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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the science, APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to model of disabilty the format of an APA style title page. Is Astrology Science? Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page.
The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is Essay on Systemic Erythamous and Idiopathic Purpura no more than 12 words in length. Science? Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and medical model of disabilty, after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;.
You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to is astrology science your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in on Systemic Lupus Erythamous Purpura, the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of is astrology, your APA paper. The purpose of when and juliet, this page is to science provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on on Italy Global, a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Science? Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the on Italy Global Village, References title.
Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the is astrology, reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized.
The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of how to null hypothesis, information in a concise, clear and easy to is astrology read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in hypothesis, the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to is astrology present, it should be described in write null hypothesis, the text of your paper. Is Astrology Science? The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in to describe love, a way that is is astrology science clear and easy to understand.
Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. When Place? All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and science, , in Essay Village, , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores.
Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Science? Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced.
The key is to ways love keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. Is Astrology? You should use a font that is ways large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the science, most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to and alternative hypothesis discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the is astrology, reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right.
Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes.
General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to of her peers a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the is astrology, title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the ways, paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Is Astrology Science? Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in to describe love, your APA format reference list. Is Astrology? Consult the did romeo and juliet take place, image below for science examples of journal articles in APA format. When And Juliet? Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number.
The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the is astrology, publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. Peers? The title of the is astrology, journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and on Italy Global, the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Science? Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of when did romeo and juliet take place, any other reference. However, you do need to include the is astrology, date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible.
Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is how to write a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and science, a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports. Submitted by Teacher-2-Teacher contributor Kim Robb of Summerland, BC. Create life-sized models of two of your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Is Astrology Science. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the model, character. Tell what your role is in the book and is astrology science how you relate to the other character you have made. Essay Lupus Erythamous And Idiopathic Purpura. Create a sculpture of is astrology science a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object.
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Design a book jacket for the book. I STRONGLY suggest that you look at an actual book jacket before you attempt this. Create a newspaper for your book. Summarize the plot in one article, cover the weather in another, do a feature story on one of the more interesting characters in another. Is Astrology Science. Include an editorial and a collection of ads that would be pertinent to the story. Do a collage/poster showing pictures or 3-d items that related to ways to describe love, the book, and then write a sentence or two beside each one to science, show its significance. On Systemic Erythamous And Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Do a book talk. Talk to the class about your book by saying a little about the author, explain who the characters are and explain enough about the beginning of the story so that everyone will understand what they are about to read. Finally, read an exciting, interesting, or amusing passage from your book. Stop reading at is astrology science, a moment that leaves the audience hanging and add If you want to know more you’ll have to read the book. If the book talk is well done almost all the students want to read the book.
Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Make a book jacket for the book or story. Draw a comic strip of your favourite scene. Make a model of how to write null and alternative hypothesis something in the story. Use magazine photos to make a collage about the story Make a mobile about the story.
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Interview a character. Write at least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to is astrology science, present your interview is up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in the parts. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is did romeo and juliet emotion or growth. Is Astrology Science. Choose a quote from a character. Write why it would or wouldn’t be a good motto by ways to describe, which to live your life Learn something about the environment in which the is astrology science, book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the for the Village, book Retell part of the story from a different point of is astrology science view Choose one part of the jury, story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and unlike one of the characters in your story.
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Choose five artifact from the book that best illustrate the is astrology science, happenings and meanings of the story. Tell why you chose each one. Stories are made up; on conflicts and solutions. Choose three conflicts that take place in the story and give the solutions. Essay Lupus Erythamous And Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the characters in the story. Science. What things will you need to pack?
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Visiting the children’s room at the public library and telling the librarian in person about the kinds of is astrology science books the children would like to have in the library. Video tape oral book reports and did romeo and juliet place then have the children take turns taking the video home for all to share. Is Astrology Science. Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the book. Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in another school. Essay On Systemic Erythamous. Do a costumed presentation of your book. Dress either as the is astrology, author or one of the medical, characters. Write a letter from one character to another character.
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Cut out magazine pictures to make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the book. With two or three other students, do a readers’ theatre presentation or act out a scene from the book. Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the same book. Focus on a specific topic and report your group’s conclusion to the class. Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of reading. Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of your book.
Explain the similarities. For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and write a tabloid-style news story related to your book. Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about something that happened to one of the characters. Write a paragraph telling about the title. Essay Lupus And Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic. Is it appropriate? Why?
Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book. Why is it appropriate? Is it better than the one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book.
Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the is astrology science, setting of the book. Peers. What types of activities would there be for them to attend? Write a letter to the main character of the book. Write a letter to the main character of the book. Is Astrology. Write the letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Prepare a short puppet show to tell the story to the class. Write a description of jury of her one of the is astrology science, main characters. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the description. Make an ID card which belongs to one of the characters.
Be sure to make the card look like the cards for that particular state. Peers. Include a picture and is astrology science all information found on and ID card. Don’t forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the character–especially the signature. Of Her Peers. I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to find the one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to 20 questions for use in is astrology science, determining if other people have read the book carefully. Must include some thought questions. How?
Why Dress up as one of the characters and tell the story from ways, a first person point of is astrology view. Rewrite the story as a picture book. Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students. Write a diary as the main character would write it to explain the events of the story. Must have at peers, least 5 entries. Make a map showing where the story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book. Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in is astrology, the book.
Tell how the conflict was or was not resolved. Ways To Describe Love. Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of is astrology happenings in the book. Make a collage representing some event or part of your book. How To Null Hypothesis. Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book. Need at least 25 entries. Choose any topic from your book and is astrology write a 1-2 page research report on it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the peers, front page of a newspaper from the material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story.
Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts. Make a comic strip of your story. Make a display of the science, time period of your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book. Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented.
Don’t forget background music! Make a wanted poster for one of the characters or objects in jury peers, your book. Is Astrology. Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the character or object, (c) the character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object. When Did Romeo And Juliet Take Place. Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of is astrology science your story. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an advertising campaign to promote the sale of the to describe, book you read.
Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and a button. Find the top 10 web sites a character in is astrology, your book would most frequently visit. Include 2-3 sentences for did romeo and juliet each on why your character likes each of the sites. Write a scene that could have happened in science, the book you read but didn’t. Did Romeo And Juliet Take Place. After you have written the scene, explain how it would have changed the science, outcome of the book. Create a board game based on events and on Italy Global Village characters in is astrology, the book you read. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in jury of her, the book. Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and clear directions, events and characters from the is astrology science, story. Model Of Disabilty. Make models of three objects which were important in the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Design a movie poster for the book you read.
Cast the major character in the book with real actors and is astrology actresses. Include a scene or dialogue from the book in the layout of the poster. Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the events of the story on a map. Make sure the map is large enough for us to read the main events clearly.
Attach a legend to when did romeo, your map. Write a paragraph that explains the importance of each event indicated on the your map. Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in is astrology science, the plot of the when did romeo take place, book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Make a test for is astrology science the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions.
After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. Select one character from the take, book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero. List these qualities and tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the novel you read. You have been instructed to select your cast from members of your English class.
Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Plan a party for the characters in the book you read. In order to is astrology, do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to Essay Global, all of the science, characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and tell what each would wear to the party. (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. On Italy For The Village. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the main characters from the book you read. Give three examples of what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an employer in is astrology science, our area, and fill out the application as one of the characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is required, write it. You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the write and alternative, characters from the book you read on trial for is astrology science a crime or misdeed. Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments. Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you. One of you becomes the prosecuting attorney; the other is the defense.
If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on your own. Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the on Italy Global, book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the is astrology, scene and its effect in Essay and Idiopathic Purpura, the book on your title page. Pretend that you are one of the is astrology science, characters in the book you read. Tape a monologue of that character telling of his or her experiences. Be sure to write out a script before taping. How To Null And Alternative Hypothesis. You could perform this live if you so choose.
Make a television box show of ten scenes in the order that they occur in the book you read. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and make two slits in opposite sides of the box. Slide a butcher roll on which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Is Astrology. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to write out a script before taping or performing live. Tape an interview with one of the on Systemic Purpura, characters in the book you read. Pretend that this character is being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter. You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. Is Astrology Science. You may choose to do a live version of this.
Write a letter to a friend about the book you read. When And Juliet. Explain why you liked or did not like the book. In The Catcher in science, the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Write Null. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of yours. Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the two of you in which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. Imagine that you have been given the task of conducting a tour of the town in is astrology, which the and juliet take place, book you read is set. Make a tape describing the homes of is astrology your characters and the places where important events in the book took place. You may want to medical model, use a musical background for your tape.
Do some research on the hometown of your book’s author. You may be able to find descriptions of science his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc. How To Null And Alternative. What else is of interest in science, the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on the tour. Jury Peers. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why.
Write the copy for a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on the front page should be based on events and characters in the book. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in the book you read. Use pictures and words cut from magazines in your collage. Make a time line of the major events in the book you read. Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in the plot.
Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and affect characters. Make a paper doll likeness of science one of the characters in the book you read. Design at least threes costumes for this character. Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the Essay on Systemic and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, character, the historical period and events in the book. Pick a national issue. Compose a speech to science, be given on that topic by one of the major characters in the book you read. When Did Romeo And Juliet Take Place. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the characters personality and beliefs.
Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in is astrology, a third-grade reading book. Essay Erythamous. Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for science that age group. Tape your storytelling. Write. Complete each of science these eight ideas with material growing out ways to describe, of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content. Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order. You don’t want to confuse your students!
Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at the final product to see if your instructions to the class were clear. Is Astrology Science. If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to see how well you taught the for the Global Village, lesson. Look through magazines for words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to create a collage on a bookmark. Make the is astrology science, bookmark available for others to to describe, use as they read the same book.
Write the title of is astrology your book. Model. Decide on science, some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. Present it to the class to solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to place, ask questions about the book. After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and provide everything needed to play. Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the character’s personality, likes and science dislikes. Decide on a gift for him or her… something he or she would really like and use.
Design a greeting card to Essay and Idiopathic Purpura, go along with your gift. In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift. Design a poster to advertise your book. Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book. Imagine that you are the book and is astrology plan a way to did romeo take, introduce yourself. Make the group feel they would like to know you better. Organize your best points into an introduction to present to the class. Be sure to wear your cover!
Read the classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for is astrology science or would like. Cut out the classified. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the one advertised be a good buy for him or her? Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel.
Mount the sketches on a bulletin board. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the characters. Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character. Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and explain how you feel about the Essay for the, book.
Prepare and present an oral interpretation to the class. Is Astrology. Create a poster that could be used as an advertisement. Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the first half of the list. We’ll take a look at editing out when and juliet take place, some obvious duplicates. Is Astrology. There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to jury of her, digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to send in or comment with your own suggestions.
Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year. I Love you Mrs. Raider and Mrs. Moore(: 3. xD. hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the book like it is just about to come in is astrology, theaters. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in jury, the book. I also think that you can put an idea of having to science, do a short song or rap of what is happening in your book.
woah that is a huge list. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas. They gave me a 120% on my final grade! I know get to graduate. Thanks BOB! This is an amazing list! I don’t know which idea to and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, choose! Act out the entire book in a two hour movie! That is such a good idea. AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site.
How can we pick one if there is over 300 of them. You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in order to KNOW. FALL in order to GROW. LOSE in order to is astrology, GAIN. Because life’s greatest lessons.
are learned through PAIN. Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years … Three books three years three new ideas thee A’s.
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essay shrew taming Ace G. Science. Pilkington and Stephanie Chidester. The Taming of the Shrew: The Mirror of Film. (originally published in medical model of disabilty, Encyclia , Vol. 70, 1993) In the late twentieth century, it is not unusual for audience members to come away from productions of The Taming of the Shrew with the impression that they have just witnessed the is astrology story of a dynamic woman turned into a Stepford wife. Jury. 1 There are also Shakespearean critics who hold such views. G. Science. I. Duthie, for instance, describes Katherina as a spirited woman who is cowed into abject submission by the violence of an egregious bully (147). Medical Model. John Fletcher's 1611 play The Woman's Prize, or the Tamer Tamed , in is astrology science, which Petruchio's second wife treats him as he had treated Kate, 2 suggests that even during Shakespeare's lifetime the battle of the sexes within the play had become a battle of the critics outside it. 3.
Shakespearean scholars on the other side argue, as Charles Boyce does, that far from being a tale of domination, the play's main plot concerns the medical model of disabilty development of character and of love in a particular sort of personality (626). Boyce goes on to say that The violence in is astrology, The Shrew --except for the beatings of servants . is limited to to describe love, Katherina's own assaults on Bianca and Petruchio (626). Nor is Boyce alone in his belief that Petruchio is physically kind to Kate; as Robert Speaight writes, It is only to others that he is rough (59). Much of the confusion comes from a simultaneous idealization of the is astrology twentieth century 4 and denigration of the sixteenth, a glorification of the sensibilities of how to write hypothesis, modern critics, directors, and audiences coupled with a condemnation of the medieval insensitivity of the playwright. For example, Jonathan Miller, director of the 1980 BBC Shrew , says, Shakespeare is extolling the is astrology virtues of the Essay for the Global Village obedient wife . in accordance with the sixteenth-century belief that for the orderly running of society, some sort of sacrifice of personal freedom is necessary. He defends his position with an attack, arguing that If we wish to make all plays from the past conform to our ideals . Is Astrology Science. we're simply rewriting all plays and turning them into Essay on Systemic Lupus Erythamous and Idiopathic Purpura, modern ones, a practice he calls historical suburbanism (140). However, he is himself engaging in a procedure which might be called historical blurring, allowing certain historical trends to obscure individuals and their divergent opinions. 5 No period can be correctly characterized as homogeneous, certainly not a time as tendentious as the Renaissance.
To maintain that women's rights were not hotly debated by Shakespeare and his contemporaries is ignorance coupled with arrogance, and to fit the creator of Portia, Rosalind, and Viola into the company of male supremacists requires an adept mental contortionist. Is Astrology Science. 6 One need look no further than John Fletcher's epilogue to The Tamer Tamed for Essay on Systemic Lupus Erythamous and Idiopathic a flat contradiction of Jonathan Miller's implied Renaissance world picture. In the epilogue, Fletcher claims his play is meant/ To teach both Sexes due equality; And as they stand bound, to love mutually (148). Those critics who acquit Shakespeare of male chauvinism often accuse him of is astrology science, bad craftsmanship. Thus H. J. Oliver writes in his introduction to the Oxford edition of the play, In The Taming of the Shrew he [Shakespeare] was dramatizing material from jury of her, unrealistic literature that was perfectly acceptable on the level of the Punch and is astrology science Judy show but ran the risk of embarrassing as soon as it rose above that level (51). Medical Of Disabilty. He has previously said, We sympathize with Katherine--and as soon as we do, farce becomes impossible (51).
But rather than assuming that Shrew should therefore be played as comedy and not farce, Oliver decides that Shakespeare has been led astray by his low comedy source. Directors of stage and film versions of the play must also participate in this long-running and complex controversy, choosing sides and making critical judgements as they make their artistic choices. If the five film versions of the play which are currently available are not likely to science, give a definitive answer, they certainly provide a representative sample, a set of performance texts with which to explore Shakespeare's blueprint. They include a live television production with Charlton Heston, a full-scale movie version directed by Franco Zeffirelli, a filmed stage production from the 1982 Stratford, Ontario Shakespeare Festival, the write hypothesis BBC's television studio version made for the thirty-seven play Canon in the Can, and, finally, Bard's made-for-videocassette version filmed on a replica Shakespearean stage without the audience. Those directors who see the play as a man's violent domination of a woman have manipulated the text in is astrology, two main ways. How To Write Null And Alternative Hypothesis. One is to foreground the violence a la Charles Marowitz, who declares that The modern technique of brainwashing is, almost to the letter, what Petruchio makes Katherine undergo (18). Keith Digby's 1980 Stratford, Ontario, production, for is astrology science instance, characterized Petruchio's ministrations as brutality in a concerted application to destroy Kate's individuality through her total subjugation (Loudon 678). 7. Another and more popular means of not dealing directly with the main story has been as Tice L. Miller writes, to mock it by turning the production into knockabout farce (662). To Describe. This was the strategy of the 1991 Utah Shakespearean Festival production, a strategy which, as usual, pleased most audience members while infuriating those who felt that Kate or Shakespeare or both had been violated. 8 Nancy Mellich wrote in her Salt Lake Tribune review, As interpreted by director Kathleen Conlin, Petruchio is a muscle-flexing bully, Kate a groveling, shrieking victim, and poor Will Shakespeare a male chauvinist.
What a pity, because that is a grave disservice to these witty, feisty, intelligent and is astrology science immensely appealing characters. Both the Charlton Heston live television Shrew and the Bard versions employ comic violence and clearly signal Petruchio's physical domination of take, Kate. The sparse, sixty- minute production starring Charlton Heston emphasizes the comic violence and eliminates much of the wit combat. Kate first enters at science, the beginning of Act 2, dressed for equestrian exercise and beating Bianca with a riding crop at 2.1.22. 9 Perhaps this is an indication of the horseplay to come. Because the first scene between Petruchio and Kate is so abbreviated, the physical action therein is concentrated, and the sparring seems more physical than intellectual; of the 88 lines in the text, 34 have been cut. The combat becomes heated when Kate threatens, best beware my sting (2.1.210) and bites Petruchio's hand. When he moves to grab her bottom on the line Who knows not where a wasp does wear his sting?/ In his tail (2.1.213-14), she slaps his hand. Peers. After Petruchio proclaims himself a gentleman (2.1.217), Kate lustily exclaims, That I'll try and slaps his face, finally provoking him to anger. Is Astrology. His response, after Kate declares, If you strike me you are no gentleman (2.1.220), is to slap her twice (not, however, as hard as she slapped him). He holds her wrists behind her back with one arm as he compliments her from 2.1.236-244, and peers Kate stamps on his foot at Thou art pleasant, gamesome. (2.1.239).
Then, just before he says, Nor hast thou pleasure to be cross in is astrology, talk (2.1.243), Petruchio puts his hand over her mouth to Essay Global, prevent her from speaking, and she promptly bites it. Kate has escaped his grasp by 2.1.251, and she begins throwing bric-a-brac and science potted plants at for the Global, him; she then tries to beat him with the broken lute when he says, be thou Dian and let her be Kate (2.1.254), but she misses and falls over his lap in a spanking position. And Petruchio does just that on line 260. The Bard production too includes much horseplay but moves even further in the direction of farce. Throughout the performance, everyone on stage sighs when Bianca is mentioned, and the entire cast leans whenever anyone says Pisa. Additional instances of the Bard's shtick are Lucentio's unsuccessful attempt to quote a Shakespearean sonnet, Shall I compare thee to is astrology science, a. When Did Romeo Place. Shall I compare thee to is astrology science, a. just before 1.1.14; the playing out of the lute-smashing scene on screen; and Petruchio's and Hortensio's apparent fear of being struck by lightning after the former says, though she chide as loud/ As thunder when the to describe love clouds in autumn crack (1.2.94-5), and again after Hortensio says, Her name is is astrology science Katherina Minola (1.2.98). Katherine and Global Village Petruchio dive into the violence enthusiastically if not immediately, and when they do, the text becomes subordinate to the action, despite the fact that all the lines in is astrology, this encounter are intact. The first truly violent action comes at 2.1.217, when Kate punches her suitor in the jaw and knocks him to the ground.
Petruchio jumps up, looking as though he's going to jury of her peers, punch her back, but he controls the urge. Some of the science most noteworthy bits of roughhousing occur from lines 236-65, during which Petruchio grabs Kate from behind (236), and Kate flips him over her back (237). At line 239, Petruchio grabs her from behind again, lifts her from the of her peers floor, then, as he says, slow in speech (240), he puts his hand over her mouth. Kate, of course, takes this opportunity to bite his hand (243), after which he lets her go. When Petruchio speaks of gentle conference (245), she jumps on his back and grabs his face.
Later, at 2.1.255, Kate lunges at him and falls to the floor, giving Petruchio the opportunity to seize her ankle and bend her knee so she can't get up. After line 257, It is extempore from my mother wit, Petruchio bites her toe; she screams, shakes Petruchio off, pins him on the floor and bends his knee into is astrology science, the same awkward position, before she replies, A witty mother! Witless else her son (258). Finally, Petruchio twists around and pushes Katherine to the floor at when did romeo take place, Marry, so I mean, sweet Katherine, in your bed (2.1.260). He kneels between her legs, catches her wrists, and holds her down while he forcefully insists that they will be married. 10. Although most productions of Shrew cut the Induction (as four of these five films have done) the play within the is astrology science play is still part of Shakespeare's text and his intent, and this pointedly artificial structure can show the actors in the main plot as role players whose actions shift with their situations. Further, inside the ways to describe love play within the play are yet other productions which may be used to distract from any unpleasantness (real or imagined) in the main plot. Bianca's suitors--Lucentio and Hortensio--disguise themselves to woo her, and Lucentio, who pretends to be the emissary of Gremio, directs his own actors--Tranio and is astrology science a chance-met Pedant--in a comedy designed to end with Lucentio's wedding to Bianca. Meanwhile, Petruchio and his servants play out a drama which might be called Petruchio the Shrew . Indeed, there is scarcely a scene which does not involve a deceptive performance for an on-stage audience.
The Induction draws attention to the tricks of actors and to the acting that others do, And if the boy have not a woman's gift/ To rain a shower of model, commanded tears,/ An onion will do well for such a shift (1.124-6). Preceded by those lines, Kate's words to Bianca, A pretty peat! It is best/ Put finger in the eye, and she knew why (1.1.78-79), show Bianca as a boy actor who plays the is astrology role of a girl who pretends to cry. Kate accuses her sister of playing father's pet, and much of Kate's shrewish behavior may be attributed to her frustration with the success of Bianca's role playing. Enter Petruchio to act many parts--fortune hunter, wealthy suitor, swaggering master, true lover, shrew tamer, and--in the and alternative pursuit of this last--shrew. In this shifting, indeed very opal of a context it is hard to is astrology science, take Petruchio seriously as an how to write and alternative hypothesis, advocate of the science right rule of the sixteenth century male and yet the Induction and its implications are Shakespeare's. By including the Induction and emphasizing the play-within-a-play aspect of Shrew , the Stratford Festival has foregrounded the kind of performance which a stage production can do best. As H. Jury Of Her. R. Coursen declared, The production's outstanding quality was its theatricality (286).
In fact, the is astrology Stratford film goes beyond the lines and stage directions included in medical model of disabilty, most texts of the play to achieve that theatricality. The Shrew players bow, for example, in recognition of is astrology, Christopher Sly and ways to describe company and allow Sly to act out the part of Biondello. Later on in the play, Sly takes on directorial authority, demanding from his seat in the balcony that Vincentio not be taken to prison. In addition, Petruchio and Kate, on their way to the bed chamber, walk past and acknowledge their onstage audience, and is astrology science Petruchio's taming soliloquy of null, 4.1.182-205 is is astrology delivered on the balcony in when and juliet, their midst. 11 The film concludes with lines from The Taming of A Shrew , in which Christopher Sly, waking to is astrology science, find that he is not a lord, decides that he must have dreamt the play and declares that he is going home to tame his own wife. The violence was minimized in this production, giving more attention to the combat of wits. This reduction did not, of course, please everyone. Ralph Berry complained, To see the Shrew assimilated into Essay on Systemic Lupus and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, homiletic drama is science hard for those of Essay on Systemic Lupus Erythamous and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, us who regard its vital essences as brutality and science sexuality (200).
12 It is, perhaps , significant that Berry links those two words and lists brutality first, but like so much Shakespeare criticism, it says more about the psychology of the critic than the reality of the play. Nevertheless, not all physical confrontation was eliminated. On Italy Village. Petruchio says, In sooth, you scape not so and chases Kate when she tries to leave; he then grabs her from behind, lifts her off the floor, carries her to a chair, and places her on his lap. Kate bites him when he tells her she is passing courteous and thus escapes from his lap, but Petruchio recaptures her by reaching across the table and pulling her up onto it. There is indeed much fighting over and even kicking of tables.
For this production, the end result of is astrology, Petruchio's behavior modification was not a broken or even subdued Kate but a Kate who has seen through the layers of role playing to reality. After Petruchio exits on on Italy for the what o'clock I say it is and Hortensio says, this gallant will command the sun, Kate suddenly realizes what Petruchio is up to. Her enlightenment consists of a small oh, then a larger one followed by quiet laughter. If the Stratford Festival emphasized that part of Shrew which is best played on is astrology science a stage, Zeffirelli's retelling of Shakespeare's story provided the maximum number of opportunities for a movie camera. Petruchio's wooing of and confrontation with Katherine becomes a chase scene through Baptista's house and over the rooftop with opportunities for swinging on ropes, smashing wooden structures, and repeatedly falling into a large pile of wool. Kate in her turn becomes the pursuer after the ways wedding, tracking her new husband over rough country during a storm.
As a result of this filmic revision, Zeffirelli's Shrew avoided the direct violence usually included in 2.1 by turning the scene into a series of chases through Baptista's house. Science. After he says I'll crave the Essay on Systemic Lupus and Idiopathic day/ When I shall ask the banns and when be married (2.1.179-80), Petruchio rolls up his sleeves and enters a room to find Kate destroying a music stand. Science. She throws a small lute at him when he says he has heard her mildness praised in every town (191), and she kicks Petruchio's stool out from under him at and Idiopathic, line 198. Science. But after she insists that she is Essay Village Too light for is astrology such a swain as you to catch, she pretends Baptista has entered the room and on Italy says, Father, this man. and, when Petruchio turns round to look for is astrology science Baptista, she slips out of the room, initiating a chase through the Erythamous Purpura household. This Petruchio is, initially, obsessed with money and not much else.
When Hortensio says, in lines which exist in the screenplay but not in Shakespeare's text, Now Petruchio, if I do plot thy match with Katherine, there is a favor I would ask of thee to science, help me woo her younger sister, Bianca, Petruchio responds, Ask it, and so it be not gold, tis granted. In addition, when he enters Baptista's home, he eagerly inspects a silver serving set which is on a table. Zeffirelli has shifted lines so that the first thing Petruchio says to Essay on Systemic Erythamous and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, his future father-in-law is, What dowry shall I have with her as wife? He repeats the is astrology question in its rightful place (2.1.119-20), and when Baptista tells him he shall have twenty thousand crowns, he utters an Ah! of pleasure, and how to null smiles. Science. Also, after he tells Kate, Will you, nill you, I will marry you, she says, I'd rather die and model jumps out a high window (onto a roof, we soon discover); he shows no concern for Katherine personally at this point, but mutters anxiously, My twenty thousand crowns, looking exceedingly relieved when he finds that he has not lost her dowry.
While this production is less violent than one might expect from science, a director as concerned with physical action as Zeffirelli, 13 Petruchio's characterization is considerably darker than Shakespeare's play indicates. After the marriage, Petruchio puts Kate on a mule, and peers he and Grumio gallop off toward his house without waiting for her. Kate chases after them in is astrology, the rain and finds a shortcut over a mountain; when she gets to the other side, however, her mule is when and juliet startled by Petruchio's horse and throws her into a pond. Petruchio chortles and is astrology science rides on without offering assistance, leaving her to medical, survive the rain (which soon turns to snow) on her own. When Petruchio reaches his home, he celebrates by throwing gold to his servants. He looks disappointed and is astrology science disgruntled when Kate walks through the door, as though he had hoped she was dead and the dowry his with no further trouble, and his complaints to his servants concerning the lack of preparation for his bride's arrival seem a desperate attempt to ways to describe, cover his surprise and excuse his boorishness. But despite this unpromising (and unShakespearean beginning), by the end of the film, this Petruchio and Kate have realized the love which their first glimpses of each other suggested they might find. As Jack Jorgens says, Their struggle, really a mutual taming, is is astrology 'the old game'--they test each other, school each other (68). Essay On Systemic Lupus Erythamous And Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic. If this Petruchio is science not a conscious improver of Kate, he does change her (as she changes him) for the better, a message of hope which the rainbows and syrupy music have been foreshadowing all along. Except for its omission of the Induction, the BBC Shrew is the truest to love, the text of the five films. It is science also the one version which foregrounds the words rather than the comedic business of the play.
Petruchio's confiding of his strategy to the audience is given full weight both before his first encounter with Katherine and at on Italy Global Village, his own home. Suddenly, the extended hawk-taming metaphor in 4.1 leaps out as, if not the center of the is astrology science play, at least the central explanation for Petruchio's behavior. Essay On Italy. In his soliloquy, he explains the theory of his taming, using an image that nearly everyone in Shakespeare's audience would have understood and that few people in modern audiences do. The comparison with the art of falconry is especially significant, since the falconer undertakes only to redirect the hawk's natural impulses; it is impossible to is astrology, break such a bird's spirit. As T. H. White writes in The Goshawk , Any cruelty, being immediately resented, was worse than useless (16). Petruchio speaks of a way to kill a wife with kindness (4.1.197), and his words to Katherine are almost always gentle. He praises her wit and beauty in phrases that must ring in Essay, her ears with a refreshing strangeness. This is, of course, precisely the wrong way to break her.
If that were his intention, he would be better advised to make her worthlessness clear to her, until in very weariness and despair she does as she is told. Instead, he treats her as a lady who deserves the best of everything, while acting himself as the very mirror of her shrewishness. In no other production is this as clear as in the BBC. John Cleese's clever glances out at the television audience make it plain that his own shrewishness is is astrology science mere performance. Indeed the sole blow between Katherine and Petruchio comes at 2.1.217 when the play's stage directions indicate that Kate strikes him.
The only other physical clashes between the two occur at 2.1.234 when Petruchio grabs her arm to restrain her from when and juliet take, leaving the is astrology room; at 2.1.314 when he twists her arm behind her back and leads her out of the of her room; and at 2.1.317 when Kate pushes him away. They even manage to maintain a civilized (though sarcastic) tone of voice throughout most of the episode, communicating through the meaning rather than the volume of their words. The BBC is the only film where Petruchio does not carry Katherine off stage after the wedding scene, and the only science, film in which Petruchio's pretense of rescuing Kate from the medical model of disabilty wedding guests is even mildly convincing. As in the Stratford, Ontario production, when the newlyweds arrive at Petruchio's house, Petruchio behaves abominably toward his servants, but, when he speaks to Kate, he is all mildness and manners. For instance, after he scolds and kicks the servant who is removing his boots, saying, Take that, and mend the plucking of the science other, he exclaims with the greatest gusto, Be merry, Kate (4.1.142-3). In addition, it is clear that this taming is just as rough on model of disabilty Petruchio as it is on Kate when he wearily reveals his strategy at the end of 4.1; also, he sounds discouraged when he tells Kate, Look what I speak or do or think to science, do,/ You are still crossing it (4.3.190-91). A particularly amusing instance of Petruchio's imitation of Kate's behavior (and his deliberate ignoring of her wishes) comes when she throws a tearful fit because Petruchio has rejected the new hat at 4.3.73-80. Jury Of Her Peers. He responds by throwing the same sort of tantrum, whimpering, A custard-coffin, a bauble, a silken pie./ I love thee well in that thou lik'st it not (4.3.81-3). Kate sees through and science decides to play along with Petruchio's game at 4.5.12, agreeing that the on Italy Global Village sun is moon or sun or what you please and is astrology science addressing Vincentio as a young budding virgin; it seems that she has learned marital cooperation and equality.
However, Kate's speech concerning woman's place is not more playacting, but is delivered in earnest, recommending submission rather than equality, a message that is emphasized by the psalm which the dinner guests sing at and juliet take place, the end of the play. It is unfortunate that Jonathan Miller has used subtext to subvert what is science otherwise an of disabilty, excellent version of Shakespeare's text. Having established an science, intellectual and physical equality between Kate and Petruchio from the medical opening scenes, he takes it away by sleight of hand at the conclusion. 14 And surely the creator of those ludicrous Puritans Angelo, Jacques, and Malvolio deserves better than to have their creed substituted for his own. If it is not finally possible to science, point out or even imagine a definitive production of Shrew , it is possible to separate Shakespeare's play from some of the misunderstandings and misapprehensions that have collected round it like cobwebs. The play does not demand brutality, nor is it a sixteenth century tract for Essay the subjugation of women. As usual, Shakespeare is subtler than his interpreters and is astrology science more modern than the historians and pseudo-historians who seek to place him in an imagined past with which they themselves are more comfortable. Shakespeare's great strength is his understanding of human beings, and and juliet take until actors, directors and critics can better that understanding, they--and we--would be better advised to learn from Shakespeare than to is astrology, try to give him lessons in the form of revisions. 1 The term comes from and juliet take, Ira Levin's 1972 novel, The Stepford Wives and the film of the same name that was made from it in 1975. In both, women are replaced by science, docile android replicas with limited vocabularies and when take place insatiable desires to is astrology, clean house. [Return to text.] 2 It is worth noting in this context that shrew was a title which initially belonged to men anyway, the word appearing first (the Oxford English Dictionary indicates) in model, 1250 and not being applied to women until 1386. [Return to text.]
3 However, Fletcher's association with Shakespeare's company and his later collaboration on Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen give credence to Ann Thompson's contention that by writing The Tamer Tamed , Fletcher was . putting the is astrology play into its traditional context of the war of the sexes, a context in which normally . a story about a husband outwitting . his wife is capped . by one in which a wife outwits her husband, the when did romeo take place overall moral being that . the best marriages are based on equality and mutual respect (18). Given Shakespeare's pre-eminence as a playwright for the King's Men, his financial share in the company, and the theatrical failure of Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess (published in science, 1610), it is hard to imagine Fletcher's sequel to Shrew as anything other than a compliment to its author and a continuation of his themes. Ways. [Return to text.] 4 See, for instance, chapter five of Susan Faludi's Backlash , Fatal and Fetal Visions: The Backlash in the Movies (112-139). Is Astrology. [Return to and juliet place, text.] 5 As Willcox and Arnstein write in The Age of Aristocracy , A society, past or present, can be described only in generalizations, which by their nature are unsatisfactory (47). [Return to text.] 6 If it is objected that these women wear male attire and thus take on male characteristics, one might point to the many women in Shakespeare's plays who exhibit masculine traits without adopting male attire or becoming monsters: Cordelia leads an army in King Lear ; Helena, though a right maid for her cowardice, chases her lover through the is astrology science forest night in Midsummer ; another Helena outwits and of disabilty ultimately catches Bertram in science, marriage in All's Well , in love, part because of her skill in the masculine profession of physician; Beatrice expresses a desire to is astrology science, eat Claudio's heart in the market place in Much Ado; and on Italy for the Global Paulina is the only member of Leontes' court courageous enough to call the King mad in The Winter's Tale. [Return to science, text.] 7 Interestingly, Sherry Flett played Katherine in this Stratford Shrew and in the very different 1982 Stratford Festival production which we will examine later. [Return to text.] 8 In addition to the knockabout elements, the USF played down the Kate-Petruchio problem by treating the play as an opportunity for ensemble performance, giving the Bianca subplot and even Hortensio's widow a prominence they seldom attain. [Return to on Italy for the Global Village, text.]
9 All act, scene and line references are to the Signet Classic Shakespeare , Sylvan Barnet, editor. [Return to text.] 10 If this is to be taken as a comic threat of rape, it is more in the spirit of the twentieth century and, for example, the 1991 Kevin Costner Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves than of anything Shakespearean. [Return to text.] 11 Performance is emphasized in another way at Petruchio's home in science, Act 4 where Petruchio demonstrates how foolish Kate's shrewish behavior looks to others by playing it himself. When Did Romeo And Juliet Place. He behaves like an outraged monster with his servants, as when he calls a servingman A whoreson, beetle-headed, flap-eared knave (4.1.151), but is the is astrology science very epitome of courtesy when he addresses Kate. For instance, just after he curses the servingman, he calmly invites, Come, Kate, sit down; I know you have a stomach (4.1.152). [Return to text.] 12 Berry objected to ways to describe love, the Stratford Festival's program notes which suggested 'Petruchio frees her from is astrology, this role [of shrew] by enacting a calculated plan of did romeo and juliet place, behaviour modification' (200). Berry was taken to task by science, H. On Italy For The Global. R. Coursen, who said, While I am no fan of is astrology, a director's program notes, good actors overcome concepts.
And this concept does have textual support. Petruchio is holding a mirror up to Kate (287). [Return to text.] 13 However, as Jack Jorgens points out, the physical has not been abandoned or even subordinated, Apart from of her peers, sentimental romance, Zeffirelli's major emphasis is upon farce. The film delights in harmless violence and is astrology festive destruction (71). [Return to medical model of disabilty, text.] 14 Scott McMillan sees Miller's production as more deadly, in fact, a straightforward piece of is astrology, shrew bashing. Casting John Cleese as Petruchio was first greeted as a sign of zaniness, but the anti-feminist inheritance from 'Monty Python' was here being turned to explicit purpose. Kate's concluding speech about the simplicity of of her peers, women is the most centered and science valorized speech in all of Miller's productions (80). Essay For The Global Village. [Return to text.]
Berry, Ralph. Stratford Festival: Canada. Shakespeare Quarterly 33.2 (Summer 1982): 199-201. Boyce, Charles. Shakespeare A to Z . New York: Roundtable Press Inc., 1990. Coursen, H. R. The Stratford, Canada, Shrew on TV. In Shakespeare on Television: An Anthology of Essays and science Reviews . Eds. J. C. Bulman and H. R. Coursen. Did Romeo Take Place. Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1988. Is Astrology Science. 286-87.
Duthie, G. I. Shakespeare . London: Hutchinson Co., 1966. Faludi, Susan. Medical Model. Backlash . New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1991. Fletcher, John. The Woman's Prize or The Tamer Tamed . Ed. George B. Ferguson.
London: Mouton Co., 1966. Jorgens, Jack J. Shakespeare on Film . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979. Levi, Peter. The Life and is astrology science Times of William Shakespeare . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1988. Levin, Ira. The Stepford Wives . When Did Romeo. New York: Random House, 1972. Loudon, George W. Rev. of The Taming of the Shrew , by science, William Shakespeare. Dir. Keith Digby. Theatre Three, Edmonton, Alberta.
1980. Jury Peers. In Shakespeare Around the Globe . Ed. Samuel L. Leiter. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. 677-78. Marowitz, Charles. Introduction. Is Astrology. The Marowitz Shakespeare . London: Marion Boyars, 1978. McMillin, Scott.
The Moon in the Morning. In Shakespeare on Television: An Anthology of Essay and Idiopathic Purpura, Essays and Reviews . Eds. J. C. Bulman and H. R. Coursen. Hanover and is astrology science London: University Press of New England, 1988. 76-81. Mellich, Nancy. Cedar City's 'Shrew' has missed the point. Salt Lake Tribune 8 July 1991: C5. Miller, Jonathan.
Interview with Jonathan Miller. With Tim Hallinan. Shakespeare Quarterly 32.2 (1981): 134-45. Miller, Tice M. The Taming of the Shrew. In Shakespeare Around the Globe . Ed. Samuel L. Essay Erythamous Purpura. Leiter. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. 661-66. Oliver, H. J. Introduction. The Oxford Shakespeare: The Taming of the science Shrew . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Shakespeare, William. Essay On Systemic Lupus Erythamous And Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare . Ed. Sylvan Barnet. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972. Speaight, Robert. Shakespeare: The Man and His Achievement . London: J. M. Dent Sons Ltd., 1977. The Taming of the Shrew . By William Shakespeare. Dir. John Allison. Bard Productions, Ltd.
1982. The Taming of the Shrew . By William Shakespeare. Dir. Peter Dews. Stratford, Ontario Shakespeare Festival. Canadian Broadcast Corporation. 1982. The Taming of the Shrew . By William Shakespeare. Dir.
Jonathan Miller. With John Cleese. BBC/Time-Life Productions. 1980. The Taming of the Shrew . By William Shakespeare. Dir. Paul Nickell. With Charlton Heston. Is Astrology Science. Westinghouse Studio One. On Systemic Lupus And Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic. CBS-TV.
5 June 1950. The Taming of the Shrew . By William Shakespeare. Science. Dir. Essay On Italy Global Village. Franco Zeffirelli. With Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor. Royal Films International. 1966. Thompson, Ann. Introduction. The New Cambridge Shakespeare: The Taming of the Shrew . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
White, T. H. Is Astrology. The Goshawk . New York: The Viking Press, 1951. Willcox, William B., and Walter L. Arnstein. The Age of Aristocracy: 1688 to 1830 . 6th Ed. Lexington: D. C. Heath and Company, 1992. Copyright © 1997 by Ace G. Pilkington and Stephanie Chidester.
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essay on mr collins 2013 JASNA Essay Contest Second Place Winner Graduate Division. Punctual to His Time: An Examination of Mr. Is Astrology Science. Collins and Time in Jane Austen’s Pride and jury of her peers, Prejudice. Rarely does one contemplate Jane Austen’s most beloved novel and immediately conjure the is astrology, image of Mr. Collins. On Systemic Thrombocytopenic. Generally, he is not considered one of Pride and is astrology science, Prejudice ’s more popular characters, and not many would ascribe the word “timeless” to William Collins.
However, Mr. Collins repeatedly demonstrates throughout the text that he is one of the people most directly correlated with time, both figuratively and literally. His association with this relative notion changes him from the medical of disabilty, typical background figure, to a prominent character of value. While much of Mr. Collins’s conduct returns censure and mockery from other characters and readers alike, it often parallels the behavior demanded by his era. In the strictest sense of the word “etiquette,” he executes his manners with more propriety than many of his peers, especially Mr. Darcy.
Dr. Lynda Hall writes in her article, “Valuing the Superfluous Spinster: Miss Bates and the Struggle to Remain Visible,” that for Emma Woodhouse, the seemingly inconsequential character Miss Bates, “is the heroine’s ultimate contrast” (281). Similarly, Mr. Collins is the exact opposite of Mr. Darcy, and Austen’s juxtaposition of the two accentuates the men’s strengths and weaknesses.
In view of Mr. Collins’s faithfulness to early nineteenth century regulations, Darcy’s refusal to customarily participate in society becomes all the more apparent. As a single, educated man, Mr. Darcy would have been expected to stand up with any young, unattended females during a public ball. After blatantly shirking this responsibility at the Meryton assembly, he is science deemed impolite, and “his manners gave a disgust” which fostered a poor reputation of him in the community (9). Furthermore, his “aversion to dancing” is considered a testament to an “unwarranted pride” (Fritzer 37). Darcy may be the most popular and on Italy Global Village, “sparkling” of Austen’s heroes, but he is “continually giving offence” to others around him, and his treatment of Elizabeth Bennet is highly reprehensible ( PP 13).
He repeatedly insults Elizabeth both in public and in private, and “the shocking rudeness of Mr. Darcy” culminates during his initial proposal to her (11). This of course results in her infamous dismissal of his addresses as she castigates him for is astrology science not behaving “in a more gentlemanlike manner” (127). While most of Darcy’s actions tend not to Essay on Italy Village, disturb present-day readers, Austen’s Regency audience would have been appalled by the total absence of propriety he exhibits. His rejection of social mores accords him a modern personality, which is probably another reason current readers, and viewers of is astrology film adaptations, are particularly drawn to Mr. Darcy.
The contemporary aspect Mr. Darcy models, adds greatly to take place, the timeless nature of Pride and Prejudice because it helps the is astrology, novel transcend its own era. Conversely, Mr. For The Global Village. Collins continually reminds the audience of exactly which period he represents. The initial introduction to Mr. Collins is via a letter, but his physical appearance occurs when he presents himself at science, the Bennet house, “punctual to his time” ( Pride and Prejudice 45).
This phrase not only Lupus Erythamous and Idiopathic emphasizes the prompt arrival of Mr. Collins, but also his singular interest in social decorum. His dedication to etiquette is is astrology further accentuated in the same paragraph which describes Mr. Collins’s air as “grave and stately, and his manners  very formal” (45). Despite the cinematic trend that portrays Collins solely as comedic relief, his description suggests a rather solemn man, overly concerned with propriety. The text continues in this frame, constantly highlighting the clergyman’s deferential behavior towards others. He “[apologizes] for being next in the entail,” (44) expresses remorse “for about a quarter of an hour” (45) for an inadvertent offense, and is often “assured with unwearying civility” that his apologies are “perfectly needless” (51). Although Mr. Collins’s frequent pleas for absolution appear sycophantic, he is attributed with an acceptable degree of politeness, and even awes Mrs. Philips with his “excess of good breeding” (50).
He merits this praise because of his attention to social protocols such as refusing to speak to young ladies until “better acquainted,” (45) and maintaining scruples about leaving his hosts, “Mr. and Mrs. Bennet for a single evening during his visit” (52). Mr. Collins’s strict adherence to did romeo take place, social decorum not only illuminates his propensity for is astrology timeliness, but also infers that he is an exemplary model of the Regency era man. Mr. Collins tends to exude an on Systemic Erythamous and Idiopathic Purpura, excessive nature, which makes it difficult for him to moderate his formalities. Science. Nevertheless, he abides by much of the social mores dictated in eighteenth century guides to etiquette. Ways Love. Penelope Joan Fritzer’s work Jane Austen and is astrology, Eighteenth-Century Courtesy Books cites many of the most common courtesy manuscripts of the “long” eighteenth century including Principles of Politeness , The Universal Mentor , and The Rudiments of Essay on Systemic and Idiopathic Polite Behavior (25, 34).
Since Mr. Collins believes “there is nothing so advantageous  as instruction,” it is reasonable to assume that his profligate devotion to science, manners is the and juliet take, effect of an avid study of such literature ( PP 47). Etiquette books of is astrology science this period discussed everything from fashion, dancing, and recreational activities, to the proper method of constructing letters. As the writers attempted to cover even the medical, most menial tasks, he would have been able to incorporate a substantial amount of these instructions into science, his daily life. His application of such advice is evidenced by some of his habits and quirks, which seem to medical of disabilty, come directly from the pages of the etiquette pamphlets. Is Astrology. For example, many of the books “suggest first that time spent reading is time well spent;” however, only if it is the proper type of reading, and the list does not include “romances” (Fritzer 33). Mr.
Collins particularly takes this assertion to mind since his choice of evening activity consists of reading from Fordyce’s Sermons, and he protests “that he never [reads] novels” ( PP 47). Collins infuses other similar notions into his actions in attempt to elevate his society, and appear erudite and refined. According to Fritzer, Principles of Politeness claims that “A gentleman furnish’d with Reading, can never be at a loss to  carry on a handsome Conversation; he is always well stock’d and medical model of disabilty, carries his Provisions about is astrology, him” (qtd. in Fritzer 25). How To Write. Mr. Collins follows this task as completely as possible by ensuring he is always well equipped with “those little delicate compliments which are always acceptable to ladies,” especially Lady Catherine de Bourgh ( PP 46).
A passage like the aforementioned, explains Mr. Collins’s incessant chatter and flattery towards those he wishes to impress. Although his behavior can be deemed obsequious, he undoubtedly considers it to be strictly according to is astrology, Regency rules, and his mandated obligation. While Mr. Collins relies on write, adulation to is astrology science, ingratiate himself with the nobility, he tries, unsuccessfully, to use other common practices to appear genteel and sophisticated. In the 1995 television adaptation of null and alternative hypothesis Pride and Prejudice , one of the most memorable scenes occurs when Mr. Collins dances with Elizabeth during the is astrology science, Netherfield Ball. The production beautifully portrays Mr. Collins “often moving wrong without being aware of it,” and to describe love, the trials accompanying a “disagreeable partner” in the ballroom (61).
Many viewers probably questioned Mr. Collins’s insistence to partake in the event if he was unable to adequately perform the dance steps, and science, the answer again lies in eighteenth century social guidelines. Both The Universal Mentor and The Rudiments of Polite Behavior enthusiastically support dancing as “an approved social ritual” (Fritzer 34-35). Not surprisingly, Mr. Collins’s own sympathies mirror those of the documents, and he is “far from objecting to dancing” ( PP 59). Ways To Describe Love. In fact, as a student of courtesy books he would have considered “dancing as a social necessity,” (34) which explains his indignation toward Elizabeth when she inquires whether or not it is appropriate for him to attend the ball (Fritzer 37). Although he is technically following the policies stipulated for gentleman, Mr.
Collins ineptitude paints him as a comical figure, worthy of disdain and disparagement. Collins’s overall lack of is astrology science modernity often increases the aversion felt by model twenty-first century Austen disciples. Is Astrology. It is understandable that these readers are unable to Global, connect with a man so entrenched in his own time, but he was also a figure of ridicule during the Regency because Jane Austen uses him as a parody of the eighteenth century conduct books. In most cases, “Austen generally agrees with the is astrology, courtesy book writers,” as far as basic principles are concerned; however, “she often diverges from on Italy for the Global, their strictness” (Fritzer 13). Is Astrology Science. Despite Mr. Collins’s best efforts to represent a well-mannered man, his limited judgment and overbearing character render him quite tedious in his observation of etiquette.
Unfortunately, Mr. Collins was not provided with the same upbringing as gentlemen like Bingley and Darcy, and being “little assisted by education,” or “an illiterate and miserly father,” ( PP 48) was left with “no innate sense of good manners” (Fritzer 70). Even though he “bows and for the Village, scrapes, and  follows most courtesy book rules  he does it with no sense of what is appropriate” (Fritzer 70). Mr. Collins is is astrology science unable to correctly implement everything he has studied, and Village, is therefore forced to mimic his peripheral understanding of the texts he memorizes. Is Astrology Science. This superficiality usually leads to his being interpreted as a figure of derision, labeled as a “buffoon,” or portrayed as a fool (Fritzer 33). Due to the assumption that peculiar and ridiculous are synonymous, there is often a “lack of perceived value” in regards to minor characters such as Mr. Collins and Miss Bates (Hall 290). While it is tempting for readers to be “[lured] into inattention,” or “skip over” long sections involving these persons, they frequently impart valuable knowledge, and can notably alter the course of the protagonists’ emotional or physical fate (Hall 290).
The narrator of Pride and Prejudice rationalizes, “With such rivals for the notice of the fair,” like Mr. Darcy, “Mr. Collins seemed to sink into insignificance” (52). However, it would be a mistake to dismiss William Collins as irrelevant, principally because on several occasions he accurately predicts several crucial events of the novel. Since he is relegated in many situations to when and juliet, the role of observer, he uses this to his advantage, and develops a keen sense of discernment. When Mr. Collins proposes to Eliza Bennet he allows, “that it is usual with young ladies to reject the addresses of the man whom they secretly mean to accept, when he first applies for their favour” (73). Though this is is astrology science not the outcome of Essay Lupus Erythamous and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic his personal experience, he perceptively foreshadows the path of the two main characters, Darcy and is astrology science, Elizabeth.
This provides the intuitive reader with the hope and anticipation of reconciliation between the medical model of disabilty, couple, and the result if Darcy proposes for a second time. Mr. Collins is not only a foil for Mr. Darcy, but also like Miss Bates, “a catalyst to [his] transformation” from is astrology science, single, to Essay on Italy for the Global, married man (Hall 281). Without the fortuitous timing of Mr. Collins, it is possible that Elizabeth and Darcy would not have been afforded another opportunity for matrimony. It is Mr. Is Astrology. Collins who hints to Lady Catherine de Bourgh about the affections between Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy, thereby setting into motion a series of proceedings, which eventually leads to their nuptials. All the other characters Lady Catherine, Mr.
Bennet, Mrs. Bennet, and even Jane, Elizabeth’s closest confidante remain completely ignorant in respect to the evolving emotions of the jury peers, two lovers. Jane actually professes she is “all amazement” after Lizzy announces her engagement and still believes that she dislikes Mr. Darcy ( PP 243). Is Astrology. Yet somehow, Mr. Collins is able to divine their true sentiments and write null, recreates himself as a figure central to the plot. Mr.
Collins is science very aware of time. He comprehends the most acceptable behavior for his time period, he identifies how many times certain situations should occur, and he has excellent timing, recognizing when he should be silent and Essay Global Village, when he should speak. Is Astrology. Despite his many flaws he is acknowledged as a polite, respectable gentleman with “a good house and a very sufficient income” (48). Lupus Erythamous Purpura. He is, thus, the is astrology science, epitome of Austen’s Regency male: “a single man in possession of a good fortune,” and until he meets Charlotte, “in want of a wife” (5). Although Mr. Write Null And Alternative. Collins can often appear eccentric or absurd to is astrology science, readers, it is largely due to the vast divide between the modern world and the Regency Era he personifies, and regardless of others’ opinions of him, he undoubtedly remains a man “punctual to ways to describe love, his time” (45). Austen, Jane. Is Astrology Science. Pride and Prejudice . Kent: Solis Press. 2013.
Print. Fritzer, Penelope Joan. On Italy For The Global. Jane Austen and Eighteenth-Century Courtesy Books . Westport and London: Greenwood Press. 1997.Print. Hall, Lynda A. “Valuing the Superfluous Spinster: Miss Bates and the Struggle to is astrology science, Remain Visible.” The Eighteenth Century Novel . Vol.
9, Eds Albert J. Rivero and George Justice, Brooklyn, New York: AMS Press, 2013. Village. 281-299.