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Thomas jefferson political views

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Oil Deregulation in thomas political views the Philippines. Contained in a November 5, 1997 Supreme Court decision, which deemed the first oil deregulation law, the Republic Act No. Bisodol Side! 8180, to be unconstitutional1, is jefferson political, a brief history of the martin luther king quotes, Philippine oil industry. Due to an oil crisis occurrence in 1997, the government created the Oil Industry Commission (OIC) to regulate the political views, goings-on of businesses working with oil. The OIC can fix prices of petroleum products, control refinery capacities, license new refineries, and skiing industry, regulate the general operations of affected businesses. We will write a custom essay sample. on Oil Deregulation in the Philippines or any similar. topic specifically for political, you.

The digest also pointed out the control of foreign companies over the industry, where almost every operations in skiing industry the country at the time is owned by jefferson, these companies. To break the foreigners control, with President Marcos initiative, the page, Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC). Thomas Views! PNOC, operating as PETRON, was the first Philippine-owned Corporation in the market. The Oil Price Stabilization Fund (OPSF) was then created,2 in 1984, as a buffer against the fluctuations in oil prices. Basically, the OPSF compensates by allowing companies to reimburse from the fund whenever prices change due to either exchange rate adjustments or world oil market prices.

Caltex, Shell, and PNOC, or Petron, were the only three remaining oil companies in the country came 1985. Under the Cory Aquino administration, the Energy Regulatory Board (ERB) was created with the purpose of, much the same as the functions of the OIC, regulating operations of oil companies with the addition of paying the skiing industry, OPSF to recover the importers expense from importing whenever there is views, petroleum product-deficit to temporarily adjust price levels, among others. 3 Department of Energy (DOE) was created on luther king, December 9, 1992, with its focus to jefferson political views, privatize energy-related government agencies, to deregulate power and energy industry, and to bisodol effects, reduce oil-fired plants dependency resulting to Petrons privatization in 1993. 4 In March 1996, Republic Act No. Thomas Political! 8180, which is the law discussed in martin jr civil disobedience quotes the Supreme Court decision, was enacted.

This law aims to expel all government control over the oil industry and is to be done within two phases. Phase one, the transition phase which started in August 1996, aims to take. Page 2 Oil Deregulation in the Philippines Essay. away control over non-pricing related aspects while phase two, the full deregulation phase, now includes the pricing itself, which abolishes the OPSF. To make things official, six months after the jefferson political, first phase, President Ramos signed an Executive Order that fully deregulates the form, oil industry. The passage of the bill incited protests from groups with the Bagong Alyansang Makabayan (Bayan). In October 1997, because of a strike, the Supreme Court issued a temporary restraining order (TRO) against the law and, eventually, deemed as unconstitutional in the decision being discussed earlier on. 5 Its unconstitutionality was because of the violation against thomas political, a Constitutional provision that states the State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when public interest so requires.

No combinations in side restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. 6 The Supreme Court points out thomas views, that the act does not make a truly competitive market because of the personality page, 4% difference on the tax imposition on existing businesses versus new comers. Two months after, the act was replaced by thomas jefferson political, the now-existing R. A. No. 8479. Russification Alexander Iii! The newer act retains almost everything except the unconstitutional provisions present in the previous law. A petition was filed by Cong. Enrique Garcia criticizing the very short duration (five months) before the views, full deregulation phase be effective provided in Section 19 of the Act. Garcia states that the provided duration is too short, making it hard for new comers, and relations, the market will still dominated by the big three, making it unconstitutional because theres still monopoly/oligopoly. The high court, however, denied the petition on the grounds, basically, that the argument of the petitioner is not against the law itself, but just against the timeliness of the provided duration for the full deregulation phase. 7 Fast-forward to today, many petitions has been filed to repeal or amend the thomas jefferson political views, act but not one has been actually successful. The most controversial issue surrounding the us ukraine relations, act is the views, overpriced petroleum products and frequent increases, with vague reasons, but seldom rollbacks like a two-step-forward-one-step-backward situation. Even though there are more than 600 companies in the industry and competition seems to be fair within the oil industry,8 the problem still exists the high prices of petroleum products which has a domino effect to everything in the country.

Economically, is bisodol side, it really favorable to the Filipino people or the favor only applies to the corporations involved in the downstream oil industry? If the thomas jefferson political views, latter is the answer, then its affecting the Filipino majority negatively, meaning the deregulation of the bisodol side, oil industry is actually unconstitutional because it violates the for-the-people essence of our constitution. B. Statement of the Problem The 1987 Constitution has entailed the adaptation of an implicit competition policy framework which refers to all laws, government policies and regulations aimed at the establishment and political views, maintenance of competition that aims to martin king quotes, promote, advance, and jefferson political, ensure competitive market conditions by the removal, as well as to redress anti-competitive results of, public and us ukraine, private restrictive practices. Jefferson Political Views! In effect, Philippine legislature has been adamant in ratifying laws both in realization of this provision and the protection of consumers, examples of which are R. A. Relations! No. 3247 (An Act to Prohibit Monopolies and Combinations in Restraint of Trade), The Philippine Corporation Code Batas Pambansa Blg.

68, and Executive Orders signed to increase Trade and Investment Liberalization. Views! 9 Part of the competition policy framework is the liberalization and form, deregulation of thomas select Philippine industries such as the maritime industry, civil aviation, telecommunications, energy and utilities. However, the actualization of the ideals of the framework seems lacking in the reality that most of these industries remain structurally monopolistic or oligopolistic. A casual observer could commit to the rash conclusion of the ineffectiveness of the personality, changed stance of the Philippine government. 10 The Oil Deregulation law was enacted to address this new framework of the Constitution.

The law seeks to attain a truly competitive market that runs with fair prices and a suitable supply of environmentally-clean and thomas political, high quality petroleum products. 11 The oil industry brought in a fair amount of new competitors, now there are about 600 competitors in the market and its safe to say that the law is achieving its goal. But for years it has been Petron Corp, Chevron Corp. , and Pilipinas Shell that are enjoying high market revenues. Up until now, the big three have remain to be most profitable in the market. Notably Petron Corp. at the top, followed by Pilipinas Shell and Chevron Corp. The big three still have 68% of the market share, which has improved from before but still with over a hundred of page competitors, the number is staggering and it remains a question why the big three are still controlling the industry even with the oil deregulation law is in thomas effect for 15 years. With the personality page intj, Constitutions anti-monopolistic agenda particularly, Sec. 19 Article XII which commands the state to prohibit or regulate monopolies for public interest, the oil deregulation law have become one of the most questionable laws in the country. 12 The transparency of the oil prices has been an issue for the consumers as oil price hikes have not stopped since the thomas jefferson views, law was approved by the congress. The time when the current oil deregulation law was enacted, February 1998, gasoline costs around just P12. 62 and now it went up to skiing industry, 300% ranging from P48.

65 to P54. 64 per liter. These gasoline prices are being questioned by the consumers for thomas political views, the price hikes are not supported by facts as to why gas prices need to be raise. The people are forced to just accept whatever reason the oil companies and the Department of Energy gives. 13 Given these issues, it would seem that the oil deregulation law is unconstitutional, a fact which the paper seeks to determine. C. Skiing Industry! Objectives of the Study The objective of the study is to provide a more accurate assessment on the unconstitutionality of the Oil Deregulation Law. The study aims to determine.

whether the law is constitutional: Does its provisions and jefferson political views, effects violates the constitutional provision to achieve market competitiveness for bisodol side, public welfare? Republic Act 8479 will be compared to deregulation laws in other countries. Jefferson Political Views! Because of unitary form of govt this, the study will be able to give comparison as to political, the success of other deregulation laws. D. Significance of the Study In the Philippines, the relations, downstream oil industry remains a highly controversial aspect of the economy in spite, or perhaps because of, the implementation of full deregulation that started in 1998. Contrary to expectations, diesel and other petroleum product prices have consistently risen at a seemingly accelerating rate unfair to the average Filipino. Consumers and transport groups alike have thus repeatedly called for jefferson political, temporary or permanent reestablishment of price controls, only to be ignored by a government firm in the belief that deregulation as part of a liberalized approach to the economy will ultimately benefit the country in skiing industry the long run. It is therefore in both private and public interests that the policys actual effect and its constitutionality be tested through empirical analyses.

Results should be disseminated and scrupulously explained to the public at large to put to rest the clashing beliefs of the two concerned parties. If it has been found that the oil deregulation law is against the constitution or perhaps failed to induce competitiveness, the government would do well to reconsider and implement new policies or even revise or amend it for the sake of public welfare. If, however, the opposite thomas jefferson has been concluded and the oil deregulation is in fact deemed to attain its goals, the government must focus its energies towards ensuring that the expected benefits are actually felt by bisodol side, consumers. A democratic government such us the Philippines is, after all, by thomas views, definition supposed to cater to public interest and relations, welfare. E. Scope and thomas political, Limitations of the Study The thesis aims to closely determine whether or not R. Relations! A. No. 8479, the Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of thomas jefferson 1998, is consistent with what the constitution provides for. The researchers will interview lawyers to see if there is an unconstitutional provision within the acts content and from economists to assess if the effects from the acts implementation is skiing industry, really in a positive note.

Included in thomas political views the interview will be possible solutions, amendments or replacements to the still-contentious Oil Deregulation Law. Data-gathering will take place within Metro Manila and during the luther jr civil, 2nd term of the political views, academic year 2013 2014. II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE INTRODUCTION The researchers will cover four important topics central to the thesis. The first topic covers the Competition Policy framework of the 1987 Constitution. Included here are policies that ensure a competitive environment, which is in line with the goal of the Oil Deregulation Law.

Reviewing the framework will help determine whether the law is actually doing its job to keep the playing field levelled, preventing monopolies. The second one will be about the transition from RA 8180 to RA 8479. Martin Luther Quotes! Using the petition of Rep. Garcia against the R. Views! A. 8479 in August 1999 as a source, the first part of our literature review will discuss the unconstitutional provisions R. A. No. 8180 that was not present in the revamped R. A. No. 8479. To know what transpired before the bisodol side, passage of the RA 8479 is important as it will give context and will direct where the thesis will go. After scrapping all the unconstitutional provision that made the ODL of 1998 to be successfully enacted, does the new law is clear of thomas jefferson any constitution-violation? Apparently not, as the third part will discuss the different reasons from various persons and groups why RA 8479 is unconstitutional.

Sources used in this part will cover news articles, House and Senate bills. Discussed in us ukraine this part are bills that seek to either amend or repeal the ODL, the views, grounds that makes the law unconstitutional and the violated provision in the Constitution. While enumerating the grounds, this part will touch on the effects of the ODL to the oil industry, and to the people. This part is relevant because the grounds that will be listed can be our bases as to skiing industry, what our recommendations will be. The main objective of the ODL is to promote a truly competitive market, but did the law actually do so?

The last part of the literature review will give insights about the status of the oil industry as of today. As the thomas jefferson, main source of the last part, the fairly recent paper entitled Philippine Oil Deregulation and the Oil Crisis: A Policy Issue Paper by Marlou Mumar of University of the us ukraine relations, Philippines. The paper roughly discusses the oil crisis in general, the jefferson political, ODL and its effects, and various suggested solutions to lessen oil prices. To provide a more broad view on the matter being discussed, the us ukraine, author interviewed five people from different sectors and of different specializations. The Constitution provided in Section 19, Article XII that deregulation must be only allowed if the public needs such action.

Thats why its important to know whether or not the law is economically beneficial to the Filipino people, and this policy issue paper will help the researchers determine the same. A. Competition Policy One of the most tremendous shift from the 1973 constitution to the 1987 constitution was the implementation of competition policy framework14 that will make sure that markets in the country is free from anti-competitive practices. This government policy shall promote laws and measures that will maintain the level of views competition in markets as well as affect the industry structures. Since then, deregulation of select economic industries, such as civil aviation, telecommunication, electric power, and downstream oil industry, have been implemented. A review of the Philippine Tariff Commissions statement regarding the competition policy will be used in order to have knowledge on market industries, deregulation, and competition laws in unitary form the country.

Here, we learn that the oil deregulation law is a product of the competition policy that the 1987 constitution adapted. Competition policy contains actions to jefferson views, keep or create competiveness in economic industries, which taking away the power of the government to take control of it, is included. Deregulation and other measures are used in order to promote economic efficiency. Economic efficiency is comprised of three components namely: (1) Productive efficiency; (2) Allocative efficiency; and (3) Dynamic efficiency. All of these components are essential to achieve competitiveness in markets, correction of market failure, and enhancement of consumer welfare. 15 Market structures are also enumerated and described here. There are five (5) market structures that are given here specifically: (1) Perfect Competition; (2) Monopoly; (3) Natural Monopoly; (4) Monopolistic Competition; and (5) Oligopoly. The first one is the goal of the oil deregulation law, to have a perfect competition in the oil market. In this market structure, there are several players entering in and out of the industry, selling similar products with fair competition. Many argue that the oil industry is an oligopoly of the big three (Petron, Shell, and Caltex), meaning that they can influence the price and output of the market by themselves.

This assumption will be studied later on. 16 Sources of market failure are also discussed, which a monopoly can cause. If there is a monopoly in a market, income distribution is minimal. Also, consumer welfare is iii, not guaranteed for monopolistic practices produce abusive price controls and inefficient production. These things may sound familiar, for many people now complain about these things against the government regularly. 17 Discussion of anti-competitive agreements are also given. Horizontal agreements, where firms agree to thomas political views, the pricing of a good, giving them ability to control prices. In this agreement, collusion between companies happen. These things can be solved with prohibitions or authorizations, which are few examples of solution for anti-competitive practices.

18 Although there are no developed legislation relating to anti-trust and monopoly activities, a competition policy framework is a strong backbone to. safeguard consumer welfare. Personality Page Intj! The oil deregulation laws goal is part of the framework that the constitution wants to achieve. The statement by political, the Philippines Tariff Commission about competition policy is an evidence that the government should issue anti-competitive practices in the country. Issues about the oil market today, regarding possible oligopoly, predatory pricing, and consumer well-being should be taken a look at. The literature gave the definition of an oligopolistic market and indications of anti-competitive practices. The verdict will be given later if indeed the oil deregulation is not against the goal of the constitution as well as the law itself, which is to relations, make the oil market competitive that runs with fair prices. 19 B. Transition from R. A. No. 8180 to thomas jefferson political views, R. A. No.

8479 In reviewing the unitary of govt, constitutionality of the thomas political, Republic Act 8479, it is necessary to know what was changed from the first oil deregulation law which was the Republic Act 8180, An Act Deregulating the Downstream Oil Industry of 1996. The petition of Rep. Garcia regarding the unconstitutionality of Sec. 19 of R. A. No. Skiing Industry! 8479 will be analyzed to give a brief background regarding the law. The first one was declared by the Supreme Court unconstitutional in November 5, 1997 for mainly three reasons. First, the provisions laid down were already advantageous to the major competitors; it will give more power to the oligopoly of the big three. Second, it will block the entry of effective competitors. Third, the law will sire an jefferson, even more powerful oligopoly whose power to the market will take advantage of the consumers general welfare. 20 In this topic, a case study of the petition of honorable Enrique T. Garcia in 1999 against the 1998 Oil Deregulation Law is essential to know if R. A. Form! 8479 is cleared of any constitutional flaws. The petition seeks to know if the new oil deregulation law is indeed constitutional and will ensure equal competitive market and welfare of jefferson political views its consumers.

He pointed out that the courts power of judicial review should protect its people from laws that could harm their rights. The case focused on the changed provisions of R. A. 8479 particularly; the king, 4% tariff differential, minimum inventory level, and predatory pricing provisions. Which should hinder the big three oil companies make practices that are anti-competitive, which is prohibited by the law such as cartelizing their operations by taking advantage of deregulation. The 4% tariff differential from jefferson political views, R. A. 8180 was too much for the new competitors to compete with the established oil companies here in the country. Page! With Sec.

6 of the R. A. No. Thomas Political! 8479, they scrapped the former revision and imposed the tariff rates single and uniform for all players. The minimum inventory level requirement was also removed from the R. A. No. 8479 which could have given the incoming competitors tough time to be able to keep up with the resources that the page intj, big three companies already own. The last one was the issue on predatory pricing; Congressman Tinge suggested the Arena-Turner test and proposed to redefine predatory pricing. The definition states that pricing below average variable cost in order to political views, match the lower price of the intj, competitor shall not be considered predatory pricing unlike what was perceived to be pricing for purpose of discouraging a potential competitor in entering the market.

21 The judicial review also pointed out provisions that will make the oil industry be more attractive to potential competitors that should support the political views, anti-trust protection of the R. Skiing Industry! A. 8479. The law allows the free participation of the private sectors and jefferson views, cooperatives in developing more gasoline stations. Moreover, the law also requires that there should be initial public offering of shares equivalent to 10% of the capital investments by oil companies. Bisodol Effects! The DOE should give the consumers assurance on the pricing, for thomas political views, they are obliged to monitor increases in the gas prices from time to time. To further ensure that the rights of the consumers are protected, R. A. Martin Jr Civil Disobedience! 8479 will form a task force with members of the DOJ and DOE to investigate anomalies in the deregulated oil industry. 22 The petitioner turned his attention to the phases that happened after the jefferson political, approval of the R. A. Us Ukraine! 8479 mainly, the transition phase and the full deregulation phase. In the transition phase, all non-pricing facets were lifted. With the eradication of the Oil Price Stabilization Fund (OPSF), a buffer fund was made to cover increases of petroleum products, with the exception of premium gasoline.

The automatic oil pricing mechanism was maintained in order to estimate the local prices of gasoline products in the global market. A market-oriented formula was also approved by thomas jefferson political, the Energy Regulatory Board (ERB) to know the us ukraine, wholesale posted price of gasoline products to be determined by the adjustments of the Singapore Posting of refined petroleum products, the Singapore Import Parity or the crude landed cost. The transition period should last up to five months following the thomas jefferson political, enactment of the law but with the power granted to him at that time, President Fidel V. Ramos accelerated the start of full deregulation through E. O. 471 in March 14, 1998. His decision was supported by the DOE and DOF because of two reasons: (1) the prices of crude oil and petroleum products in the world market are beginning to be stable and on a downtrend since January 1998; and (2) the exchange rate of the peso in relation to the US dollar has been stable for the past three months, averaging at around P40. 00 to one US dollar. 23 Rep. Garcia pointed out four reasons for the unconstitutionality of R. Bisodol! A. 8479.

In his petition, he said that the Sec. 19 of R. A. 8479 which grants for the five-month transition phase, shortened by Pres. Ramos, is pro-oligopoly, anti-competitive, and is against the economic welfare of the people. And therefore, the law was processed unconstitutionally for being foul and disparaging infringement of the constitutional policy and command embodied in Article XII, Section 19 of the 1987 constitution against monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade. It also violates the goal of the oil deregulation law, which is to make the oil market competitive under a system of jefferson political fair prices. Effects! 24 And because of that, the thomas jefferson political views, law is a very vital and grave abuse of discretion on the part of the russification alexander, legislative and executive branches of thomas political views government. Skiing Industry! Lastly, because of the hastened transition, he pointed out that Sec.

19 should be declared null and void for the transition and full deregulation should have price controls that should protect the public interest from the thomas jefferson, big three oligopolys price fixing and overpricing. All he said points out to the question, whether or not the execution of deregulating the oil industry conflicts the disobedience quotes, mandate of free competition under section 19, Article XII of the thomas political, 1987 constitution. 25 The petitioner claimed that acceleration of the transition phase was pro-oligopoly, anti-competition, and unitary of govt, anti-people for political views, the reason that the short transition period was not enough to side, establish true competition in the local oil industry. Jefferson Political! He also said that true competition exists only alexander iii when there can be a sizable number of players, and at that time there was only 3% of the market share which belongs to thomas, new competitors. Because of this, he suggested that the transition phase should be prolonged while the big three are still dominating the market with price controls so that the public can be protected from a possible overpricing or fixed pricing from the big three. 26 Subsequently, respondents claim that the decorum of full deregulation is a non-justifiable issue for it involves the perception of congress and the acceleration was also recommended by the DOE and us ukraine relations, DOF because of the two conditions that were discussed earlier. They also claim that the short transition period was not against political, the mandate of the constitution because the new competitors were given enough time to set up their businesses in the manner captured at least 3% of the market share. Skiing Industry! Petron Corp. , a respondent, pointed out that a short transition period is beneficial to new players coming in for they will be able to set up their business properly within a manageable time, to set up their prices, taking into account their investment and operating costs. It also claimed that an thomas jefferson, indefinite period of time would only discourage new players for they hoped that the unitary form of govt, price regulation would be lifted within a reasonable time. 27 Interposing economic arguments by the public respondents claim that price regulation is not beneficial to the public as well as to the economy.

They added that the thomas political, acceleration of full deregulation is of govt, based on existing conditions and sound economic theory. Shell Corp. filed a rejoinder and further added that if Sec. 19 were to jefferson views, be dismissed, there will never be full deregulation and would provide a new law that is different from what was already enacted. And, extending the transition period would bring back the automatic pricing mechanism which means that it will only replace the mode of price regulation by still another regulatory scheme. 28 As Garcia listen to these counter arguments, he said that he was just asking for skiing industry, the constitutionality of Sec. 19, not the essence of it. For he claims that Sec. Political Views! 19 is anti-competitive, thus it is contrary to what the constitution says.

He added that conviction against monopolies and combination in restraint of trade should be given legal consequence by the court. Garcia insists that the court should consider his petition that the downstream oil industry should go back to partial deregulation, in which the main features of deregulation would be allowed but the retail prices of petroleum products would still be regulated through an automatic pricing mechanism. 29 The Supreme Court Justice at that time, Corona, thought that his petition lacked legal basis even though it seem beneficial to the public. He added that the job of the Supreme Court was just to alexander iii, interpret and apply the law as conceived and approved by other departments of the government in jefferson views accordance with the prescribed procedure. The knowledge and to rescind or alter laws were the job of the legislation.

Furthermore, he stated that if they allowed an open ended transition period with pricing regulation by the government, the liberalization of the downstream oil industry would have been suspended. Then, it would bring about a free interaction of skiing industry market forces that would eventually lead to hindrance of fair competition in the market. He also pointed out that to execute full deregulation depending on the number of new players would be to legislate a floating provision reliant on the happening of a conditional event. In that way, the goal of R. A. 8479, which is to deregulate and liberalize the downstream oil industry to thomas jefferson political views, ensure a truly competitive market under a regime of fair prices, adequate and continuous supply, environmentally clean and high-quality gasoline products, would be demoralize. Lastly, he also pointed out that reviewing the wisdom of the law is not a power of the martin luther quotes, judiciary, that power is only vested in the congress. Thomas Jefferson! Policy issues are within the relations, domain of the political branches of government and of the people themselves as the views, repository of all state powers. 30 The case gave important information that will be needed in the study. It supplied a background on the changes covering the debunked R. A. 8180 to the R. A. 8479. Unitary Form Of Govt! The issues on the 4% percent tariff differential, minimum inventory level, and predatory pricing. All of these were changed or even removed from the first one.

These three were the reasons for the declaration of the thomas views, supreme court of the first oil deregulations unconstitutionality. Form! With these three gone, the jefferson, R. A. Personality! 8479 should be cleared of any constitutional flaws. Petitioner Rep. Garcia thought otherwise. He insisted that the rushed transition period was unconstitutional for thomas jefferson, it is pro-oligopoly and it did not bring in fair competition in the market. With the rushed deregulation, it could have provided more power to the oligopoly to take control of prices and also the market.

The court, respondents, and the petitioner acted upon the petition and in the end the court dismissed the petition for the reason that the petitioner failed to skiing industry, show that the law is violating the Sec. 19, Article XII of the constitution. Though Garcia pointed out interesting issues about the transition phase, he did not discuss the other cause of the jefferson, acceleration of the deregulation which is the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The hasty transition together with the IMFs role will be discussed on martin luther disobedience, the thesis proper, for we believe that there other reasons that could have brought the views, transition to iii, be accelerated. He was correct by views, saying that the accelerated deregulation was pro-oligopoly for personality, the SC Chief Justice said that what was Garcia insists could be advantageous to the public.

And, what is advantageous to the public is jefferson political, what the constitution wants for it is the side, protector of the people. The question on thomas, whether who will decide to repeal or even review oil deregulation law needs to be addressed. The Supreme Court said here that they do not have that power, and this issue will be talked about on the thesis part. C. What People, Groups Say About the Oil Deregulation Law Many are those who demand the amendment or the repeal of the ODL. The most relevant reason for those demands is that it does not comply with the Constitutional provision that says to prohibit monopolies. 31 But the researchers found more reasons for the laws amendment or repeal. Mostly politicians, they cited various inconsistencies and irregularities found on the ODL. Some proposing to amend the law simply because the goal of the law never came to fruition. This section will shed some light on russification alexander iii, the various reason found during research. Political Views! Everything found in this section is russification iii, relevant to the thesis, as these can be used as bases on the recommendations part of this study. In a 2008 article, the militant group Kilusang Mayo Uno (KMU) calls for the ODLs repeal and the removal of VAT on oil-related products.

According to the KMU, pump prices at the time were P11 higher than what it should be. To support the claim, KMU presented a data. Dubai crude prices are pegged at $97/liter on two different dates: November 2007 and September 2008. The diesel prices here on the Philippines were P37. 95/liter and P49/liter respectively, showing the P11.

05 difference. This is because, according to the group, of the improper pricing imposed by the dominant oil companies, meaning monopoly is still present. The same is the reason why they want to repeal the law, because obviously the monopoly is still present. 32 Art. XII, Sec. 19 of the Constitution states the State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. Supported by thomas views, different transport groups, Bataan Rep. Enrique Garcia claims that the above-mentioned provision of the constitution is violated by the ODL.

Citing the Supreme Court,33 he said that the control on the local oil industry is by foreign oligopolies. Also, he states the big three are the only relevant companies in bisodol side the industry. Thomas Jefferson! The scrapping of the law, as he suggests, will ultimately free the people from skiing industry, their suffering from the prices set by oligopolies. 34 The Court of Appeals (CA) declares the ODL as unconstitutional. In the CAs ruling, Sec. 14 (e) of the ODL which gives Dept. of Energy (DOE) total control over the industry during national emergencies,35 violates the Art. VI, Sec. 23 of the Constitution. The Constitutional provision mandates the thomas views, Congress to determine if theres a national emergency and a need to unitary form, warrant the exercise of the Presidents emergency powers. 36, 37 1-Utak party list, led by Rep. Vigor Mendoza, says the ODL is vague, therefore unconstitutional.

In Sec. 11 of the law, it defines two prohibited acts: cartelization and predatory pricing or unreasonable pricing. 38 Mendoza says that, first, in jefferson political views order to determine whether unreasonable pricing exists, there should be a crystal-clear definition of what fair price really meant which is not present in the ODL. The second act described in Sec. 11 is us ukraine, penal in nature and its enforcement will fail when theres a lack of guidelines in the law, making ODL unconstitutional. 39 Representatives Rufus Rodriguez and Maximo Rodriguez filed a bill repealing RA 8479 and reestablishing the OPSF. According to them, the ODL did not fulfill the goal it was written for. Instead of creating a truly competitive market, the jefferson political views, law did the contrary. The promise that entrance of new entrants to the industry will create a competitive environment was broken as these new players get their sources from the big three, which will dictate the prices, ultimately violating the skiing industry, anti-monopoly provision of the Constitution. 40 The bill, to solve the problem with prices, wants to regulate the oil industry and to reintroduce the OPSF.

With the fund present, it will lessen oil prices by thomas jefferson political views, balancing the price levels caused by fluctuations in alexander iii the foreign exchange and additional costs from views, importation. The bill listed sources of the fund and the promulgation of the personality intj, bills rules will be by the Secretary of Finance with the DOE Secretary as consultant. 41 Similar to the previous bill, HB 347 aims to regulate the downstream oil industry because of the same reasons. Unlike the previous one, this bill has a provision on how the industry will be regulated. The rules and its implementations will be formulated and issued by the DOE, with assistance from various government agencies, 60 days after this bills effectivity. Jefferson Political Views! Companies if found guilty of cartelization or monopolization, will be fined by at least P100,000 but not more than P1,000,000 plus possible business suspension or termination as determined by the DOE. The bill also includes a public information campaign to explain how the regulation works. 42 To summarize, the russification, following are the grounds for the Oil Deregulation Laws unconstitutionality: 1. That cartelization by the dominant companies is thomas, still present in the country, causing consistent price hikes, which is contrary to unitary form of govt, what the Oil Deregulation Law aims,43 ultimately violating the anti-monopoly provision of the Constitution44 2. Thomas Jefferson! That, during national emergencies, the DOE is vested with total control over us ukraine, the oil industry,45 which is contradictory with what the Constitution provides. The Constitution gives the Congress the responsibility (1) to determine whether the country is in a national emergency and when the country is, (2) to warrant the President to take control over any industry. Jefferson! 46 3.

That the skiing industry, Oil Deregulation is vague, not defining what a fair price is, therefore the enforcement of the thomas jefferson political views, law will fail since there are no guidelines to russification alexander iii, determine whether an oil company is committing a crime, the unreasonable pricing,47 or not. The lack thereof now promotes monopolization as these big companies can increase their prices without thinking of any consequences. Thomas Political! D. State of the Oil Industry Today The oil industry has changed over the years since the enactment of the Oil Deregulation Law. To review whether the said law is indeed free from constitutional flaws, we would have to take a look at the oil industry as of today. The effects of the skiing industry, R. A. 8479 should have been felt for its been a decade of progressively implementing the law. To know the state of the oil industry today, a review of political views a policy issue paper regarding the oil industry of today is needed. Marlou B. Us Ukraine Relations! Mumars Philippine Oil Deregulation and the Oil Crisis: A Policy Issue Paper made in February 20, 2010 will be used to have a better background on what is the state of the oil market of today.

The paper produced a brief a background about thomas views what went wrong with the oil market before the law was implemented. The deficit of the personality, OPSF (Oil Price Stabilization Fund) that was used to thomas political, cover up increases in gas prices was threatening to undermine the economy in 1995. Because of that, it triggered former Pres. Fidel V. Of Govt! Ramos to bring back the thomas jefferson views, plan of creating the Oil Deregulation Law. An effort to avoid such fiscal deficit, the russification alexander iii, R. A. 8180 was enacted in 1996 which was later declared unconstitutional. The whole saga was discussed a while ago. Afterwards, a new oil deregulation law was implemented, which is now the R. A. 8479. Fifteen years have passed, six out of thomas jefferson views 10 Filipinos are in favor to scrap the law. 48 IBON foundation, an organization opposed to the oil deregulation law said that it just fortified the oligopoly of the big three for they are permitted to bisodol, increase gas prices anytime. Due to this, other oil companies follow the trend and also pump the prices up resulting for a 535% increase in oil prices from 1996 to now. The effects of the law have not been felt by the consumers because of these high prices.

49 The consumers dont know much about the effects of the oil deregulation law because they tend to judge it by jefferson, looking at the price hike that has happened. Even though the downstream oil industry has maintained a meek growth,50 with the new competitors have invested worth 30 billion pesos in the market, the people doubt that the entry of these new oil companies guarantee fair prices for skiing industry, them. Because of this, the people does not buy that the oil deregulation law attained its social objectives of thomas political views just prices, sufficient, and constant delivery of clean and high quality gas products. Page! 51 What the consumers do not know is jefferson political views, that the quotes, cause of such high prices were not caused by the R. A. 8479. According to the Independent Review Committee in 2005, The main cause of jefferson oil price increases was the effect of major peso devaluation and increases in the international price of oil especially since we import practically all our oil product requirements. Page! To summarize it, the increase in oil prices was a result of the thomas jefferson political views, government suggesting the players to increase the prices over a long period of time rather than rising it one time big time. Without a doubt, there is an oil crisis ongoing today. 52 With the United States experiencing its worst economic state, the boom of high oil prices and skiing industry, as well as other economic things is inevitable.

Former Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo describes this as an oil crisis of global proportions. Jefferson Political! Today, two futures markets namely, London-based International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) set the prices of petroleum. Here, many traders sell oil products in paper or also called as paper oil on bisodol side effects, which they sell at a higher price. This scenario has become abundant, and eventually become the thomas jefferson views, reason for the price hikes that the country experiences for the Philippines, heavily depending on foreign oil production, buy petroleum when the cost is at unitary form of govt its peak. This has become a huge investment for thomas views, international oil players. It is said for every 570 paper barrels of oil there was only one underlying physical barrel of intj oil. The paper oil barrels pull the cost of the underlying barrel of oil, dictating the cost of oil. 53 This only refute what most people think about the price hikes that are going on, it has to views, be something about the supply and demand of it. It is said that 60% of todays crude oil cost is pure assumption driven by large banks and circumvent funds.

54, 55. Also in the paper, the different alternatives on solving the oil crisis here in bisodol side effects the Philippines. Through the simplified stakeholders analysis, where the author simplified proposed solutions by thomas jefferson political, various stakeholders, the author explained how each of the solutions effects if its the alternative used. There are six proposals included in the paper to solve the crisis: (1) Better implementation of Oil Deregulation Law (ODL); (2) Amendment of the ODL; (3) Scrapping of the ODL; (4) Removal of the 12% VAT on skiing industry, oil; (5) Finding of alternative sources of thomas political views energy; and (6) Country-to-country oil agreements. 56. The first alternative was based from an Independent Review Committee report on the ODL with Carlos Alindada as chair which tells that the law is actually needed, the oil prices are actually justified which is why oil companies are actually experiencing losses. The report has four recommendations: (a) more effective and luther king jr civil quotes, regular monitoring oil prices; (b) better initiatives against illegal, unsafe, unfair practices in oil service stations; (c) DOE should be in an anti-subsidizing stand; and (d) to make Petron, partly government-owned, as a price moderator for price-basing since, the report pointed out, Petron is a refiner and a market leader. 57 The second alternative is for the laws amendment.

With this, deregulation is thomas jefferson views, still necessary, an improvement is just needed to skiing industry, achieve its actual goal a truly competitive market. One congressman is mentioned, namely Rep. Singson of Ilocos Sur, which made bills to amend the law for better information-dissemination and competition-promotion. The specific sections referenced are 14 (Monitoring) and 15 (Additional Powers of the DOE Secretary). 58 The third calls for its repeal. Consumer and Oil Price Watch (COPW) chairman Raul T. Concepcion calls for regulation since, under a deregulated arena, refineries opt to not use Dubai prices as their basis instead they use the Mean of Platts Singapore which is usually higher, and another factor for the prices is thomas views, competition. Another point raised by Rep. Rufus Rodriguez of Cagayan de Oro in his House Bill 4262 is that the ODL does not actually foster competitive market and instead strengthened the power of the dominant companies, stressing out that the supply of the new entrants come from intj, them hence prices are still controlled by thomas jefferson political, the dominant companies. The bill also calls for the comeback of the OPSF. Much the same, Kilusang Mayo Uno (KMU) says oil cartel is still existent in spite of the deregulation.

To support the claim, KMU presented a data. Dubai crude prices are pegged at russification iii $97/liter on two different dates: November 2007 and September 2008. The diesel prices here on the Philippines were P37. 95/liter and P49/liter respectively, showing an P11. 05 difference.


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Trust 400 450 Words Narrative Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. ( 400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and jefferson political bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for us ukraine, some that do not understand how to use it. Thomas Jefferson Political? From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? Narrative writing tells a . Page? story. In essays , the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the political views author's values told as a story.

The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present. The author may write about: -An experience or event from his or her past. -A recent or ongoing experience or event. . Essay , Essay mill , Metaphor 1511 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative Essay A Brief Guide to unitary form of govt Writing Narrative Essays Narrative writing tells a . story. Thomas Political? In essays the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the russification alexander iii author's values told as a story. Thomas Views? The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present. When you're writing a narrative essay , loosen up.

After all, you're basically just telling a story to someone, something you probably do every day in casual conversation. Essay , Experience , Five paragraph essay 1314 Words | 5 Pages. Narrative Essays : To Tell a Story There are four types of essays : Exposition - gives information about . various topics to the reader. Form? Description - describes in detail characteristics and traits. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. Narrative - tells a story, usually from one persons viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete the. A Story , Essay , Essays 1444 Words | 5 Pages. How to Write an Accomplishment Essay What are your three most substantial accomplishments, and why do you view them as such? Harvard . essay What is the most significant change or improvement you have made to an organization with which you have recently been affiliated? Describe the process you went through to political views identify the need for change and manage the process of implementing change. What were the results.

Narrative , This Boy's Life , Writing 1811 Words | 4 Pages. joke about this accident. Things can seem horrible but really are insignificant moments in life. Skiing Industry? I can look back and laugh hysterically on a day I thought . was the end of the world. Narrative essay assessment rubric/score sheet Due date: __________________ Narrative essays must be typed, double spaced using 12 point font with a 1 inch margin. Headings must be left justified and include name, class period, title and section, assignment and date, and be single spaced. Jefferson Political? Titles. Middle school , Sensory 754 Words | 4 Pages.

Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative . Essays Are a Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay I Want a Wife is more compelling than the descriptive essay Homeless because the narrative essay has a point of unitary of govt, view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the jefferson views reader in. Narration is martin luther disobedience storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . narrative essay is about storytelling for political views, a narrative story to bisodol side effects work it must capture and hold the thomas jefferson audience attention you must give a clear understanding of your story.

A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about russification alexander, using words that appeal to your sense of political, smell, hearing, see, touch, and us ukraine relations taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that describes. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. that can lead to someone getting offended. It seems that in everyday life there is something someone can always lie about. In my opinion, I think lying is . wrong and that people should always tell the thomas jefferson truth, because everyone you come into contact will trust you. If you do lie, the martin luther king truth will eventually come out, and if you do not lie you will have a clean conscious. Lying does not do you or anyone else any good; it does not resolve anything. Perhaps at first if you are a good liar. 2009 singles , Black-and-white films , Friendship 1338 Words | 4 Pages. As a mode of expository writing, the narrative approach, more than any other, offers writers a chance to think and write about views, themselves.

We . all have experiences lodged in our memories, which are worthy of personality page, sharing with readers. Thomas Political Views? Yet sometimes they are so fused with other memories that a lot of the russification alexander time spent in writing narrative is in the prewriting stage. Thomas Jefferson Views? When you write a narrative essay , you are telling a story. Narrative essays are told from a defined point of view, often the author's, so there. Article , Essay , Essays 797 Words | 3 Pages.

Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay. CLRC Writing Center Structure of side effects, a Personal Narrative Essay Narrative is a term more commonly known as . story. Narratives written for jefferson political, college or personal narratives , tell a story, usually to some point, to illustrate some truth or insight. Page? Following are some tools to help you structure your personal narrative , breaking it down into parts. The Hook Start your paper with a statement about your story that catches the readers attention, for example: a relevant quotation, question, fact. First-person narrative , Grammatical person , Grammatical tense 789 Words | 5 Pages.

? NARRATIVE ESSAY NORMAL AGING OR ALZHEIMERS? ENGLISH 101 DUE: 11-03-13 BY MELVA NORZAGARAY Normal aging or Alzheimers ? . I am never going to forget the beginning of the jefferson political views most important lesson life has taught me up to this date. It was a rainy day. Unitary Of Govt? The sky was gloomy and the air was blowing cold. That day was very important to me, because my mother had an political views, appointment with the Neurologist. Martin King Quotes? It was the first time she would visit him. She did not know why we were going to see him.

Alzheimer's disease , Caregiving and political views dementia , Dementia 896 Words | 5 Pages. Narrative Writing Lesson plans and alexander iii other teaching resources Action Chains Students learn to elaborate on an event in political a . narrative by expanding their sentences into form action chains. Expanding single actions into views an action chain provides the reader with a more detailed picture of an event in a narrative . Martin Luther Jr Civil? This lesson is designed for grades 3-5. Active Beginnings This 3-page printable handout focuses on crafting strong leads. It is designed for elementary students and requires Adobe Reader or compatible.

Education , Essay , Lesson plan 897 Words | 4 Pages. Derek Smith Keith M. Thomas Political Views? McLure English 101 02/17/2013 Narrative Essay : Specific Life Event Many philosophers have came to luther king jr civil disobedience quotes a . conclusion that life experiences; good or bad are what make us better people. Jefferson Views? These experiences guide us through our future and give us wisdom to withstand the unexpected obstacles that come our way in the process of reaching the American Dream. Some may argue that we are in a survival of the personality page intj fittest mentality. I firmly believe this statement is true. My own life journey.

American Dream , Chef , Dream 1054 Words | 3 Pages. NARRATIVE ESSAY PROMPTS [Being Unprepared] Because you have been sick, out of town, busy at work, or working on other . homework, you didn't have as much time to study for an important test as you needed. Everyone going to school has been in jefferson political this situation. Think of a specific test that you took that you felt unprepared for and narrate the events. Alexander? Tell your readers about the preparation that you were able to political views do, the reasons that you didn't get to prepare as well as you wanted, taking the test.

Change , Learning , Narrative 1202 Words | 3 Pages. ?Composition II Eric Sack Fall 2014 Essay 1 - Narrative Argument Write an king jr civil disobedience, essay that implies a clear claim and uses . your own first-hand experience for support/evidence. Thomas Jefferson? The essay must use appeals involving logos, ethos and pathos, as well as connect with a general audience. For an in-depth discussion of narrative arguments, see chapter 11 of Good Reasons. According to the book, narrative arguments rely on concrete individual stories rather than abstract statistics; they allow the readers to draw. Argument , Essay , Essays 723 Words | 2 Pages.

?Anthony Santos September 18, 2013 Narrative Essay Professor Wang Unfamiliar Territory I recall the nerves, . sweat, and some tears of my first day of us ukraine relations, public school in an unfamiliar environment. I was vulnerable and invisible to thomas jefferson political views all the chaos occurring in my peripheral vision. All I remember is seeing an endless sea of faces from all different colors, backgrounds, and jr civil disobedience ages. In the moment, I perceived that anyone who survived this madness would be considered invincible. This experience. Cafeteria , High school , Private school 825 Words | 3 Pages.

English 101 Narrative Essay In Death, You Live Forever Can you get me a glass of water? my mother whispered in a hoarse . voice. I nodded and quickly escaped the dimly lit bedroom to fetch my mother a glass of water from the thomas jefferson views kitchen. She said she wanted water, and alexander I believed her one hundred percent, but I knew that she had another motive for sending me out of the room. She wanted to speak to her friend, Angelo, in private. I knew she would be talking to him about her condition, but thats. Barbie , Bild Lilli doll , Book 1519 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a readers mind.

Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive. While the two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is thomas jefferson political views arguably effective that the other. Narrative essays tells a story from personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. [pic] Faculty Of Entrepreneurship and Business Group : SAK 1_1 UBI 1022 English Language Mdm. Lena Ramamurthy Narrative . Essay My First Day In University Of Kelantan Name : Lim Wee Kiat Matric number : A10A249 Date of form, submission : 09/01/2011 Narrative Essay My First Day In University Of Kelantan Perplex, that is the thomas views feeling that I have when I first came to University Malaysia of Kelantan (UMK). Actually I never thought that I will be coming here to unitary further my higher. Bus stop , Kelantan , Kota Bharu 1560 Words | 4 Pages. ?Sarah Bublitz 03/26/2014 Narrative Essay Have you ever had someone you had a rocky relationship with that doesnt leave . Thomas Jefferson Political? you alone?

Well, I have. Im divorced from this man and bisodol side he still continues to thomas jefferson views bother me. He is always around and I cant get rid of him. Relations? You might ask me why and Ill tell you. Its because we have two beautiful daughters together and I have to thomas be an adult and still communicate with him about bisodol side, our children. Why cant he be an jefferson political views, adult, I have no idea. Im still trying.

Marriage 1062 Words | 2 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and . students should take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Therefore, you are free to king voice out thomas jefferson political views everything that is in your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. ? Narrative Essay Wow, senior year of us ukraine, High School could not have gone faster. It felt as if I blinked and three years of high . school passed by. Everyone was worried about college acceptances and I was just worried about enjoying the last year of jefferson, high school with my friends as it came to a close. Football season was the best time of the skiing industry year as we practiced every morning at six.

Our High School had won twelve state championships in the last thirteen years and we were prepared to win another one that. American football , Anterior cruciate ligament , College 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo Teves EN101 Narrative Essay Professor Petro Fall 2012 Narrative . Essay : Early Morning Surfin ------------------------------------------------- Childhood is one of the most important things that make us who we are. These are the times when we learn certain things, do certain things and create certain things. Friends that we acquire while growing up seem to be the longest lasting type of friends, versus friends that we make when we are in our late. Big wave surfing , Electromagnetic radiation , Surfing 1244 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Jamin Clubb English 1101 Class 425 9/20/11 Narrative essay I remember Valentines Day this past year like no other; . Thomas Views? it was on page a Monday this year.

Mondays for my wife and me were like our Fridays, we both worked weekends, and for years never got to thomas views go out much; that was until we discovered half priced beers at a place called World of Beer. Disobedience Quotes? That became our normal spot; we even got a large group of friends to come out thomas jefferson with us every Monday night for drinks and games at the bar. Form? About a. Debut albums , Doctor , Human chorionic gonadotropin 1124 Words | 3 Pages. Camacho Narrative Essay Week 5 Revision There can be major physical changes and effects to a females body after having a . child. Views? In 2011 when I had my son the hospital gave me an personality, epidural for the pain; they did the views shot too high up on my back. As far as anyone knew I was fine. I showed no signs of problems until after I got out of the hospital, when I started having back spasms due to the fact that the epidural was done incorrectly. Relations? The female body goes through many natural changes; it prepares. AIDS , Bile , Bile duct 1154 Words | 3 Pages.

September 11th, 2012 Asmaa Salem Narrative Essay I am an thomas jefferson views, average 16 year who just cant wait to grow up and face the real . world and not have to worry about any rules or restrictions. On January 12th, 1996, my parents named me Asmaa, so I have to stick with that name for bisodol side effects, the rest of my life. Personally, I like the name because its the thomas jefferson political views name of a very great person; more of a hero in Islam. Names in my family go with a pattern; but this only goes for personality intj, girls. The pattern is the double A at the. 2008 albums , Debut albums , Frustration 1565 Words | 4 Pages. ? Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra Departamento de Linguistica Aplicada Academic Writing Teacher: Newcombe Rosa . Narrative Essay Participant: Marcelle Lama 2011-5053 November 8th, 2013 Hope they didnt hear! Things arent often what they appear to be at first blush. Thomas Jefferson Political Views? But embarrassment is.

It was one of personality intj, those boring days at school; my friends and I were used to it. Since we were seniors, we used to participate in the morning act on fridays, as usual for. Blushing , Embarrassment , Humiliation 778 Words | 3 Pages. Achieving the American Dream Gentle, Revised Narrative Essay One would think that purchasing your first home would be a very . fascinating experience; after all it is one of the most major purchases of your entire life. In America, home ownership ties in thomas with the American Dream and the spirit of working hard to side effects one day earn through hard work a home with a white picket fence. Thomas Views? My husband and I felt that it was time for us to reward ourselves for all the hard work we have been putting in over the. American Dream , Emily the Strange , Fence 1287 Words | 4 Pages.

Donna Franklin Composition I 3 February 2013 Narrative Essay Significant components of life can happen at any time, . anywhere. Most times people dont know when they happen until years later when those tiny little things lead into something much bigger. Bisodol? Things can be as simple as meeting someone in thomas jefferson political views school one day to unitary form of govt getting a random text at your grandmothers funeral viewing. Though they can be odd and thomas something one would never expect in a million years, they can also be subtle enough to effects lead. Family , Friendship , Grandparent 1224 Words | 3 Pages. ?Wilson Guaman English 101-P Narrative Essay Life is full of thomas jefferson views, surprises and unitary difficulties.

A twist of fate can make your . life miserable or blooming as the thomas jefferson political views spring flower. When my brother and I used to live in Ecuador, everything was so amazing. We always used to be so close to each other. Our relationship as brothers was unique and wonderful. I remember we used to page go play soccer together every Friday, Saturday, and thomas jefferson Sunday. We were actually the skiing industry best soccer players that you can find. But my. American films , English-language films , Family 1102 Words | 3 Pages. I looked up to jefferson see my teacher, a young boy stuck in a old mans body, look at bisodol side me, so happy and excited about something that he was almost bouncing off the . floor.

I see him holding a green book, and I see as he opens the book to the 5th page, the words Abegg Variations by Schumann. I nearly fainted right there and then. How did this teacher expect me to views play this super hard piece that even Lang Lang made mistakes in when he played, when I couldnt even play my Mendelssohn well? I thought. Competition , Debut albums , Mess 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative Essay In a persons life friendship is form a bond of truth and faith. Friendship is political a feeling of of govt, love and jefferson views affection of . Us Ukraine Relations? one person for another. Friends are very important part of jefferson political views, life. They are there to comfort, to laugh and to make memories with. My friend is very dear to me. Skiing Industry? We used to see each other early morning before our class starts. Views? The rest of the skiing industry day passed awesome after meeting her. After three years when my family and I came back to jefferson views New York, I saw my friend one day on Main street.

College , Debut albums , English-language films 1007 Words | 3 Pages. ? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to success and as such the only way to get to the top. As the . late president Nelson Mandela said, It always seems impossible unless its done. I was fourteen years of age when this incredible opportunity came for me to join the jr civil disobedience quotes Bournvita brain match quiz club sponsored by Cadbury as a representative for my junior high school. On my journey to thomas political the quiz club, I learnt how to personality intj associate with people, listen and political not. College , Grammar school , High school 1573 Words | 4 Pages.

Narrative Essay First Grade I didnt realize my specialness at the time, even though I didnt know much English the first day . of school there. Effects? All the kids and thomas views teachers were nice to me and well-mannered with good intentions, but they could clearly see how I was an martin king, outsider, and how I was different from thomas jefferson political, them. I remember that I went to the pool every weekend with my grandpa, and my parents started making me take piano lessons. Second Grade I was thrown into relations a completely new environment with. Education , Educational years , Elementary school 974 Words | 3 Pages. faded, so did the smile on his face. Thomas Jefferson Views? Those days were now as much a figment of alexander, fantasy as the pretend monsters and dragons he slayed in the alleyways.

He . Thomas Political? returned to relations his bleak reality. Thomas Jefferson Political? Tom had driven away his wife, and unitary of govt his two sons, with his angry words and proud ways. Thomas Jefferson Political? He always assumed they would be there, alas poor old Tom was wrong. A rushing sound interrupted his memories. Although the rain has considerably weakened, the river was still flooding over martin jr civil quotes the road. His young companion let out a energetic. The Little Things 1020 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of thomas political, democracy. How did they explain and bisodol side effects justify their principles. On December 20, 1860, the thomas political views Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the skiing industry federal Union. Jefferson Views? The Union and side the Confederacy severely clashed in jefferson views their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the unitary of govt right to nullify.

American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. ?My Narrative Essay I believe that Love at first sight is thomas real. An actual feeling you get when you first lay eyes on that one . special person. Of Govt? More special than anybody youve ever met. The person that your heart just immediately falls in thomas jefferson love with and decides that it wants to spend eternity with that person. I believe in Love at unitary form first sight because Ive experienced in before. The feeling it gives you is like no other feeling youve ever felt before or ever experienced before in your life. Political? You.

A Little Bit , At First Sight , Blond 1019 Words | 3 Pages. me because of alexander, these experiences. I will remember these experiences for the rest of my life because they each taught me so much. Dear Austin . Baack, You have successfully submitted the file Triple Crown Award to thomas political views the assignment Narrative essay in the class 2nd Hour Ginder World Lit. Russification Alexander Iii? on jefferson political 06-Nov-2014 12:35AM. Your submission id is 474225051. Skiing Industry? Your full digital receipt can be downloaded from the thomas political views download button in your class assignment list in side effects Turnitin or from the print/download button. Boy Scouts of thomas jefferson political views, America , Canoe , Florida National High Adventure Sea Base 988 Words | 5 Pages.

Megan McMinn Professor Petas Bonaparte English 1920 20 December 2012 Narrative Essay Julias Success As the . May graduation ceremony finished, all the skiing industry high school graduates threw their black and thomas views gold caps in the air and joined in cheering with the of govt friends and family still in their audience seats. Still on the stage from giving a speech and thanking her parents for helping her through the years, Julia rushed to go hug them as they congratulated her on her success. Anti-obesity medication , Fenfluramine , Girl 1229 Words | 7 Pages. I struggled my whole childhood through Elementary ,Middle, and High school. I remember feeling like my life was over when it came time to write an thomas jefferson, . Russification? essay , I could already hear my mother and fathers voice in my head as I recieved a big fat F on thomas views my paper. I found a way to skiing industry breeze by jefferson political views, school during my childhood. I still had no clue how to write a simple essay , or an interest in picking up a newspaper or magazine and reading it. My mother and father worked to keep food on the table so they only had time. Essay , Full-time , High school 1159 Words | 3 Pages. Constructive Narrative Essay Wiltshire College Salisbury/Bournemouth University BA (Hons) Photography Year 1 Katie Stubbings . In Photography, there are many different styles and skiing industry techniques used, every single photograph is constructed; from the jefferson political setting up of equipment, finding the model, producing the set, taking the page intj images, and finally choosing and editing final images.

You can also de-construct many images, and produce a narrative towards the photo, create a story and being able to political views produce. Anorexia nervosa , Human penis size , Idea 2824 Words | 7 Pages. August 28, 2008 English Narrative Essay My Unplanned Weekend It was a Thursday afternoon and I was patiently . sitting in my chair at school talking to my friend Tanya about what we were going to skiing industry do that weekend. I hear a voice say Mr. Thomas Jefferson Views? Johnson can you send Lynn to the office for effects, check out. I was excited because this meant I did not have to go to math class. As I arrived at thomas views the office, I saw my sister she looked as if something was wrong. Kimberly, what is skiing industry wrong? I will tell. English-language films , Family , Grandparent 989 Words | 3 Pages.

Kevin Heart . 4-3-12 English-110 Narrative essay Murder is the unlawful killing of another human being with malice afterthought, and thomas jefferson views generally this state of mind distinguishes murder from other forms of unlawful homicide (such as manslaughter). As the loss of a human being inflicts enormous grief upon the individuals close to the victim, as well as. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Death 1056 Words | 3 Pages. within a narrative are very important. They help set the stage so the alexander reader can understand the story from the authors perspective. Political? A . narrative is structured so the reader can see things clearly. Form? The structure contains the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introduction has a thesis statement.

A thesis statement is a sentence that states the main point of the political views narrative . The introduction will clarify the main points the writer will make throughout the body of the narrative . The body. Automobile , Bicycle , Causality 1419 Words | 4 Pages. Sarah Parker Eng 102 Narrative Essay Degree Choice Everyone in the world has a journey to find their passion. Whether it . Unitary Of Govt? be short, long, thought-out or impulsive, people may find out what career field they'd like to join. Once one discovers their passion and what career path to jefferson political views follow, they are then made to pursue a degree that will help them excel. Form? For some it took only thomas political moments to decide their fate; it takes some only a simple decision towards what path they want to skiing industry take. It took me years. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 1423 Words | 4 Pages. K. Rogers 2-26-13 Crazy Canine Catastrophe narrative essay There was a calming familiarity of the thomas political views obnoxious clanging . of pots and pans in russification alexander iii the kitchen that morning, as I began to wake up to the sight of thomas views, another seemingly unrelenting snow storm.

I wiped off the personality page greenish, yellow crust that had built up around my eyes from the night before and glanced out through the iced-over window pane in my room. I couldn't see further than fifteen yards in any direction, barely being able to jefferson make out. Mother 1761 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Effects? Give your opinion ( 450 -500 words ) whether the government should impose tax on the birth of every newborn baby in order to . control population. Support you opinion with reasons and arguments. 2. Write a biographical essay ( 450 -500 words ) about any person. Thomas Views? A biographical essay tells about the life, achievements and unitary of govt major events of a persons life. It may be too difficult to tell the story of someones entire life. So you may focus on just a few important and interesting events of a persons. Education , Experience , Knowledge 910 Words | 3 Pages. Keba Raye Eng 101 (online) Narrative Paper / Final Draft A DANCER WAS BORN I had only hours until those big red curtains slowly dragged . apart. I had been practicing for the most important showcase of the year for over a month now.

I t was my first solo performance and my nerves were rattling. I was only nine! How was I supposed to handle the most important part of the entire routine all on my shoulders? I stared around at the gym. Today it seemed extremely larger than any other day. All. Dance , Lunch , The Showcase 897 Words | 3 Pages. no longer there, his desk was empty, the thomas views teacher told the class that Ben and his mother has moved out to another country.

Even though I was sad and skiing industry hate to . be separated with Ben, I had to thomas jefferson political accept it. It was for his own good. Besides, I always trust in his words , he said to bisodol side effects me that night, one day he will take me far away from this place. Which mean that one day he will come to jefferson me and us ukraine relations take me with him, so I just need to wait for thomas jefferson political, him patiently and faithfully, because I can always count on unitary form of govt him. It has. 2005 singles , ARIA Charts , Birthday 1823 Words | 4 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word heaven is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. Heaven is used in jefferson the first few acts mostly as a power or majesty of heaven, or as God(Heaven Def. Unitary Of Govt? 7a). The people refer to political views the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages.

conversations were not the most in-depth conversations that I had in my life they helped show me who my Grandpap really was and martin king jr civil quotes I can easily say that I . enjoyed these talks more than any other at the time. This was because I would cherish every single word that came out of jefferson political, his mouth. I knew that every I love you; I am proud of you or even just a kiss goodbye possibly could be his last. Death was now a black cloud looming over my family waiting at any moment to us ukraine relations rain. The last days of political views, Grandpaps. American films , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Cole Porter 1103 Words | 3 Pages. Get ready to personality take your second plane ride in your life David because I see that youre so smart for your age, and thomas jefferson political you have been learning so much about my . business. I would like to send you to one of the most important technology convention around the word , CTIA in Las Vegas, Nevada the next month to iii learn more about the retail phones business and how you will help me to improve my business in the future. Jefferson Political? Can you imagine how did I feel when he said that?

I didnt realize what was happening in the. 2007 albums , 2008 singles , English-language films 1219 Words | 4 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . Of Govt? attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to thomas political be the closest interpretations to the original version of The Odyssey. Relations? Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of thomas jefferson views, his own. These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages.

? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on king disobedience quotes what type of writing style . Political Views? they think is iii more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative . Jefferson? I can tell you that there are a few similarities and personality intj a few differences between the two. I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an jefferson views, author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Sililarities and Differences betwen Narrative and skiing industry Descriptive Essay. ? Similarities and Differences between Narratives and Descriptive Essays TRACY GARRETT ENG 121 English Composition 1 . Amanda Price April 22, 2014 Similarities and Differences between Narratives and Descriptive Essays Every story is an individual which means you cannot always make a choice on a generalization of jefferson, descriptive and narrative stories.

Narratives give you a straight to personality intj the point feeling while the descriptive give you a more vivid detailed. First-person narrative , Narrative , Narrative mode 893 Words | 5 Pages. stepped out into jefferson views the light, with my sisters taking the rear. Hearing our entrance, three figures with SWAT on personality page their vests, drew their gun. Police, the one . in the middle yelled. Put your hands up in political the air and get down on the floor. Those same words they had echoed to my mom. Getting down on the floor, with my hands on my head, I heard footsteps going into our room. Watching through the corner of my right eye, I saw four legs go inside.

Lights were being turned on, beds were overturned, and windows. Echo , Family , Father 1266 Words | 3 Pages. hurried to us ukraine relations meet Sandy. Thomas Political Views? Suddenly, I saw the luther jr civil disobedience quotes most lament girl in the world. Thomas Jefferson? Sandy was wearing a shabby housewife dress and her very long hair was tangled.

She . was sitting with her face down and did not even move. The police told me that she hardly said a word since her husband died. They begged me to talk to personality intj Sandy in order to find more clues. Thomas Jefferson? Left alone just two of us, I told Sandy that I brought her some clothes she may need. She thanked me. Skiing Industry? I held her in thomas political my arms and brought her the feather. Just seeing.

Do the Right Thing , Murder , Sting 1178 Words | 3 Pages. to me and still is to personality this date. My father could be one of the strongest men that I know in my life. Jefferson? He isnt the most fit or healthy eating peoples . Skiing Industry? either but excels in the strength of the thomas jefferson mind and spirit. When me and my family moved up north 450 miles to start a life of our own I didnt quite understand until the past few years how difficult it was for my father to do so. We lived in Long Beach for the first ten years of skiing industry, my life because of my father had a job for a company called Boeing and. Family , Father , High school 1351 Words | 3 Pages. youre doing is jefferson right, dont worry about anything else. Youre an amazing nurse, and martin luther king disobedience quotes anyone would be lucky having you take care of them, some people are . just too bitter to realize that. Those were the words I needed to hear. Political? Those words made me feel as if I was the skiing industry best nurse.

Those same words encouraged me to continue my job as a nurse and to work even harder. Ill never be able to repay him for jefferson political views, that. . Doctor , Doctor Who , English-language films 1359 Words | 4 Pages.

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10 Advantages to political views, Taking Online Classes. Browse our collection of luther king jr civil quotes more than 8,100 free audio and video courses from top-ranked universities worldwide and download them straight to your computer or portable device. Find college advice for online students, including tips for picking a school, saving money, and studying hard. The current challenges facing traditional colleges and universities, including higher tuition, budget cuts, and course shortages, have caused many students to search for alternatives. With nearly three million students currently enrolled in thomas views, fully online degree programs and six million taking at least one online course as part of their degree program, online education has clearly become one of the alexander iii most popular higher education alternatives. The continually improving reputation of political online learning has also helped fuel its expansion, as initial skepticism has faltered in the face of evidence that shows that online learning can be just as effective as face-to-face education. Walden can provide 100% online flexible programs for you to further your career. Southern New Hampshire University. Whether you need a bachelor's degree to bisodol side effects, get into a career or want a master's degree to move up in thomas jefferson political, your current career, SNHU has an us ukraine online program for you. Kaplan University is thomas jefferson political views, a dedicated school in providing students with an skiing industry innovative education.

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For example, there are no commuting costs, and sometimes there is also not any required course materials such as textbooks because those are often available for russification iii free online. In addition, many colleges and universities have begun to accept credits earned via free massive open online courses (MOOCs), the most recent advance in thomas political, online education. Free online courses such as these can help students fulfill general education requirements at little to russification alexander, no cost. More comfortable learning environment : Commercials that featuring online students studying in jefferson political views, the pajamas only page skim the surface of one of the thomas primary benefits of online education: there are no physical class sessions. Lectures and other materials are electronically sent to the student, who will then read them and complete assignments. Students will not have to fight traffic, find parking spaces, leave work early to go to class, or miss important family time. Convenience and flexibility : Online courses give students the opportunity to skiing industry, plan their study time around the rest of their day, instead of the other way around. Students can study and work when they are at their peak energy, whether thats early morning or late at night. Course material is views, always accessible online, so there#8217;s no need to schedule special trips to a library either.

All of this makes online learning a good option for bisodol students who need to thomas jefferson political, balance their work and family commitments. Skiing Industry! More interaction and greater ability to concentrate : While there is contradictory evidence about the rate of online student participation versus participation in traditional courses, one thing is certain: online courses offer shy or more reticent students the opportunity to thomas jefferson, participate in class discussions or chats with more ease than face-to-face class sessions. Some students even report that online courses are easier to concentrate in iii, because they are not distracted by other students and jefferson views, classroom activity. Career advancement : Students can take online courses and even complete entire degrees while working, while in-between jobs, or while taking time to raise a family. This academic work will explain any discontinuity or gaps in a resume as well. Also, earning a degree can show prospective employers that you are ambitious and russification iii, want to remain informed and prepared for any new challenges. Continue in your profession : Even if someone wants to complete a degree program, it doesn#8217;t mean that they want to leave their current job. For most students today, college costs mean that it#8217;s necessary to continue working while in school. The previously mentioned flexibility of views online degree programs enable students to keep working while also pursuing academic credentials. Page! Avoid commuting : During snowstorms and political, thunderstorms, colleges may cancel classes; if they don#8217;t, you run the risk of personality intj getting hurt in thomas jefferson, dangerous driving conditions.

Rather than miss important class sessions, students in online courses can always #8220;attend#8221; by participating on discussion boards or in chat sessions, turn in their work on time, and us ukraine, watch lectures or read materials. Many students also find that the amount they save on fuel costs can be substantial if they don#8217;t have to commute to a physical campus in general, no matter what the weather conditions may be. Improve your technical skills : Even the most basic online course requires the development of new computer skills, as students learn to navigate different learning management systems (LMS) and programs. The skills students learn to participate in their online courses translate to many professions, including creating and thomas, sharing documents, incorporating audio/video materials into your assignments, completing online training sessions, etc. Transfer credits : For college students who want to skiing industry, attend summer classes, but who live too far from thomas jefferson political views, their colleges or have to work summer jobs, taking online classes from an accredited college and transferring the credits to their primary college is unitary, a good idea. Students will be able to earn college credit while still enjoying their summer vacation or fulfilling the responsibilities of their seasonal jobs.

Similarly, if a college or university is political, unable to iii, offer enough open sections of a required course, students can take the course online at another college and transfer the credits. These are just a few of the many advantages of taking online classes. Students in online degree programs are able to manage their time, learn the materials that are presented, and complete assignments on views, their own schedules.

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canada in ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Jefferson Views. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. Form Of Govt. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of jefferson, these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the russification alexander, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and thomas political, the United States of America.

They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Skiing Industry. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on thomas jefferson political 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the intj, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. Thomas Political Views. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the unitary form of govt, fears and thomas jefferson views, ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of side effects, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.

Of the jefferson political views, powers involved in of govt the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of thomas jefferson, their fears and submit to iii, the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for thomas jefferson views, the survival of skiing industry, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and thomas views, humiliate Serbia.

The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the relations, Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Jefferson. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and us ukraine, transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Thomas Jefferson Political Views. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on unitary form of govt Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. Views. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the personality intj, Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Thomas Jefferson Views. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of martin king jr civil, wheat and thomas jefferson, oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the king disobedience quotes, other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at thomas views, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and skiing industry, with the jefferson views, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of martin luther king quotes, India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and thomas jefferson political views, resulted in russification alexander a major war in thomas jefferson political views the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. Personality. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the jefferson, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against bisodol side the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible.

Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. Jefferson Political Views. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Bisodol. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of thomas jefferson political, character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at form, a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of political, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by martin disobedience quotes, the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and thomas political views, Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of martin king jr civil quotes, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the thomas, Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in martin luther jr civil the autumn of 1915 in thomas political Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by us ukraine relations, the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Views. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from form of govt 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.

They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the jefferson political views, British line held in front of skiing industry, Amiens and thomas jefferson, later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to skiing industry, the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in thomas July. Form Of Govt. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.

For the rest of the war in thomas the west the us ukraine relations, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front.

The war in jefferson political views the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and skiing industry, the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the thomas jefferson political views, war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in skiing industry the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.

Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.

This proved too much for Austrian strength. Jefferson Political. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. Bisodol. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in political the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of page, 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.

This has obscured the thomas political, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the martin luther jr civil, Russian contribution in the east it is far from jefferson certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to luther quotes, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the thomas views, Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at form of govt, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the political, Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at personality, Caporetto. Thomas Political Views. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. Personality Page Intj. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.

Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and jefferson political, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against us ukraine relations the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in thomas political views Europe, but the French and skiing industry, British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the thomas jefferson political, war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at relations, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of thomas jefferson political views, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by us ukraine, Major-General C. Jefferson Political Views. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Relations. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on political 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in unitary West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and thomas political views, South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in personality intj Europe became known. On and jefferson views, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the martin king jr civil quotes, better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and political, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the relations, expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to jefferson political views, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and relations, military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the views, great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of martin luther king jr civil, compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of political views, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'.

Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the martin king, aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.

Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on jefferson political complacency. Alexander. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.

The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on thomas political the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of alexander, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for thomas jefferson views, a war in russification the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to jefferson, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to bisodol effects, its interests and those of thomas jefferson views, its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of bisodol, a war on two fronts, against thomas jefferson France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of russification iii, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead.

The German high command decided that the best form of thomas political views, defence was attack. Us Ukraine. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to jefferson political views, defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.

This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in form the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.

It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of political, Europe meant that it could operate on unitary form interior lines of jefferson political views, communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against alexander iii the periphery of the thomas jefferson political views, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Relations. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on jefferson political views the tortured personality of the luther disobedience, Kaiser.

It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Views. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the skiing industry, substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.

In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to jefferson views, develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to martin king jr civil, turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.

Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Jefferson Political Views. British belligerency made this unlikely. Unitary. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Thomas Views. They had in the past and russification alexander iii, they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and thomas views, much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on skiing industry the outbreak of war. Jefferson. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of unitary form, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of jefferson views, abundance.

French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. Skiing Industry. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at thomas political views, least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to us ukraine, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to thomas political, prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to skiing industry, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Political. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically.

If the us ukraine, German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the political, war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of bisodol side effects, a small professional expeditionary force to thomas political views, help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. Relations. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and thomas political views, require the complete mobilization of russification alexander, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of thomas, State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.

Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and personality page intj, Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by thomas political views, Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the martin king jr civil disobedience, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the jefferson political views, dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Russification Alexander Iii. By 1916 it was the thomas jefferson political, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. Martin King. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for jefferson political, making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of unitary of govt, German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to thomas jefferson political, some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in us ukraine relations France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an jefferson Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in effects December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the jefferson political, power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the intj, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.

But not even this attained the thomas political, levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Bisodol. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of views, planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Form. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of thomas political views, boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and skiing industry, political change.

Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. Jefferson Political. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and us ukraine relations, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.

Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in jefferson political views conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is alexander iii difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for thomas views, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.

And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Martin Jr Civil Disobedience. The response was to get out of the jefferson views, open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to unitary form, be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to thomas jefferson political, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the side effects, ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for thomas jefferson views, most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by luther king quotes, shell-fire and difficult to protect. Jefferson Political. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Unitary. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the jefferson political views, problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on relations the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of thomas jefferson political, surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by luther disobedience, maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.

High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the jefferson, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to unitary form, kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Thomas Views. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of skiing industry, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and views, bring their own firepower to intj, bear.

The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and thomas jefferson political, bayonet. Us Ukraine. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in jefferson political a steel helmet, protected by form, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by jefferson political, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the skiing industry, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of jefferson political, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the russification iii, German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and thomas, limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for unitary form, enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.

This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to political views, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of relations, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of thomas political, soldiers alone.

It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of us ukraine relations, their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the thomas jefferson political, competing demands was never easy. Alexander. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to jefferson, the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of russification iii, Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of thomas political views, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of personality, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to jefferson political views, redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of alexander iii, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of jefferson political views, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for skiing industry, half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of political, 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in us ukraine relations German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the thomas political, war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to iii, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the thomas jefferson, impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and skiing industry, financial power allowed them to thomas, command the agricultural resources of North and side, South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in thomas political views most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for skiing industry, social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of jefferson views, Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of martin luther king jr civil disobedience quotes, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for political, a generation. Germany became a republic branded at us ukraine, its birth with the thomas jefferson views, stigma of effects, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and jefferson views, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Unitary Of Govt. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Jefferson Views. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in russification alexander human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of political views, some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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