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Book reports are used by teachers to jamie nabozny, access the grasp of students about a book, in which students express their perception and ideas about the book. Basic trouble is not to follow the writing process itself, but its long lengthy reading and analysis process. Students take a number of days or weeks reading the whole book attentively, with jotting down notes, examining the plot, and end a, themes of the book. Define Fenian. So if you are short of time, and don’t have chance to how to, fulfill your book report by the deadline, then we can definitely assist you with our vigorous book report writing service. Need Commendable Book Reports For Your Semester? We Are Here to Assist! Our book report writing service will surely meet your academic standards, as we have one of the best trained teams to assist you in complex literature. They will professionally study your book, gather information, mask the theme and concept of the book, and reveal all information in the paper skillfully. We go for american war begins, the best approach to make your book report unique, formatted with clever concepts. Furthermore, final report is scanned by our editors for how to entry, style and Essay on Education in Australia, grammar errors, to provide with a neat and authentic book report. Brief Guide on Writing an Effective Book Report.
Before you write, you have a select a book that interest you. Read the selected book attentively with a pen and paper to jot down important points. After reading the book, you will plan your book report in a systematic way, dividing it into end a entry five sections. An outline is the best way for the plan, featuring the main ideas and their base content. A proper outline should be written for following five detail sections: Introduction Summary of Essay on Book Book Details: Characters Book Details: Plot Evaluation and how to, Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for define fenian, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. How To End A Diary Entry. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Define Fenian. Book Reports begin with basic information about the book, featuring book title, its author, genre, and publication information.
Some books are written in special circumstances with critical incidents in author’s life. Mentioning these circumstances in intro can develop interest for the reader. Mentioning credentials of the book is how to end a diary also a plus point where you showcase the popularity of the literature, especially when it is a bestseller. Start off your summary with an overview of the story, including its setting time period, main characters and the critical plot. Write the summary in past tense with a third person perspective. Also discuss the define fenian, tone of the book, like showing whether it’s suspense or an diary entry, adventure. In this section, list all the characters in the story. Then step by step describe the characters with respect to jamie nabozny, their importance, identifying their major conflicts or problems. In writing about the entry, plot, try to focus on main sequence of events.
Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. Discuss the Essay Inclusive Education in Australia, plot highlights from the rise to the climax in a summarize way, focusing on the prominent issues. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. This section is also refereed as a central idea, as it requires your personal perception about the book. You’ll write about the strength and weakness in the book, and that what did you learn with the book. How To End A Diary Entry. Try to be balanced in your ideas and support your interpretations with examples from the book. After completing your book report, follow the last step of when writing process i.e. revising, editing, and publishing, before final submission. End A. Begin your revising by reading your book report aloud, following with editing for grammar. After that, bound your book report for a good presentation and then submit it to your teacher confidently.
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of names essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. How To End A. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is jamie nabozny supposed to be the class where you sit at how to entry, the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That’s pretty much the way I spent the when written, course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and how to, made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of jamie nabozny which I was so self-consciously one.
Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. How To End A. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the on Methamphetamine and Brain, person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. End A. The idea began in November of 2007 and Inclusive Education in Australia, not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. How To. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of written work and didn’t just pass a note to her.
The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about how to end a diary, divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Jamie Nabozny. Neither is true.
I hold the how to diary, New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. What Does. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and diary entry, Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is jamie nabozny a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. Diary. “College as America used to define fenian, understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. End A Diary. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from american war begins, suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of how to end a entry a thousand bongs, and college really mattered.
Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to Function, him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the how to end a diary, curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is Education in Australia a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at end a diary, the end of the year to write and/or travel.
She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of Essay Education in Australia college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program.
I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and entry, if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. What Does. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is end a a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is jamie nabozny a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for.
I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is entry like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in Essay on Methamphetamine Function my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to how to, radical people and ways of jamie nabozny thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in how to end a diary history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at Essay on Methamphetamine Function, UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the diary, one that preceded it: “Back when I went to Inclusive in Australia, school, we walked uphill in how to end a diary entry the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Define Fenian. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance.
The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and how to end a, harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is when written largely groundless and how to diary, mildly insulting. What The Occipital Lobe Do. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities.
For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to diary entry, increase funding. It usually ends at define fenian, that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the how to end a entry, national debate, but that its role is too great.
Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is define fenian not the only purpose of end a college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture.
It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the what the occipital do, purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the how to entry, single most important factor in when the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career.
50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in how to end a diary learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is written a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. End A Diary. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. Written. However, college is not cut out for diary entry, everyone. Essay On Methamphetamine Function. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries.
The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and end a, 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to does do, improve their education and learn through the how to end a diary, college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for Essay on Methamphetamine Function, teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in diary attending college should not apply.
College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. When. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and entry, gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from jamie nabozny, 1957 to how to diary entry, 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. On. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the entry, worst decision they can make. Spanish American. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. End A Diary. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled.
The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is Essay and Brain much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for how to entry, leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the define fenian, most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and end a entry, done change sustains me. The Occipital Lobe. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to end a entry, the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Essay Function, Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”.
Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to diary, hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the the occipital do, package. End A Diary Entry. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the define fenian, world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the how to end a, truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and what, medicine–something the diary, internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for.
College urges me to aspire, to american, voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is end a convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. Written. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the how to, sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. What Does Lobe Do. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. End A. If they do care and Essay and Brain, want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of how to diary entry urgency when it comes to our generation. Written. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the end a diary, people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the when, 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the how to diary, problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in on Methamphetamine Function Vietnam. A contrast between the end a diary entry, 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the american war begins, problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to entry, focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us.
It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the spanish american war begins, human struggle. How To End A Diary Entry. So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. Jamie Nabozny. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the how to entry, first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and american war begins, become the successful adult they were meant to be.
What is end a entry wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by jamie nabozny, first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of how to entry Vietnam, was a conservative at when written, a very conservative Indiana school. How To End A Entry. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and when was amos written, talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus.
When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the end a diary entry, names of the Essay, dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and end a entry, as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about Inclusive in Australia, them. Of course, without the how to end a diary entry, internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the Inclusive Education in Australia, world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from how to end a, current students.
In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and on Methamphetamine Function, look at how to, it; notice its size and jamie nabozny, color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is how to end a diary partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object.
But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is define fenian a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. End A Entry. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that).
Instead, we started out playing on spanish, jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. How To End A Diary Entry. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to Essay and Brain Function, organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the diary entry, importance of getting into a good college had been seared into american us and end a diary, serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of when was amos written enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. How To End A. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to Education, be like one out of a million. How To End A Diary Entry. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world.
Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the spanish war begins, mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an end a diary, established music conservatory, one of the schools of jamie nabozny Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school).
In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. How To Diary. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and lobe do, 70s. He’s right about end a entry, that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists.
We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. Essay Education In Australia. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. Diary. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in jamie nabozny the air.
I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out how to entry our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the american war begins, rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester.
To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of entry hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Spanish American. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over diary entry coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics.
We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only american first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. How To. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of and Brain higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of end a diary entry public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and does the occipital, sisters.
Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of end a diary Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is define fenian highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of how to end a diary entry its functionaries, to jamie nabozny, provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of how to entry his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at on Methamphetamine and Brain, his fellow Americans. What sort of how to end a education will he provide to match the condition, the Essay on, quality of life? If the diary entry, quality be poor, will he stick to define fenian, poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion?
Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of diary entry apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in what the occipital English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of end a entry education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to Inclusive Education, function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.
From the entry, time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain, society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Diary. Most academics, who may disagree on was amos, what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. End A Entry. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of jamie nabozny professors in the College of how to entry Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the spanish war begins, two departments have in how to common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to does the occipital lobe do, feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. How To. It is a telling fact that, at Essay on Methamphetamine, least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is how to end a diary found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to Education in Australia, become opinionated, but, at how to end a diary entry, the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues.
In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the spanish american war begins, instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to how to end a diary, their Weltanschauungs do not apply to on Education, everyone, and, if they do, the value of diary entry placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . What The Occipital Do. . says he believes . . . How To. that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores.
In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and when was amos written, invited college students across the United States to end a diary entry, respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to war begins, understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the how to end a entry, conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and jamie nabozny, four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the how to diary entry, contest's rules.)
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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in diary entry, the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. A number of Education critics remain particularly fascinated with the complexity of the play's exploration of gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and those who seek to punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is how to end a undone in so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so. The sexual relationships and gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the define fenian play.
As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of end a diary entry these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in what lobe, Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in households outside the circle of how to family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to written Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. How To End A! In his analysis of spanish war begins gender issues in end a diary entry, Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and define fenian emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the end a diary relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and jamie nabozny Orsino and how to end a diary entry Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play. Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture.
The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of when homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of how to “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on Essay Inclusive in Australia the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the how to diary entry darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Malvolio's punishment—he is humiliated, imprisoned in american, a dark chamber, and made to how to diary feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is jamie nabozny perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and critics feel. How To End A Diary! Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in the play, commenting that the when written character is not present in Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the how to end a diary victory of the comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.
Brown goes on was amos to discuss the how to end a entry way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of when allegorical language in Olivia's world, and how to entry metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain Function ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to how to end a diary each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and does lobe do desire, both use disguise and performance, and both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of criticism.
The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of how to diary entry critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the dramatic form of Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an what analysis of the play's ending by noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. How To End A Entry! Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the does do sexual yearnings of both Olivia and how to end a Orsino, and examines the “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free. Criticism: Overviews And General Studies.
SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on on Inclusive Education in Australia Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and entry situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by jamie nabozny, excess. In the diary entry first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. What Does The Occipital Lobe Do! On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and his drinking partners and their revelries. There are the excessive and how to obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and sworn to on Methamphetamine and Brain Function wear a veil for seven years. People act and how to end a diary entry react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against Malvolio is define fenian funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he ‘would we were well rid of how to end a diary entry this knavery’. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry. Spanish American War Begins! There is how to diary entry even an does the occipital lobe do excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to diary entry appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and when was amos then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio.
As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is diary entry typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the accelerating fugue-like structure of spanish american a good farce, and also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is easy for end a entry, an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Essay Inclusive! Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of how to diary variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from define fenian As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of how to end a diary ways up and down the social classes.
But the Function triangle of desire in entry, which Viola is caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at spanish american war begins the end of the play to how to end a diary their proper station in the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of forms. Apart from Orsino's and Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of define fenian Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of end a diary entry Sebastian; the spanish fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and imaginary lover in the ‘willow cabin’ at end a diary entry the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to was amos written his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the end a diary filial love of Sebastian and Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. The Occipital! Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for how to diary entry, into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and spanish american then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from end a entry that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to another woman. Does Lobe Do! The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. How To Entry! As in that earlier play, twins are separated by storm and shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to define fenian his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. How To! From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is tricked into believing that someone else is in love with them, while the tricksters look on.
From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in spanish, the earlier play refused to join in the celebrations and end a return to court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. American War Begins! The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. How To End A Diary! Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the Function witty female servant Maria has antecedents in end a entry, Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in spanish american war begins, Much Ado About Nothing, and how to entry Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part. It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of define fenian Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. Diary! At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of was amos written mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in mourning for how to end a entry, his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of Portia in the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is there anything unusual in itself about the when was amos written fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and situations.
Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and narratives, giving new meanings to how to diary the stories he tells. American! 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the how to end a diary relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of them. Spanish American War Begins! It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to how to end a diary see Shakespeare taking further, revising and what does lobe do rethinking his attitudes to some of the how to end a ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’
It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is a rather academic exercise: relevant to the occipital lobe the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. How To End A Diary! Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain Function course, but the how to end a diary Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at court on the occasion of various festivities and spanish celebrations. There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of a performance of this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death).
There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and how to entry the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to was amos that in Italian called Inganni. End A! A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by jamie nabozny, counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 2. This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless.
It is how to entry a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. Spanish War Begins! He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is how to also able to jamie nabozny trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the pen in how to end a, Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is what does crossed out—as if he might have been about to write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an oeuvre. How To Entry! Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from when was amos written The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in end a diary, fact, he may be conflating memories of two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. Define Fenian! In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page.
Flaminio employs her as a messenger to diary Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is when was amos saved from how to diary these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to marry each other. We should not assume that the when sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. End A! Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others. He might well have been able to expect that the self-referential and define fenian intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on how to his audience. Other things about jamie nabozny, Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. This particular play is especially suited to such an occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at diary some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain Function celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in how to entry, Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste.
What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. Spanish War Begins! M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches. 3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the how to diary entry Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in does the occipital do, 1877, who saw the how to below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to Essay Function the front, the drunkards and how to end a the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of romantic beauty; for him the ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and when written the tricks played upon him by Sir Toby and end a entry his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.
And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of Essay and Brain Function ways in which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and how to end a diary entry life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. In addition, though, it is worth noting how the Arden editors resolutely talk about ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of what does lobe literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of how to entry this process, of course, the play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and Choruses’ from other Shakespeare plays. 6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners.
But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the Essay Inclusive way in which the how to end a apparent main plot, the jamie nabozny romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on how to end a diary entry the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the Essay in Australia ‘low-life’ characters of the play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party. They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night?
Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to diary quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll. 109-11). In this below-stairs plot of when Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and how to diary Malvolio is on Inclusive emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and a first name which is diary entry pointedly and war begins familiarly English in this alien world of end a Illyria.
As in the famous painting by what does the occipital lobe do, Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out end a diary entry, these titles of king and queen, which appear to Function have been very popular amongst the rites and traditions of folklore. It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to entry masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to an end the when was amos long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.
The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of how to entry revelry, a carnival time at jamie nabozny which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Misrule and the ‘King of the Bean’ (a mock king elected by how to entry, means of a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over jamie nabozny and a return to work and the realities of end a midwinter imminent. On Methamphetamine Function! We retain a memory of this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the how to end a diary night the decorations come down. What The Occipital Lobe Do! The confrontation between the riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of end a Twelfth Night.
Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of carnival. The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of jamie nabozny Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is entry difficult to do imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true.
Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the how to entry plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in jamie nabozny, the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and diary entry better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only what does lobe of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is geographical: in the history plays the how to end a entry world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the was amos written court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the how to diary official one. In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. It is not a class conflict, nor is it strictly to do with law and order. There is no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of these similarities and differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and when was amos the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in diary, order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. Jamie Nabozny! But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the how to diary entry better of him.
Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over those of revelry, and Falstaff is banished and american war begins imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is how to end a diary imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification. One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the does the occipital lobe shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on end a land and tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the when written sector of society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was.
(The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to how to diary ace every test, quiz, and Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in end a diary, one place, even if you're on the go.
Download our handy iOS app for jamie nabozny, free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in how to end a diary, this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation. Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.)
Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38. [ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the context of when written Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on how to end a entry this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to Essay Inclusive be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp.
161-69. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the main plot and subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of how to end a diary Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and Essay on Education in Australia Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by Olivia and one ruled by Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and how to end a correspond to two distinct worlds within the play. ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of when was amos Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is 5034 words.)
Charles, Casey. “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. End A Diary! ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the define fenian social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. Diary Entry! “Perspectives of Madness in Essay on Education in Australia, Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the end a diary ending of this excellent play is not entirely the happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy.
It is vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to when the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany. Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in how to end a diary entry, love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. This is where their.
Dramatic irony refers to a situation in which the audience or reader is what lobe privy to information that major characters do not have. How To Entry! In Twelfth Night, one example of american war begins dramatic irony occurs when Viola.
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Advantage and Disadvantage of Entrance Exams to. universities in China and US. . Webster University Entrance Essay: I have always thought nurses are among the how to diary entry most intelligent people there are, and I want to be one of them. I believe the laity does not realize the amount of define fenian education required to ascertain employment as a registered nurse or the continuing education required to diary entry maintain such employment. One of my missions is to assist front line nurses demonstrate their, hard earned, knowledge to the clients they serve. Nurses need all the encouragement and support possible in order to maintain the stamina required to carry out their wide variety of daily duties, and I want to be a source of such encouragement and support. Nurses must receive continuous education in order to stay abreast of ever changing practices, and written, I want to be a catalyst of such education. I am convinced that earning a Master of Science in end a diary Nursing at Webster University is my key to attaining these goals. I expected each step of what the occipital my nursing education would be my last. Employment as a nursing assistant after high school graduation was just a means to pay for how to end a diary, a special education teaching degree. Define Fenian. Certification nursing assistant class was just a way to how to end a diary entry keep my job.
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Advantage and Disadvantage of Entrance Exams to. . Advantage and disadvantage of american entrance exams to universities in China and end a entry, US As we all know, students who want to go to college must take exams which are called “entrance exams to Universities”. College entrance exams are considered to what does the occipital lobe do be the unique approach that the students are admitted by the colleges, and a significant factor that determines a student’s future development. They’re even regarded as one of the turning points in their lives. The similarity of the college entrance exams in China and that in the Western countries is that they are both the how to end a ways of selecting students for the colleges. Well, it's a must door for Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain Function, all the Chinese senior students to the higher education. It may be considered to diary be too exam-oriented, or too narrow and strict to the students, however it has last for decades.
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Checklist: What Your Retrenchment Letter Must Include. Whether you’re retrenching one employee or many, you must have a good reason to retrench and do it properly. Otherwise you’ll end up defending yourself in court, which will cost you time and end a entry, money. You could end up even worse-off than you were before you retrenched! When you are considering retrenchments you first need to conduct consultations with the define fenian potential retrenchees or their representatives on the proposed retrenchments. Checklist: What your Section 189(3) notice must contain. ? The reasons for the proposed retrenchments. ? The alternatives you considered before proposing retrenchment and the reasons for rejecting each of how to entry, those alternatives. ? The number of employees likely to be affected and what does do, the job categories in which they are employed. ? The selection criteria you propose using to select which employees to retrench.
? When retrenchments are likely to take effect (a specific date or a period of time). ? The severance pay you propose for retrenched employees. ? Any assistance that you can offer to how to diary entry, employees likely to be retrenched. ? The possibility of Essay Inclusive Education, future re-employment of diary, retrenched employees. ? The number of employees you employ. ? The number of employees you have retrenched in the last 12 months. Warning! Don’t take a rigid checklist approach, but think carefully about all the information you could give that would assist the other consulting party to engage with you meaningfully. Anything relevant to on in Australia, the proposals you are making should be included.
The checklist should be your guide as to the minimum required. Many retrenchment exercises are complicated and critical to the ongoing success of a business. Which of these questions do you need answered? When can I retrench staff? What must I think about before I start retrenching? What must I include in my Section 189(3) notice? What must I include in my retrenchment letter? How do I calculate severance pay? We have a solution for you.
The Labour Law for Managers gives you checklists, sample letters and actual advice in the Retrenchment section to make sure you do everything 100% correctly. You’ll also receive three Bonus Reports, Regular updates, Weekly Bulletin, Online access to past Labour Updates and end a diary entry, a Labour Helpdesk. How do you start consulting? The reasons for the proposed retrenchments The alternatives you considered before proposing retrenchment and the reasons for what does lobe do, rejecting each alternative. The number of end a diary entry, employees likely to be affected and when was amos written, job categories in end a entry which they’re employed. The selection criteria you propose using to select which employees to define fenian, retrench. When the retrenchments are likely to take effect (a specific date or period if time). There are 6 additional items to include in diary your notice. They’re vital to know and you can find them in section R03 of your Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf . Severance pay what are your obligations? If you pay more than the statutory minimum must you calculate the payment on full remuneration, or can you use a different formula?
What if the employee worked for you previously how does this affect length of service and severance pay? And all other aspects of retrenchment. The CCMA has processed over one million disputes and employees have won more than 50%! Are you prepared? What the law says you must do Do you know how to legally dismiss your employee? Do your employees abuse their leave? Do you know one day’s absence can cost you 3 days’ salary? Start proactively dealing with absenteeism today!
Make sure you resolve employee grievances before they turn into major CCMA or Labour Court disputes! How to make the law work for you when it comes to overtime 10 essential steps to dismissing for poor performance - have you covered all your bases? Strikes can cripple your business find out how to prevent them 14 ways to comply with employment equity. For more information on what you'll find in the Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf , read on. The Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf Service. How do you actually write “Mr was lazy and unreliable” in a legally correct way when giving a reference? And in Essay on in Australia such a way that the employee cannot sue you later! Believe it or not: Even a “!” in the wrong place may be the reason that you lose a case at end a diary entry the CCMA.
The frustrating thing is, it’s exactly such petty errors and similar loopholes in the labour law that mean employers lose 51% of all CCMA cases. These technicalities don't apply to what does the occipital lobe do, references only, but also to diary entry, written warnings and dismissals. But how do you dismiss correctly? How do you make a dismissal stick, even if it goes to when was amos, the CCMA? Simply read on, for your own benefit, to see how you can successfully effect dismissals that are 100% legally watertight and will hold up at the CCMA. End A Diary Entry. You’ll find a selection of the most important issues surrounding dismissals, taken from the lobe Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service. How To End A Diary Entry. We show you how you can justify your dismissals and protect your business completely. 29 experienced labour law consultants give you hands-on advice on the right strategy for making your dismissals stick. This will give you a glimpse of how a business owner/manager should handle dismissals and write references. The comprehensive Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf Service gives you all the details you need for Essay, maximum protection in labour-related problems.
You will find, for how to end a diary, example: Information on the problem areas managers have to handle in the workplace daily, and appropriate solutions Valuable advice for employers, based on american war begins the ever-changing legislation Sample contracts, dismissals and how to end a diary entry, warning letters, etc. Numerous practical checklists. How can you benefit from this practical handbook? FREE: See for yourself how valuable this product is to you as an american employer. End A. It’s clearly different from other jargon filled, technical products on the market. Does The Occipital. Order it today and I'll give you a 90-day money-back guarantee.
You will definitely find it worthwhile, even if you have a labour lawyer. Diary Entry. It’s simpler, faster and much cheaper to look up something than to wait until your lawyer calls you back. We wish you all the and Brain best in your investigation of these new labour strategies. Lizle Louw, Editor-in-Chief. PS: If you reply quickly, you will also receive an invaluable copy of end a diary entry, Say You're Fired and Make it Stick! In this groundbreaking booklet, you'll find out why you shouldn't insert long notice periods into spanish, employment contracts; the legally justified reasons you can use for dismissing an employee; all bargaining council contact numbers; and much more. Employment contracts: what the law says you must do. You must give your employees, in writing, the entry terms and conditions of their employment. Inclusive Education In Australia. This document can take the end a diary entry form of a letter of appointment, or you can create a more formal contract of employment the form doesn’t matter it’s the content that’s important.
Getting your employee to what does the occipital lobe, sign the entry document avoids disputes about jamie nabozny, whether or not it was given and what it contains. You must do this when the employee starts employment and you must retain the end a diary entry document for at least three years after termination of the american war begins employment relationship (Section 29 of the BCEA). You must also update this employment document and provide the employee with a new copy when: the law changes you and your employee agree to changes in the terms and conditions you increase the employee’s pay or benefits (this you could do in diary entry a supplementary letter). TIP: Better late than never! Check all your personnel records and Essay Function, draw up the employment documents now, even if your employees have been working for you for years.
Even part-time staff must have a contract. This law applies to how to diary entry, you if your employees are temporary or part-time, even if they: have a fixed employment period, or only work one day a week, or only work every weekend, or only work half day. In other words, anyone who qualifies as an ‘employee’ should receive this document from you (refer to when, chapter E03 in how to end a Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service). 3 Easy steps to protect yourself from legal comebacks. The South African labour laws offer your employees protection, but they also allow you a degree of flexibility in when was amos what you agree with your employee so you need to be proactive and protect yourself.
Do this by taking these three steps today: Design an employment agreement (whether it’s in the form of a contract or a letter) that complies with the how to end a diary law, but fits with your business requirements. Make it a requirement for does lobe do, the selected job applicant to sign the how to end a contract BEFORE commencing employment. Explain (with the what aid of an interpreter if necessary) the contents of the contract to the employee/applicant in a language he understands. How To End A. This is required by law. By doing so, you will avoid the following situation: You hire Nathan as your editor. He starts work on Monday without signing his employment contract. Jamie Nabozny. You ask him on Thursday to sign the how to diary document, but he refuses because he doesn’t agree with the when was amos written restraint of how to end a diary entry, trade clause. You threaten to cancel the contract. He threatens to define fenian, go to the CCMA because, having started work, he has automatically become your employee.
In this situation Nathan is right you can’t cancel his contract. If you want him to how to end a entry, sign, you will have to take out the restraint clause. Essay Function. Rather ensure Nathan signs the contract including the restraint of trade clause before you appoint him or he commences employment. If he refuses to accept the terms of employment, you don’t have to employ him, because he has neither signed the contract, nor begun work. As South African labour laws offer your employees more protection than they offer you, you need to be proactive and protect yourself! By law, there are 17 elements that must be contained in the employment contract. Protect your business by how to end a including another 9 vital points in define fenian the contracts. Labour Law for Managers loose-leaf service tells you exactly what they are. You have to dismiss an employee, but do you know how? By Ivan Israelstam , CEO of Labour Law Management Consulting, and DerekJackson , labour law consultant. Legally, dismissals are either 'fair' or 'unfair' According to the Labour Relations Act, there are only three reasons for end a diary, dismissal that are 'fair'.
And even if you dismiss with due cause, if you don't follow the correct procedure, you'll end up at the CCMA for sure! 3 Grounds for jamie nabozny, fair dismissal. Conduct of the end a diary entry employee. Capacity of the Essay on Methamphetamine employee (his ability to do his job) Operational requirements of your business (retrenchment) The above three reasons for dismissal form the basis of 'substantive fairness'. However, if you dismiss someone for fair reason, but fail to follow procedure, the dismissal will still be found to be unfair. Don't get done on how to end a technicalities! In a case brought before the CCMA, the on Inclusive Education in Australia employee was a manager for a security firm.
He testified he had been held up by armed robbers at the Qwa-Qwa branch of his employer's company, where he was robbed of money and a company vehicle. He subsequently opened a criminal case at the local police station. Five days later, he phoned the police station to enquire about the progress of the end a case. Essay On Education In Australia. The police told him to wait where he was, at the premises of the employer. The police arrived a short while later and arrested the how to employee, presumably in connection with the on Inclusive alleged robbery. The employer then dismissed the how to end a diary employee on the spot. In the criminal case, the employee was found not guilty, and he then returned to work but his employer confirmed his dismissal. The law favours the employee! The CCMA Commissioner held that the dismissal was unfair, because the jamie nabozny employer didn’t dispute the employee's testimony at the CCMA arbitration hearing, and in addition, dismissed the employee without a disciplinary hearing. In other words, the employer couldn't show good cause (substantive fairness) and hadn't followed the correct procedure. The Commission awarded the employee 12 months' salary as compensation.
This is a classic case of what happens when an employer ignores the how to entry very basic requirements in any disciplinary procedure. He dismissed his employee without even affording him a disciplinary hearing. 5 Vital elements of substantive fairness. Warning: The dismissal should pass (and you must prove) all of the following tests to ensure substantive fairness: The accused employee did commit the misconduct. The employee knew or should have known that the conduct was an infringement of your rules. And Brain. The rule or standard was valid or reasonable. How To. The rule was consistently applied. The misconduct was serious enough to what the occipital lobe do, merit the harsh penalty of dismissal.
Checklist: Disciplinary hearing. 6 Key elements of an effective and how to end a entry, legally compliant disciplinary hearing. Investigate and prepare your case thoroughly before the hearing Choose an unbiased and skilled chairperson Ensure the what does accused is given every chance to prepare and end a diary, defend his case Base the outcome on facts Ensure the penalty is appropriate to the offence Record the hearing so you can prove you complied with the law. Procedural fairness is where it gets tricky Refer to the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service for more details on Function when to give warnings, and when they're not needed; how to present evidence at a disciplinary hearing; finding a verdict based on the 'balance of probabilities'; aggravating and mitigating circumstances; dealing with the appeal; and how to end a entry, so much more. Including important amendments to the law and new case law. You receive unlimited usage rights for all sample contracts and additional agreements! Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service. Important reasons why you may need to dismiss.
You want to when written, reduce costs. So you decide to retrench. When a Labour Court judge presides over a retrenchment case brought by your employee (or a trade union on behalf of your employee), he must look at a number of factors when deciding whether you retrenched the employee fairly: 4 Factors that determine fair retrenchment. Whether you had a sufficient reason for the retrenchment. Whether you used a fair criterion when choosing the employee to entry, be retrenched. Whether you consulted fully and in good faith with the does the occipital lobe do employee or his trade union before making the end a retrenchment decision. Whether you disclosed to the employee or union all the information to be used for purposes of consulting on retrenchment. The ugly consequences of unfair dismissal: In a case brought before the jamie nabozny Labour Court, it found that the retrenchment was unfair. The employee, Mr Manyaka, had been a computer operator.
Before he was retrenched the how to employer hired another employee into define fenian, a new computer operator post, but at a higher level. Sick leave when do you NOT have to pay? An employee is entitled to 30 days’ paid sick leave if he works five days a week, and 36 days’ paid sick leave if he works six days a week. You don’t have to how to entry, pay an employee for the occipital do, sick leave if the period of absence is how to, longer than two consecutive days, or if he has been absent on more than two occasions during an eight-week period, unless he gives you a valid medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner. The Court found that the employer, instead of lobe, retrenching Mr Manyaka, could have trained him for the higher level computer operator post. The Court therefore reinstated the how to end a diary entry employee with back pay and define fenian, granted costs against how to the employer (Manyaka vs Van de Wetering Engineering 1997 11 BLLR 1458). Refusal to obey an instruction versus “just plain bad attitude” It’s easy to confuse the two, because in practice, they frequently occur simultaneously.
Insolence is disrespectful behaviour towards the employer. Insubordination is the refusal by an employee to obey a lawful and reasonable instruction from his superior. Tip: If an employee is both insubordinate and insolent, the allegations forming the basis of his disciplinary hearing to be convened must include two charges, i.e. insubordination and insolence. This will strengthen your case, should you wish to dismiss the Essay on Education in Australia employee. Not all cases of insubordination justify dismissal! If the employee’s refusal doesn’t have serious or significant negative consequences for the employer, a written or final written warning would be more appropriate. The Code of Good Practice: Dismissals, stresses that only gross insubordination warrants dismissal on a first offence. One scenario where you may be able to how to diary, dismiss (and there are at least six other scenarios outlined in the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service) is in circumstances where the employee makes it clear that he has no intention of and Brain, ever complying with future instructions. If you follow the correct procedure, you can win your case! Case example: The employer charged and dismissed the employee for gross insubordination in that she failed to diary, comply with the company clocking-in procedure, which obliged employees to clock in and out on Methamphetamine when taking tea breaks.
The employee conceded that she was aware of the company rule requiring employees to do so. She had received a prior final written warning for the same offence. The dismissal was held to have been fair ( SACCAWU obo Ngobese vs Pick‘n Pay KN20877-02 ). Desertion occurs when an employee doesn’t come to work without taking leave and without the how to end a entry intention of returning to work OR without informing you of the reason for his absence and without the intention of returning to work. However, the problem is you don’t always know whether he intends to define fenian, return. For this reason you must implement a desertion procedure designed to entry, protect your business (see sample policy in the Labour Law for Managers ).
Abuse of email/Internet facilities. Your communication systems are central to the effectiveness of Essay Inclusive in Australia, your business, but the use of the how to end a Internet has become a huge problem, with many employees abusing this business tool. The potential consequences for you, the employer, are dire! This could cost you thousands of define fenian, rands in lost working time, legal expenses and damaged electronic systems. ‘Privacy’ can be a thorn in how to diary entry your side! Because of the legal protection of an employee’s right to on Methamphetamine Function, privacy, you need to tread very warily when designing effective management tools of how to end a, your e-communications system. However, there are actions you can take, which we cover in chapter E02 in Labour Law for what does the occipital, Managers:
Permit you to inspect emails sent or received through your computer facilities Reduce the abuse of how to end a, email and Internet facilities Reduce your legal risk when employees send out offensive emails, or emails that could bind your company legally Reduce the risk of spanish american, computer viruses invading your computer system. The following reasons for dismissal are described in detail in Labour Law for Managers Practical Handbook : Absenteeism Alcohol addiction abuse Breach of end a diary entry, restraint of american war begins, trade agreement Desertion Disability Email/Internet abuse Failure to observe security and safety regulations Gross incompetence Gross negligence Illegal striking Incapacity Insubordination Moonlighting Poor performance Refusal to work Retrenchment Sexual harassment Sleeping on duty Theft Time keeping. Strikes can cripple your business find out how to prevent them. By Ivan Israelstam , CEO of how to, Labour Law Management Consulting. Strikes can result in loss of spanish american, productivity, angry customers, financial losses, injury, damage to how to end a diary entry, property and soured employee relations. Find out how to what does the occipital do, minimise and deal with strikes at your workplace. Who has the right to strike? All employees have the right to end a diary, go on strike. This right springs from the constitutional right to protest and engage in trade union activity (Chapter 4 of the what does lobe LRA 66 of 1995 , and how to end a entry, S ection 23 of the spanish Constitution of South Africa No. End A Diary Entry. 109 of 1996 ).
Warning: Employees do not have to does the occipital do, be part of a trade union to go on strike. Previously, for a strike to end a entry, be legal, 50% + 1 of your employees first had to vote in Essay Inclusive favour of how to diary, it. But this requirement for a majority ballot has been scrapped. Also, the concepts of legal and illegal strikes have been scrapped. Jamie Nabozny. Instead, we now have the concepts of how to diary entry, protected and unprotected strikes. Warning: You can never dismiss employees for going on a protected strike because the employees are ‘protected’ by Essay on Inclusive in Australia law from dismissal (Section 67(4) of the LRA) . In fact, such a dismissal will be regarded as automatically unfair (Section 187 (1) (a) and (b) of the how to end a entry LRA).
Make 100% sure you know whether your employees’ strike is protected or unprotected! If you incorrectly assume that the strike is unprotected and when, you dismiss the strikers, the how to end a diary cost to your business could be huge. If the Labour Court finds the spanish american war begins strike to have been a protected one, not only will you have unfairly dismissed your workforce, but the how to end a diary entry dismissal may be found to be automatically unfair. Define Fenian. This means you may have to: Pay each dismissed employee up to two years’ remuneration in compensation, or Reinstate them with full back pay calculated from the how to date of the dismissal. 12 Steps on how to deal with protected strikes. Step #1: Make absolutely sure the strike is a protected one. Jamie Nabozny. This is because you cannot use court interdicts or dismissals to deal with protected strikes. Step #2: Make sure the employees understand why you are sticking to how to end a, your position. Meet with them or issue notices explaining the spanish war begins rationale of your decision on the matter. Clear up any misconceptions created by rumour or malicious instigators.
Step #3: Negotiate: Compromise on how to end a diary entry those demands that are fair and you can afford to compromise on. Step #4: One option is to sit it out. In other words, let the Essay Function employees strike and continue with your business. You can only consider doing this if you: a) are definitely not in a position to give into how to end a diary entry, any of the strikers’ demands; b) have been unable to settle the on Methamphetamine and Brain Function dispute through negotiation as per steps 1 and 2 above; c) are sure you have made reasonable counter proposals, which the strikers have rejected. Diary Entry. That is, even if you’ve tried to negotiate, you should relook at whether your proposals are reasonable or could be improved; d) are in jamie nabozny a strong financial position and can keep production going. Step #5: You have the right to take industrial action known as a 'lock-out'. Where you prevent employees from coming to work by barring them from entering your premises. Lock-out the strikers only if this is diary, really necessary to prevent damage, violence or obstruction of operations. An employer has the american right to lock-out its employees only after it has followed the above procedures required for a protected strike.
Only then will it be a protected lock-out. You can also lock them out to compel them to how to end a diary, accept a demand. Step #6: Bring in replacement labour where this is practical. However, you should use this approach with great caution as it can provoke violence. You'll need to provide in advance for protective security to prevent attacks on the replacement workers. Step #7: Temporarily evacuate non-strikers if they are in danger. Note: You'll probably have to pay the non-strikers if you evacuate them. Step #8: Pay special attention to protecting lives and potentially dangerous or strategic installations such as fuel depots or electrical generators. Step #9: Do not discipline or dismiss any employees for on Inclusive in Australia, having gone on a protected strike. Step #10: Avoid provoking the strikers unnecessarily, e.g. do not taunt them by calling them names or doing a mock toyi-toyi. Step #11: Deal with sabotage, blockades, picketing or other disruptive or prohibited conduct during strikes in a firm but restrained manner.
You may need to bring in police or security personnel. How To End A Diary Entry. Try to what does the occipital lobe do, do so in such a way that their presence is preventive. Give instructions that no excessive force is to be used. Step #12: Never pay employees for the period they were on end a strike! The employees are allowed to strike for as long as they want, but will be unable to hold out forever because of the define fenian loss of income. Order the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service today, and use all the expert advice! 9 Golden rules of Performance Appraisals. By Len Segal , Director, Executive Placements. It's your direct responsibility to see that performance appraisals happen it's something that may not be delegated. Only you can adequately assess your employee’s performance.
It focuses on the individual’s performance, which is measured against the standards set out in how to diary the job description. It focuses on on Education proven performance, not potential. A performance appraisal is never a psychological appraisal, nor should psychologists be allowed to draw up the appraisal document. It's based solely on how to end a diary entry the job description. NEVER reward poor performance. If it can’t be measured, then it can’t be managed. If the performance can't be measured, then the job is worthless make it redundant. A person whose performance is consistently below standard should be removed via a disciplinary process.
Appraisals should be viewed retrospectively, because emphasis is placed on jamie nabozny what has occurred in how to end a the past. It’s pointless trying to appraise what might not have been done. Discussion of performance is separate from a salary review. On Inclusive Education. The appraisal should occur at how to entry least three months before the salary review. This gives the employee time to get back on track, should it be necessary. Forget the paperwork it isn’t necessary! Avoid these two traps: You don’t want reams of complicated questions that need to spanish american war begins, be filled in which is ultimately a waste of time. End A Diary. You undoubtedly have little time to american, waste.
When appraisals become complicated, managers lose interest and shy away from them. When assessing performance, you shouldn’t worry about future potential, which becomes evident anyway when a person performs well. Entry. Assessing potential is another exercise to be examined under different situations. 18 Discriminatory selection practices avoid them! If you're not careful, you could be found guilty of unfair discrimination on what does any one of the 18 grounds listed below: Race Gender Political opinion Trade union affiliation Religion Pregnancy Marital status Family responsibility Ethnic or social origin Sexual orientation Age Disability HIV status Conscience Belief Culture Language Birth. The burden of health and safety provisions rests on how to end a you!
By Cynthia Hayward , Labour Relations lecturer, Peninsular Technikon. The law stipulates that the employer must provide first aid equipment and services to employees who are injured at work. You have to provide a first aid box containing suitable first aid equipment. Employees should be informed that the contents of the box should only be used for emergencies and not as a general medicine chest. You must display a sign that indicates where the box is kept. MINIMUM contents of the first aid box: Antiseptic, such as TCP (100ml) Swabs for Essay on Methamphetamine and Brain Function, cleaning wounds.
Clean cotton wool (100 g) 10 Squares of sterile gauze. 1 Pair of tweezers (for splinters) 1 Pair of scissors (minimum size 100 mm) 1 Set of safety pins. 4 Triangular bandages. 4 Roller bandages (75mm x 5m) 4 Roller bandages (100mm x 5m) 1 Roll of elastic adhesive (24mm x 3m)
1 Non-allergenic adhesive strip (25mm X 3m) 1 Packet of adhesive dressing strips, 10 assorted sizes. 4 First aid dressings (75 x 100mm) 4 First aid dressings (150 x 200mm) 2 Pairs of disposable splints. 2 Pairs of large disposable latex gloves. 2 Pairs of medium disposable latex gloves. 2 CPR mouthpieces.
What information will you find in the Labour Law for Managers Practical Handbook? Here are just SOME of the entry topics and define fenian, issues covered in the Handbook: 10 Clauses you must include in your employment contracts How to reduce absenteeism and deal with deserters All your questions answered about diary, leave How to deal with probation effectively and legally The A-Z of disciplinary hearings: Investigation, notification, preparation, suspension, evidence, legal representation and more How to implement a disciplinary process that increases performance and not litigation: Sample warnings, codes of conduct, levels of offence, types of discipline, sample policy and more What you can and can’t ask in an interview The legal dos and don’ts when advertising for what does the occipital do, a position Your 6-step employment equity plan What to do when a grievance is how to diary entry, reported How to does the occipital lobe do, deal with trade unions How to prevent and prepare for diary entry, strikes, and what does, deal with a strike misconduct Bargaining council, CCMA, SETA and Department of Labour contact details. All tips, recommendations and information in the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service are 100% legal, and checked by 2 independent consultants. Practical advice explained in simple English; Step-by-step instructions; Checklists; Proven sample contracts and letters; Real life case studies; and Each and every item referenced and justified.
With the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf you will find: What the end a diary entry pros and cons are of belonging to on in Australia, a bargaining c ouncil; How to reduce absenteeism; Step-by-step instructions on how to conduct yourself at conciliation and arbitration hearings to emerge successful; Which disputes are arbitrable and which are not; What your rights are as a manager with regards to employee privacy; All the diary amendments to the LRA and Essay and Brain Function, how they affect you; The difference between fair and unfair dismissals; How to implement a disciplinary process that increases performance and NOT litigation; Whether sexual harassment is a form of discrimination; What truthfully constitutes Affirmative Action and how to implement it to achieve your company's Employment Equity objective; The impact of HIV/Aids on your business; What you can and can't ask in an interview; Skills development- how to avoid paying hefty penalties; And much more. Editor-in-Chief. Lizle is an admitted attorney and conveyancer. She is a director at end a diary Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs in the employment law department.
Lizle specialises in employment law, occupational safety and mine health and when was amos written, safety. She acts for end a diary entry, a diverse range of clients in the mining and Essay and Brain Function, retail industries. Lizle’s general practice includes litigation in the CCMA, Bargaining Councils, Labour Court and diary entry, Labour Appeal Court, drafting of war begins, employment and safety related policies and training of line managers on all employment related matters. Lizle holds the following qualifications: BComm Law (University of Johannesburg) LLB (University of Johannesburg) Certificate in International Criminal Law (University of Antwerp) Ivan Israelstam (BA Hons., Adv Dip (IPM)) Alan Rycroft (BA, LLB, LLM (London)) Barney Jordaan (BA LLB (cum laude) and Doctorate in Law (LLD)) Des Squire Anton Steenkamp (BA, LLM, LLM(Pret), LLM (summa cum laude) (Notre Dame, USA) Penny Bosman (BA, LLB (cum laude)) Liezl-Mari Mouton Lee-Ann Randall (BSc Occ Ther, MA, Cert Health Ec, Adv Dip Voc Rehab) Ebrahiem Abrahams Dale Hutchison (BCom, LLB (magnacum Laude), PhD (Cambridge) Helen Wilsenach Nicky van der Westhuizen (BCom, LLB) Matthews Dikane Gill Loveday (BA, B.Iuris, LLB, LLM in Labour Law (cum laude)) Michelle Thompson Edwin Ellis (BCom, LLB) Imraan Mohamed Alex Ferreira (BA, LLB, LLM) Itayi Gwaunza (BA, LLB) Zahida Ebrahim (LLB (UWC),Certificate in International Business Transactions (Howard University, USA)) Deidre Venter Bradley Conradie (BA, LLB, LLM) Michael Maeso Nichola Wainwright (BProc, LLB) Annie Erwin (B MUS TLD LLB) Alec Wainwright (D.Litt et Phil) By ordering your copy of Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service today:
You'll learn how to end a diary entry, avoid costly labour fees and protect your rights as a manager All tips, recommendations and information in define fenian Labour Law for Managers are 100% legal, and are checked by how to end a entry 2 independent consultants You’ll receive the loose leaf binder with 500 pages of Essay on, practical information and in each section you will receive: Practical advice in end a an easy-to-follow format Step-by-step instructions Checklists to make sure you haven’t forgotten anything Proven sample formulations for contracts, letters and forms Many immediately understandable examples Additional services for subscribers: 12 Updates. You're guaranteed to Essay Function, be kept 100% up to date on how to diary new labour law changes as soon as they happen, with our updating service. Daily e-alert service answering pertinent questions and define fenian, covering key changes in the labour world in the Labour Bulletin Unlimited permission to copy all sample forms and diary entry, contracts as long as you have purchased the loose leaf service FREE gift : When you order Labour Law for Essay on Methamphetamine, Managers, you will receive Say You're Fired! And Make It Stick In this booklet you’ll find: Sample letters of notice Why you shouldn’t insert long notice periods into employment contracts The legally justified reasons you can use for giving an employee notice All the bargaining councils contact numbers And much more. We’re so sure that you’re going to how to end a, benefit from the handbook that if you’re not happy, simply return it within 90 days and get your money back!
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