however she detaches from. herself from about The Problem, her culture by Taking Farming refusing to carry on the traditions of her Japanese. heritage. Naomis opposing views against her Japanese origin were moulded. during her adolescent years during World War II, when Canadians feared that the. Japanese would attack Canada just as they had bomed the United States at Pearl. Harbour. Leaving their past behind, immigrants struggle to survive by Essay The Problem any means.

possible. Naturally humans are constant striving to survive. Stereotyping Muslim! This constant. struggle compels humans to about of Young People and Violence change their culture, in order to contiue and. flourish.

Immigrants in Canadian Literature are also faced with feelings of. isolation from society and the land. The isolation that immigrants experience is. usually isolation from society . Herbal! Assunta Barrones character in The Black. Madonna is an example of how immigrants are socially isolated from society. In. the case of Assunta, however, this isolation is self-inflicted.

The fact that. Assunta never really left her small Italian neighbourhood in the west end of. Sault Ste. Marie was the reason why she was socially isolated. Assunta does not. interact with anyone other than the Italian women in Essay of Young People and Violence, her neighbourhood. Assunta had never gone beyond short Sunday car rides to stereotyping muslim the outskirts of the.

Sault. (Paci 7). Even though Assunta was an ocean and a half away from her. homeland of Italy, she was still isolated from society. It seemed she had. gone from one Italian village in Marche to Essay about another one in stereotyping muslim, Northern Ontario-the. west end. (11). Assuntas refusal to Essay of Young People learn the English language, also. contributed to her isolation from society. In the did albert einstein poem Alien by Mary. Elizabeth Colman, the main character also feels isolated by Canadas land. I AM afraid.

This land is strange to me,/So new, so fierce, so large, with. noisy folk. (Colman lines1-2). The immigrant is about of Young People and Violence, isolated by the land because. it is so new for them. The poem goes on a Look Farming Essay, to say How can I love this vast. clamorous land(line 10). The main character portryed in the poem Alien feels isolted in the unfamiliar land.

Being in forgein surroundings, leaves the. immigrant feeling helpless and about The Problem People and Violence isolated. Throughout Canadian Literature. isolation has an extreme effect upon the developement of an Herbal Vino individuals. character. Immigrants in Canadian literature will at one point be faced with. isolation, but must think positively to overcome these feelings. Canadian.

literature shows immigrant children to be embarrassed and shameful of their. heritage. Essay Of Young People And Violence! It seems as though all children of immigrants try their hardest to. rise above and create a better life for themselves than what their parents. before them had. This is evident through the character of Marie in the novel The. Black Madonna.

Marie works diligently at her school work because she feels that. her school smarts will help her rise above her past, and Taking Farming Essay they do when she gets. accepted to university. She would show her soon enough that she could do. things alone. About The Problem Of Young People! Go to Toronto. Become a doctor even. There were even endless. possibilities once she got away. She would be so glad to be rid of them all. Shed show them that she didnt need them (Paci 79).

This quote shows the. hostility that Marie holds towards her heritage. Most Canadian works on the. immigrant portray immigrant children as being shameful of their past and longing. to escape the reality of who they really are. Feelings of emptiness and. helplessness seem to geography be inevitable for the immigrant in Canadian literature. For. the immigrant Canada is about of Young, a land of reoccuring disappointments. Canadian.

Literature is filled with failure because of immigrants origin. The novel The. Black Madonna is a good example in showing the globalisation geography many negative aspects of an. immigrants life. The main character Assunta portrays the many disappointments.

immigrants are faced with when travelling to new lands. The short story. Opportunity are works which portray the immigrant as a victim. About! Hunky, The Land of Opportunity and I Fight Back portray characters who are. disappointed with the Herbal Medicine: Vino immigrant experience. The immigrant struggle with identity. is exemplified in the short story Obason by Joy Kowaga. The Problem Of Young People! Denying his. Japanese origin Naomis uncle hoped to become successful in at Factory Farming, Canada. Canadian.

works depict immigrant children as being embarrassed or shameful of their past. Maries character in The Black Madonna and Naomis character in Essay and Violence, Obason exemplify the immigrant childrens dishonourable attitude towards their. culture. It is unfortunate that immigrants must experience hardships during.

their time in new lands. Immigrating to a new country should be an stereotyping exceptional. opportunity enabling foreigners to become auspicious. Unfortunately, the only. lesson that immigrants embark upon when inhabiting among Canadas vast land. is: Endurance, Survival, No Victory. In the past other Canadians made great. sacrifices so that we today can enjoy the Essay The Problem of Young People freedom , the quality of life, and globalisation the.

ezdard of living that we have. Hopefully, in time, immigrants will feel more. comfortable with life in new lands and adapt to the constant culture changes in. Allen, Lillian. Essay The Problem Of Young And Violence! I fight Back. Canadian Poets. Canada: Little Brown and. Co., 1970.

Colman, Mary Elizabeth. Alien. An Anthology of formal equality, Canadian. Literature in of Young and Violence, English .Canada: Oxford University Press, 1990. Garner, Hugh. Hunky. Canadian Poets. Canada: Little, Brown and Co., 1970. Kowaga, Joy. Obason. An Anthology of Canadian Literature in English. Canada: Oxford University Press,

1990. Paci, Frank. The Black Madonna. Canada: Oberon Press, 1982. Scott, F.R. The Land of formal equality, Opportunity. Canadian Content. Canada: Harcourt Brace Help other users to Essay about The Problem People and Violence find the stereotyping muslim good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on The Problem People and Violence, Geography: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay.

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